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  • 1. Introduction Stormwater Stormwater is rain or melted snow that has fall into the ground. This water either is absorbed by plantation, evaporates or runs off the land into storm sewers, streams and lakes. ("Stormwater Management - Ministry of the Environment.") Stormwater Management Stormwater management involves the control of that surface runoff. The volume and rate of runoff both substantially increase as land development occurs. Construction of impervious surfaces, such as pavement roads, and the installation of storm sewer pipes which efficiently collect and discharge runoff, prevent the infiltration of rainfall into the soil. ( "Stormwater Management - Ministry of the Environment.") The Importance of Stormwater Management Stormwater management prevents physical damage to persons and property from flooding, and also prevents polluted runoff from negatively impacting local waterways .( "Stormwater Management - Ministry of the Environment.") The installation of impervious surfaces interrupts the natural hydrologic cycle, and causes less infiltration, interception and evapotranspiration than was present before any development occurred.(Stormwater FAQs. n.d..) (Source, TRCA) Figure 1 : Difference between the absorption & runoff of stormwater by the soil from now & before.
  • 2. Therefore, the volume and rate of flow of stormwater produced by the land surface have been greatly increased. This result contributes to flooding, sediment deposition, erosion and so on.(Stormwater FAQs. (n.d.) Benefits Stormwater should be considered a resource that provides benefits such as groundwater recharge, which maintains flows in streams. Stormwater management also (Sustainable Cities Institute: Stormwater Runoff. (n.d) Reduces the frequency and severity of flooding Minimizes or avoids the creation of polluted stormwater Reduces environmental impacts on the lakes, rivers and watersheds Maintain the natural hydrologic cycle Minimizes health risks Purposes of using Stormwater Management Stormwater is the number one cause of water pollution. In most cases, stormwater either does not receive any treatment before it enters our waterways or is inadequately treated. (Sustainable Cities Institute: Stormwater Runoff. (n.d ) Polluted water creates numerous costs to the public and to wildlife. Communities that use surface water for their drinking supply must pay much more to clean up polluted water than clean water. (Sustainable Cities Institute: Stormwater Runoff. (n.d) Polluted water hurts the wildlife in creeks, streams, rivers and lakes. Dirt from erosion, also called sediment, covers up fish habitats and fertilizers can cause too much algae to grow, which also hurts wildlife by using up the oxygen they need to survive. (Sustainable Cities Institute: Stormwater Runoff. (n.d) The quantity of stormwater is also a problem. When stormwater falls on hard surfaces like roads, roofs, driveways and parking lots, it cannot seep into the ground, so it runs off to lower areas. The high volume of water causes streams banks erode and washes the wildlife that live their downstream.( Sustainable Cities Institute: Stormwater Runoff. (n.d)
  • 3. Flood Management Flood management refers to prevention, control and maintenance. Administrative organisations such as local authorities, state government, flood prevention team and also national and regional public organisations share this responsibility together. The main purpose of flood management is to come out with an immediate flood relief solution so that the flood mitigation projects are not far left behind due to rapid urban development. Flood managements are divided into two types including structural and non-structural methods in which the structural refers to flood mitigation project whereas the non-structural approach refers to solutions under Urban Storm Water Management Manual (MSMA). (Nahrim.gov.my, 2013) In order to acquire a balance between structural and non-structural measures, Integrated River Basin Development (IRBM) and the Integrated Flood Management (IFM) approaches is adopted. (Nahrim.gov.my, 2013) One of the ways of flood management is using the flood hazard map which is a risk assessment tool providing the information to evaluate the surroundings so that the adverse impacts of the floods can be reduced. Management (IFM). (Nahrim.gov.my, 2013) (Nahrim.gov.my, 2013) Next is the Integrated Flood It refers to maximise of the efficient use of flood plain and minimise of damages caused by flood. Here, both are considered of great importance. The principle of IFM is to live with flood which means flood is to be treated as part of the water cycle in which land and water management has to be integrated at the same time enable participation and cooperation between different agencies.
  • 4. BatuJinjang Ponds & Related Diversions Project Installation For both installation in Sungai Keroh and Sungai Gombak is quite similar. A barrage is constructed across Sungai Keroh and Sungai Gombak to increase the depth of the river and prevent the flood from happening (MOHD FAUZI MOHAMAD, 2013). Inlet and outlet gate are constructed in order to keep the water storage in the pond within the pond’s maximum storage level and allow the flowing system from the diversion into the detention pond FAUZI MOHAMAD, 2013). (MOHD Control gate is installed to control the flow of storm water from pond into Sungai Batu and Sungai Jinjang when the flood situation in river is being subsided (Web10.bernama, 2013). Flood walls also constructed along the whole Sungai Gombak and Sungai Keroh to temporarily contain the water of river which maybe rise to an unusual level during downpour (Slideshare, 2013). The discharge capacity of Gombak Diversion channel is being upgraded and enlarged (Water.gov, 2013).The previous Gombak Diversion only has 60 cubic meters per second while the new one has 275 cubic meters per second (Water.gov, 2013).Besides that, storage capacity ofBatu Detention Pond also being enlarged to 4.5 million cubic meters (Slideshare, 2013). Gombak Diversion has a 3.375km, 26m wide and 4m deep channel to divert away the storm water (Water.gov, 2013). Keroh Diversion Channel is combination of closed and open channels. The closed channels are constructed in order to compensate the existing services and minimising the land acquisition required (Water.gov, 2013). A bund is being constructed along both side of Sungai Muda to prevent the inundation from river (Wikipedia, 2013). larger discharge capacity Sungai Muda is also deepened and widens to have (Water.gov, 2013). A better drainage systems and flood control gate are also installed in Sungai Muda(Water.gov, 2013). There is a floodwater control barriers, pump house, quarters and riverbank protection structure all being installed at the upstream and the downstream of the Sungai Muda(Web10.bernama, 2013). ( Internet,Slideshare) Figure 2: Direction of flow of storm water in Gombak Diversion and Keroh Diversion
  • 5. Process Flood often occurs in Kuala Lumpur because it is located near to the confluence of Sungai Klang and Sungai Gombak (Saw HinSeang, n.d). So the government had decided to run a project in order to improve this situation which was the BatuJinjang Ponds and Relevant Diversion project. This project started its work from 25th August 2003 and completed on year 2009. It is aimed to improve the flooding problems by regulating the storm water from the north western catchment which is Sungai Gombak and Sungai Jinjang(nre, 2013). The project of BatuJinjang ponds and diversions had cost about RM528 million (Nst, 2013).In this project, excessive storm water is stored into the ex-mining ponds when there is downpour (Web10.bernama, 2013). This project manages to construct two flood diversion channels, one begins from Sungai Gombak to Sungai Batu, while another begins from Sungai Keroh to Sungai Jinjang(Web10.bernama, 2013). The rainwater is diverted from Sungai Keroh to Sungai Jinjang detention ponds. While diversion channel of Sungai Gombak is upgraded to have a larger discharge capacity to flow the rainwater to the enlarged Sungai Batu detention pond 2013).How (Water.gov, does this system work? The Gombak diversion is 3.75km long, 26m wide and 4m deep (Water.gov, 2013). When downpour is detected in Gombak Diversion, it will stimulate a sequence of gate operations to divert floodwater away from Kuala Lumpur city to the detention pond of Sungai Batu(Water.gov, 2013). There is a barrage located at the Gombak River downstream of Gombak Diversion (Slideshare.net, 2013). The function of Gombak barrage is to increase the depth of the river and prevent the flood from occurring (Wikipedia, 2013). Gombak Diversion Channel has 275 cubic meters per seconds of flowing capacity, while the Batu Pond has 4.5million cubic meters of storage capacity to store the storm water (Water.gov, 2013). First, the overflow of rainwater is diverted from Sungai Gombak to Gombak Diversion (Slideshare.net, 2013). Then there is an inlet and outlet gate located at the Gombak Diversion to control the amount of rainwater flow into Batu Pond detention MOHAMAD, 2013). (MOHD FAUZI A control gate will control the flow of rainwater from Batu Pond detention to Sungai Batu when the flood situation in Sungai Batu is subsided (Web10.bernama, 2013). Keroh Diversion is quite similar to Gombak Diversion. It has similar sequence of gate operations and will be stimulated when overflow rainwater is detected too (Water.gov, 2013). The stormwater will be diverted away from Kuala Lumpur towards Sungai Keroh first. Then from Sungai Keroh, water flows into Keroh Diversion Channel which is 2.2 kilometres long and has 100 cubic meters per second of discharge capacity (Slideshare.net, 2013).Stormwater is then
  • 6. stored in Jinjang Ponds which consist of Nanyang pond, Wahyu and Delima(Water.gov, 2013). This combined Jinjang Ponds has a 2.5 million cubic meters of storage capacity 2013). (Water.gov, There are two control gates which are respectively located at Nanyang Pond outlet and Taman Wahyu and Delima Pond outlet to discharge the rainwater into Sungai Jinjang(Slideshare.net, 2013). On another hand, there is another flood mitigation project for the Sungai Muda. Sungai Muda is positioned within the boundary of Kedah and Pulau Pinang (Water.gov, 2013). Sungai Muda almost experienced flood every year. Sungai Muda is the longest river in Malaysia and used to supply water for the agricultural, industrial and domestic area in Penang and Kedah (Wikipedia, 2013). It has a catchment area about 4210 kilometres square and has a river channel which is 180 kilometres from the river mouth to the Muda dam (N.d, n.d). The rainwater flow from upstream into downstream of Sungai Muda. A bund is constructed along both side of Sungai Muda to store the storm water and prevent the protect Pulau Pinang from flooding (n.d, n.d). stormwater--- diverted to Sg. Gombak --- Gombak Diversion --- Batu Pond Detention --- Sg. Batu Gombak Diversion Channel stormwater --- diverted from KL --- Sg. Keroh --- Keroh Diversion Channel --- Jinjang Ponds -- Sg. Jinjang Installation Keroh Diversion Channel
  • 7. Bertam - Kepala Batas Flood Mitigation Project Installation It is located at the northern part of SeberangPerai District in Penang covering the Kepala Batas town, LadangBertam, Lahar IkanMati and Kg. TokBedu. (Water.gov.my. 2013). The northern part of SeberangPerai, being the core of this region is often affected by floods yearly especially around April to May and September to November as this is the time when the weather is seriously affected by the monsoon season. It is mainly designed to mitigate flood at Bertam-Kepala Batas area and to improve the drainage capacity in both main and internal drainage system. Mostly affected places includes Kepala Batas town, LadangBertam, Lahar IkanMati and Kg. TokBedu which cover a total area of approximately 44.30 Km². Total losses due to flood is estimated in the figure of RM 0.5 million to RM 2.0 million yearly. (Water.gov.my. 2013) Due to the rapid development of the town, factories and industrial areas had an obvious increase but one side of the development had exceed the balance as management process or maintenance work are being left behind. This is clearly shown in cases where industrial areas’ drainage system is not capable of dealing with spills causing direct flow to the drainage system. The insufficient discharge capacity of main outlet drainage system and increase water runoff due to development had pushed this problem to a critical level. Most of the lands in Bertam are used for agriculture purpose and this is why most development of the drainage system here are designed to suit only agricultural water management and the rapid development in this area had caused this former main outlet drainage system no more longer sufficient and adequate to deal with this problem. Therefore, capacity of both main drainage system and internal drainage system has to be increased in order to be capable of conveying storm water away from the flooding area. Process In order to cope with the storm water runoff, rivers and drainage system around that area is being observed and analysed. Later, the rivers and drainage systems are to be upgraded, including widening of the rivers, maintenance and repair of existing drainage system also construction of new drainage system to increase drainage capacity of storm water runoff. Retention ponds are also constructed and drainage pumping system is installed for continuous flow of storm water. Outlet channels, river gates, bridges and bunds are also constructed for more effective diverting of storm water runoff.
  • 8. Multimedia Super Corridor (MSC) Flood Mitigation Project Installation The Multimedia Super Corridor (MSC) has a length of 50km long and 15km width. It extends southwards from KLCC and it has eight subdivisions of planning areas including the Putrajaya, Airport City, Cyberjaya, Cyber village, Tele-Suburbs, Research and Development Centre, High-Tech Parks and ends at KLIA. (Water.gov.my. 2013) Therefore, below the Multimedia Super Corridor (MSC) is a well-planned overall drainage system is designed to avert flooding problems. Before construction, the Macro Drainage Master Plan Study was carried out so that all existing drainage system and drainage proposals from other developers are to be reviewed. Analysis is being carried out to design a proper drainage system to suit the area beneath the Multimedia Super Corridor. For example, area near critical rivers need drainage corridor reserves and flood level for development immediately. Sediment problems due to sand mining activities which will affect the environment around the Multimedia Super Corridor and the runoff control of storm water at source are also included in this study. This study also provides engineers with a thorough comprehension regarding the site before the construction. As the Macro Drainage Master Plan is to be implemented in phases involving large volume of work, the Immediate Action Plan (IAP) was identified to be an important step for that moment. In this project, the IAP Implementation has to be carried out with the Sungai Klang flood mitigation at the same time in order to shorten the period of this implementation despite all of these are carried out downstream which is considered a tough and time consuming work. Process The process of storm water management is the control of hydrological cycle including conveyance and storage of storm water. As mentioned above the Macro Drainage Master Plan Study will comprehensively examined the adequacy of the existing drainage systems and develop a short to long term drainage improvement measures to meet the current standards and the future needs. Drainage improvement methods includes using more durable material in construction of drainage pipes, a more systematic and understandable plan of drainage pipes design, the connection of the water pipes and the consistent maintenance work which needed to be carried out under guided supervision. All storm water is diverted through the well-designed drainage system underneath the Multimedia Super Corridor. This long connection has the sufficient capability to divert away storm water in an effective and efficient way.
  • 9. Problems 1. Flooding Flood is an overflow of water which occurs on a dry land during rainy days. Its occurs as solid surfaces replace natural vegetation because water is unable to slowly filter into the landscape. The changes in land have major effect on quantity and quality of stormwater runoff. The improper planned and managed can dramatically alter the natural hydrology of an area as it increases impervious cover which decreases the amount of rainwater that can actually infiltrate into the soil and then increases the volume and rate of stormwater runoff. (Carson, n.d) 2. Pollution Water pollution causes the soil erosion and pollution of rivers as the flowing of the water brings pollutants together with it into the waterways.Spillage of oil due to industrial activities, pesticides from agricultural activities, toxins and chemicals from the factories and also sediments and soil particles brought together with the rainwater are all deposited into the water distribution system. This runoff of polluted stormwater will cause the death of aquatic life and make waterways unhealthy place to live, work, play. This untreated stormwater will result in contamination of drinking water supplies. It also destructs the habitat of flora and fauna, affects the equilibrium of the ecosystem, cause hazards to human health and pollution to our mother nature. As this situation aggravates, the water distribution system is seriously affected and consequently this will increase floods rates.(Carson, n.d)
  • 10. Solutions 1. Floodway Town of Cedar Lake,n.d) Figure 4: Floodway used by stormwater management Floodway is a flood control method which used to decrease the detrimental effects of flood waters. This includes the channel of water to a river, stream, lake and area adjacent to the channel that will transmit moving water during flood. Therefore, this is a high danger portion of the floodplain which brings hazard to residents and also personnel.(Town of Cedar Lake,n.d) 2. Flood warning system (Drainage Services Department, 2009) Figure 5: Schematic of flood layout system. Flood warning systems help to minimize flood when the flood water reaches a certain level of height level. This warning would disseminate through flood sirens or through automatic telephone calls to the residential area nearby. Flood shelters are prepared during emergencies to supply an adequate safety for the residents who affected by flood. (Drainage Services Department, 2009)
  • 11. 3. Erosion control ("Erosion / sediment control," ) Figure 6: Ways of erosion control Erosion control is the management and controlling process where the wind and water is at a state under controlled to prevent it from causing disturbance to development in construction of both agriculture and industrial area. This is used in natural and urban areas which often control stormwater runoff management programs that are required by governments. Erosion control includes temporary seeding, temporary mulching, permanent sodding, temporary or permanent erosion control blankets and permanent vegetative buffer strips. ("Erosion / sediment control," )
  • 12. 4. Smart Tunnel (MacDonald, 2012) Figure 7: Dual purpose smart tunnel in either divert water and control traffic Smart Tunnel is a solution to the Malaysian capital’s long-term traffic and storm water management problems. This dual purpose tunnel will divert floodwaters away from the confluence of the two major rivers running through the city centre.(MacDonald, 2012) 5. Retarding basin and control basin Flood retarding basins (detention storages or compensating basins) are holding basins which temporarily store storm water to reduce downstream flow rates. Control basin is a small earthen ridge-and-channel or embankment built across which is perpendicular to a small watercourse or area of concentrated flow within a field. Agricultural runoff water and sediment are trapped as it flows down the watercourse.(Minnesota Department of Agriculture (MDA), 2013)
  • 13. Recommendations 1. Living roof Living roofs are a water sensitive design (WSD) technology which is used to describe a substrate and vegetation on covered roof. This will give advantages in stormwater management which acts as source control to prevent runoff generation from impervious areas and also provide stormwater management opportunity in unused space. (Auckland Council, 2013) It will also help to retain and slow rainwater runoff on tops of the roofs. (Jessica, 2012) Figure 8: Living pitched roof used for stormwater management ( County Flat Roofing (UK) Ltd , 2012) Figure 9: Living flat roof used for stormwater management
  • 14. 2. Rain garden Rain garden is one filtration features that can be easily installed in the garden by property owners in their own backyards. It is basically a depression on the ground into which rainwater is channeled to be slowly absorbed by the ground acting as a pervious surface. This can reduce the volume of storm water that flows to natural water bodies which provide a catchment area for rainwater. (Tunas, 2013) (Tunas, 2013) Figure 10: Rain garden used for stormwater management 3. Rainwater harvesting Rainwater harvesting is the process of collecting, storing and distributing rainwater from the roof. The lightweight and high compressive strength Flo-Tank are fixed underground provides greater useable ground area and enhanced aesthetic setting compared to traditional above ground tanks. Besides that, it also makes the installation quicker, safer, easier and cheaper than round or oval plastic tanks below ground. ("Complete storm water," ) . ("Complete storm water," ) Figure 11: Process of rain water harvesting
  • 15. Learning From Group Work Project Chia KhaiYuean (0314368) Through this assignment, I gained a lot of knowledge about our SMART Tunnel since I am doing the case study. The SMART Tunnel is a Malaysian pride. It makes Malaysia pride and and it really makes me feel proud to be a MALAYSIAN. Besides that, I also learned how to do a case study. I struggled for it at first as I have no idea at all about what a case study is and I feel really pressure because case study contributes almost one-third of the assignment marks. However, I am proud to say that I managed to strive through all the problems I encountered and I have pride in the job I’ve done. Chin Wei Sun (0314369) I am having the storm water management for my building service 1 group project. Miss Liza had assigned us into 5 people a group. I am delighted to have Chia KhaiYuean, Yap Hue Eng, Jenny Wong Yen Li and Yap ZhiXin as my group members. In this assignment I learned a lot of things that I never expected before. For example, I learned how to do a case study in an assignment, making video for presentation and many more others. Besides that, through this group work, I know the importance of toleration and corporation in order to get the works went smooth. My group members gave me a lot of support and help when I met problems during the process of searching information for the assignment. It was my pleasure to have them as my group members. Jenny Wong Yen Li (0314518) First of all, I have no idea what is stormwater management before doing this assignment. I have done quite a lot of research regarding on this assignment. Other than doing research, we also did group discussions. Now I knew that stormwater management not only could maintain the natural hydrologic cycle, it could also reduce the risk of flooding. After all researches and discussions, I finally realised how important is stormwater management.
  • 16. Yap Hue Eng (0314857) Through this assignment, I gained knowledge on this topic about storm water management and finally knew how our country copes with these kinds of problems. Apparently this topic is not an easy topic at all. There is also not much information related to this topic but my group members and I are able to go through all these and finished our assignment at the end. I was glad also to have my group members with me together. Everything went on smoothly during the discussing process, job assigning process, grouping information process and implement process. With my group members, I can feel the cooperation between us. We helped each other and share useful information together. We have our brainstorming and discussion together. The most important lesson I had learnt through this assignment is about time management. I learnt to gather information in advance and go through the useful information in order to gain a better understanding on the topic given. I was really amazed when our group are able to complete this assignment even before the deadline. Hence, time management is truly something I have to remind myself from time to time so that I am able to complete all my assignments on time. Yap ZhiXin (0314542) I am very lucky to have this opportunity to cooperate with my group members who have teamwork in doing this assignment, case study and also multimedia presentation. The group leader assigned me to do problems, solutions and recommendations in the aspects of sustainable stormwater management. At first, I got a bit confused in this topic as problems and solutions are quite broad topic which I have no idea about it. Finally I got the idea in this research as I tried to approach coursemates, friends, lecturers and family about it. It took me a couple of time to do the research as I encountered problems in this research in finding information, books and etc. I am quite satisfied for this research as I discovered many problems and solutiosn which I think is interesting about stormwater management which I never knew before doing this assignment. And for the case study, we visited Stormwater Management and Road Tunnel (SMART) and discover information on the process, function and etc. which is quite interesting.
  • 17. Conclusion : Stormwater management also contributes to community safety and financial risk management by reducing the risk of urban flooding and erosion.(Stormwater FAQs, n.d.). The ultimate goal of stormwater management is to maintain the health of streams, lakes and aquatic life as well as provide opportunities for human uses of water by mitigating the effects of urban development. To achieve this goal stormwater management strives to maintain the natural hydrologic cycle, prevent an increased risk of flooding, prevent undesirable stream erosion, and protect water quality. (Stormwater FAQs, n.d.)
  • 18. References: Introduction & Benefits of Stormwater 1. "Stormwater Management - Ministry of the Environment." Ministry of the Environment – Ontario 2. Sustainable Cities Institute: Stormwater Runoff. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.sustainablecitiesinstitute.org/view/page.basic/class/feature.class/LESSON _OVERVIEW_STORMWATER_RUNOFF 3. Stormwater FAQs. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.ncstormwater.org/pages/stormwater_faqspage.html#whymanage Flood Management ,Bertam - Kepala Batas Flood Mitigation Project, Multimedia Super Corridor (MSC) Flood Mitigation Project 1. Did.sarawak.gov.my. (2013) Official Website of Department of Irrigation and Drainage Sarawak. Retrieve from: http://www.did.sarawak.gov.my/modules/web/page.php?id=98&menu_id=0&sub_id= 118 2. Drnik.com.my. (2013) Featured Projects - Dr. Nik& Associates Sdn. Bhd. Retrieve from: http://www.drnik.com.my/svc_river_p2_p5.html 3. Nahrim.gov.my (2013) SelamatDatangkeLaman Web RasmiInstitutPenyelidikanHidraulikKebangsaanMalaysia(NAHRIM). Retrieve from: http://www.nahrim.gov.my/ 4. Ramli, N. (2013) Stormwater Management & Drainage Master Plan Study. Retrieve from: http://www.water.gov.my/our-services-mainmenu-252/urbanstormwater/stormwater-master-plan-?lang=en 5. Water.gov.my. (2013) Bertam - Kepala Batas Flood Mitigation Project. Retrieve from: http://www.water.gov.my/programme-aamp-activities-our-services382/27?task=view&lang=
  • 19. BatuJinjang Ponds & Related Diversions Project 1. DESIGN OPTION OF THE FLOOD MITIGATION PLAN OF SG. MUDA,SUNGAI MUDA,, KEDAH. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.engr.colostate.edu/~pierre/ce_old/Projects/linkfiles/Muda%20Report.pdf 2. MOHD FAUZI MOHAMAD (2013). KEY CHALLENGES IN URBAN FLOOD MANAGEMENT; KNOWLEDGES, EXPERIENCES AND POLICY IN MALAYSIAN PERSPECTIVES. Retrieved from http://www.unescap.org/esd/suds/egm/2013/urbanflood-management/documents/3-Country-Presentations/Malaysia.pdf 3. Nst.com (2013). Projects to mitigate flood woes - General - New Straits Times. Retrieved from: http://www.nst.com.my/nation/general/projects-to-mitigate-flood- woes-1.19535 4. Saw HinSeang (n.d.). A CASE STUDY OF MITIGATING FLOODING IN CITY CENTER OF KUALA LUMPUR. Retrieved from http://www.unescap.org/idd/events/2009_EGM-DRR/Malaysia-Hinseang-SawSTORMWATER-MANAGEMENT-AND-ROAD-TUNNEL_final.pdf 5. Slideshare.net (2013). Project Information 060709[1]. Retrieved from: http://www.slideshare.net/lauati/project-information-0607091 6. Tansenggiaw.blogspot (2013). View issues with Tan SengGiaw: Gombak River Diversion Project serves as an example, 9.4.2007. retrieved from: http://tansenggiaw.blogspot.com/2007/04/gombak-river-diversion-project-serves.html 7. Water.gov (2013). BatuJinjang Ponds & Related Diversions Retrieved from: http://www.water.gov.my/programme-aamp-activities-our-services-382/24 8. Water.gov (2013). SgMuda Flood Mitigation Project. Retrieved from: http://www.water.gov.my/programme-aamp-activities-our-services-382/23 9. Web10.bernama (2013). Batu/Jinjang Flood Mitigation Project To Be Completed By Year-end - BERNAMA AUTO. Retrieved from: http://web10.bernama.com/auto/newsDetail.php?id=446697&vo=27 10. Web10.bernama, (2013). Sungai Muda Flood Mitigation Project To Be Completed On Time - BERNAMA Banking & Finance Special Page. Retrieved from: http://web10.bernama.com/finance/news.php?id=467141&vo=13 11. Wikipedia (2013). List of tidal barrages. Retrieved from:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_tidal_barrages 12. Wikipedia (2013). Muda River. Retrieved from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Muda_River
  • 20. Problems, Solutions &Recommendations for Future Improvement 1. Auckland Council. (2013, September). Living roof review and design recommendations for stormwater management. Retrieved from http://www.aucklandcouncil.govt.nz/SiteCollectionDocuments/aboutcouncil/plans policiespublications/technicalpublications/tr2013045livingroofreviewanddesignrec ommendationsforstormwatermanagement.pdf 2. Carson, H.Eaker, B. Gibson, P. Randal, M. (n.d.). Stormwater problems & impacts: Why all the fuss. Retrieved from http://www.riverlink.org/stormwaterseriesfinal1.pdf. 3. Complete storm water harvesting solutions. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.greensystems.net/complete-storm-water-harvesting-solutions.html 4. Drainage Services Department. (2009). Flood warning systems. Retrieved from http://www.dsd.gov.hk/EN/Flood_Prevention/How_to_Reduce_Flood_Damage/Fl ood_Warning_Systems/index.html 5. Erosion / sediment control. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.civil.ryerson.ca/stormwater/menu_5/index.htm 6. Good storm water management as an integral part of sustainable building. Retrieved from http://greenasiaforce.com/Blog/good-storm-water-managementas-an-integral-part-of-sustainable-building/ 7. MacDonald, M. (2012). Smart tunnel. Retrieved from http://www.tunnels.mottmac.com/projects/?mode=region&id=2047 8. Minnesota Department of Agriculture (MDA). (2013). Conservation practices minnesota conservation funding guide. Retrieved from http://www.mda.state.mn.us/protecting/conservation/practices/wscob.aspx 9. Town of Cedar Lake. (n.d.). General stormwaterconcepts . Retrieved from http://www.cedarlakein.org/Departments/StormwaterManagermentMS4/GeneralS tormwaterConcepts.aspx
  • 21. Reference for pictures: Figure 1 : Storm Water Management : TRCA. (n.d.). Figure 2: Slideshare.net, (2013). Project Information 060709[1]. Retrieved from:http://www.slideshare.net/lauati/project-information-0607091 Figure 3: Bertam - Kepala Batas Flood Mitigation Project. (n.d.).Retrieved from http://www.melatiehsan.com.my/project-bertam-kepala-batas.php Figure 4:Town of Cedar Lake. (n.d.).General stormwaterconcepts .Retrieved from http://www.cedarlakein.org/Departments/StormwaterManagermentMS4/GeneralStormwater Concepts.aspx Figure 5: Drainage Services Department. (2009). Flood warning systems. Retrieved from http://www.dsd.gov.hk/EN/Flood_Prevention/How_to_Reduce_Floo d_Damage/Flood_Warning_Systems/index.html Figure 6: Erosion / sediment control. (n.d.).Retrieved from http://www.civil.ryerson.ca/stormwater/menu_5/index.htm Figure 7: MacDonald, M. (2012). Smart tunnel.Retrieved from http://www.tunnels.mottmac.com/projects/?mode=region&id=2047 Figure 8: Jessica. (2012, September 30). What is a living roof? we’ll tell you! . Retrieved from https://brightnest.com/posts/what-is-a-living-roof-we-ll-tell-you Figure 9: County Flat Roofing (UK) Ltd (2012). Steps to creating your perfect green roof. Retrieved from http://www.countyflatroofing.co.uk/green-roofs.html Figure 10: Tunas, D. (2013, September 17). Good storm water management as an integral part of sustainable building. Retrieved from http://greenasiaforce.com/Blog/good-storm-water-management-as-an-integral-part-ofsustainable-building/
  • 22. Figure 11:Complete storm water harvesting solutions. (n.d.).Retrieved from http://www.greensystems.net/complete-storm-water-harvesting-solutions.html Figure 12: Flash Flood in Kuala Lumpur. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.straitstimes.com/sites/straitstimes.com/files/imagecache/story- gallery-featured/fnfloodc10e.jpg Flash Flood in Kuala Lumpur.(n.d.). Retrieved from http://api.ning.com/files/DuSnB8o3VYIdq5Ei08JUxlzC*DDuQZ4l5po8IROfIfs DSQLzrg*0W1NhwJ41iKzOv7-ez90-AuZyrLKNtAVF0YPyEwijVyJd/2.jpg Figure 13: Road Tunnel Cross Section. (n.d.). Retrived fromhttp://impeller.xyleminc.com/wp-content/themes/tkxylem/image.php?src=http://impeller.xyleminc.com/wpcontent/uploads/2012/08/water_storing_motorway-3-11.jpg&h=400&w=650&zc=1 Figure 14: Map showing the flood diversion routes. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.unescap.org/idd/events/2009_EGM-DRR/Malaysia-Hinseang-SawSTORMWATER-MANAGEMENT-AND-ROAD-TUNNEL_final.pdf Figure 15-17 : Mode 1-4 (n.d.). Retrieved from http://kereta.info/how-smart-tunnel-works/ Figure 18: Flash Flood in Kuala Lumpur Before SMART Operations. (n.d.) Retrieved from http://pramleeelvis.files.wordpress.com/2011/10/kl-floods-004.jpg Figure 19: SMART coverage. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://smarttunnel.com.my/wp-content/uploads/2012/10/Slide1.jpg Figure 20: SMART Control Room. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://smarttunnel.com.my/wp-content/uploads/2012/07/img-control.png Figure 21: SMART Patrolmen. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://smarttunnel.com.my/wp-content/uploads/2012/07/img-patrol.png Figure 22: Emergency Exits & S.O.S. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://encryptedtbn1.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcTiw9oxdBck5iWSLeG3EV7S5f_KDKxkzS3BVBWcvnTMrW3KL1i
  • 23. Bibliography Introduction & Benefits of Stormwater 1. Category:Stormwater management - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. (n.d.) 2. Stormwater Management | Greening EPA | US EPA. (n.d.). 3. Stormwater Management - Ministry of the Environment. (n.d.). Flood Management ,Bertam - Kepala Batas Flood Mitigation Project, Multimedia Super Corridor (MSC) Flood Mitigation Project 1. kiat.net: MSC Page - Cyberjaya. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.kiat.net/msc/cyberjaya.html 2. Multimedia Super Corridor (MSC) Malaysia. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://nitc.mosti.gov.my/nitc_beta/index.php/key-ict-initiatives/multimedia-supercorridor-msc-malaysia 3. MSC Malaysia - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. (n.d.). Retrieved November 6, 2013, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MSC_Malaysia 4. SetiaHarumanSdnBhd - The country intelligent city. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.cyberjaya-msc.com/msc.asp BatuJinjang Ponds & Related Diversions Project 1. Case Study : Flood Mitigation of the Muda River, Malaysia. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://redac.eng.usm.my/html/publish/2010_02.pdf 2. M. A. Haque,Y. F. Huang,T. S. Lee (2009). SeberangPerai rice Scheme irrigation Water Quality aSSeSSment. Retrieved from http://dspace.unimap.edu.my/dspace/bitstream/123456789/13720/1/042049Seberang%20%20Perai%20Rice%205pp.pdf
  • 24. 3. Nahrim.gov.my, (2013). SelamatDatangkeLaman Web RasmiInstitutPenyelidikanHidraulikKebangsaanMalaysia(NAHRIM). Retrieved from: http://www.nahrim.gov.my/ 4. Wirakerjaya.com, (2013). :: Projects :: Welcome to WiraKerjayaSdn. Bhd. :: Retrieved from: http://wirakerjaya.com.my/proj/project.html Problems, Solutions & Recommendations for Future Improvement 1. Hoyer, J.Dickhaut, W. Kronawritter, L. Web, B. (2011, March). Water sensitive urban design principles and inspiration for sustainable stormwater management in the city of the future .Retrieved from http://www.switchurbanwater.eu/outputs/pdfs/W51_GEN_MAN_D5.1.5_Manual_on_WSUD.pdf 2. K Jha, A. Block, R. Lamond, J. (2012). A guide to integrated urban flood risk management for the 21st century. Retrieved from http://www.gfdrr.org/sites/gfdrr.org/files/urbanfloods/pdf/Cities and Flooding Guidebook.pdf 3. Northern Ireland Environment Agency (2012, April). Stormwater management implementation in northern ireland. Retrieved from http://www.doeni.gov.uk/niea/stormwater_management_implementation_in_ni_leaflet _april_2012.pdf 4. The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (2000). Stormwater drainage manual planning, design and management. (3rd ed., pp. 83103). Hong Kong: Government Publication Centre. Retrieved from http://www.dsd.gov.hk/EN/Files/publications_publicity/other_publications/technical_m anuals/Stormwater Manual.pdf
  • 25. SUBMISSION COVER SHEET BUILDING SERVICES 1 ASSIGNMENT No. 1 GROUP PROJECT Tittle of Project : Stormwater Management Date of submission : 18 November 2013 Names Student ID CHIA KHAI YUEAN 0314368 CHIN WEI SUN 0314369 JENNY WONG YEN LI 0314518 YAP HUE ENG 0314857 YAP ZHI XIN 0314542 COMMENTS (for marking purposes):
  • 26. TABLE OF CONTENT NO. 1 CONTENT Introduction PAGE NO. 1-2 2 Benefits of Stormwater 2 3 Purposes of using Stormwater 2 4 Flood Management 3 5 BatuJinjang Ponds & Related Diversions Project 4-6 6 Bertam - Kepala Batas Flood Mitigation Project 7 7 Multimedia Super Corridor (MSC) Flood Mitigation 8 Project 8 Problems Caused By Stormwater 9 9 Solutions 10-12 10 Recommendations for Future Improvement 13-14 11 Learning From Group Work Project 15-16 12 Conclusion 17 13 References 18-20 14 References for picture 21-22 15 Bibliography 23-24
  • 27. 16 Case Study 25-41 Introduction Kuala Lumpur is capital city of Malaysia and the major hub for business, administration, education, living and etc. Due to rap experienced id development of Kuala Lumpur, the city first major flood occurred in 1926 and two others in year 1971 and 1981. (Saw HinSeang, n.d.)Our countryexperienced very heavy rainfall and condition of flash flood become more serious during monsoon season and major flood were also recorded between 1986 and 2003.(Saw HinSeang, n.d.) The following factors contributed to the cause of flash flood in Kuala Lumpur: (Keizrul Abdullah, n.d.) rapid development resulting in lack of pond as such river become narrower old drainage system cannot withstand increased of yearly rainwater in city bad soil conservation practice of land development encourage soil erosion leading to silt sedimentation at bottom of rivers, so river ends up shallower urbanization development encroaching into flood plains and drainage corridors leading to loss of flood storage bridges and culverts becoming constriction points due to increased levels in flood discharges siltation in existing channels due to from indiscriminate land clearing operations The city of Kuala Lumpur has seen rapid development since founded in 1875 and these development has led to loss of forested land, reduced flood plain leading to increasing runoff and peak flow and these resulted in frequency of major flood in the city. On 26 April 2001, business centre in the city was flooded because of the overflowing of KlangRiver .(Saw HinSeang, n.d.)This led the government to sought proposals for solution aim to complement on going flood mitigation effort carried out through its Department of Irrigation and Drainage. SMART Project was awarded to MMC-Gamuda Joint Venture (undertaking through joint venture with the Malaysian government).(SMART - The World's First And Malaysia's Pride, 2011)
  • 28. ( website, straitstimes)( website, poleshift.ning) Figure 12: Flash Flood In Kuala Lumpur SMART Project SMART stands for Stormwater Management & Road Tunnel.(Ram Kumar M. KANNAPIRAN, 2005)It is a project initiation by the Malaysian government with its prime objective to alleviate around 45% of flooding problem in the Kuala Lumpur City Centre and act as a traffic relief for main Southern gateway to the city centre from KL-Seremban Highway & Federal Highway.(SMART Stormwater Management & Road Tunnel, n.d.)This project provides innovative solution whereby there is underground passage for dual purpose of carrying flood water and for road traffic. The SMART Project is a 9.7km bypass dual-purpose tunnel.(SMART - The World's First And Malaysia's Pride, 2011)The tunnels are divided into 2 categories, namely stormwater drainage system and a double-deck motorway. During the dry period when SMART is not use for drainage system, the 3.0km motorway serves as an alternative traffic dispersal system for motorists entering and exiting various roads, namely Jalan Sungai Besi, Jalan Davis &JalanTunRazaklocated nearby Kg. Pandan roundabout. (ENTER HERE - SMART motorway, n.d.) Only vehicles not exceeding 2.0m high are accessible to this motorway tunnel. Motorcycles, busses and lorries are not allowed.(ENTER HERE - SMART motorway, n.d.) This project was started by our country former Prime Minister, TunDr Mahathir Mohammad, as part of the country development plan carried out between the government and private sector corporation as a joint venture project.(Ram Kumar M. KANNAPIRAN, 2005) The parties involved in this mega project from the government’s departments namely, Department of Irrigation and Drainage Malaysia (DID), Malaysia Highway Authority (MHA) between Malaysian Mining Corporation Bhd and GamudaBhd (forming a joint venture called, MMC-GAMUDA Joint Venture) . (Ram Kumar M. KANNAPIRAN, 2005) Both companies are very well established firms with excellent track record in the construction industry.
  • 29. UPPER DECK LOWER DECK LOWEST CHANNEL Figure 13: Road Tunnel Cross Section (website, impeller.xyleminc) Concept Due to the increasing incident of major flood in the city, this project was the initiation by the Malaysian government as it provides the government an effective and usable option as a bypass if flood occurs and also act as an immediate channel storage for the affected bridges. (Saw HinSeang, n.d.) Flood Diversion Route And Flood Water Storage The flood water diversion of SMART is simple. It diverts, stores and later release the excess flood water. (MunirahBintiMurad,n.d.)It diverts the excess flood water from 2 rivers upstream of Ampang River and Klang River to Kg. Berembang and detained in Kampong Berembang Holding Pond.(MunirahBintiMurad,n.d.) The excess flood water is then diverted through SMART stormwater tunnel to the designated Taman Desa Pond before it is release to Kerayong River at the Southern part of KL after the storm is over. SMART stormwater tunnel has a holding capacity of 3,000,000 (3 million) m³.(SMART - Stormwater Management & Road Tunnel, n.d.)
  • 30. (website, unescap) Figure 14: Map showing the flood diversion routes System Operation The operation system consist of two different function of tunnel, trusted Flood Detection System (FDS) and flood diversion control system with a set of complicated operating rules. (MunirahBintiMurad, n.d.) Mode 1 Motorway tunnel is open to traffic on occasion of light rain and clear weather.(Operational Modes – SMART Motorway Tunnel, n.d.) (website, keretainfo) Mode 2 Figure 15: Mode 1
  • 31. The SMART system is activated when moderate storm occurs with a flow rate of 70-150 m³/s (cumec) . Flood water is then channelled to the lower channel of motorway passage. The tunnel can still be used by the general public.(Operational Modes – SMART Motorway Tunnel, n.d.) (website, keretainfo) Figure 16: Mode 2 Mode 3 and 4 When there is heavy storm and the forecast flow rate is 150 m³/s (cumec)or more, the monitoring station will raise the need to close off motorway passage. Time is allocated for motorists to leave the motorway before flood water arechannelled to the storage pond and subsequently to Kerayong River. The motorway tunnel can only re-opened to the general public after 3-4 days.(Operational Modes – SMART Motorway Tunnel, n.d.) (website, keretainfo) Problems Figure 17: Mode 3 & 4
  • 32. The problems encountered by Smart Tunnel users are water leakage damaged joints cracked road surface tunnel lightnings& traffic sign Among all of the problems above, water leakage received the most complaints from SMART’s users. Inadequate sealing and poorly constructed joints in the concrete lining gave chances for the water to leak into the tunnel. Besides that, cracking of road surface caused by the contaminated ground water also received many complaints because it put all user’s life in danger. Moreover, there are not enough number of tunnel lightnings. This caused the visibility level in the tunnel is very low and users believe that it is dangerous as they cannot see the road very clearly. Maintenance The maintenance of SMART tunnel is an important feature for this project. The tunnels can deteriorate through incoming water Into the tunnels causing cracked concrete. The flood water discharged can be contaminated ground water or flood water and can cause defect to these tunnels during its working life. It is crucial to conduct maintenance on a regular basis as regular inspection can guarantee the continuous usability of these tunnels. Proper maintenance can also avoid unnecessary danger to the general public who uses these tunnels, thus reducing loss of life and decreases cost to the government. Below is a table showing the Cleaning Frequency of the various facility in this project.(MunirahBintiMurad ,n.d.) Facilities to be cleaned Routine Daily Buildings Motorway Control Centre Compound North/South Vent Shafts Alternate Days Weekly / / Monthly Quarterly HalfYearly Yearly NonRoutine After Flood
  • 33. / North/South Junction Boxes Toll Supervision Building Compound Toll Plaza Canopy Walks Overhead Walkways Toll Teller’s Toilet Prayer Room Toll Lane & Island Floor Standing Toll Lane Equipment Above Floor Toll Lane Equipment Toll Booths Ingress and Egress Non-Covered Section / / / / / / / / / / Covered Section / Wall Tunnel Lightnings Traffic Sign Cross Passages and Escape Shafts Signboard Portal Drain Sumps Tunnel Wall Road Deck Tunnel Lightnings Traffic Sign Cross Passages Cross Passages Drain Sumps Signboard / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / /
  • 34. Pumping Satation Ceiling / / / / Conclusion SMART project is our country pride and should be as it is the first dual purpose tunnel in Malaysia and in the world. SMART provides a highly innovative and effective flood mitigation purpose to the city of Kuala Lumpur which is still developing rapidly. The high cost of this project did not deter the government from proceeding with the implementation because of eventual value added road component. SMART is considered a good retrofitting solution. The preferred option is good management of river basin and river corridor so that rapid development and flood management can be effectively balanced out. Successful management can prevent expensive retrofitting structural measures and at the same time encourage environment friendly urban development.
  • 35. References: 1. DatukIr Dr Hj Ahmad Zaidee bin Ladin (n.d.). Case Study on SMART Tunnel: Balancing Social Responsibility With Profitability. Retrieved from http://www.piece2013.com/pdf/sl/Case%20StudyBalancing%20Social%20Responsibility%20with%20Profitability%20by%20Datuk%20 Ir%20Dr%20Hj%20Ahmad%20Zaidee%20bin%20Ladin.pdf 2. ENTER HERE - SMART motorway. (n.d.). SYARIKAT MENGURUS AIR BANJIR & TEROWONG SDN BHD - PusatKawalanTorowong SMART. 3. HOW SMART TUNNEL WORKS? (n.d.). Retrieved from http://kereta.info/how-smarttunnel-works/ 4. Keizrul Abdullah (n.d.). Stormwater Management and Road Tunnel (SMART) a Lateral Approach to Flood Mitigation Works. Retrieved from http://www.smarttunnel.com.my/construction/images/news/special/SR02.pdf 5. MunirahBintiMurad (n.d.). Users Satisfaction of Smart Tunnel Towards Maintenance Management. Retrieved from
  • 36. http://www.efka.utm.my/thesis/IMAGES/3PSM/2010/JSBP1/munirahba070113d10ttt.pdf 6. Operational Modes – SMART Motorway Tunnel. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://smarttunnel.com.my/operational-modes/ 7. Ram Kumar M. KANNAPIRAN (2005). A Study and Evaluation on SMART Project, Malaysia. Retrieved from https://eprints.usq.edu.au/617/1/RamKumarM.KANNAPIRAN-2005.pdf 8. Saw HinSeang (n.d.). STORMWATER MANAGEMENT AND ROAD TUNNEL. Retrieved from http://www.unescap.org/idd/events/2009_EGM-DRR/MalaysiaHinseang-Saw-STORMWATER-MANAGEMENT-AND-ROAD-TUNNEL_final.pdf 9. SMART - Stormwater Management & Road Tunnel. (n.d.). SYARIKAT MENGURUS AIR BANJIR & TEROWONG SDN BHD. 10. SMART - The World's First And Malaysia's Pride. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.unhabitat.org/downloads/docs/malaysia_smart_submission.pdf 11. Unique Features – SMART Motorway Tunnel. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://smarttunnel.com.my/smart/unique-features/ Bibliography 1. Chapter 5 Results and Analysis. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.efka.utm.my/thesis/images/3PSM/2004/2JHH/Part1/SVKALAISELVAMSX 005618AWD04D03TT5.pdf 2. KUALA LUMPUR, MALAYSIA Case Study (Mixed Use Tunnel). (2012). Retrieved from http://www.escpau.fr/ppp/documents/featured_projects/malaysia_kuala_lumpur.pdf 3. Ir. Ng KohHing, Ir. David N. Welch &Subathra Devi Ramachandram (n.d.). STORMWATER MANAGEMENT AND ROAD TUNNEL (SMART) PROJECT STORMWATER MANAGEMENT AND OPERATION. Retrieved from http://www.sspsb.com.my/publications/SMART%20Project.pdf 4. Ir. Vince Tan Pik Sing & Ir. Chin Yew Thai (n.d.). STORMWATER MANAGEMENT AND ROAD TUNNEL (SMART) DESIGN CHALLENGES TO CUT-AND-COVER TUNNELS. Retrieved from
  • 37. http://www.sspsb.com.my/publications/SMART%20Design%20Challenges%20To%2 0Cut-And-Cover%20Tunnels.pdf 5. Stormwater Management and Road Tunnel (SMART). (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.gamuda.com.my/smart.html 6. STORMWATER MANAGEMENT AND ROAD TUNNEL (SMART) PROJECT. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.smarttunnel.com.my/construction/project_help.htm 7. Y.Bhg.Datuk Ir. Haji Keizrul bin Abdullah (2004). KUALA LUMPUR: REENGINEERING A FLOODED CONFLUENCE. Retrieved from http://www.smarttunnel.com.my/construction/images/news/special/SR01.pdf Appendices Project details: Project Stormwater Management and Road Tunnel (SMART) Commencement 1st Jan 2003 (4.5 years inclusive of planning & construction period) Completion 30th June 2007 Project value RM1,887 million Client Kerajaan Malaysia Concessionaire Syarikat Mengurus Air Banjir&TerowongSdn. Bhd. Turnkey Contractor MMC-Gamuda Joint Venture Consultants SepakatSetiaPerunding S/B (SSP) with Mott MacDonald of UK Scope of works
  • 38. Design, Construction, Maintenance, Supervision and Commissioning Technical specifications Stormwater Tunnel Length Diameter 9.7km Tunnelling Method Tunnel Boring Machine (TBM) TBM Type Slurry Mix-Shield – Largest in South East Asia and the second largest in 13.2m (outer diameter) Asia Motorway tunnel Length : 3 km Structure type: Double deck Ingress and egress: 1.5km at Jalan Sultan Ismail and JalanImbi Length : 1.4km at JalanTunRazak Links: 1.6km at KL-Seremban Expressway links: city centre near Kg. Pandan Roundabout KL-Seremban Expressway near Sg. Besi Airport Other Features of Automated Flood Control Gates SMART Safety Cross Passage every 250m intervals between decks System in the Ventilation/ escape shafts every 1km intervals Motorway Tunnel Radio Re-Broadcasting Services 38 sets of Air Quality Monitoring Equipment (AQME) monitoring carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen monoxide (NO) and particulate 24hrs SCADA Monitoring & Surveillance Equipped with fire-fighting equipment, telecommunication and surveillance system at 1km intervals along the motorway tunnel (SMART - Stormwater Management & Road Tunnel, n.d.) Services Smart control room : 24 hrs 7 days manning, 220 CCTV cameras, hotline 1-300-88-7188, automatic signal on emergency and congestion events Smart patrolmen: 3 shifts 24 hours’, patrolling with motorbikes and van, assisted y panel tow truck, response time in 5 minute to incident place Emergency exits & S.O.S : emergency exits at every 250m, S.O.S
  • 39. telephone, CCTV, PA system linked to control room, escape shaft to surface at every 1 km, lift for rescue agencies during emergency (Unique Features – SMART Motorway Tunnel, n.d.) Components Holding basin complete with diversion and tunnel intake structures Storage reservoir and a twin-box culvert to release flood discharge State-of-the-art operations control room equipped with the latest operations management, surveillance and maintenance systems Flash Flood In Kuala Lumpur Before SMART Operations 1971 (website, wordpress) (website, wordpress)
  • 40. 26 April 2001 (website, wordpress) (website, wordpress) 11 June 2002 10 June 2003 (website, wordpress) (website, wordpress) Figure 18: Flash Flood In Kuala Lumpur Before SMART Operations SMART Coverage
  • 41. (website, smarttunnel) Figure 19: SMART Coverage Services
  • 42. Figure 20: SMART Control Room (website, smarttunnel) Figure 21: SMART Patrolmen (website, smarttunnel) Figure 22: Emergency Exits & S.O.S (website, encrypted)
  • 43. Photo taken with public relation officer of SMART
  • 44. CASE STUDY ON SMART World’s 1st Dual Function Tunnel
  • 45. TABLE OF CONTENT NO. CONTENT PAGE 1 Introduction 1 2 SMART Project 2 3 Concept 3 4 Flood Diversion Route and Flood Water Storage 3 5 System Operation 6 Problems 7 Maintenance 8 Conclusion 8 9 References 9 10 Bibliography 10 11 Appendices 11-16 4-5 5 6-7