SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE, BUILDING AND
BACHELOR OF QUANTITY SURVEYING
QSB1513 – Building Materials
Site Research Reports - Metals
April Semester 2013
Submission Date: 11/07/2013
Group members Student No. Marks
Cheah Xing Nan 0314326
Jasmine Yong Li Ting 0314622
Reuel Chan Ernyi 0315150
Teo Jun Tang 0314667
Yap Hue Eng 0314857
Yap Zhi Xin 0314542
Table of Content:
2. Appropriate Usage/Application
3. Physical Properties and Chemical Properties
4. Advantages and Disadvantages
6. Aesthetical Value
10. List of References
On the 7th
of June, a trip was organized by our lecturers, Puan Hasmanira
Mokhtar and Mr Teh Bin Sin to the Ajiya glass and metal factory which is located in
Segamat, Johor. It was a 3 Days 2 Night trip from the 7th
to the 9th
of June, travelling
from Taylor’s Lakeside University to the Segamat, Johor then to Malacca. The purpose
of this trip is to create understanding of students of the choices in choosing building
materials based on properties and experience more about the materials used in buildings
and construction internally and externally.
The Ajiya factory consists of 2 parts, the Ajiya Glass Industries Sdn Bhd and
Ajiya Roofing Industries Sdn Bhd. Both factories were visited by us and materials were
introduced before our eyes with details. In the end, the factory visit conclude with us
learning new materials with brochure and the throughout process of molding glass, roof
pieces and other materials.
As a report assignment, we were given the title metal. After much discussion,
our group decided to do the steel as type of metal which is an alloy that is widely use in
2. Appropriate Usage/Application
The appropriate uses of steel in construction are:
Steel floor deck
It is made of steel Z26-27N by rolling. It usually apply in residential buildings, business
premises, industrial buildings, schools and hospitals, public building in general,
agricultural buildings, and bridges and other constructions used by traffic.
Metal door& window frames
It is made of Zincalume Steel, Electro Galvanized, Galvanneal, Hot-dipped Plain
Galvanized Steel & Pre-primed Galvanized Steel. Custom designed door window joint
combination frames are well suited for schools and public buildings. When an opening
requires strength, durability, or maximum fire resistance in any combination, steel
doors and frames provide the qualities to meet these needs. (Urbaniak, 2012)
Steel truss system
It is made of light-weight high-tensile galvanized or zinc/aluminium alloy coated steel.
It is designed for optimum strength at minimum cost to meet building industrial
demand and also to complement any roofing systems. With its many advantages over
timber or mild steel truss, high-tensile steel truss system, which is more stable, durable
and environmental-friendly, will certainly be the preferred choice of truss systems.
It is manufactured from high-tensile steel substrate protected with corrosion inhibitive
treatment. It can be used vertically and horizontally to allow creative and flexible
designs. Suitable for use as wall cladding, fascias, feature wall garage door cladding
Metal roofing system
Hi-tensile metal roofing sheet in pre-painted hot-dipped zinc-coated steel or pre-painted
hot-dipped zinc-aluminium alloy-coated steel to be fixed with/without insulation, and
come complete with necessary fittings and accessories. It is widely used for commercial
and industrial project like shop offices, schools, multi-purpose halls, apartment, sprung
curve roof, and etc.
It is formed from high tensile zinc-coated steel. It is beneficial to install a new metal
roof over an existing metal roof without tearing off the old metal. It is installed
horizontally over the existing roof, and the new panels are attached directly to the
3. Physical and Chemical Properties
The physical properties of an alloy depend on the percentage composition of the
constituent elements and the manufacturing process. Steel is able to cool down rapidly after
being subjected to water or oil. The physical properties is that it has high strength, low ratio
of strength to weight, malleable, ductile, possesses luster textile and durable. For the high
strength of steel, the product of AJIYA is manufactured from high tensile steel with
corrosive-inhibitive treatment and coating. It has a long life performance and minimum
maintenance. Furthermore, the light weight helps in easy handling and installation.
Although it possesses malleability and ductility, the products of has its consistent quality
for not wrapping, shrinking and twisting. The luster textile gives the products a stylish tile
The components making up steel are iron and carbon. The carbon content varies from
0.2% to 2.14% of the total weight. According to AJIYA, steel can also be found in other
types of alloys including galvanized steel, Zincalume steel, pre-prime steel and pre-painted
hot dipped zinc-aluminium alloy-coated steel. Steel grades are classified by many standard
organizations, based on the composition and the physical properties of the metal. The
deciding factor for the grade of steel is basically its chemical composition and the supplied
condition. The higher the carbon content, the harder and stronger is the steel metal.
(Sandhyarani, 2012) Earlier forms of steel consisted of more carbon, as compared to the
present day steel. Today, the steel manufacturing process is such that less carbon is added
and the metal is cooled down immediately, so as to retain the desirable physical properties.
Rapid cooling (or quenching) of steel also alters the grain structure. (Sandhyarani, 2012)
The advantages of steel in constructions are:
- High strength and weight ratio
The weight of steel structures is relatively small which makes steel a very attractive
structure material for high-rise buildings and long-span bridges.
Steel can undergo large plastic deformation before failure thus providing large reserve
strength. Properly designed steel structures have high ductility which resisting shock
loading such as blasts or earthquakes. Besides, it have energy-absorbing capacity and
will not incur sudden failure.
- Predictable material properties
Properties of steel can be predicted with a high degree of certainty. Its shows relatively
high elastic behavior up and well-defined stress level which does not change
considerably with time.
Steel have the ability to fasten together using welds and bolts. It have adaptation to
prefabrication which suitable to mass production. Besides, it has speed of erection
which would results quicker economic payoff. It also an ultimate recyclable materials
as can remove possible structure which is disassembled. (Mc Momac, 1998)
- Quality of construction
Steel structures can be built with high quality workmanship and narrow tolerances.
The disadvantages of steel are:
- General cost
Steel structures are costly than other types of structures.
The strength of steel will reduced substantially when heated at temperatures commonly
observed in building fires. Besides, steel conduct and transmits heat to the building.
Steel structures exposed to air and water such as bridges is susceptible to corrosion and
should be painted regularly. To eliminate this problem, application of weathering and
corrosion-resistant steels can be used. (Mc Momac, 1998)
- Susceptibility to buckling
Due to high strength, steel compression members are in general more slender and
consequently more susceptible to buckling than reinforced concrete compression
members. As a result, considerable materials may have to be used just to improve the
buckling resistance of slender steel compression members. (Hojjat, n.d)
Steel have a massive strength to weight ratio, some steel can give an architect
complete flexibility to innovate and change buildings that are beyond what other
materials could provide. This advantage is exploited in building structures, giving low
overall environment impacts. Construction steel can last much longer than the building
itself. Therefore, steel’s strength and durability brings the occupants safety and long
lasting functionality, which is a significant part of sustainable use of construction.
The use of the building and all constructions activities generates more than 40%
of all carbon dioxide emissions. But steel have a high rates of helping lessen CO2
emission, steel has a lower energy use and CO2 emissions per ton than aluminium,
magnesium and among others (Steel Recycling Institute, 2013). In North America, the
steel industry has made the initiative to protect our environment and preserve our
resources by reducing overall energy consumption per ton of steel produced by 33%
since 1990. The greenhouse gas including carbon dioxide is reduced by more than 25%
from 1994 thru 2003 (American Iron And Steel Institute, 2013).
Steel is the world’s most recycle material, and in North America alone, 80
million tons of steel are recycled and exported annually. Steel is recycled for the
purpose of helping the economic and environmental reasons. In construction wise, steel
is unique because it is fully recyclable, and the steel materials can be recycled over and
over again without the loss of quality. The recovery rate for steel construction products
today are 94%-97%, which is very high which shows the sustainability of steel. Steel
are easily recovered, because steel is attracted to magnet, steel is easily and cost
efficient to remove it from the waste stream.
7. Aesthetic Value
Nowadays, many skyscrapers are using steel to be the exterior design of the
building. Steel are not only being used as reinforcement of building but it is used in
main structure in designing the building.
This is because by using steel, architect has flexibility in design the building and
creates many different shapes and unique building. There are some examples of
building which using steel as the main component of building such as Chicago Willis
Tower, John Hancock Centre and Minsheng Bank Building. These different types of
building give different appearance and different usage.
The design of building is based on the usage of the building such as China
World Trade Centre III which consists of 5-star hotel, 1600 seats grand ball room,
office space, retail and car park. This kind of multi-purpose building needs to have an
appropriate and structure so that it is applicable to the usage.
All common building materials lose strength when heated to high temperatures.
The elastic modulus of steel is similarly reduced with increasing temperatures, but at a
higher rate. This behaviour is similar for hot rolled reinforcing steels. For cold worked
steels including reinforcement, there is a more rapid decrease of strength after 300°C
(Lawson & Newman, 1990). In addition to the reduction of material strength and
stiffness, steel displays a significant creep phenomenon at temperatures over 450°C.
The phenomena of creep results in an increase of deformation (strain) with time, even if
the temperature and applied stress remain unchanged (Twilt, 1988).
The thermal properties of steel at elevated temperatures are found to be
dependent on temperature and are less influenced by the stress level and heating rate.
This simplified the consideration of the thermal properties of steel in design methods.
The earthquake resistance of steel frames has been known to be tremendously
reliable overall, with steel building collapses so far being the rare occurrence
worldwide (Yanev et al. 1991). In January, 1994, Northridge earthquake, steel frames
also sustained well the ground shaking, as no fatalities were attributed to unsatisfactory
performance of steel structures and no collapses of steel buildings were reported (AISC
Manufacturers produce acoustic studs which have unique characteristics for
increased acoustic performance. The studs have specially developed profiles,
particularly the web, which absorb sound energy and reduce sound transfer through
walls. Acoustic studs can be used to upgrade the acoustic performance of wall
systems. Sizes are similar to those for ‘C’ and ‘I’ section studs but the thickness is
usually less. Acoustic studs are generally non load-bearing. Indicative acoustic
performance values for various construction arrangements are tabulated below.
There are several types of maintenance to prolong the lifespan and durability of
the steel product. The common maintenance are coating of steel, avoid keeping steel
with other types of metal or overlap and some cleaning method.
First of all, coating of steel is one of the prevention and maintenance in steel.
(Gurtzweiler, 2013) There are several types of coating such as paint coatings, metallic
coatings, hot-dip galvanizing and thermally spray metal coatings. ‘Duplex’ coating
system is usually used in the paint system which every layer has subsequently distinct
function and the different types are applied in a particular sequence of primer followed
by build coats and finally the top coat. (Hendy & Iles, 2010)
There are four common methods for metallic coating such as hot-dip
galvanizing, thermal spraying, electroplating and sherardizing. The latter two processes
are not using for structural steelwork but are used for fittings, fasteners and other small
items. Generally, corrosion preventive method afforded by metallic coatings is largely
dependent upon the choice of coating metal and its thickness and is not greatly
influenced by the method of application. (Hendy & Iles, 2010)
Coated and painted steel surface can be cleaned using soap and water. Cleaning
method given by manufacture should be followed and polishing frequently provides a
Use of the steel product should avoid letting different types of steel in contact
with each other because it will cause adverse chemical reaction between the steel
products and leads to corrosion. Therefore, we should avoid letting different type of
steel overlap with each other. (Hippard, 2010)
Other than that, maintenance work can be completed by removing rust on the
surface and wrapping corrosion tape on it. (Ship Building, 2010)By following these
types of method, lifespan of steel can be prolong to the maximum and make full use of
the steel products.
In a nutshell, this site trip has truly benefits us in many ways. Not only lessons are
taught, but the bonds between students have been greatly magnified. Many kinds of
glasses and types of roofing were introduced. We, as students had the advantage to be
exposed to the work life and routine of a factory worker. Not only that, we learnt how
different types of glass and steel were produced and cut into shapes according to the
consumer’s requests. The process of how a mere glass is molded and chemically
changes into the specific type was shown to us step by step.
In this assignment, we had chosen steel as our title because steel play an important
role in the construction of a building. Throughout the assignment, we were given
different field of research to search on and had grasped a better understanding towards
steel. In conclusion, all in intended outcome in the assignment were achieved.
11. List of References
1. Acoustic performance of steel wall,
2. Al-Jabri, Khalifa (2007) Behavior of Steel-framed Buildings in a Fire,
3. American Iron and Steel Institute, http://www.steel.org/Sustainability.aspx
4. Chatterjee, T. (2012). Steel properties, http://www.buzzle.com/articles/steel-
5. Gurtzweiler, H (2013) Ohio Steel Erectors | Structural Steel Erection.
6. Hendy, C.R.; Iles, D.C. (2010) Steel Bridge Group: Guidance Notes on best
practice in steel bridge construction (5th Issue). (P185). Steel Construction Institute
7. Hippard, B (2010)Roofing - metalmag Magazine The Benefits of Well-Maintained
Metal Roofs are Far Reaching, http://www.metalmag.com/roofing/up-up-and-
8. Hojjat, Adeli (n.d) Advantages and Disadvantages of steel as a structural design
9. McMomac, J. C. (1998). Structural steel design lrfd method. (2nd ed., pg. 01-04).
United States of America: Harper Collins College Publishers.
10. Na. (2006) Steel Can Recycling Information Bureau,
11. Performance of steel structures during the 1994 Northridge earthquake,
12. Sandhyarani, N. (2012). Physical properties of steel,
13. Ship building, O (2010). Oshima Ship Building Co. Ltd.,
14. Sustainability of steel-framed buildings,
15. Structural Material Behaviour in Fire,
16. Taylor, Glenda (n.d) Are Purlins Necessary for Proper Installation of Metal
17. Urbaniak, Al, Steel Doors and Frames Go With the System,