SITE SURVEYING (QSB 1813)
FIELDWORK REPORT 1
LIEW CHEE HOW
FELIX LAU CIUN
TEO JUN TANG
YAP HUE ENG
YAP ZHI XIN
SUBMISSION DATE: 4 DECEMBER 2013
The objectives of this field work are:
- To have a better understanding of the procedure for leveling.
- To have experiences to the actual working environment on the site including
uncertainty weather condition.
- To have witness the usage of leveling equipment and apparatus on site.
- To understand more about how to see the backsight (BS) and foresight (FS) of
the field work
- To have the ability to setting up the tripod and adjusting the staff bubble.
- To understand how to see the reading in the leveling rods.
- To have the knowledge of the rules of levelling
- To have skills in using the auto meter level for correct reading
- To increase the team working skills among group members.
- To have the ability in recording data of the reading
- To understand the type of error would occur when taking the reading.
- To have skills in applying formulae in calculation.
Site Surveying is one of the subjects that one required to study to become a
Professional Quantity Surveyor. We have been assigned to carry out a fieldwork on the
20th of November in Taylor’s University Lakeside Campus at selected area. Our fieldwork
is about leveling. Fieldwork is basically a practice that allows us to merge theory and
skills learned in the lectures into the reality site. By having the chance of doing fieldwork,
it will helps to gain better understanding on collecting and analyzing data. Other than that,
it will also help us to develop observational and investigation skills and also teamwork
and problem solving skills.
Moreover, leveling is all about measuring the height of each station using the
proper instruments and to have number scaled in the selected survey area. Leveling is a
very simple and accurate method of measuring the height of each pinpoint and the site
level which is commonly used in any other construction sites.
Besides, the equipment that are needed in order to make a complete leveling
involved the auto level meter or the theodolite, tripod and leveling staff aluminum. The
accuracy of the leveling are all depending the setup of the instrument and also the reading
on the theodolite. It is very important to setup the instrument appropriately so that there
will be no errors. Each of the instrument shall be kept safely, correctly calibrated and be
used and stored with care.
In the nutshell, any horizontal line can be chosen as a datum for heights and for
leveling. The height of a point is measured along the vertical above or below the chosen
datum. The height of a point relative to a datum is known as its reduced level. Differential
of leveling provides a means of measuring the height differences between the points
accurately. A level is set up on a tripod and leveled so that the line of sight is
horizontal.Level or horizontal lines are always at right angles to the direction of gravity.
Last but not least, we were given a benchmark as a starting point at the basement
car park of the university. Then, we started to our task at the selected area and at the end
of the survey we will go back to the same benchmark as an end. After completing and
collecting all the reading during our survey, we are required to analyze and do the
correction and adjust to the accurate reduced level from what we have got with the data
that we have collected.
Basically, we were doing leveling work in our 1st site surveying fieldwork. In
order to finish this fieldwork, we need a tripod, a dumpy level, and some leveling staffs
with a staff bubble attached on it in order to finish the leveling work.
Tripod: A tripod is a portable three-legged frame, used as a platform for supporting the
weight and maintaining the stability of some other object. A tripod provides stability
against downward forces and horizontal forces and movements about horizontal axes.
Automatic level: An automatic level, auto level meter, leveling instrument, or dumpy
level is an optical instrument used to establish or check points in the same horizontal
plane. It is used in surveying and building to transfer, measure, or set horizontal levels.
The automatic level is set up on a tripod and set to a leveled condition using foot screws
Leveling staff with staff bubble: A level staff, also called leveling rod, is a graduated
wooden or aluminum rod, which measure vertical distances with reference to a horizontal
plane or surface. Leveling rods can be one piece, but many are sectional and can be
shortened for storage and transport or lengthened for use. The staff bubble is to ensure
that the staff is held vertically.
Picture above shows a tripod.
Picture above shows a automatic level.
Picture above shows some leveling staffs.
In a group of five members, we are assigned to conduct auto-leveling around the
campus. The place chosen is a point starting from Taylor’s basement car park which is
near to a fire extinguisher hose and it continues to form a loop around the basement car
park. The reduced level of the Bench-mark 100.00m is given to us by our lecturer, Sir
As our group members consist of five persons, three persons are to confirm the
reading from the auto level meter and moving the instruments together, one person
collecting the data and one person is assigned to move the leveling staff to decided points.
The procedures include observation, booking and reduction. The equipment we did not
use here is the staff bubble and the measuring tape.
First, we need to set up our tripod and the auto level meter. The height of the tripod
can be adjusted to suit the height of the person taking the reading. We do not have a staff
bubble as there is already one attached together to the auto level meter. All we had to do
next is to adjust the auto level meter so that the air bubble can be situated inside the circle
which indicates the level we are taking the reading is a flat surface. The person carrying
the leveling staff will then situate the leveling staff at the fixed point which is the benchmark and first reading is taken. Consequently, the leveling staffs moved to another point
and the reading which is the foresight is taken. Now, the tripod will be moved to another
point and being set up at another point again to take the second back sight and foresight.
This process is being repeated till the end of the loop when we get back to the first point,
Taking the first few reading was quite simple to us but as we went further our group
faced some problems. We get confused when reading the data collected and get mixed up
with the back sight and the foresight. Actually, these problems will be much easier if we
had used a table to collect our data right from the first place. However, our group still
managed to get things cleared up after a discussion which took us much time during this
fieldwork. At first, our group was the first group but due to this confusion our group turns
out to be the last group to end this fieldwork. Nevertheless, the great thing is that we still
managed to finish this fieldwork successfully.
Throughout this fieldwork, we had no intermediate sight. The readings we took are
the back sight and the foresight. In order to minimize error, the length between the back
sight and foresight to the leveling staff is encouraged to be as equal as possible. So, we
try to keep it this way. This might be the reason why we have many set ups. We also
choose to set up our instruments at safe and convenient places such as corners at the car
park and side of the road. Here, this is important so that we can not only get stable
readings as we will not have to move our instruments away and set up again due to the
cars passing by but also prevent traffic congestion.
After the fieldwork, we go through our data together and assign each other’s work
regarding our fieldwork report. During the process of arranging and calculating our data
records, we had some discussion relating our data and of course there is presence of error.
Based on our data, we found the loop disclosure regarding the reduced level which is
calculated by deducting the known height from the measured height. So, the solution is to
carry out the level loop adjustment so that the bench-mark of the closing agrees and it is a
way of even error distribution. Each of the set ups have different adjustment as the
disclosure is linearly distributed according to the number of set ups. After we did the level
loop adjustment, we finally got our adjusted reduced level which agrees our known
Below are the formulae we used in calculation:
1. Loop Disclosure = Measured height – Known height
2. Adjustment per set up =
3. Adjusted RL = Measured RL – Adjustments
From this field work we have learnt quite a few skills and have better understanding on
how to do levelling. By doing the field work, we start to have better understanding on
how to carry out the procedure for levelling and how to avoid or reduce the human
error.Besides that, we are exposed to the actual working environment on the site such as
the uncertainty of the weather which will enhance our experience and also witnessing the
usage of levelling as well as the apparatus on site which allow us to be exposed regarding
the apparatus used which makes our understanding better besides learning the theory in
the lectures. Moreover, this field work also gave us a chance to use the knowledge from
what we learnt in class and put into practice, such as use an automatic level to get the
reading from a levelling staff. We also learnt how to carry a task out as a team by using
more systematic way. In conclusion, this is one of a lifetime experience because as a
quantity surveyor student this is rare occasion that we can learnt how land surveyor do
and have better understanding on how they carry out their task.