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  • 1. SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE• BUILDING• DESIGN Centre for Modern Architecture Studies in Southeast Asia (MASSA) Bachelor of Science (Honours) in Architecture ARCHITECTURE CULTURE AND HISTORY 1 [ARC 1313] PROJECT: PRECEDENT STUDY Essay (10%) NAME OF BUILDING: PANTHEON, ROMAN NAME: TOH CHEE CHENG (0311122) YAP ZHI JUN (0310738) YAP ZHONG LIN (0310557) CHEW WOAN CHYIN (0310797) LECTURER: MS. SHAHRIANNE
  • 2. PANTHEON, ROMAN The history of Rome begins in 753 B.C. when the city was found by Romulus and Remus. The end of Roman history is often given as 476 A.D. when the last emperor of Rome surrendered Italy to the Barbarian King Odoacer. During these twelve centuries, the Roman government evolved from a kingdom to a republic, and finally to an empire. Its territory grew from a single village in central Italy to the premier city in Italy, and finally incorporated much of Northern Africa, Western Europe, and all of the Middle East. Most scholars attribute the Pantheon’s architect to Apollodorus of Damascus. He was a Greek engineer, architect, designer and sculptor who flourished during the 2nd century A.D., from Damascus. The Pantheon was originally built in 27- 25 B.C. by the magistrate Marcus Agrippa to commemorate the
  • 3. victory of Actium over Antony and Cleopatra. This original temple was burnt down in 80 A.D. The Pantheon was completely reconstructed in 125 A.D. by Hadrian. Pantheon has the greatest Roman temple circular- plan. Twenty Corinthian columns support portico that were joined to the hemispherical dome, which 142 feet, six inches in diameter and 142 feet height. Oculus with 27 feet diameter is designed to let in the light and air emphasizing three-dimensional of the dome’s design, to create the feel of large space and dome is higher than its actual dimension. The ground level of the hemispherical dome has Corinthians supporting attic story with rectangular openings resembling windows set in a patterned marble wall. The lower story is varied by niches in semi-circular and rectangular at quarter and eight points around the circumference. Dome is accomplished by five tiers of square coffers. The first two rings of coffering conceal eight great relieving arches to concentrate loads on the wall section between the niches of the ground story. These sections are hollowed chambers that equalize contraction of the concrete as it hardened and lessen the dead load transferred to the foundations.
  • 4. Pantheon was a small temple dedicated to all Roman gods and Pope Boniface IVI consecrated it as a church dedicated to Mary and the Martyr Saints in 609. It has also been used as a tomb: amongst those buried here are the painter Raphael, the first two kings, and first queen of Italy. The concrete dome constructed in tapering courses. They used the heaviest aggregate (basalt) at the bottom and lighter materials (pumice) at the top. To create the dome’s oculus, the Romans built two circles of bipedalism and laid them edgewise in three vertical courses, then circled the oculus with a bronze cornice. The significant structure of the Pantheon comprised of a series of intersecting arches. The Oculus allows light and rain in and when the sun shone in, the shaft of light travels across the interior of the building. Pantheon showed cultural diffusion with other earlier civilizations. The Romans started making concrete more than 2,000 years ago. Pantheon has survived for centuries, often with little to no maintenance. It was the largest dome in the world until the 15th century and is still the largest unreinforced concrete dome ever built.
  • 5. Bibliography About. Agnosticism / Atheism. Retrieved September, 17, 2013, from http://atheism.about.com/od/christianchurchchurches/p/PantheonRome.htm Landels, John G. (2000). Engineering in the ancient world. Berkeley: University of California, Michael Fazio, M. M. (2008). A World History of Architecture. London: Laurence King. Monolithic. The Pantheon, Rome. Retrieved September, 17, 2013, from http://www.monolithic.com/stories/the-pantheon-rome-126-ad Pantheon, Rome. (2009, September 13) Holly Hayes. Retrieved September, 16, 2013, from http://www.sacred-destinations.com/italy/rome-pantheon Pillai, M. (2011, September 29). Roman Pantheon Architecture. Retrieved September 23, 2013, from Buzzle:http://www.buzzle.com/articles/roman-pantheon-architecture.html The Pantheon: temple of Roman Gods. Italy Guides. Retrieved September, 16, 2013 from http://www.italyguides.it/us/roma/pantheon.htm William L. MacDonald (2002). The Pantheon: Design, Meaning and Progeny .Harvard University Press, Cambridge MA. Three Important Elements of Successful Roman Architecture. (n.d.). Retrieved September 23, 2013, from http://pal.loswego.k12.or.us/art_lit/Rome- VolunteerPresentation-Notes.pdf
  • 6. Bibliography About. Agnosticism / Atheism. Retrieved September, 17, 2013, from http://atheism.about.com/od/christianchurchchurches/p/PantheonRome.htm Landels, John G. (2000). Engineering in the ancient world. Berkeley: University of California, Michael Fazio, M. M. (2008). A World History of Architecture. London: Laurence King. Monolithic. The Pantheon, Rome. Retrieved September, 17, 2013, from http://www.monolithic.com/stories/the-pantheon-rome-126-ad Pantheon, Rome. (2009, September 13) Holly Hayes. Retrieved September, 16, 2013, from http://www.sacred-destinations.com/italy/rome-pantheon Pillai, M. (2011, September 29). Roman Pantheon Architecture. Retrieved September 23, 2013, from Buzzle:http://www.buzzle.com/articles/roman-pantheon-architecture.html The Pantheon: temple of Roman Gods. Italy Guides. Retrieved September, 16, 2013 from http://www.italyguides.it/us/roma/pantheon.htm William L. MacDonald (2002). The Pantheon: Design, Meaning and Progeny .Harvard University Press, Cambridge MA. Three Important Elements of Successful Roman Architecture. (n.d.). Retrieved September 23, 2013, from http://pal.loswego.k12.or.us/art_lit/Rome- VolunteerPresentation-Notes.pdf