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Final Year Engineering Project Title List for Electronics & Electrical Branches at Bangalore

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Zetta Networks is a Final Year Project Training in Bangalore India has been relentlessly working to bridge the gap between potential Employers and the skillful employees in the field of Information …

Zetta Networks is a Final Year Project Training in Bangalore India has been relentlessly working to bridge the gap between potential Employers and the skillful employees in the field of Information Technology by selecting, Project training and placing IT professionals nationwide.

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  • 1. Zetta Networks, 9980499700 Abstract: 8051 Microcontroller Fail Safe Data Management In Vehicles Using 8 Bit Or ARM7. This project is used for vehicular safety. This project aims to identify failure of some parts of the vehicle and immediately give a warning signal to the driver. We also use CAN communication to send the data within the vehicle. After powering on the system, the controller keeps monitoring different parts of the vehicle. If brake, accelerator or clutch fails, the vehicle is stopped and the warning message will appear on LCD and buzzer will give sound. If engine temperature is beyond certain limit, fan is turned on. If the temperature is still out of limit, the vehicle is stopped. If door is opened, buzzer is sounded. If head lights go bad, parking lights are turned on. All the data in the vehicle is communicated using CAN protocol. Design And Development Of Embedded Intelligent Public Transport Vehicular. The main aim of this project is to make an automated place announcement system for buses using 8 bit controller with voice chip and the RFID card for identifying the place. With this facility, the passenger can know the place arrived if he is new to that place. RFID tags with unique id numbers are placed in every stop. These unique numbers are already stored into EEPROM to identify the place. When the bus reaches a place, the controller reads the id number from the RFID tag at that place with RFID reader. This number is compared with the EEPROM data to identify the place. The voice chip contains the prerecorded announcements for place names. After the controller identifies the place, it gives playback signal to the voice chip to announce the corresponding place name. The place name is also displayed on the LCD. RTC is used to display date and time on the LCD. # 94/C, 2nd Floor, 9th Cross, Opp HKBK College Main gate, Near Nagawara Ring Road,Bangalore-560045 1
  • 2. Zetta Networks, 9980499700 Remote Control Of Smart Household Based On DTMF. Nowadays everything is becoming automated. This project has the advantage of not requiring direct human intervention to control or operate the devices. This project consists of 8 bit controller AT89C52, LCD, relays, GSM modem, line driver IC and DTMF decoder circuit. First the user has to first make a call from his mobile to the GSM modem. This call is identified by the controller using GSM modem and it accepts this call by sending the appropriate command to the GSM modem. Once the call is answered by the system, the user can press appropriate keys on his mobile keypad to switch on/off the household device. When the user presses a key, the corresponding DTMF signals are received from GSM modem. This DTMF signal from GSM modem is given to DTMF decoding circuit which decodes it and finds out the key pressed and feeds it to the controller. Depending on this key, the controller will switch on/off the required device. Smart Card Based Patient Medical Database With Readings Patient Sensors. The idea behind this project is where the reading such as temp, blood pressure, diabetes check, heartbeat and other parameters are stored in a smart card given to the patient. So patients can just submit their smart cards to the doctors instead of submitting papers related to their previous health checkup. The entire system consists of controller interfaced to ADC for reading different sensors, LCD, RTC, EEPROM and a smart card reader. During the tests, ADC reads different sensors (different parameters of patient) and these readings are stored in EEPROM with date and time of tests obtained from RTC. Later these readings can be stored into smart card after it is inserted into smart card `reader. # 94/C, 2nd Floor, 9th Cross, Opp HKBK College Main gate, Near Nagawara Ring Road,Bangalore-560045 2
  • 3. Zetta Networks, 9980499700 Smart Parking Applications Using RFID Technology. This project is aimed at making the existing car parking method more convenient, user friendly, automatic and minimum human intervention. To automate the present car parking system, the RFID module is used. The RFID module reads the tag of the user and establishes the communication between the user and the hardware module. Four IR-sensors are connected to the controller, which are in turn connected to the respective gates (Ex: Enter and Exit gates). Depending up on the presence of object at the IR at the gates, the motor is used to open or close the gates. The user has to show his RFID Tag to park his car in the free slot. The tag contains user id. LCD is used to display required messages. RTC (Real Time Clock) used to maintain time and date. The controller calculates the duration of parking and cost. EEPROM is used to manage the slots. RFID module connected to the controller to communicate between the user and the module. - RFID writer here used just sends the balance information to the card in the form of radio waves. This data is stored in the RFID Tag. Hitech Runway For Aero Planes. The project Hi-tech runway is an an automatic system to detect whether the runway is safe before landing the flight and this system also takes protective measures until the flight completely stops in the Airport. This segment consist of four segments.  The first segment introduced is Automatic wind direction detector it detects wind direction and selects the runway end from where the aircraft has to land.  The second section is the fire and safety system. This system is used to extinguish fire and explosions due to plane crashes in runway.  The third section is the runway dust alarm system. When more dust is deposited on the runway, this system is used to give information about the dust deposition. # 94/C, 2nd Floor, 9th Cross, Opp HKBK College Main gate, Near Nagawara Ring Road,Bangalore-560045 3
  • 4. Zetta Networks, 9980499700  The fourth section is arrester barrier system is used to prevent the aircraft from running out of the runway due to break failure after landing. Vehicle Toll Checker Using Smart Card. In view of shortcomings exist in traditional toll mode of expressway and some defects of electronic toll collection system, such as short distance, high cost, and poor security. Smart card electronic toll collection system of expressway. in addition, a new smart card authentication and authorization protocol model was used to guarantee system security. The electronic toll collection system based on smart card has advantages of less cost, small size and high reliability. It is very suitable for practical application. This system based on RFID technology uses radio wave to identify cars passing through the toll collection site and automatically debits toll rate from the car owner's pre-paid account. The Microcontroller is connected with personal computer through RS232 data adapter. To eliminate the delay on tool roads by collecting tolls electronically. It is thus a technological implementation of a road pricing concept. It determines whether the cars passing are enrolled in the program, alerts enforcers for those that are not, and electronically debits the accounts of registered car owners without requiring them to stop. Navigational Aid For Blind Using GPS And Magnetic Compass. GPS enabled campus navigation system for blind with voice narration. This project is used to give voice messages reading the campus details & current location of the campus to visually handicapped person using GPS. The system consists of the following functional components: (1) a module for determining the traveler's position and orientation in space, (2) a geographic information system comprising a detailed database of our test site and software for route planning and for obtaining information from the database, and(3)the user interface. The experiment reported here is concerned with one function of the navigation system: guiding the traveler along a predefined route. All GPS based navigation systems for the blind consist of these functional components a module for determining the traveler's orientation and GPS coordinates to the surrounding environment, and the user interface. The Global Positioning System is a space-based global navigation satellite system that provides reliable location and time information in all weather and at all times and anywhere on or near the Earth, where there is an unobstructed line of sight to four or more GPS satellites. # 94/C, 2nd Floor, 9th Cross, Opp HKBK College Main gate, Near Nagawara Ring Road,Bangalore-560045 4
  • 5. Zetta Networks, 9980499700 Alive Human Detector In War Fields Using GSM And PIR Sensors. The objective of the project is finding out a injured person or person caught in a battle field using PIR for rescue operation. If an injured person or some detected it can be informed using a wireless technology using RF. The system requires GSM, PIR sensor, Wireless RF camera. Passive Infrared sensor (PIR sensor) is an electronic device that Measures infrared (IR) light radiating from objects in its field of view. PIR sensors are often used in the construction of PIR-based motion detector. Apparent motion is detected when an infrared source with one Temperature, such as a human, passes in front of an infrared source with another temperature, such as a wall. By using RF Technique we can control the movement of vehicle in the Specified direction. In transmitter section Controller is used send the encoding Information through GSM. In receiver section controller is used to receive the Encoded message and Decode the message accordingly the vehicle is controlled. All objects emit what is known as black body radiation. It is usually infrared radiation that is invisible to the human eye but can be detected by electronic devices designed for such a purpose. The term passive in this instance means that the PIR device does not emit an infrared beam but passively accepts incoming infrared radiation. Autonomous Multi-Storied Car Parking System. The present parking system uses a security person to look after the parking system. With this project we can atomized the parking system with the help of embedded systems. This project is aimed at making the existing car parking method more convenient, user friendly, automatic and minimum human intervention. To automate the present car parking system, the RFID module is used. The RFID module reads the tag of the user and establishes the communication between the user and the hardware module. This system uses 8 bit microcontroller, RFID module, IR sensors, LCD & RTC to control the car parking system. Four IR-sensors are connected to the controller, which are in turn connected to the respective gates (Ex: Enter and Exit gates). Depending up on the presence of object at the IR at the gates, the motor is used to open or close the gates. The user has to show his RFID Tag to park his car in the free slot. The tag contains user id. LCD is used to display required messages. RTC (Real Time Clock) used to maintain time and date. The controller calculates the duration of parking and cost. EEPROM is # 94/C, 2nd Floor, 9th Cross, Opp HKBK College Main gate, Near Nagawara Ring Road,Bangalore-560045 5
  • 6. Zetta Networks, 9980499700 used to manage the slots. RFID module connected to the controller to communicate between the user and the module. RFID writer here used just sends the balance information to the card in the form of radio waves. This data is stored in the RFID Tag. # 94/C, 2nd Floor, 9th Cross, Opp HKBK College Main gate, Near Nagawara Ring Road,Bangalore-560045 6
  • 7. Zetta Networks, 9980499700 Exam Paper Leakage Protection. Every year during time of examination we will come across some news in the newspaper and television about question paper leakages and hence the exam is being postponed / cancelled. Sometimes the information related to question papers leakage will not be known to the universities itself. Hence some students get good ranks by these papers and those students who had really worked hard have to compromise with less rank and this factor will have negative effect on the growth of the society. Thus by considering the problems faced by the students and society a plan has been made to implement a system which will help to stop this malpractice of leaking the question paper. GSM modem is connected to the box containing question papers along with the microcontroller. Mobile of Authorized person in University board acts as the Base station. To open the question paper box, RFID is needed to be swiped with a valid RFID tag and then RFID will compare with EEPROM data such as RFID address, RTC date and time. If the comparison is failure , then controller sends ”WRONG ACCESS” message to the Base station through GSM modem and If anybody tries to open the box before the pre-defined time with a valid RFID tag also, then controller sends “RULES VIOLATED” message to the base station through GSM modem. The password is sent from the Base station to the college at the time of opening the BOX. If the comparison is success, then the controller is waits for the password. If the person enters the wrong password, then controller sends ”PASSWORD MISMATCH” message to the Base station through GSM modem. If the person enters the correct password, then BOX is opened with the help of the stepper motor. After the exam is finished, the Base station sends "Exam box open/close time and New password" to exam centre mobile number. If the BOX is not closed along with answer paper within the specified time given by the university,then controller sends “RULES VIOLATED” message to the base station through GSM modem. # 94/C, 2nd Floor, 9th Cross, Opp HKBK College Main gate, Near Nagawara Ring Road,Bangalore-560045 7
  • 8. Zetta Networks, 9980499700 Anti Collision And Speed Control Of Train And Automated Level Crossing Using RF and Ultrasonic and PWM. This project is based on 8 bit controller. It is implemented for a train for different features like anti-collision and speed control and also automated level crossing. For anti-collision and speed control we used ultrasonic sensor and PWM. For automated level crossing we use IR and RF communication. The train has one controller interfaced to LCD, ultrasonic sensor and L293D.The train motor is controlled by 8 bit controller by using L293D as the driver IC. Ultrasonic sensor detects any obstacles on the path and sends the information about distance between the train and the obstacle by serial communication with the controller. Based on this value, the controls the train speed by generating PWM signals which are fed to the DC motor of the train. Another module containing 8 bit controller, IR sensor and RF transmitter is used to detect the arrival of the train. When the IR sensors detect the train, the controller sends this information to the module at level crossing with the help of RF transmitter. The module at the level crossing contains 8 bit controller, IR sensor, RF receiver, a stepper motor and LED indications for go and stop. When this module receives the information about train from RF receiver,it gives stop signal and closes the door (stepper motor). After the train passes this gate, it is detected by the IR sensor and again the door opens and led indicates for Go signal. Intelligent Ambulance-Density Based Traffic Control For HITECH Cities. The main aim of this project is develop an intelligent traffic control system which may be very much helpful in Metropolitan cities to avoid the congestion of vehicles near the traffic signal. This project normally works in two modes, 1)Manual mode 2)Automatic mode. In manual mode, the traffic police needs to press a key to give the green signal on that particular direction. In automatic mode, the intelligent traffic control system calculates the number of vehicles on each side and gives green signal on that particular side which is having more number of vehicles. When the system is initialized, By Default the system will enter into Manual mode.Use keys for controlling the traffic signal lights.To enter into automatic mode, press ‘A’ in the keypad. Four IR’s are used in four Directions (i.e., North, East, West, South) to count the number of vehicles.As the number of vehicles increases, the number of times of IR cut also increases.Main Board will first receive the count of vehicles of North and South directions through Rs232 (i.e. Board1). Then it will receive count of vehicles on East and West directions by switching the UART to board2.Based on the number of Vehicles, the signal will change automatically (high to low). If all directions having same no. of vehicles and if the vehicles # 94/C, 2nd Floor, 9th Cross, Opp HKBK College Main gate, Near Nagawara Ring Road,Bangalore-560045 8
  • 9. Zetta Networks, 9980499700 are not equal to zero, then it will give the signal in the order N, S, W, E. If the vehicles are equal to zero then no work is carried out. Electronic Seal - A System For Enhanced Electronic Assertion Of Authenticity And Integrity. Ensuring authenticity and integrity are important tasks when dealing with goods. While in the past seal wax was used to ensure the integrity, electronic devices are now able to take over this functionality and provide better, more fine grained, more automated and more secure supervision. This paper presents Eseal, a system with a computational device at its core that can be attached to goods. The system is able to control various kinds of integrity settings and to notify authenticated instances about consequent violations of integrity. The system works without infrastructure so that goods can be supervised that are only accessible in certain locations. An Eseal is an electronic seal, which can be applied on physical goods in order to provide the guarantee of important aspects of the protection of those physical goods. The Eseal does not physically protect the sealed goods but can provide propositions and evidence of authenticity and integrity. Solar Tracking Using PIC16F877 / 8051. Solar energy, radiant light and heat from the sun, has been harnessed by humans since ancient times using a range of ever-evolving technologies. It is a main source of renewable energy on earth. To harvest the solar energy, the most common way is to use solar panels. Whenever the solar panel is facing the sun, solar power is produced in the panel. If the solar panel is stationary, maximum solar energy is not produced because the sunlight will not fall vertically. It falls in different angles at different times of the day as the sun traverses in the sky. So here we have implemented a microcontroller based solar (sun) tracking system to harvest maximum solar power. # 94/C, 2nd Floor, 9th Cross, Opp HKBK College Main gate, Near Nagawara Ring Road,Bangalore-560045 9
  • 10. Zetta Networks, 9980499700 SEISMIC ACTIVITY MONITORING SYSTEM. Measuring seismic activity is very essential for predicting earthquakes. Many such measuring devices are placed at various places of the world. But for a better prediction covering an entire area is very important. A collection of zigbee sensor networks can help to do this. Many zigbee enabled seismic sensors can be deployed at various places especially city undergrounds to monitor seismic patterns. LPG Monitoring System. The main aim of this project is to develop a gas leakage control and Auto dialing system.This system will detect any chances for a gas leakage from cylinder-based appliance (e.g. LPG cylinder). Usually fire occurs in a cylinder- based appliance due to leakage of gas through the gas pipeline. By using a gas sensor, the above reason can be detected in advance. With the use of an alarming system the user can be alerted about this. If the user is in a remote place GSM technology can be incorporated to alert the user. If gas leakage occurs, closing the gas outlet valve can control it. This can be achieved with the help of a stepper motor connected to the valve. Also by using an exhaust fan the leaked gas can be expelled out. The c o n t r o l l i n g operation on fan, stepper motor is done by the microcontroller. And GSM modem performs an auto dialing to a user. 2 Folded ATM Threat Security With Multiple People Entry And Password Access Using RFID And GSM. The main aim of this project is to prevent forced ATM theft, using GSM technology. Consider a scenario when you enter into an ATM to withdraw money for your need, and suddenly a thief enters into the ATM with a knife or a pistol, and force you to withdraw the entire amount in your account (considering the ATM has no security guard and is in a remote place). What you can do? You can either fight with the thief or can give all the money to him. This can be prevented by just entering a code instead of the actual password. Here we are trying to develop such a kind of system which will prevent all these disasters. # 94/C, 2nd Floor, 9th Cross, Opp HKBK College Main gate, Near Nagawara Ring Road,Bangalore-560045 10
  • 11. Zetta Networks, 9980499700 This project has ATM card reader, which is using RFID technology, which is future of embedded systems and also a GSM modem, which is the latest technology used for communication between the mobile and the embedded devices. Seismic Activity Monitoring System. Measuring seismic activity is very essential for predicting earthquakes. Many such measuring devices are placed at various places of the world. But for a better prediction covering an entire area is very important. A collection of Zigbee sensor networks can help to do this. Many Zigbee enabled seismic sensors can be deployed at various places especially city undergrounds to monitor seismic patterns. The system consists of two Zigbee modems and controller. The two Zigbee modems are fixed at two different locations. These are interfaced to vibration sensors to detect any earthquake symptoms. These two Zigbee modems form a wireless network with the other Zigbee module interfaced to the controller board and send the vibration level data. The controller board receives these vibration data from Zigbee modems and displays this information on the LCD. When this vibration level exceeds a predefined limit, it displays warning messages on the LCD. Automatic Street Power Saving System With Light Dependent Resistor. Electric power is the most important source of energy in many applications. So it is very much necessary to utilize this energy efficiently and reduce unnecessary wastage of power wherever possible. In the case of streetlights, we find that many times these are not operated in a proper manner. They are either switched on early in the evening before it is dark or until late morning which is a waste of power. So in this project, the street light is automatically switched on/off based on the light conditions. This project is based on 8 bit controller. LDR is used as a sensor to detect the intensity of light. Based on the signal from the LDR, the controller will switch on/off a relay to control the light. RTC and keypad are also provided to manually set the on/off time of streetlight. We are sensing the ambient light by using light dependent resistor (LDR). Depending on the ambient light intensity, it gives analog voltage which is given to ADC. ADC converts this analog voltage into digital and gives to controller. Depending on the value of this digital data, controller will decide whether to switch on the street light or switch it off keeping some value as the threshold. Using keypad and RTC, we can manually set the on/off timings for street light. Controller will continuously read RTC and based on the current time, it will switch on/off street light. # 94/C, 2nd Floor, 9th Cross, Opp HKBK College Main gate, Near Nagawara Ring Road,Bangalore-560045 11
  • 12. Zetta Networks, 9980499700 Automatic Car Speed Setup Using RFID. In long drive from one place to other place on highways, there are some speed limits for some areas. Many times, the vehicle driver may not notice these speed limits or even if he notices, he may ignore it. This results in increased number of accidents and other mishaps. So here we are implementing a system based on RFID technology to automatically control the vehicle speed. This will prevent possible dangers and also driver need not worry about over-speeding and getting fined by the traffic police. A speed sensor is implemented with the wheel alignment of the vehicle, which always calculates the vehicle speed. An RFID reader is interfaced with the system which will collect the data containing the speed limit over that particular road. Each speed limit indicating signal on the roadside will have an RFID tag which will give the speed limit at that road. The 8 bit controller compares the value from the speed sensor with the data received from RFID tag. If the vehicle speed is more than the limited speed, the system reduces the speed of the vehicle automatically by using speed control system. Thus each and every vehicle can maintain the speed limit. Using this system, road accidents due to over speed can be reduced up to 60%. Adaptive Lighting System For Automobiles. Electric power is the most important source of energy in many applications. So it is very much necessary to utilize this energy efficiently and reduce unnecessary wastage of power wherever possible. In the case of automobiles, we find that many times these are not operated in a proper manner. Sometimes the driver forgets to switch off lights in the morning which is a waste of power. So in this project, the automobile lights are automatically switched on/off based on the ambient light conditions.This project is based on 8 bit controller. LDR is used as a sensor to detect the intensity of light. Based on the signal from the LDR, the controller will switch on/off a relay to control the light. RTC and keypad are also provided to manually set the on/off time of light. We are sensing the ambient light by using light dependent resistor (LDR). Depending on the ambient light intensity, it gives analog voltage which is given to ADC. ADC converts this analog voltage into digital and gives to controller. Depending on the value of this digital data, controller will decide whether to switch on the automobile light or switch it off keeping some value as the threshold. Using keypad and RTC, we can manually set the on/off timings for automobile light.Controller will continuously read RTC and based on the current time, it will switch on/off automobile light. # 94/C, 2nd Floor, 9th Cross, Opp HKBK College Main gate, Near Nagawara Ring Road,Bangalore-560045 12
  • 13. Zetta Networks, 9980499700 Switching On Domestic Applications Through Mobile Phone Using DTMF Signaling. Nowadays everything is becoming automated. This project has the advantage of not requiring direct human intervention to control or operate the devices. This project consists of 8 bit controller AT89C52, LCD, relays, GSM modem, line driver IC and DTMF decoder circuit. First the user has to first make a call from his mobile to the GSM modem. This call is identified by the controller using GSM modem and it accepts this call b y s e n d i n g t h e appropriate command to the GSM modem. Once the call is answered by the system, the user can press appropriate keys on his mobile keypad to switch on/off the devices. When the user presses a key, the corresponding DTMF signals are received from GSM modem. This DTMF signal from GSM modem is given to DTMF decoding circuit which decodes it and finds out the key pressed and feeds it to the controller. Depending on this key, the controller will switch on/off the required device. Voice Based Bus Location System For Blind People Using RFID. The main aim of this project is to make an automated place announcement system for buses using 8 bit controller with voice chip and the RFID card for identifying the place. With this facility, the blind people can know the place arrived if he is new to that place. RFID tags with unique id numbers are placed in every stop. These unique numbers are already stored into EEPROM to identify the place. When the bus reaches a place, the controller reads the id number from the RFID tag at that place with RFID reader. This number is compared with the EEPROM data to identify the place. The voice chip contains the prerecorded announcements for place names. # 94/C, 2nd Floor, 9th Cross, Opp HKBK College Main gate, Near Nagawara Ring Road,Bangalore-560045 13
  • 14. Zetta Networks, 9980499700 After the controller identifies the place, it gives playback signal to the voice chip to announce the corresponding place name. The place name is also displayed on the LCD. RTC is used to display date and time on the LCD. Efficient Solar Water Heating Mechanism With The Help Of Microcontroller 8051. This project is mainly designed to control the solar panel automatically which maintains face of the solar panel towards the sun. This is done by controlling the mechanical movement of the solar panel. The mechanical movement of the solar controlled through the stepper motor. The sun movement for east to west is divided into few segments and a time is fixed for each segment. So according to the sun movement and real time the controller will give a pulse for the DC motor. Then the DC motor move solar panel. Electronic Voting Machine The main aim of this project is to design the Secured voting machine. In earlier days, voting was done using electronic voting machine, where in, which has following disadvantages: No proper display can be done. Easily malpractice can be made. With this project we can overcome the disadvantages of that electronic voting machine. In this project, the Touch Screen with a microcontroller is interfaced to the voting Machine through the serial port of the computer. The voting symbols are displayed on the screen. The VB program in the Computer will capture the serial port. When a person wants to vote he/she has to swipe the RFID tag. The controller will read ID and sends the details to the computer through serial port. The VB program will recover this data and check for authorization and allow this person to vote. If not permitted, it will display “ACCESS DENIED” with buzzer sound. At the end of the day the VB program will calculate and give the voting result. Remote Control Via Internet Using Ethernet Adaptor This project entitled as Remote Control via Internet allows us to monitor, control and automate our home from remote locations. This project integrates automation and security into a single unit. Also abnormal condition of any sensor is detected immediately and message is given as an # 94/C, 2nd Floor, 9th Cross, Opp HKBK College Main gate, Near Nagawara Ring Road,Bangalore-560045 14
  • 15. Zetta Networks, 9980499700 alert to the user PC. Monitoring and controlling home environment in real time is made possible through LAN. Smart Card Based Prepaid Electricity Billing. The conventional electricity billing system is post-paid type. Since the payment is up-front, it reduces the financial risk by improving the cash flows and necessitates an improved revenue management system. The system eliminates billing delay, removes cost involved in disconnection/reconnection, enables controlled use of energy, and helps customers to save money through better energy management. In Project the prepaid meter contains 8051 microcontroller, smart card reader, electronic energy meter, Smart card holds information on units consumed or equivalent money value. When the card is inserted, the controller reads it, connects the supply to the consumer loads using relay and debits the value. Controller gets the amount of energy consumed by counting pulses from the energy meter. The consumer then recharges the prepaid card from a sales terminal or distribution point. Recharging is done by entering the amount using the keypad provided in the system. Real Radar Using The Ultrasonic Integrated Receiver And Front-End Computer Software. The main aim of this project is to find out the distance from airplanes (Object) to aerodrome (Controller Room) using ultra sonic signals. This project is mainly a prototype for real radar systems. The ultrasonic signals cover a long distance. These signals will not interfere with the noise signals. The distance measured is displayed in digital form, which will be easy to understand by everybody. This is cost effective when compare to other methods. Fingerprint ATM For Farmers Using Real Finger Print Chip And ATM Note Drawer. The main aim of this project is to make the ATM machine accessible by farmers in villages. As we all know that in India, farmers are not much educated hence using ATM machines becomes difficult. So, to overcome this problem we are designing a project which contains fingerprint reader, this avoids entering of password as we do in the ATM’s presently available. Once the # 94/C, 2nd Floor, 9th Cross, Opp HKBK College Main gate, Near Nagawara Ring Road,Bangalore-560045 15
  • 16. Zetta Networks, 9980499700 finger details are given a window is displayed on the PC. This PC contains touch screen. Person can enter the amount to withdraw. And can receive the note from note dispenser interfaced with microcontroller. Design And Development Of Metro Train Concepts In The Big Cities I.E. Using Actual Railway Track And Announcement For Stations, Automatic Identification Of Stations Etc. Complete System Is Designed Using 8 Bit Micro Controller And Programming Using Embedded C. The main aim of this project is to make an automated place announcement system for train using 8 bit controller with voice chip and the RFID card for identifying the station. Here RFID tags with unique id numbers are placed in every railway station. When the train reaches a station, the controller reads the id number from the RFID tag at that station with RFID reader .The voice chip contains the prerecorded announcements for station names. After the controller identifies the station, it first turns on the buzzer for a small time and then gives playback signal to the voice chip to announce the corresponding station name. The train stops for about 10-15 seconds in the station and then again gives announcement about leaving the station with the help of voice chip. Again buzzer is turned on and then the train leaves for the next station. Gsm Based Complete Irrigation Solution The main aim of this project is to develop a Farmer irrigation system using GSM and 8051 controller. This Project waters the plants at required time when farmers cannot take of the plants regularly.Here Two stiff copper wires are inserted in the soil to sense the whether the Soil is wet or dry. Microcontroller monitors the sensor and when the sensor senses the dry conditions then the microcontroller sends SMS to Owner through the GSM modem. When Microcontroller gets “Motor On” Message from owner then controller will switch on the motor and it will switch off the motor when the sensor senses wet condition. Advanced Real Time Human Muscular Bio-Simulation Using 8 Bit. This is a small, portable set designed around 8 bit controller with dc motors and temperature sensor. The bio-stimulator provides muscles' stimulation by imitating human hand behavior in case of holding and releasing objects, moving the objects up and down under different temperature conditions of the objects. The 8 bit controller is interfaced to dc motors, # 94/C, 2nd Floor, 9th Cross, Opp HKBK College Main gate, Near Nagawara Ring Road,Bangalore-560045 16
  • 17. Zetta Networks, 9980499700 temperature sensor and personal computer. PC is used to issue different commands to the controller like move the hand up/down and hold/release the object using keyboard in the HyperTerminal utility. Depending on the command, the controller activates the dc motors to move the object up and down and also to hold and release the objects. ABSTARCT: Android PROJECTS 1. Android meets LED bulbs in smart-home Automation Android platform is a new generation of smart mobile phone platform launched by Google. Android provides the support of Blue-tooth. Smart Home Technology is a collective term for information and communication-technology in homes, where the components are communicating through a Bluetooth. The technology may be used for monitoring, switching on and off the components, according to the programmed criteria. 2. Bluetooth Chating on Android Blue-tooth chat applications can be seen as an alternative and effective way of communicating for people without the need of using the mobile telephony system. Based on the new generation of cellular phones with support for communication technologies, such as Blue-tooth and WI-Fi, it is possible to develop applications to enable Blue-tooth chats. Such applications can provide mechanisms to discover and communicate with other devices in a shorter range, but with low or no communication costs Blue-tooth chat is a direct text chat between two or more users, where every participant uses a Bluetooth device (i.e. a modern mobile phone or a PDA) and names it (it will be the user's nickname). The device is generally used in a public and populated space (like a pub, a street, plaza and so on). # 94/C, 2nd Floor, 9th Cross, Opp HKBK College Main gate, Near Nagawara Ring Road,Bangalore-560045 17
  • 18. Zetta Networks, 9980499700 3. Development of Android robot car using Accelerometer Sensors) Android platform is a new generation of smart mobile phone platform launched by Google. Android provides the support of Sensors and Bluetooth. The development of this project has the goal of controlling an android robot car. The movement of the robot car is been controlled by the accelerometers in mobile with x,y,z values and these values are send to the development board on robot car using blue-tooth. 4. Model and implementation of robotic arm using Android The development of this project has the goal of controlling an robotic arm .Android provides the support of Blue-tooth. The control for the android implemented with the development board mentioned above is capable of sending digital Commands to each one of the part to control their position as well as receive and process commands. 5. Office Automation based on Android Android platform is a new generation of smart mobile phone platform launched by Google. Android provides the support of Blue-tooth. This Technology is a collective term for information and communication-technology in offices, where the components are communicating through a Blue-tooth. The technology may be used for monitoring, switching on and off the components, according to the programmed criteria. Using zig-bee we collect the sensor values and according to that perform operations. 6. Development of Android robot helicopter using Accelerometer Sensors Android platform is a new generation of smart mobile phone platform launched by Google. Android provides the support of Sensors and Bluetooth. The development of this project has the goal of controlling an android robot helicopter. The movement of the robot helicopter is been controlled by the accelerometers in mobile with x,y,z values and these values are send to the development board on robot helicopter using blue-tooth. # 94/C, 2nd Floor, 9th Cross, Opp HKBK College Main gate, Near Nagawara Ring Road,Bangalore-560045 18
  • 19. Zetta Networks, 9980499700 7. Planning and Development of an Electronic Health Record Client Based on the Android Platform) The rapidly aging population not only causes long hospital waiting times and expensive hospital stays, but also increases the workload of doctors and medical practitioners. Managing the cost and quality of treatment and caring for seniors are becoming key pressing issues in both Developed and developing countries.Diagnosing and continuous record of real-time data by the use of portable patient monitoring system during normal activity would be beneficial for medical practitioners to do proper and better treatment also it would be useful for health care providers to improve diseases management . Bluetooth technology is used for data retrieval from Database. Bluetooth has been specifically designed as a low-cost, low-power, and small-size radio technology, which is particularly dedicated to short-range communications. 8. Location tracking using Sms Based on Android Mobile. Android platform is a new generation of smart mobile phone platform launched by Google. Android provides the support of location service. So far, the development of location applications is complex and difficult. This paper introduces the architecture and component models of Android, and analyzes the anatomy of an Android application including the functions of Activity, Intent Receiver, Service, SMS, and etc. Based on Android, the design method of a location-based mobile service is then presented. The design example shows that it's so easy to implement location application which fetches latitude an longitudinal values and sends through the desired phone number. 9. Android on Mobile Devices: An Energy Perspective. Mobile devices need more processing power but energy consumption should be less to save battery power. Open Handset Alliance (OHA) hosting members like Google, Motorola, HTC etc released an open source platform Android for mobile devices. Android runs on top of Linux kernel with a custom JVM set on top of it. In this work we try to make Android as energy efficient as possible to save battery power in mobile devices. Especially the blue-tooth, Wifi, Gps are the main concerns that drains the battery power. It manages the battery level in mobile. Initially we get the battery information from the mobile like the current battery percentage, battery health, and voltage and # 94/C, 2nd Floor, 9th Cross, Opp HKBK College Main gate, Near Nagawara Ring Road,Bangalore-560045 19
  • 20. Zetta Networks, 9980499700 temperature .And in next part we set a threshold value for the battery level when it gets lower the threshold value the screen gets dim ,Blue-tooth and Wifi and Gps gets turned off. 10. Development of an Human andro system The development of this project has the goal of controlling an android robot . The position of each of the part is controlled by Bluetooth by Android mobile. The control for the android implemented with the development board mentioned above is capable of sending digital Commands to each one of the part to control their position as well as receive and process commands. 11. Android phone based Drunk and drive detection Drunk driving, or officially Driving Under the Influence (DUI) of alcohol, is a major cause of traffic accidents throughout the world. In this paper, we propose a highly efficient system aimed at early detection and alert of dangerous vehicle maneuvers typically related to drunk driving. The entire solution requires only a mobile phone placed in vehicle and with accelerometer sensor. A program installed on the mobile phone computes accelerations based on sensor readings, and compares them with typical drunk driving patterns extracted from real driving tests. Once any evidence of drunk driving is present, the mobile phone will automatically alert the driver or message to specific number for help. 12. A smart home using Bluetooth 13. BLUETOOTH chatting 14. Remote Droid 15. SIP DEMO # 94/C, 2nd Floor, 9th Cross, Opp HKBK College Main gate, Near Nagawara Ring Road,Bangalore-560045 20
  • 21. Zetta Networks, 9980499700 16. Child tracking system on android phone by using Bluetooth, GSM, GPS and finger scanner Android is a software stack for mobile devices that includes an operating system, middleware and key applications. The Android SDK provides the tools and APIs necessary to begin developing applications on the Android platform using the Java programming language. Mobile phones have almost become an integral part of us serving multiple needs of humans. This application makes use of the Bluetooth & GPS features of mobile phone as a solution for Child tracking. In our project we are going to implement child security and the safety. Child Tracking system is a combination of mobile and server side application to provide enhanced child security by locating a child in real time. Each child is provided with a mobile device with the tracking application that sends data to the server asynchronously or on demand. Most of the parents given their children a mobile handset to be constant touch with them. They were worried to call their children every time. Looking at this worry of this parents we are going to create a tracking Application. 17. Industrial Automation on android phone by using Bluetooth, GPRS GPS Android is a software stack for mobile devices that includes an operating system, middleware and key applications. The Android SDK provides the tools and APIs necessary to begin developing applications on the Android platform using the Java programming language. Mobile phones have almost become an integral part of us serving multiple needs of humans. This application makes use of the Bluetooth feature of mobile phone as a solution for industrial automation. It comes handy for the employs working in industry for their basic necessities. Silent Features of the application Turn ON / OFF LIGHT Turn ON / OFF FAN Turn ON / OFF A/C You can control all these by just running an application in your Android based phone. Bluetooth is the mode of communication between the hardware and you. 18. Embedded web server design for industrial automation. # 94/C, 2nd Floor, 9th Cross, Opp HKBK College Main gate, Near Nagawara Ring Road,Bangalore-560045 21
  • 22. Zetta Networks, 9980499700 This application makes use of the Bluetooth feature of mobile phone as a solution for industrial automation. It comes handy for the employs working in industry for their basic necessities. Salient Features of the application Turn ON / OFF LIGHT Turn ON / OFF FAN Turn ON / OFF HIDDEN CAMERA Turn ON / OFF A/C You can control all these by just running an application in your Android based phone. Bluetooth is the mode of communication between the hardware and you. 19. Security system for offices using Android phone and finger print scanner. This application makes use of the Bluetooth feature of mobile phone as a solution for security system for offices. In the past few decades security peoples were hired to guard the areas. The owners and the organization invested descent amount for obtaining security. Still the world remained insecurity. To cut lose this situation electronic security systems are used to secure the world and to completely remove the darkness. The technology which you used to watch in the TV that used to offer the authorization to admittance the protected resources is now at your door step. With many biometric systems such as face reorganization, fingerprint reader, iris recognition system etc. your ground is completely safeguarded from the foreign bodies. All such biometric security systems offer the automatically managing data and also it eradicates the paper and pen system completely. In large and small organizations the biometric security system is helping in setting up the linear construction than a hierarchical construction. The working principle behind fingerprint reader is that it matches the impression of finger prints. There is an electronic device with a sensor which gets the touch and matching process is done to authorize the access. 20. Vehicle tracking or asset tracking system on android phone by using Bluetooth,GSM,GPRS and RFID device . # 94/C, 2nd Floor, 9th Cross, Opp HKBK College Main gate, Near Nagawara Ring Road,Bangalore-560045 22
  • 23. Zetta Networks, 9980499700 This application makes use of the Bluetooth & GPS features of mobile phone as a solution for Vehicle tracking system. It is the technology used to determine the location of a vehicle using different methods like GPS and other radio navigation systems operating through satellites and ground based stations. Even data can be stored and downloaded to a computer from the GPS unit at a base station and that can later be used for analysis. This system is an important tool for tracking each vehicle at a given period of time and now it is becoming increasingly popular for people having expensive cars and hence as a theft prevention and retrieval device. No doubt, Vehicle tracking system whether it is GPS based or any other wireless medium has brought one of the most important technological advances in today’s communication field. Now one doesn’t have to leave a place to know where a particular vehicle is at a given period of time. The automatic vehicle locating system only with the help of a tinny electronic device and tracking software can detect the real-time location of a vehicle by using the conventional cell phone network and Internet. 21. Vehicle automation system android phone by using CAN, Bluetooth, GSM,GPS and finger scanner This application makes use of the Bluetooth & GPS features of mobile phone as a solution for vehicle automation. Controller–area network (CAN or CAN-bus) is a vehicle bus standard designed to allow microcontrollers and devices to communicate with each other within a vehicle without a host computer. In our project we are going to implement CAN based vehicle automation by using Bluetooth,GPS,GSM and Finger print for user security. 22. Vehicle theft control system android phone by using Bluetooth, GSM, GPS and finger scanner This application makes use of the Bluetooth & GPS features of mobile phone as a solution for Vehicle theft control system. This paper deals with the design & development of a theft control system for an automobile, which is being used to prevent/control the theft of a vehicle. The developed system makes use of an embedded system based on GSM technology. The designed & developed system is installed in the vehicle. An interfacing mobile is also connected to the microcontroller, which is in turn, connected to the engine. Once, the vehicle is being stolen, the information is being used by the vehicle owner for further processing. The information is passed onto the central processing insurance system, where by sitting at a remote place, a particular # 94/C, 2nd Floor, 9th Cross, Opp HKBK College Main gate, Near Nagawara Ring Road,Bangalore-560045 23
  • 24. Zetta Networks, 9980499700 number is dialed by them to the interfacing mobile that is with the hardware kit which is installed in the vehicle. By reading the signals received by the mobile, one can control the ignition of the engine; say to lock it or to stop the engine immediately. Again it will come to the normal condition only after entering a secured password. The owner of the vehicle & the central processing system will know this secured password. The main concept in this design is introducing the mobile communications into the embedded system. The designed unit is very simple & low cost. 23. Irrigation control system android phone by using Bluetooth, GSM, GPS for farmers for efficient use of water, power and crop planning. This application makes use of the Bluetooth and GPS feature of mobile phone as a solution for irrigation control system. In our project we are going to implement the irrigation control system for farmers for efficient use of water, power and crop planning by using GSM and GPS technology. 24. Remote billing and control system for warehouses in asset tracking and theft control using android phone by using Bluetooth,GSM,GPRS and RFID device . This application makes use of the Bluetooth and GPS feature of mobile phone as a solution for remote billing and control system. It is the technology used to determine the location of a Asset using different methods like GPS and other radio navigation systems operating through satellites and ground based stations. This system is an important tool for tracking each Asset at a given period of time and now it is becoming increasingly popular for people having expensive cars and hence as a theft prevention and retrieval device. No doubt, Asset tracking system whether it is GPS based or any other wireless medium has brought one of the most important technological advances in today’s communication field. 25. Friend Mapper on Mobiles - Friend Locator In current system, in order to find out the location of friends, user need to call and ask friend about his where abouts. The proposed system will help user to find out friends locations as well as the distance from user’s location. The proposed system will also allow user to see all friends on Google map as well. # 94/C, 2nd Floor, 9th Cross, Opp HKBK College Main gate, Near Nagawara Ring Road,Bangalore-560045 24
  • 25. Zetta Networks, 9980499700 26. Micro Credit Banking On Smartphone To provide a banking application on smartphone for the mobile employees of microcredit bank with the facility to have data synchronized between the smartphone and the bank’s database. 27. Mobile Travel Guide – Smart way to Travel In current tourism system, whenever a tourist visits famous spots, to know more about the place he hires a guide. The hired guide then narrates history of the place. The proposed system doesn’t require a physical guide. The Mobile application installed on the mobile of tourist can act as a guide. Additionally, the application would help user to find out the weatherforecast of the place. 28. Mobile Electronic Program Guide In current system, in order to get the TV schedule, user need to check newspaper or see actual schedule on TV. The proposed system will help user to get the TV schedules right on the mobile device making him to check schedule from anywhere. To make sure you don’t miss that important cricket match or exciting movie, you can add a reminder about the show into the calendar with just single click. 29. Mobile Location Alarm In current system, alarms are set for particular time. Many times there are situations where the alarm/reminder is based on your current location nad not based on time. The Mobile application installed on the mobile can give a alarm based on a particular location. Additionally, the application would help user to find out how far the user is away from particular reminder location on the map. 30. Smart complaint registration for Govt bodies In current system, complaint registrations for government bodies i.e.: BWSSB, KPTCL, etc are offline. The seriousness of the problem is often not known by offline means. Even reporting some of the unsocial activities to police department have ended up in imagination based the eye witness to draw a sketch of the accused. # 94/C, 2nd Floor, 9th Cross, Opp HKBK College Main gate, Near Nagawara Ring Road,Bangalore-560045 25
  • 26. Zetta Networks, 9980499700 31. Twitter Client for Android based smart phone To develop an Android client for Twitter 1. User can sign up with Twitter from the client 2. User can log into Twitter (sign in) from the client 3. Twitter home page will be displayed on the client after logging in. The home page will have the tweets and facility to select (1) post a tweet, (2) view mentions (3) view inbox and (4) reload 4. User can post his tweet into Twitter from the client 5. User can view followers and also the people who are following him. 6. User can search for people by name or user name. 7. User can attach his location to his tweets. 32. FTP4Android The aim of the application is to provide smartphone users with a virtually infinite mass storage. This file manager presents files located on remote servers as they were available on a local directory. Users will hence be allowed to use the Internet connectivity on their smartphones to automatically retrieve files and upload updates any time a user accesses them. 33. Location based Mobile Multimedia Push System(LBMMP) The applicable scenario is described as follows: Joe promised to travel with Mary to Taiwan, but Mary could not join this trip because she had to attend a qualification exam. Thus, Joe uses LBMMPS to push videos, photos, and messages about sightseeing in Taiwan during his travel, to shared with Mary in real time. In the Map mode, Mary could know the location of these multimedia content Joe Photographed. # 94/C, 2nd Floor, 9th Cross, Opp HKBK College Main gate, Near Nagawara Ring Road,Bangalore-560045 26
  • 27. Zetta Networks, 9980499700 34. Public Safety Application In this project we developed a proof-of-concept system that addressed traffic safety in school zones. Our system addresses the need for drivers to be able to pay full visual attention to the road while still being alerted to the speed of the car. The system integrated several of the features that are becoming more commonplace on smartphones as well as information retrieved from Internet services. 35. Wedjat: A Mobile Phone Based Medicine In-take Reminder and Monitor Out-patient medication administration has been identified as the most error prone procedure amidst the entire medication process. Most of these errors were made when patients bought different prescribed and over-the-scounter (OTC) medicines from several drug stores and use them at home without little or no guidance. 36. Campus Navigation for Blind People on Android Devices The objective of this project is to guide blind people with voice navigated GPS using an Android Phone. This project has been proposed to PESIT campus to reach from main entrance to Computer Science Dept. 37. Android Process Monitor In current system, in order to find out which process in Android OS is occupying more memory or which process has more load, we need to manually check each application process one by one. The proposed application will allow user to see the details of all the processes in one shot. 38. Pedometer an Android App Android platform is a new generation of smart mobile phone platform launched by Google. Pedometer counts your steps, displays your pace, approx. distance, speed and calories burned. It has an option to notify you by voice in given intervals about any value. You can set a desired pace/speed and get notified when you have to go faster or slower. 39. Humanoid robot control by using ANDROID with GPRS technology # 94/C, 2nd Floor, 9th Cross, Opp HKBK College Main gate, Near Nagawara Ring Road,Bangalore-560045 27
  • 28. Zetta Networks, 9980499700 This application makes use of the GPRS feature of mobile phone as a solution for controlling humanoid robot for Industrial automation. It comes handy for controlling robot in industry for their necessities. ABSTARCT: Linux PROJECTS (ARM9 / 11) 1. The Design of PC System for Mobile Robot Based on ARM9 This paper introduces a design of PC system for mobile robot based on ARM9. The hardware platform is S3C2440 from Samsung company as processor core, expanding 256MB Nand Flash, 2MB Nor Flash, 64MB SDRAM, etc. The software platform is embedded Linux operating system, and the design of the interface and the function of the system is based on Qt/Embedded of Linux. The software and hardware of the system are specially designed for concrete and given application. The experiments' results show the system is stable and reliable, with low-power, tiny-volume, high integration, and so on. 2. The design of granary environmental monitoring system based on ARM9 and ZigBee Grain is an important strategic resource. Due to seasonal production, there are many problems in the stored procedure. This article designs an environment monitoring system of the granary combining Embedded and ZigBee wireless sensor network technology. In the actual situation of the design, using ZigBee wireless sensor network to complete Multi-point acquisition and transmission of environment parameters, using ARM9 to achieve precise control of the barn environment as system data controller; and using GPRS to achieve the system's remote control, it greatly improves the flexibility and scalability of the warehouse management. 3. Design of Embedded Control System Based on ARM9 Microcontroller This paper mainly focuses on the design and realization of embedded control system based on ARM kernel. Firstly, hardware structure, configuration and signal detection, processing of the control system based on ARM are described. Secondly, the system application programs, including main control program, user operation interface program, keyboard program and # 94/C, 2nd Floor, 9th Cross, Opp HKBK College Main gate, Near Nagawara Ring Road,Bangalore-560045 28
  • 29. Zetta Networks, 9980499700 development of drivers for some S3C2410X related functional modules are described. Lastly the closed-loop control of parameter is achieved by way of PID and NN. As practical experience shows, after introducing the control system into the parameter control for microbiology fermentative process, the design of the system reaches expected effect, realizes relevant functions and shows a broad market prospect. 4. Design of embedded video capture system based on ARM9 With the rapid development of the computer, network, image processing and transmission technology, the application of embedded technology in video monitoring is wider and wider. This design is based on S3C2440 hardware platform and Linux operation system, it uses mesh V2000 camera for video collection, combined with V4L video interface technology and MPEG4 video coding and decoding and video transmission technology, aiming at design a low-cost high-performance programe. This aticle elaborates the development process of ov511 USB camera driving in Linux operation system and the MPEG-4 video coding technology and the network transmission realization of video data. 5. Based on embedded intelligent vehicle system On account of the existing vehicle for using the platform of integration is limited. Besides, computing speed is not fast enough, power-hungry, and the machine's functions are not plentiful. Many of the features which the customer need for the existing car can not be achieved on the basis of machine. With the rapid development of embedded systems applications, this paper designs a chip based on the ARM9 AT91SAM9260 new smart car system. In this design of Intelligent vehicle systems firstly introduces the main features and hardware architecture to achieve, and then analyzes the GPS, GPRS and other modules, the hardware composition and theory, and finally gives the system's software program. 6. Remote video monitoring system based on embedded linux and GPS This paper presents a design and realization method for remote video monitoring system based on embedded Linux and GPRS (General Packet Radio Service) network. Monitor terminal hardware takes ARM9 S3C2410 processor for centralization, in virtue of SDRAM, USB, GPRS module, etc. Software system adopts embedded linux, the main function realized by C programming to achieve real-time camera data acquisition, image compression and network transmission through GPRS module. Monitoring center receives image data and displays after # 94/C, 2nd Floor, 9th Cross, Opp HKBK College Main gate, Near Nagawara Ring Road,Bangalore-560045 29
  • 30. Zetta Networks, 9980499700 connects with the terminal. It is easier to be used in windows system. Image data can be transmitted to the monitoring center in 3-6 seconds after JPEG compression. The results showed that the monitoring system has the advantage of high reliability, high efficiency and low cost with ARM9 and GPRS network, and it provides a feasible method for remote video monitoring. 7. One Vehicular Information Service System This article deals with several kernel technologies applied in vehicle information service. The technology referring to GPS (Global Positioning System), GPRS (General Packet Radio Service), GIS (Geographical Information System), and Computer Network etc, as we have studied, is believed to be able to construct a Vehicle Information Service System which faces the public. Synthesizing the technologies including GPS,GPRS, GIS, image capture and compress based on ARM9 processor and embedded system to establish a intelligent vehicle service model, which emphasizes U-V-S (User-Vehicle- Server) interaction. It is a integrated application in embedded system and its application software runs on relatively real- time and multi-mission operating systems. 8. Design and implementation of an embedded web server based on ARM In this paper, the embedded web server, which take Samsung corporation's ARM9-S3C2440AL processor as core, is designed, it's operating system is Linux, the system hardware architecture is presented. Then the process of the Linux operating system being transplated on ARM is introduced. The realization of Boa and dynamic interaction between browser and the embedded system by using CGI are especially analyzed. Finally the implemented embedded web server is tested to indicate that it responding rapidly and operates efficiently and steadily, which achieves the expectant designing purpose. 9. Study of intelligence embedded Linux surveillance system based on TCP/IP With the development of embedded technology, developing low-cost and high reliable embedded control system has become increasingly popular. Based on this thinking, our design is based on ARM9 platform using USB camera to get pictures and video streaming so as to monitor the system. And widely used in anti-theft alarm system, video door phone, etc., since low cost and high performance advantages. # 94/C, 2nd Floor, 9th Cross, Opp HKBK College Main gate, Near Nagawara Ring Road,Bangalore-560045 30
  • 31. Zetta Networks, 9980499700 10. Design and implementation of classroom multimedia teaching equipment management system based on embedded system The application of multimedia teaching equipment enables the teachers to use multimedia computers and other equipment for human-machine interaction in order to complete the instruction. But the traditional manual management methods can't achieve the self-switching of multimedia equipment reducing the efficiency of multimedia teaching. A classroom multimedia teaching equipment management system based on embedded system with the introduction of the embedded and wireless transmission technology is designed and implements the distributed management of the equipments. The embedded system node installed in the multimedia device sets S3C2440 ARM9 embedded processor core as the core, works in the environment of the Linux OS, and implements the information processed locally. The server was accompanied by Zigbee wireless transceiver module for the use of information updating and system maintenance, so are the embedded nodes. Practical results demonstrate that the system has the characteristic of high processing speed and favorable stability which can meet the most of application demands and be worth popularizing. 11. Design of a VoIP Media Stream Encryption Device The design of a VoIP media stream encryption device based on ARM9 CPU is introduced. The device can be deployed between the Soft Switch or IP-PBX and the VoIP terminal, dedicatedly used for the encryption/de-encryption of the VoIP signal and the RTP voice packet. As an illustration, the encryption flow of the packet is described when the VoIP protocol is SIP and the encryption algorithm is RC4. Then a test is implemented to compare the packet before the encryption and after that, the effectiveness of the design is proved. 12. Embedded control system design for coal mine detect and rescue robot The coal mine detect and rescue robot is used for detecting the explosion environment of coal mine and rescuing miners who are trapped in the underground coal mine after gas explosion. Coal mine is a dangerous place in which many fatal factors menace miners' life, especially when blasts occurred. Rescue crews usually don't know the actual situation of the mine tunnel under such circumstances. Therefore it can be very dangerous for rescuers to go into mine tunnels to search survivors without detecting environmental information beforehand. To solve this # 94/C, 2nd Floor, 9th Cross, Opp HKBK College Main gate, Near Nagawara Ring Road,Bangalore-560045 31
  • 32. Zetta Networks, 9980499700 problem, the coal mine detect and rescue robot has been developed for assisting people to do rescue work. In this paper, the implementation of embedded control system based on the ARM9 microprocessor S3C2410 for our coal mine detect and rescue robot is presented. Based on the design of robot's hardware, Linux operating system is ported as the platform of the software development. The embedded control system can achieve many tasks of the robot, such as motion control, environmental information acquisition, communication with the remote control system and executing complex control algorithms. 13. Design and implementation of a remote video monitoring system based on embedded Linux A remote video monitoring system is proposed in this paper. The system takes Samsung Corporation's ARM9 S3C2440AL processor as hardware core, and adopts embedded Linux as the operating system. Ordinary 300000 pixels USB camera is used as video acquisition devices. The system has the functions of video signal acquisition, compression, transmission over the Internet for remote video monitoring. The process of the Linux operating system being transplanted on ARM is introduced and the methods of video signal acquisition and MPEG-4 compression are discussed in detail. The system experimental result shows that it responding rapidly, operate efficiently and steadily and can meet system requirement. 14. An application of VoIP communication on embedded system Spurred by the remarkable development of VoIP technology, applications of real-time voice communication has come into widespread use over the Internet. However, their over reliance on PC environment restricts the applying fields of most VoIP software, and embedded VoIP is one of these blind spots. The VoIP application in this paper sets the hardware foundation on ARM9 embedded platform, adopts SIP and RTP as the transmission protocol and employs CELP compression algorithms to ensure the low-latency and high-quality communication. In addition, Linux operating system and ALSA device driver are used to meet the needs of cost control and sound effects. Viewed from the experimental results, the VoIP system proves to be successful in both its real time voice communication and overall capacity. # 94/C, 2nd Floor, 9th Cross, Opp HKBK College Main gate, Near Nagawara Ring Road,Bangalore-560045 32
  • 33. Zetta Networks, 9980499700 15. Research and Implementation of WSN in Fire Safety Applications Applying WSN (wireless sensor networks) technology to the fire safety can actualize wireless requirement, network, and intelligent fire monitoring. A wireless fire detection system based on WSN was described in the thesis, which can acquire data of temperature and smoke concentration. Fire detection nodes using SOC CC2430 as the control unit to realize the communication between nodes, the software running on the nodes applies CSMA/CA Medium Access Control protocol and a shortest path routing algorithm for data transmission in multi-hop. The Gateway is designed an implemented based on ARM9 and Linux, which connects wireless fire detection network and the Internet, it has a strong processing, storage and network communication capabilities. Remote users may share real-time fire parameter from Internet which connects with the wireless fire data acquisition network through the Gateway. 16. Design of embedded Electromagnetic Data Acquisition System using Linux Recently, in the field of geological exploration, electromagnetic instruments have been tremendous growth, but they also have some typical shortcomings, such as big size, large power consumption, complex operation and so on. Therefore, base on the current development of electronic technology, this paper has discussed hardware and software design of the electromagnetic data acquisition system, which makes use of 10-bit Σ-Δ analog to digital converter, micro-controller, ARM9 processor S3C2440 and embedded Linux operating system. The system has high accuracy, small size and low power consumption, can be applied to a number of occasions. 17. Database Design of embedded home gateway and webserver implementation. The http is a tiny web server for embedded system, the entire size it consumed is 14KB only. httpd is HTTP/1.1 compliance, GET/POST method, keep alive connection and flow control support. For computer programmer, httpd is easily for reuse because of its structure is simple. In this paper, we introduce the means of bundling httpd to make a new web page, by just adding the required functions. This makes the static web page development on embedded system not only simple but also efficient than other web server. # 94/C, 2nd Floor, 9th Cross, Opp HKBK College Main gate, Near Nagawara Ring Road,Bangalore-560045 33
  • 34. Zetta Networks, 9980499700 18. ARM9 embedded system of the image acquisition and processing It is a new system that established on the platform of the ARM9 and ZC301 camera. It can capture images by line analysis. In order to obtain reliable and efficient image recognition results, an ARM9 hardware platform for the image recognition system has been used. In this system, the Principal Component Analysis(PCA) can be used to analyze and process images. And then the effective features of the image are obtained. Through this process, the image can be distinguished and classified automatically. 19. Remote Control Of Mobile Robot Based On Embedded Technology In this project, we introduces the configuration of the embedded system, and then presents a remote control of mobile robot control system based on an embedded operating system and ARM. Based on the combination of advanced RISC microprocessor (ARM), DSP and ARMLinux, this project involves development of mobile embedded robot control systems. The design of embedded control system includes four aspects, i.e., system structure, functions, hardware, and software design. In the development of the system, some features are included such as hierarchy structure, modular hardware, and structured software, to make the system suitable for a variety of robots applications through some hardware adjustment and software customization only. The effectiveness of proposed approach has to be verified and tested. 20. Design of embedded video capture system based on ARM9 With the rapid development of the computer, network, image processing and transmission technology, the application of embedded technology in video monitoring is wider and wider. This design is based on S3C2440 hardware platform and Linux operation system, it uses mesh V2000 camera for video collection, combined with V4L video interface technology and MPEG-4 video coding and decoding and video transmission technology, aiming at design a lowcost high-performance programe. This article elaborates the development process of ov511 USB camera driving in Linux operation system and the MPEG-4 video coding technology and the network transmission realization of video data. # 94/C, 2nd Floor, 9th Cross, Opp HKBK College Main gate, Near Nagawara Ring Road,Bangalore-560045 34
  • 35. Zetta Networks, 9980499700 WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORK 1. The design of granary environmental monitoring system based on ARM9 and ZigBee Grain is an important strategic resource. Due to seasonal production, there are many problems in the stored procedure. This article designs an environment monitoring system of the granary combining Embedded and ZigBee wireless sensor network technology. In the actual situation of the design, using ZigBee wireless sensor network to complete Multi-point acquisition and transmission of environment parameters, using ARM9 to achieve precise control of the barn environment as system data controller; and using GPRS to achieve the system's remote control, it greatly improves the flexibility and scalability of the warehouse management. 2. Research and Implementation of WSN in Fire Safety Applications Applying WSN (wireless sensor networks) technology to the fire safety can actualize wireless requirement, network, and intelligent fire monitoring. A wireless fire detection system based on WSN was described in the thesis, which can acquire data of temperature and smoke concentration. Fire detection nodes using SOC CC2430 as the control unit to realize the communication between nodes, the software running on the nodes applies CSMA/CA Medium Access Control protocol and a shortest path routing algorithm for data transmission in multi-hop. The Gateway is designed an implemented based on ARM9 and Linux, which connects wireless fire detection network and the Internet, it has a strong processing, storage and network communication capabilities. Remote users may share real-time fire parameter from Internet which connects with the wireless fire data acquisition network through the Gateway 3. Research of wireless sensor networks for an intelligent measurement system based on ARM. The paper introduces a wireless sensor network (WSN) used for an intelligent temperature measurement system. In the system, temperature signals are acquired by digital multipoint thermometers, and transmitted to the advanced RISC microprocessor (ARM) by using Wireless Fidelity (WiFi) technology. Then they are stored in SD card which is controlled by the microprocessor according to the IIS-bus standard format. The software design of data acquisition # 94/C, 2nd Floor, 9th Cross, Opp HKBK College Main gate, Near Nagawara Ring Road,Bangalore-560045 35
  • 36. Zetta Networks, 9980499700 is completed in this paper. The progress of transplanting Linux operating system to the ARM hardware platform is described, and the driver programs of SD card and SD WiFi device are developed based on Linux operating system and SD card agreement. A special data storage file system is accomplished for reading and writing SD card, as well as managing of the data file by the FAT16 file system. At last, the function of man-machine interaction is accomplished 4. Unrestrained Measurement of Arm Motion Based on a Wearable Wireless Sensor Network. Techniques that could precisely monitor human motion are useful in applications such as rehabilitation, virtual reality, sports science, and surveillance. Most of the existing systems require wiring that restrains the natural movement. To overcome this limitation, a wearable wireless sensor network using accelerometers has been developed in this paper to determine the arm motion in the sagittal plane. The system provides unrestrained movements and improves its usability. The lightweight and compact size of the developed sensor node makes its attachment to the limb easy. Experimental results have shown that the system has good accuracy and response rate when compared with a goniometer. 5. Design of a Wind Power Generation Monitoring System Based on Wireless Sensor Network Wind energy is one kind of purity, non-polluting, renewable new energy. Real-time monitoring wind power generation system is an important action bearing with steady operation of system and high efficiency exploiting wind power resources. A novel intelligent monitoring system plan for wind power generation based on wireless sensor networks is proposed in this paper, which employs many high technologies such as wireless sensor network, ARM, ubiquitous computing, database and so on. The system consists of sensing nodes with wind speed and wind direction detector and vibration, voltage, current, speed sensors etc., the relay and gateway nodes with long communication distance, and the information treatment center for further strategic decision analysis. The network protocol stack based on the link and physical layers of IEEE 802.15.4 standard, and composed mainly of a hybrid multi-channel MAC protocol with virtual mechanism and power control mechanism for micro sensor network is applied. The system architecture is presented, in which the key hardware and software design and realization of the # 94/C, 2nd Floor, 9th Cross, Opp HKBK College Main gate, Near Nagawara Ring Road,Bangalore-560045 36
  • 37. Zetta Networks, 9980499700 network node is described in detail. This system can help to fulfill the requirement of intelligent monitoring system for wind power generation. The experimental result shows that this system has the characteristics of high reliability, and stable performance, and provides a flexible solution to solve the problem of data collection and sharing of long-range and multi-elements in power. 6. The Design of Linux Driver of WSN Nodes Based on ARM Wireless sensor network (WSN) is the network which is composed of a large number of intelligent sensor nodes, it has the ability of self-organizing network routing, therefore, it has been widely used. Building wireless sensor networks is the key to WSN nodes. This paper introduces the basic structure of wireless sensor network node based on ARM, and it delivers a detailed analysis on the operating features and the CC2480 hardware interface of the ZigBee processor, what's more, it specifically talks about the implementation of the Linux driver of WSN nodes. 7. Implementation of a ZigBee-based high performance sensor node for the robot environment platform. In this paper, a ZigBee-based wireless sensor network is configured for the robot to effectively communicate with the environment platform where each sensor node is implemented using a high performance microcontroller. The localization and the navigation functions are also required for the robot and the functions are executed with various types of sensor information. A new type of ZigBee stack is developed using the RUM(Router Under MAC) of the Atmel Corp. and it is applied to 32-bit ARM core microcontroller for the high performance sensor data manipulation and transmission. It is verified by experiments that the wireless sensor network consisting of developed high performance sensor nodes can be effectively used for the robot environment platform. 8. The application and design of embedded wireless sensor networks Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are composed of sensor nodes that have the ability of realtime perceiving and self- organization. Based on the consideration of performance, powerconsumption and cost, this paper gives the hardware design of embedded wireless sensor networks node, which is centering on the popular ARM core microprocessor chip AT91SAM7S256, and the system hardware and software design of embedded wireless sensor networks car security system. # 94/C, 2nd Floor, 9th Cross, Opp HKBK College Main gate, Near Nagawara Ring Road,Bangalore-560045 37
  • 38. Zetta Networks, 9980499700 9. Remote Monitoring System of Mine Vehicle Based on Wireless Sensor Network. A kind of construction plan of remote monitoring system of mine vehicle based on wireless sensor network is proposed in this paper. Monitoring system uses the sensor nodes deployed on the vehicles, to collect pressure, velocity, mileage, oil level value, and data to the ARM (Advanced RISC Machines) -based information processing terminal, and then from the terminal through the WiFi (Wireless Fidelity) wireless network transmits data real-timely to the monitoring center. Monitoring Center reads, parses, stores data, real-timely monitors and distributes the data to remote users. Anomalies in the data, the system issued a warning exception. System implements real-time monitoring of mine vehicle, Installed and used on the mine vehicle SGA3722 made in Shougang Heavy Vehicle Factory. The system is suitable for mine vehicle of Oil gas suspension fork on front and rear suspension system, helpful to improve the mine vehicles' transportation efficiency and security. 10. Design of wireless sensor network node monitoring interface based on QT . With the rapid development of wireless sensor networks, the monitoring system which is dedicated to monitor wireless sensor networks is paid more and more attention, therefore, the researches of monitoring interface for WSNs also become extremely important. The paper is mainly targeted at the design of monitoring interface for wireless sensor networks node, and then proposes an implementation scheme that is based on Qt Designer in the Linux environment. Migration of Qt/Embedded on Intel PXA270 development platform based on Linux operating system is also presented. And two compile methods of Qt application program based on PC platform and ARM monitoring platform are described in detail. 11. The Design and Realization of ZigBee—Wi-Fi Wireless Gatway. Abstract-The application of WSN/ZigBee is growing popularity and how to connect WSN/ZigBee to the present standard network seamlessly is an issue what is worth studying. In this paper, it designs and realizes a ZigBee-Wi-Fi wireless gateway based on STM32W108 RF # 94/C, 2nd Floor, 9th Cross, Opp HKBK College Main gate, Near Nagawara Ring Road,Bangalore-560045 38
  • 39. Zetta Networks, 9980499700 chip and embedded Wi-Fi module. In ZigBee network, wireless gateway as a sink, it receives data from sensor nodes and interacts with them. In WLAN, wireless gateway communicates with PC or network servers by means of AP. Both the hardware scheme and software scheme of the wireless gateway are introduced. Then the performance of the wireless gateway is tested, and the result shows that it can be used for general purposes and the performance is stable. The wireless gateway can realize communication effectively between ZigBee network and WLAN. ABSTARCT: Dotnet PROJECTS 1. Detecting Application Denial-of-Service Attacks: A Group-Testing-Based Approach 2010 Application DoS attack, which aims at disrupting application service rather than depleting the network resource, has emerged as a larger threat to network services, compared to the classic DoS attack. Owing to its high similarity to legitimate traffic and much lower launching overhead than classic DDoS attack, this new assault type cannot be efficiently detected or prevented by existing detection solutions. To identify application DoS attack, we propose a novel group testing (GT)-based approach deployed on back-end servers, which not only offers a theoretical method to obtain short detection delay and low false positive/negative rate, but also provides an underlying framework against general network attacks. More specifically, we first extend classic GT model with size constraints for practice purposes, then redistribute the client service requests to multiple virtual servers embedded within each back-end server machine, according to specific testing matrices. Based on this framework, we propose a two-mode detection mechanism using some dynamic thresholds to efficiently identify the attackers. The focus of this work lies in the detection algorithms proposed and the corresponding theoretical complexity analysis. We also provide preliminary simulation results regarding the efficiency and practicability of this new scheme. Further discussions over implementation issues and performance enhancements are also appended to show its great potentials. 2. Fast Detection of Replica Node Attacks in Mobile Sensor Networks Using Sequential Analysis -2011 # 94/C, 2nd Floor, 9th Cross, Opp HKBK College Main gate, Near Nagawara Ring Road,Bangalore-560045 39
  • 40. Zetta Networks, 9980499700 Due to the unattended nature of wireless sensor networks, an adversary can capture and compromise sensor nodes, generate replicas of those nodes, and mount a variety of attacks with the replicas he injects into the network. These attacks are dangerous because they allow the attacker to leverage the compromise of a few nodes to exert control over much of the network. Several replica node detection schemes in the literature have been proposed to defend against these attacks in static sensor networks. These approaches rely on fixed sensor locations and hence do not work in mobile sensor networks, where sensors are expected to move. In this work, we propose a fast and effective mobile replica node detection scheme using the Sequential Probability Ratio Test. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work to tackle the problem of replica node attacks in mobile sensor networks. We show analytically and through simulation experiments that our schemes achieve effective and robust replica detection capability with reasonable overheads. 3. Data Integrity Proofs in Cloud Storage ---- 2011 Cloud computing has been envisioned as the de-facto solution to the rising storage costs of IT Enterprises. With the high costs of data storage devices as well as the rapid rate at which data is being generated it proves costly for enterprises or individual users to frequently update their hardware. Apart from reduction in storage costs data outsourcing to the cloud also helps in reducing the maintenance. Cloud storage moves the user’s data to large data centers, which are remotely located, on which user does not have any control. However, this unique feature of the cloud poses many new security challenges which need to be clearly understood and resolved. We provide a scheme which gives a proof of data integrity in the cloud which the customer can employ to check the correctness of his data in the cloud. This proof can be agreed upon by both the cloud and the customer and can be incorporated in the Service level agreement (SLA). 4. Bridging Socially-Enhanced Virtual Communities --- 2011 Interactions spanning multiple organizations have become an important aspect in today's collaboration landscape. Organizations create alliances to fulfill strategic objectives. The dynamic nature of collaborations increasingly demands for automated techniques and algorithms to support the creation of such alliances. Our approach bases on the recommendation of potential alliances by discovery of currently relevant competence sources and the support of semiautomatic formation. The environment is service-oriented comprising humans and software # 94/C, 2nd Floor, 9th Cross, Opp HKBK College Main gate, Near Nagawara Ring Road,Bangalore-560045 40
  • 41. Zetta Networks, 9980499700 services with distinct capabilities. To mediate between previously separated groups and organizations, we introduce the broker concept that bridges disconnected networks. We present a dynamic broker discovery approach based on interaction mining techniques and trust metrics. 5. Adaptive Provisioning of Human Expertise in Service-oriented Systems --- 2011 Web-based collaborations have become essential in today’s business environments. Due to the availability of various SOA frameworks, Web services emerged as the de facto technology to realize flexible compositions of services. While most existing work focuses on the discovery and composition of software based services, we highlight concepts for a people- centric Web. Knowledge-intensive environments clearly demand for provisioning of human expertise along with sharing of computing resources or business data through software-based services. To address these challenges, we introduce an adaptive approach allowing humans to provide their expertise through services using SOA standards, such as WSDL and SOAP. The seamless integration of humans in the SOA loop triggers numerous social implications, such as evolving expertise and drifting interests of human service providers. Here we propose a framework that is based on interaction monitoring techniques enabling adaptations in SOA-based socio-technical systems. 6. Optimal service pricing for a cloud cache Cloud applications that offer data management services are emerging. Such clouds support caching of data in order to provide quality query services. The users can query the cloud data, paying the price for the infrastructure they use. Cloud management necessitates an economy that manages the service of multiple users in an efficient, but also, resource economic way that allows for cloud profit. Naturally, the maximization of cloud profit given some guarantees for user satisfaction presumes an appropriate price-demand model that enables optimal pricing of query services. The model should be plausible in that it reflects the correlation of cache structures involved in the queries. Optimal pricing is achieved based on a dynamic pricing scheme that adapts to time changes. This paper proposes a novel pricedemand model designed for a cloud cache and a dynamic pricing scheme for queries executed in the cloud cache. The pricing solution employs a novel method that estimates the correlations # 94/C, 2nd Floor, 9th Cross, Opp HKBK College Main gate, Near Nagawara Ring Road,Bangalore-560045 41
  • 42. Zetta Networks, 9980499700 of the cache services in an time-efficient manner. The experimental study shows the efficiency of the solution. 7. Automated Certification for Compliant Cloud-based Business Processes A key problem in the deployment of large-scale, reliable cloud computing concerns the difficulty to certify the compliance of business processes operating in the cloud. Standard audit procedures such as SAS-70 and SAS- 117 are hard to conduct for cloud based processes. The paper proposes a novel approach to certify the compliance of business processes with regulatory requirements. The approach translates process models into their corresponding Petri net representations and checks them against requirements also expressed in this formalism. Being Based on Petri nets, the approach provides well- founded evidence on adherence and, in case of noncompliance, indicates the possible vulnerabilities. Keywords: Business process models, Cloud computing, Compliance certification, Audit, Petri nets. 8. Privacy-Preserving Multi-keyword Ranked Search over Encrypted Cloud Data The advent of cloud computing, data owners are motivated to outsource their complex data management systems from local sites to commercial public cloud for great flexibility and economic savings. But for protecting data privacy, sensitive data has to be encrypted before outsourcing, which obsoletes traditional data utilization based on plaintext keyword search. Thus, enabling an encrypted cloud data search service is of paramount importance. Considering the large number of data users and documents in cloud, it is crucial for the search service to allow multi-keyword query and provide result similarity ranking to meet the effective data retrieval need. Related works on searchable encryption focus on single keyword search or Boolean keyword search, and rarely differentiate the search results. In this paper, for the first time, we define and solve the challenging problem of privacy-preserving multi-keyword ranked search over encrypted cloud data (MRSE), and establish a set of strict privacy requirements for such a secure cloud data utilization system to become a reality. Among various multi- keyword semantics, we choose the efficient principle of “coordinate matching”, i.e., as many matches as possible, to capture the similarity between search query and data documents, and further use “inner product similarity” to quantitatively formalize such principle for similarity measurement. We first propose a basic MRSE scheme using secure inner product computation, and then significantly improve it to meet different privacy requirements in # 94/C, 2nd Floor, 9th Cross, Opp HKBK College Main gate, Near Nagawara Ring Road,Bangalore-560045 42
  • 43. Zetta Networks, 9980499700 two levels of threat models. Thorough analysis investigating privacy and efficiency guarantees of proposed schemes is given, and experiments on the real-world dataset further show proposed schemes indeed introduce low overhead on computation and communication. 9. Continuous Neighbor Discovery in Asynchronous Sensor Networks In most sensor networks the nodes are static. Nevertheless, node connectivity is subject to changes because of disruptions in wireless communication, transmission power changes, or loss of synchronization between neighboring nodes. Hence, even after a sensor is aware of its immediate neighbors, it must continuously maintain its view, a process we call continuous neighbor discovery. In this work we distinguish between neighbor discovery during sensor network initialization and continuous neighbor discovery. We focus on the latter and view it as a joint task of all the nodes in every connected segment. Each sensor employs a simple protocol in a coordinate effort to reduce power consumption without increasing the time required to detect hidden sensors. 10. Privacy-Preserving Public Auditing for Data Storage Security in Cloud Computing Cloud computing is the long dreamed vision of computing as a utility, where users can remotely store their data into the cloud so as to enjoy the on-demand high quality applications and services from a shared pool of configurable computing resources. By data outsourcing, users can be relieved from the burden of local data storage and maintenance. Thus, enabling public auditability for cloud data storage security is of critical importance so that users can resort to an external audit party to check the integrity of outsourced data when needed. To securely introduce an effective third party auditor (TPA), the following two fundamental requirements have to be met: 1) TPA should be able to efficiently audit the cloud data storage without demanding the local copy of data, and introduce no additional on-line burden to the cloud user. Specifically, our contribution in this work can be summarized as the following three aspects: 1) We motivate the public auditing system of data storage security in Cloud Computing and provide a privacy-preserving auditing protocol, i.e., our scheme supports an external auditor to audit user’s outsourced data in the cloud without learning knowledge on the data content. # 94/C, 2nd Floor, 9th Cross, Opp HKBK College Main gate, Near Nagawara Ring Road,Bangalore-560045 43
  • 44. Zetta Networks, 9980499700 2) To the best of our knowledge, our scheme is the first to support scalable and efficient public auditing in the Cloud Computing. In particular, our scheme achieves batch auditing where multiple delegated auditing tasks from different users can be performed simultaneously by the TPA. 3) We prove the security and justify the performance of our proposed schemes through concrete experiments and comparisons with the state-of-the-art. 11. Multicast multi-path power efficient routing in mobile adhoc networks The proposal of this paper presents a measurement-based routing algorithm to load balance intra domain traffic along multiple paths for multiple multicast sources. Multiple paths are established using application-layer overlaying. The proposed algorithm is able to converge under different network models, where each model reflects a different set of assumptions about the multicasting capabilities of the network. The algorithm is derived from simultaneous perturbation stochastic approximation and relies only on noisy estimates from measurements. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate the additional benefits obtained by incrementally increasing the multicasting capabilities. The main application of mobile ad hoc network is in emergency rescue operations and battlefields. This paper addresses the problem of power awareness routing to increase lifetime of overall network. Since nodes in mobile ad hoc network can move randomly, the topology may change arbitrarily and frequently at unpredictable times. Transmission and reception parameters may also impact the topology. Therefore it is very difficult to find and maintain an optimal power aware route. In this work a scheme has been proposed to maximize the network lifetime and minimizes the power consumption during the source to destination route establishment. The proposed work is aimed to provide efficient power aware routing considering real and non real time data transfer. 12. Fuzzy Keyword Search over Encrypted Data in Cloud Computing As Cloud Computing becomes prevalent, more and more sensitive information are being centralized into the cloud. Although traditional searchable encryption schemes allow a user to securely search over encrypted data through keywords and selectively retrieve files of interest, these techniques support only exact keyword search. In this paper, for the first time we formalize and solve the problem of effective fuzzy keyword search over encrypted cloud data while maintaining keyword privacy. Fuzzy keyword search greatly enhances system usability by returning the matching files when users’ searching inputs exactly match the predefined keywords or the closest possible matching files based on keyword similarity # 94/C, 2nd Floor, 9th Cross, Opp HKBK College Main gate, Near Nagawara Ring Road,Bangalore-560045 44
  • 45. Zetta Networks, 9980499700 semantics, when exact match fails. In our solution, we exploit edit distance to quantify keywords similarity and develop two advanced techniques on constructing fuzzy keyword sets, which achieve optimized storage and representation overheads. We further propose a brand new symbol-based trie-traverse searching scheme, where a multi-way tree structure is built up using symbols transformed from the resulted fuzzy keyword sets. Through rigorous security analysis, we show that our proposed solution is secure and privacy-preserving, while correctly realizing the goal of fuzzy keyword search. Extensive experimental results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed solution. 13. A heuristic-based approach for detecting SQL-injection vulnerabilities in Web applications. 14. Next Generation Cloud Computing Architecture(2010) Cloud computing is fundamentally altering expectations for how and when computing, storage an networking resources should be allocated, managed and consumed. End-users are increasingly sensitive to the latency of services they consume. Service Developers want the Service Providers to ensure or provide the capability to dynamically allocate and manage resources in response to changing demand patterns in real-time. Ultimately, Service Providers are under pressure to architect their infrastructure to enable real-time end-to-end visibility and dynamic resource management with fine grained control to reduce total cost of ownership while also improving agility. The current approaches to enabling real-time, dynamic infrastructure are inadequate, expensive and not scalable to support consumer mass-market requirements. Over time, the server-centric infrastructure management systems have evolved to become a complex tangle of layered systems designed to automate systems administration functions that are knowledge and labor intensive. This expensive and non-real time paradigm is ill suited for a world where customers are demanding communication, collaboration and commerce at the speed of light. Thanks to hardware assisted virtualization, and the resulting decoupling of infrastructure and application management, it is now possible to provide dynamic visibility and control of service management to meet the rapidly growing d emand for cloud-based services. 15. Design of Home Gateway based on Intelligent Network(2008) # 94/C, 2nd Floor, 9th Cross, Opp HKBK College Main gate, Near Nagawara Ring Road,Bangalore-560045 45
  • 46. Zetta Networks, 9980499700 Home networking is called as Digital Home Network. It means that PC, home entertainment equipment, home appliances, Home wirings, security, illumination system were communicated with each other by some composing network technology, constitute a networking internal home, and connect with WAN by home gateway. It is a new network technology and application technology, and can provide many kinds of services inside home or between homes. Currently, home networking can be divided into three kinds: Information equipment, Home appliances, Communication equipment. Equipment inside home networking can exchange information with outer networking by home gateway, this information communication is bidirectional, user can get information and service which provided by public networking by using home networking internal equipment through home gateway connecting public network, meantime, also can get information and resource to control the internal equipment which provided by home networking internal equipment .Based on the general network model of home networking, there are four functional entities inside home networking: HA, HB, HC, and HD. (1) HA (Home Access) home networking connects function entity; (2) HB (Home Bridge) – Home networking bridge connects function entity; (3) HC (Home Client) - Home networking client function entity; (4) HD (Home Device) – decoder function entity. There are many physical ways to implement four function entities. Based on these four functional entities, there are reference model of physical layer, reference model of link layer, reference model of IP layer and application reference model of high layer. In the future home network should have broadband network function, public network function, and compositive multi-service and multi-application function, etc. 16. Random Cast: An Energy-Efficient Communication Scheme for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (2009) In mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs), every node overhears every data transmission occurring in its vicinity and thus, consumes energy unnecessarily. However, since some MANET routing protocols such as Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) collect route information via overhearing, they would suffer if they are used in combination with 802.11 PSM. Allowing no overhearing may critically deteriorate the performance of the underlying routing protocol, while unconditional overhearing may offset the advantage of using PSM. 17. Credit Card Fraud Detection Using Hidden Markov Model(2008) Now a day the usage of credit cards has dramatically increased. As credit card becomes the most popular mode of payment for both online as well as regular purchase, cases of fraud associated with it are also rising. In this paper, we model the # 94/C, 2nd Floor, 9th Cross, Opp HKBK College Main gate, Near Nagawara Ring Road,Bangalore-560045 46
  • 47. Zetta Networks, 9980499700 sequence of operations in credit card transaction processing using a Hidden Markov Model (HMM) and show how it can be used for the detection of frauds. An HMM is initially trained with the normal behavior of a cardholder. If an incoming credit card transaction is not accepted by the trained HMM with sufficiently high probability, it is considered to be fraudulent. At the same time, we try to ensure that genuine transactions are not rejected. We present detailed experimental results to show the effectiveness of our approach and compare it with other techniques available in the literature. 18. FARMERS BUDDY(2010). The objective of this project is to help farmers by providing information regarding Market price, Weather forecast, Tips, News through SMS which is cost effective. The Server will maintain the database related to agriculture like market price, weather report (state), news related to agriculture, Various reports on government policies , tips like suggestions. Information stored in database is then sent as sms to registered farmer to assist them which may help them to take next step. or precautions based on message. Server also responds to farmer request which is received in the form of sms to maximum extend but sms sent from farmer should be in specific format. Database can be updated only by the authentic user authorized by administrator. 19. A Large-Scale Hidden Semi-Markov Model for Anomaly Detection on User Browsing Behaviors(2009) There are many solution based methods created against distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks are focused on the Transmission Control Protocol and Internet Protocol layers as a substitute of the high layer. The DDoS attack makes an attempt to make a computer resource unavailable to its respective users. DoS attacks are implemented by either forcing the targeted computer(s) to reset, or consuming its resources so that it can no longer provide its intended service and actually they are not suitable for handling the new type of attack which is based on the application layer. In this project, we establish a new system to achieve early attack discovery and filtering for the application-layer-based DDoS attack. An extended hidden semi-Markov model is proposed to describe the browsing habits of web searchers. A forward algorithm is derived # 94/C, 2nd Floor, 9th Cross, Opp HKBK College Main gate, Near Nagawara Ring Road,Bangalore-560045 47
  • 48. Zetta Networks, 9980499700 for the online implementation of the model based on the M-algorithm in order to reduce the computational amount introduced by the model’s large state space. Entropy of the user’s HTTP request sequence accurate to the replica is used as a principle to measure the user’s normality. Finally, experiments are conducted to validate our model and algorithm. 20. BENEFIT-BASED DATA CACHING IN AD HOC NETWORKS(2008) The project titled “BENEFIT-BASED DATA CACHING IN AD HOC NETWORKS” Data caching is the simple concept which is known by us very clearly nothing but clipboard memory. Here in the proposed the caching can significantly improve the efficiency of information access in a wireless ad hoc network by reducing the access latency and bandwidth usage. However, designing efficient distributed caching algorithms is nontrivial when network nodes have limited memory. The above optimization problem is known to be NP-hard. Defining benefit as the reduction in total access cost, we present a polynomial-time centralized approximation algorithm that provably delivers a solution whose benefit is at least 1/4 (1/2 for uniform-size data items) of the optimal benefit. Our distributed algorithm using a network simulator (ns2) and demonstrate that it significantly outperforms another existing caching technique in all important performance metrics. The performance differential is particularly large in more challenging scenarios such as higher access frequency and smaller memory. 21. Information Content-Based Sensor Selection and Transmission Power Adjustment for Collaborative Target Tracking(2009) For target tracking applications, wireless sensor nodes provide accurate information since they can be deployed and operated near the phenomenon. These sensing devices have the opportunity of collaboration among themselves to improve the target localization and tracking accuracies. An energy-efficient collaborative target tracking paradigm is developed for # 94/C, 2nd Floor, 9th Cross, Opp HKBK College Main gate, Near Nagawara Ring Road,Bangalore-560045 48
  • 49. Zetta Networks, 9980499700 wireless sensor networks (WSNs). In addition, a novel approach to energy savings in WSNs is devised in the information- controlled transmission power (ICTP) adjustment, where nodes with more information use higher transmission powers than those that are less informative to share their target state information with the neighboring nodes. 22. Jamming-Aware Traffic Allocation for Multiple-Path Routing Using Portfolio Selection(2011) Multiple-path source routing protocols allow a data source node to distribute the total traffic among available paths. In this Project, we consider the problem of jamming-aware source routing in which the source node performs traffic allocation based on empirical jamming statistics at individual network nodes. We formulate this traffic allocation as a lossy network flow optimization problem using portfolio selection theory from financial statistics. We show that in multi-source networks, this centralized optimization problem can be solved using a distributed algorithm based on decomposition in network utility maximization (NUM). We demonstrate the network's ability to estimate the impact of jamming and incorporate these estimates into the traffic allocation problem. Finally, we simulate the achievable throughput using our proposed traffic allocation method in several scenarios. 23. Data Leakage Detection(2010) A data distributor has given sensitive data to a set of supposedly trusted agents (third parties). Some of the data are leaked and found in an unauthorized place (e.g., on the web or somebody’s laptop). The distributor must assess the likelihood that the leaked data came from one or more agents, as opposed to having been independently gathered by other means. We propose data allocation strategies (across the agents) that improve the probability of identifying leakages. These methods do not rely on alterations of the released data (e.g., watermarks). In some cases, we can also inject “realistic but fake” data records to further improve our chances of detecting leakage and identifying the guilty party. 24. Enhanced Security for Online Exams Using Group Cryptography(2009) Online exam is field that is very popular and made many security assurances. Then also it fails to control cheating. Online exams have not been widely adopted well, but online education is adopted and using allover the world without any security issues. An online exam is defined in # 94/C, 2nd Floor, 9th Cross, Opp HKBK College Main gate, Near Nagawara Ring Road,Bangalore-560045 49
  • 50. Zetta Networks, 9980499700 this project as one that takes place over the insecure Internet, and where no proctor is in the same location as the examinees. This project proposes an enhanced secure filled online exam management environment mediated by group cryptography techniques using remote monitoring and control of ports and input. The target domain of this project is that of online exams for any subject’s contests in any level of study, as well as exams in online university courses with students in various remote locations. This project proposes a easy solution to the issue of security and cheating for online exams. This solution uses an enhanced Security Control system in the Online Exam (SeCOnE) which is based on group cryptography 25. Host Based Intrusion Detection and Prevention System. An approach to IP traces back based on the probabilistic packet marking paradigm. Our approach, which we call randomize-and-link, uses large checksum cords to “link” message fragments in a way that is highly scalable, for the checksums serve both as associative addresses and data integrity verifiers. The main advantage of these checksum cords is that they spread the addresses of possible router messages across a spectrum that is too large for the attacker to easily create messages that collide with legitimate messages. 26. DDOS Tracking and Monitoring System Using HMM. There are many solution based methods created against distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks are focused on the Transmission Control Protocol and Internet Protocol layers as a substitute of the high layer. The DDoS attack makes an attempt to make a computer resource unavailable to its respective users. DoS attacks are implemented by either forcing the targeted computer(s) to reset, or consuming its resources so that it can no longer provide its intended service and actually they are not suitable for handling the new type of attack which is based on the application layer. In this project, we establish a new system to achieve early attack discovery and filtering for the application-layer-based DDoS attack. An extended hidden semiMarkov model is proposed to describe the browsing habits of web searchers. A forward algorithm is derived for the online implementation of the model based on the M-algorithm in order to reduce the computational amount introduced by the model’s large state space. Entropy of the user’s HTTP request sequence accurate to the replica is used as a principle to measure the user’s normality. Finally, experiments are conducted to validate our model and algorithm. GSM/GPS: ABSTRACT # 94/C, 2nd Floor, 9th Cross, Opp HKBK College Main gate, Near Nagawara Ring Road,Bangalore-560045 50
  • 51. Zetta Networks, 9980499700 1. ROME Road monitoring and alert system through Geocache. The increasing integration of sensors and wireless communication devices into highly mobile platforms such as automobiles is enabling novel pervasive monitoring services that continuously sense the surrounding environment and report events of interest on a Real-time basis. In this project, the first vehicle which is moving before other vehicles in a particular direction can transfer can transfer the information about the road ex: potholes, humps, accidents on the roads to other vehicles which come in that particular network. 2. A Mobile GPRS-Sensors Array for Air Pollution Monitoring. This system consists of a Mobile Data-Acquisition Unit (Mobile-DAQ) and a fixed InternetEnabled Pollution Monitoring Server (Pollution-Server). The Mobile-DAQ unit integrates a single-chip microcontroller, air pollution sensors array, a General Packet Radio Service Modem (GPRS-Modem) and a Global Positioning System Module (GPS-Module). The Pollution-Server is a high-end personal computer application server with Internet connectivity. The Mobile-DAQ unit gathers air pollutants levels (CO, NO2, and SO2), and packs them in a frame with the GPS physical location, time and date. The frame is subsequently uploaded to the GPRS-Modem and transmitted to the Pollution-Server via the public mobile network. A database server is attached to the Pollution-Server for storing the pollutants level for further usage by various clients such as environment protection agencies, vehicles registration authorities, tourist, and insurance companies. The Pollution- Server is interfaced to Google maps to display real-time pollutants levels and locations in large metropolitan areas. 3. Development of Remote Monitoring Cardiac Patients System Based on GPRS. Nowadays, the electrocardiograph (ECG) is certainly the most effective tool to identify anomalies in the cardiac activity. In this system, we propose a remote medical monitoring system for ECG data. The system is composed of two parts, which are portable remote medical monitoring unit and the monitoring center. The portable remote medical monitoring unit consists of Advanced RISC Machines (ARM) with the embedded operating system, a custom ECG board, and a GPRS module capable of transmitting information to processing centers. The monitoring center is composed of the monitoring station and the information processing system which realizes information management, real-time analysis, wireless transmission, a warning mechanism for emergency and ECG diagnosis. The aim of this project is to provide an ECG medical # 94/C, 2nd Floor, 9th Cross, Opp HKBK College Main gate, Near Nagawara Ring Road,Bangalore-560045 51
  • 52. Zetta Networks, 9980499700 monitoring for the user (patient or potential patient) at any time and any place, if there is any abnormal change of ECG data. 4. GPS-GSM Integration for Enhancing Public Transportation Management Services. This paper proposes and implements a solution for enhancing public transportation management services based on GPS and GSM in Punjab province of Pakistan. The system consists of four modules: BUS Station Module, In-BUS Module, BASE Station Module and BUS Stop Module. Equipped with PC and GSM modem, BUS Station Module sends the initialization information containing the bus number and license plate number to In-BUS Module and BASE Station Module using SMS. The microcontroller based In-BUS Module consisting mainly of a GPS receiver and GSM modem then then starts transmitting its location and number of passengers to BASE Station Module. BASE Station Module equipped with a microcontroller unit and GSM modems interfaced to PCs is designed to keep track record of every bus, processes user request about a particular bus location out of BUS Station and updates buses location on bus stops. BUS Stop Module is installed at every bus stop and consists of a GSM modem, memory unit and dot matrix display all interfaced to a microcontroller. This module receives buses location information coming towards that stop from BASE Station module and displays the information on a dot matrix display. A per stop statistical analysis is carried out based on the number of passengers and a recommendation report along with this analysis is sent to Punjab Government Transportation Department to have a check on the performance and services offered by transporters to common people. The results have shown that the developed system is useful for facilitating people using public transportation services. 5. Identifying objects using RF transmitters and receivers, and retrieving data using GSM. To provide a system for monitoring and locating objects using Radio Frequency (RF) transmitters and receivers, and querying about the objects using mobile phones. An object represents a real world entity. This system is based on RF transmitters that are tagged to the objects of everyday use and have the capability of transmitting signals and a receiver that detects the transmission of the tagged object and stores its corresponding location in the database which is created specifically for information maintenance of the tagged objects. Mobile phones are used to query the location of the tagged object by sending a message to the Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) connected to a Global System for Mobile Communications ( GSM) modem. This # 94/C, 2nd Floor, 9th Cross, Opp HKBK College Main gate, Near Nagawara Ring Road,Bangalore-560045 52
  • 53. Zetta Networks, 9980499700 GSM modem fetches the location and other relevant information from the database and encapsulates this information into a message which is sent back to the mobile phone that has requested the information. 6. Remote control of smart household based on DTMF. More and more smart systems have been used in modern household. This article mainly introduces the smart household control system realization procedure based on DTMF remote transmission. The system uses module to dispose and exchange information. We realized household appliances remote control by communication through mobile telephone and GSM card of the system host computer by DTMF signals. This method has a lot of advantage, such as easy operation, good practicability and wide appliance range etc. This article particularly narrated main functions and realization of hardware and software of the system. 7. Short range vehicle tracking.(pdf) This paper describes the tracking of a vehicle by using a 3-dimensional positioning system, which is composed of two 2-dimensional Infrared (IR) signal source trackers. Once the 2D trackers detect the incident angles of the IR signal source, the 3D Positioning system will locate the IR signal source. In the experiments, the detection on the longitudinal direction is concerned, and the IR signal source on the preceding vehicle is detected by the 3D positioning system implemented on the following vehicle. While GPS cannot tell two adjacent vehicles, the short-ranged positioning system is able to locate the nearby moving target. 9. Gsm and zig-bee for vehicles. This paper presents the performance result of soft and hard vertical handoff between GPRS and Zigbee networks. The results show that the average packet delay in GPRS network isaround 2.3 seconds and 1.5 seconds for TCP and UDP connection, respectively, and that in Zigbee is around 6 msec. By using Zigbee network, it is possible to use its network interface for broadcast to other neighbor mobile devices since it has very small amount of delay. However, it can be used in a small coverage area. For GPRS connection, it can cover a large area, but has significant packet delay. 10. GSM BASED CALL ROUTER. # 94/C, 2nd Floor, 9th Cross, Opp HKBK College Main gate, Near Nagawara Ring Road,Bangalore-560045 53
  • 54. Zetta Networks, 9980499700 11. 32 bit car parking using GSM. We all know how the present parking system works. As soon as we reach the parking place the guard at the entrance takes a record of the vehicle and the time of entry and gives us a slip and guides us to the slot. At exit he checks the slip and calculates the charges and leaves us. It looks too simple but we know how tough it is to first of all find a parking place and in that find a free slot to park our vehicle. This project is designed to automate the parking system, make the current parking system more user friendly and easier to use. Here the user has to first reserve a parking slot for him/her by requesting for a parking slot through SMS. After requesting for a slot the user is give an authentication password to be entered at the parking slot to get access to the parking slot. The controller performs all the activities like reservation, gate operation, cost calculation etc.. IR sensors are present at each gate to sense the presence of vehicle and aid the hardware to perform appropriate actions. The communication medium between the user and the hardware module is the GSM modem, by using which the user and the hardware module can communicate by using SMS (Short Message Service) formats 12. Interactive vehicle using GSM. In this project, the Vehicle contains the GSM modem to receive the messages from the mobile and DC motors for the movement of vehicle . When the user sends the SMS from his mobile. The GSM modem receives the SMS from the mobile. Then the vehicle moves in the particular direction i.e. front, back, left, right direction based on the SMS sent from the mobile. 13. Autonomous Navigation Tool (A.N.T.) - Gps Based Navigation System for the Visually Impaired and Blind. GPS enabled campus navigation system for blind with voice narration. This project is used to give voice messages reading the campus details & current location of the campus to visually handicapped person using GPS.The device is actually a special attachment that works with any GPS-enabled PDA, and relies on two major components: The voice guiding system and the specially designed GPS navigation maps. Thus, all the user has to do is connect the trekker to the main GPS unit and switch it on. The device will then deliver comprehensive information # 94/C, 2nd Floor, 9th Cross, Opp HKBK College Main gate, Near Nagawara Ring Road,Bangalore-560045 54
  • 55. Zetta Networks, 9980499700 regarding the users route, providing such useful features as real-time information detection (intersections & points of interest),real- time/off line map browsing(route preview),route planning and recording (guiding rules),accessing the GPS information and more The system consists of the following functional components :(1)a module for determining the traveler's position and orientation in space, (2)a geographic information system comprising a detailed database of our test site and software for route planning and for obtaining information from the database, and(3)the user interface. The experiment reported here is concerned with one function of the navigation system: guiding the traveler along a predefined route. All GPS based navigation systems for the blind consist of these functional components a module for determining the traveler's orientation and GPS coordinates to the surrounding environment, and the user interface. Our long term goal has been and continues to be to contribute to the development of a portable, self-contained system that will allow visually impaired individuals to travel through familiar and unfamiliar environments without the assistance of the guides. 14. 2 folded ATM threat security with multiple people entry and password access using RFID and GSM. The main aim of this project is to prevent forced ATM theft, using GSM technology.Consider a scenario when you enter into an ATM to withdraw money for your need, and suddenly a thief enters into the ATM with a knife or a pistol, and force you to withdraw the entire amount in your account (considering the ATM has no security guard and is in a remote place). What you can do? You can either fight with the thief or can give all the money to him. Just think of an implementation which is helpful in this situation as, when you are forcibly attempting to withdraw money, and you are entering a code number instead of your actual pin code, and the ATM shows that you have no balance in your account (even if you have plenty). And also imagine that as the thief tries to get out of the ATM, he will come to know that the ATM is surrounded by armed police and there is no way to escape. This can be done by just entering a code instead of the actual password. Here we are trying to develop such a kind of system which will prevent all these disasters. # 94/C, 2nd Floor, 9th Cross, Opp HKBK College Main gate, Near Nagawara Ring Road,Bangalore-560045 55
  • 56. Zetta Networks, 9980499700 15. Remote patient monitoring using EEG, ECG and Zigbee/ GSM. 16. GSM based smart information system for lost ATM cards. 17. DTMF Based Air-Craft Visual Inspection. 18. Remote billing of energy meter/water meter using GSM modem. Every month we can see a person standing in front of our house from Electricity board or water Board whose duty is to read the energy meter/water meter and handover the bills (electric or water) to the owner of that house . This is nothing but meter reading. According to that reading we have to pay the bills. The main drawback of this system is that person has to go area by area and he has to read the meter of every house and handover the bills. The Electricity board and Water authority has to give privileges for these people to do their duty monthly. The thing is, Government will not appoint any particular persons for this duty. The people working in these boards will go on a particular day and do their duty leaving all their pending works. Due to this, their work will be delayed and this is great loss for government. To overcome this drawback we have come up with an idea and this idea will help the government and it will save the time of the employees working in these boards. The aim of the project is to automate the billing of energy meter and water meter. In this project the front end is User friendly and the employees can work on this software with minimum knowledge of Computers. Employees can read the meter by sitting in the Office. For front end designing Visual Basics is used. JAVA PROJECTS ABSTRACT Distributed & Parallel 1. An Efficient and Adaptive Decentralized File Replication Algorithm in P2P File Sharing Systems In peer-to-peer file sharing systems, file replication technology is widely used to reduce hot spots and improve file query efficiency. Most current file replication methods replicate files in all nodes or two end points on a client-server query path. However, these methods either have # 94/C, 2nd Floor, 9th Cross, Opp HKBK College Main gate, Near Nagawara Ring Road,Bangalore-560045 56
  • 57. Zetta Networks, 9980499700 low effectiveness or come at a cost of high overhead. File replication in server side enhances replica hit rate, hence, lookup efficiency but produces overloaded nodes and cannot significantly reduce query path length. File replication in client side could greatly reduce query path length, but cannot guarantee high replica hit rate to fully utilize replicas. Though replication along query path solves these problems, it comes at a high cost of overhead due to more replicas and produces underutilized replicas. This paper presents an Efficient and Adaptive Decentralized (EAD) file replication algorithm that achieves high query efficiency and high replica utilization at a significantly low cost. EAD enhances the utilization of file replicas by selecting query traffic hubs and frequent requesters as replica nodes, and dynamically adapting to no uniform and time-varying file popularity and node interest. Unlike current methods, EAD creates and deletes replicas in a decentralized self-adaptive manner while guarantees high replica utilization. Theoretical analysis shows the high performance of EAD. Simulation results demonstrate the efficiency and effectiveness of EAD in comparison with other approaches in both static and dynamic environments. It dramatically reduces the overhead of file replication, and yields significant improvements on the efficiency and effectiveness of file replication in terms of query efficiency, replica hit rate, and overloaded nodes reduction. 2. Privacy in VoIP Networks: Flow Analysis Attacks and Defense Peer-to-peer VoIP (voice over IP) networks are becoming increasingly popular due to their significant cost advantage and richer call forwarding features than traditional public switched telephone networks. One of the most important features of a VoIP network is privacy (for VoIP clients). Unfortunately, most peer-to-peer VoIP networks neither provide personalization nor guarantee a quantifiable privacy level. In this paper, we propose novel flow analysis attacks that demonstrate the vulnerabilities of peer-to-peer VoIP networks to privacy attacks. We then address two important challenges in designing privacy-aware VoIP networks: Can we provide personalized privacy guarantees for VoIP clients that allow them to select privacy requirements on a per-call basis? How to design VoIP protocols to support customizable privacy guarantee? This paper proposes practical solutions to address these challenges using a quantifiable kanonymity metric and a privacy-aware VoIP route setup and route maintenance protocols. We present detailed experimental evaluation that demonstrates the performance and scalability of our protocol, while meeting customizable privacy guarantees. # 94/C, 2nd Floor, 9th Cross, Opp HKBK College Main gate, Near Nagawara Ring Road,Bangalore-560045 57
  • 58. Zetta Networks, 9980499700 3. Rumor Riding: Anonym zing Unstructured Peer-to-Peer Systems 2011 Although anonymizing Peer-to-Peer (P2P) systems often incurs extra traffic costs, many systems try to mask the identities of their users for privacy considerations. Existing anonymity approaches are mainly path-based: peers have to pre- construct an anonymous path before transmission. The overhead of maintaining and updating such paths is significantly high. We propose Rumor Riding (RR), a lightweight and non-path-based mutual anonymity protocol for decentralized P2P systems. Employing a random walk mechanism, RR takes advantage of lower overhead by mainly using the symmetric cryptographic algorithm. 4. FDAC: Toward Fine-grained Distributed Data Access Control in Wireless Sensor Networks 2011 5. Enforcing Minimum-Cost Multicast Routing Against Selfish Information Flows Conventional block-based multicast authentication schemes overlook the heterogeneity of receivers by letting the sender choose the block size, divide a multicast stream into blocks, associate each block with a signature, and spread the effect of the signature across all the packets in the block through hash graphs or coding algorithms. The correlation among packets makes them vulnerable to packet loss, which is inherent in the Internet and wireless networks. Moreover, the lack of Denial of Service (DOS) resilience renders most of them vulnerable to packet injection in hostile environments. 6. Consistent Monitoring System for Parallel and Distributed Systems This paper proposes to build overlays that help in the monitoring of long-term availability histories of hosts, with a focus on large-scale distributed settings where hosts may be selfish or colluding (but not malicious). Concretely, we focus on the important problems of selection and discovery of such an availability monitoring overlay. We motivate six significant goals for these problems—the first three goals are consistency, verifiability, and randomness in selecting the availability monitors of nodes, so as to be Probabilistically resilient to selfish and colluding nodes. The next three goals are discoverability, load balancing, and scalability in finding these monitors. We then present AVMON, an availability monitoring overlay that is the # 94/C, 2nd Floor, 9th Cross, Opp HKBK College Main gate, Near Nagawara Ring Road,Bangalore-560045 58
  • 59. Zetta Networks, 9980499700 first system to satisfy all the above six requirements. The core algorithmic contribution of this paper is a range of protocols for discovering the availability monitoring overlay in a scalable and efficient manner, given any arbitrary monitor selection scheme that is consistent and verifiable. We mathematically analyze the performance of AVMON’s discovery protocols with respect to scalability and discovery time of monitors. Most interestingly, we are able to derive optimal variants of AVMON, with the aim of minimizing memory, bandwidth, computation, and discovery time of monitors (or a subset of these metrics). Our analysis indicates that these optimal variants are also practically feasible. Finally, we perform extensive experimental evaluations of AVMON by using three types of availability traces—synthetic, from PlanetLab, and from a peer-to-peer system (Overnet). Our results demonstrate that AVMON would work well in a wide variety of distributed systems. Mobile computing 7. Secure Data Collection in Wireless Sensor Networks Using Randomized Dispersive Routes Compromised-node and denial-of-service are two key attacks in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). In this paper, we study data delivery mechanisms that can with high probability circumvent black holes formed by these attacks. We argue that classic multipath routing approaches are vulnerable to such attacks, mainly due to their deterministic nature. So once the adversary acquires the routing algorithm, it can compute the same routes known to the source, hence making all information sent over these routes vulnerable to its attacks. In this paper, we develop mechanisms that generate randomized multi-path routes. Under our designs, the routes taken by the “shares” of different packets change over time. So even if the routing algorithm becomes known to the adversary, the adversary still cannot pinpoint the routes traversed by each packet. Besides randomness, the generated routes are also highly dispersive and energy efficient, making them quite capable of circumventing black holes. We analytically investigate the security and energy performance of the proposed schemes. We also formulate an optimization problem to minimize the end-to-end energy consumption under given security constraints. Extensive simulations are conducted to verify the validity of our mechanisms. 8. On demand Temporary Route Recovery for Frequent Networks Link Failures in Adhoc 9. SSUM: Smart Server Update Mechanism For Maintaining Cache Consistency In Mobile Environments # 94/C, 2nd Floor, 9th Cross, Opp HKBK College Main gate, Near Nagawara Ring Road,Bangalore-560045 59
  • 60. Zetta Networks, 9980499700 10. Energy Efficient Cooperative Caching in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks 11. On Efficient and Scalable Support of Continuous Queries in Mobile Peer-to-Peer Environments 12. Secure Distance-Based Localization In The Presence Of Cheating Beacon Nodes Localization in the presence of malicious beacon nodes is an important problem in wireless networks. Although significant progress has been made on this problem, some fundamental theoretical questions still remain unanswered: in the presence of malicious beacon nodes, what are the necessary and sufficient conditions to guarantee a bounded error during 2-dimensional location estimation? Under these necessary and sufficient conditions, what class of localization algorithms can provide that error bound? In this paper, we try to answer these questions. Specifically, we show that, when the number of malicious beacons is greater than or equal to some threshold, there is no localization algorithm that can have a bounded error. Furthermore, when the number of malicious beacons is below that threshold, we identify a class of localization algorithms that can ensure that the localization error is bounded. We also outline two algorithms in this class, one of which is guaranteed to finish in polynomial time (in the number of beacons providing information) in the worst case, while the other is based on a heuristic and is practically efficient. For completeness, we also extend the above results to the 3-dimensional case. Experimental results demonstrate that our solution has very good localization accuracy and computational efficiency. 13. Adaptive Reputation Management Protocol For Dynamic Network Conditions In a reputation management system, the evaluation criteria, detection decision factors, and reactive measures should be adaptive to changes in network conditions. An adaptive reputation management system can be regarded as one where nodes carry out the reputation management functions heterogeneously according to the instantaneous perception of each of its surrounding network conditions. Table 1.1 shows the difference between the existing systems and proposed system. The existing systems that are used for theoretical comparison purpose are Eigen Trust and Peer Trust. # 94/C, 2nd Floor, 9th Cross, Opp HKBK College Main gate, Near Nagawara Ring Road,Bangalore-560045 60
  • 61. Zetta Networks, 9980499700 14. Efficient Secure Hierarchical Broadcasting In MANETS The broadcast operation, as a fundamental service in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs), is prone to the broadcast storm problem if forwarding nodes are not carefully designated. The objective of reducing broadcast redundancy while still providing high delivery ratio under high transmission error rate is a major challenge in MANETs. In this paper, we propose a simple broadcast algorithm, called double-covered broadcast (DCB), which takes advantage of broadcast redundancy to improve the delivery ratio in an environment that has rather high transmission error rate. Among 1-hop neighbors of the sender, only selected forwarding nodes retransmit the broadcast message. Forwarding nodes are selected in such a way that (1) the sender’s 2-hop neighbors are covered and (2) the sender’s 1-hop neighbors are either forwarding nodes, or non-forwarding nodes but covered by at least two forwarding neighbors. The retransmissions of the forwarding nodes are received by the sender as the confirmation of their reception of the packet. The nonforwarding 1-hop neighbors of the sender do not acknowledge the reception of the broadcast. If the sender does not detect all its forwarding nodes’ retransmissions, it will resend the packet until the maximum number of retries is reached. Simulation results show that the proposed broadcast algorithm provides good performance under a high transmission error rate environment. 15. Virtual Infrastructure Less MANETS In this paper, we introduce a protocol which develops a dynamic infrastructure for wireless mobile adhoc network. The architecture and operation of dynamic infrastructure is similar to conventional cellular network infrastructure. In this protocol, a mobile terminal (MT) is elected by a set of MTs to act as their temporary base station within their base station area based on residual battery power. MTs elected as base stations (BS) are used to track other MTs in the ad hoc network. The dynamic infrastructure routing protocol utilizes the mobility tracking mechanism to route packets from an MT to another MT in the network. This protocol is more efficient then any existing ad hoc routing protocols in terms of energy and load balancing. The infrastructure based ad hoc mobile network is less congested and fast converging to network topology change. This scheme provides different medium access control, band width allocation # 94/C, 2nd Floor, 9th Cross, Opp HKBK College Main gate, Near Nagawara Ring Road,Bangalore-560045 61
  • 62. Zetta Networks, 9980499700 policies and quality of service (QoS) guaranteed communication in ad hoc networks. It performs well in interactive and multimedia service in ad hoc network. 16. Secure Multicasting In Wireless Networks To Resist Various Attacks Multihop wireless networks rely on node cooperation to provide multicast services. The multihop communication offers increased coverage for such services but also makes them more vulnerable to insider (or Byzantine) attacks coming from compromised nodes that behave arbitrarily to disrupt the network. In this work, we identify vulnerabilities of on-demand multicast routing protocols for multihop wireless networks and discuss the challenges encountered in designing mechanisms to defend against them. We propose BSMR, a novel secure multicast routing protocol designed to withstand insider attacks from colluding adversaries. Our protocol is a software-based solution and does not require additional or specialized hardware. We present simulation results that demonstrate that BSMR effectively mitigates the identified attacks. 17. Shortest Distance Packet Forwarding Technique In MANETS For Search Applications This paper introduces a message forwarding algorithm for search applications within mobile ad hoc networks that is based on the concept of selecting the nearest node from a set of designated nodes. The algorithm, which is called Minimum Distance Packet Forwarding (MDPF), uses routing information to select the node with the minimum distance. The goal of the proposed algorithm is to minimize the average number of hops taken to reach the node that holds the desired data. Numerical analysis and experimental evaluations using the network simulation software ns2 were performed to derive the lower and upper bounds of the confidence interval for the mean hop count between the source node of the data request, on one hand, and the node that holds the desired data and the last node in the set of search nodes, on the other hand. In the experimental evaluation, the performance of MDPF was compared to that of Random Packet Forwarding (RPF) and Minimal Spanning Tree Forwarding (MSTF). The results agreed with the numerical analysis results and demonstrated that MDPF offers significant hop count savings and smaller delays when compared to RPF and MSTF. 18. Reliable And Energy-Efficient Routing For Static Wireless Ad Hoc Networks With Unreliable Links # 94/C, 2nd Floor, 9th Cross, Opp HKBK College Main gate, Near Nagawara Ring Road,Bangalore-560045 62
  • 63. Zetta Networks, 9980499700 Network + Security 19. A group key agreement protocol based on stability & power using a Elliptical curve cryptography In mobile ad hoc networks, the security is the main constraint in message transmission. For secure group basedmessage transmission, we must share the key among users so that we can make the transmission as secure. This paper addresses an interesting security problem in mobile ad hoc networks that is dynamic group key agreement for key establishment. For secure communication, a group key must be shared by all group members. This group key should be updated when the existing group members are leaving the network or new members are entering into the existing network. In this paper, we propose a efficient group key agreement protocol called Key Agreement protocol based on Stability and Power (KASP). Here the idea is to split a large group into several subgroups, each maintaining its subgroup keys to manage the subgroup and managing many subgroups using Elliptic Curve Diffie-Hellman (ECDH) key agreement algorithm. In KASP, we develop two protocols namely, Subgroup Key Generation(SKG) and Group Key Generation(GKG) based on ECDH for subgroups and outer groups respectively. These subgroup keys and group keys should be changed when there are membership changes (such as when the current member leaves or the new member joins). By introducing group-based approach, messages and key updates will be limited within subgroup and outer group. Thus computation load is distributed to many mobile ad hoc nodes. Both theoretical and practical results show that this KASP, a new efficient group key agreement protocol performs well for the key establishment problem in ad hoc network in terms of efficiency and security. 20. An Abuse-Free Fair Contract-Signing Protocol Based on the RSA Signature Afair contract-signing protocol allows two potentially mistrusted parities to exchange their commitments (i.e., digital signatures) to an agreed contract over the Internet in a fair way, so that either each of them obtains the other’s signature, or neither party does. Based on the RSA signature scheme, a new digital contract- signing protocol is proposed in this paper. Like the existing RSA-based solutions for the same problem, our protocol is not only fair, but also optimistic, since the trusted third party is involved only in the situations where one party is cheating or the communication channel is # 94/C, 2nd Floor, 9th Cross, Opp HKBK College Main gate, Near Nagawara Ring Road,Bangalore-560045 63
  • 64. Zetta Networks, 9980499700 interrupted. Furthermore, the proposed protocol satisfies a new property— abuse-freeness. That is, if the protocol is executed unsuccessfully, none of the two parties can show the validity of intermediate results to others. Technical details are provided to analyze the security and performance of the proposed protocol. In summary, we present the first abuse- free fair contractsigning protocol based on the RSA signature, and show that it is both secure and efficient. 21. Providing Witness Anonymity Under Peer-to-Peer Settings In this paper, we introduce the concept of witness anonymity for peer-to-peer systems, as well as other systems with the peer-to-peer nature. Witness anonymity combines the seemingly conflicting requirements of anonymity (for honest peers who report on the misbehavior of other peers) and accountability (for malicious peers that attempt to misuse the anonymity feature to slander honest peers). We propose the Secure Deep Throat (SDT) protocol to provide anonymity for the witnesses of malicious or selfish behavior to enable such peers to report on this behavior without fear of retaliation. On the other hand, in SDT, the misuse of anonymity is restrained in such a way that any malicious peer attempting to send multiple claims against the same innocent peer for the same reason (i.e., the same misbehavior type) can be identified. We also describe how SDT can be used in two modes. The active mode can be used in scenarios with real-time requirements, e.g., detecting and preventing the propagation of peer-to-peer worms, whereas the passive mode is suitable for scenarios without strict real-time requirements, e.g., query-based reputation systems. We analyze the security and overhead of SDT, and present countermeasures that can be used to mitigate various attacks on the protocol. Moreover, we show how SDT can be easily integrated with existing protocols/mechanisms with a few examples. Our analysis shows that the communication, storage, and computation overheads of SDT are acceptable in peer-to-peer systems . 22. Efficient Network-Coding-Based Opportunistic Routing Through Cumulative Coded Acknowledgments # 94/C, 2nd Floor, 9th Cross, Opp HKBK College Main gate, Near Nagawara Ring Road,Bangalore-560045 64
  • 65. Zetta Networks, 9980499700 23. A New Diskless Checkpointing Approach for Multiple Processor Failures 24. A Novel Approach to Dynamic ID-Based Remote User Authentication Scheme for Multi-server Environment 25. Authenticated Group Key Transfer Protocol Based on Secret Sharing Key transfer protocols rely on a mutually trusted key generation center (KGC) to select session keys and transport session keys to all communication entities secretly. Most often, KGC encrypts session keys under another secret key shared with each entity during registration. In this paper, we propose an authenticated key transfer protocol based on secret sharing scheme that KGC can broadcast group key information to all group members at once and only authorized group members can recover the group key; but unauthorized users cannot recover the group key. The confidentiality of this transformation is information theoretically secure. We also provide authentication for transporting this group key. Goals and security threats of our proposed group key transfer protocol will be analyzed in detail. 26. MABS Multicast Authentication Based on Batch Signature Conventional block-based multicast authentication schemes overlook the heterogeneity of receivers by letting the sender choose the block size, divide a multicast stream into blocks, associate each block with a signature, and spread the effect of the signature across all the packets in the block through hash graphs or coding algorithms. The correlation among packets makes them vulnerable to packet loss, which is inherent in the Internet and wireless networks. Moreover, the lack of Denial of Service (DOS) resilience renders most of them vulnerable to packet injection in hostile environments. 27. Three party quantum key distribution protocol with implicit authentication Quantum key Distribution protocols (QKDPs) is used to safeguard security in large networks, ushering in new directions in classical cryptography and quantum cryptography. Two three-party QKDPs, one with implicit user authentication and the other with explicit mutual authentication, are proposed to demonstrate the merits of the new combination, which include the following: # 94/C, 2nd Floor, 9th Cross, Opp HKBK College Main gate, Near Nagawara Ring Road,Bangalore-560045 65
  • 66. Zetta Networks, 9980499700 1) Security against such attacks as man-in-the-middle, eavesdropping and replay, 2) Efficiency is improved as the proposed protocols contain the fewest number of Communication rounds among existing QKDPs, and 3) Two parties can share and use a long-term secret (repeatedly). 28. Efficient and secure multisignature scheme based on the distributed-key management infrastructure (DKMI) The mapping or binding of IP addresses to host names became a major problem in the rapidly growing Internet and the higher level binding effort went through different stages of development up to the currently used Domain Name System (DNS). The DNS Security is designed to provide security by combining the concept of both the Digital Signature and Asymmetric key (Public key) Cryptography. Here the Public key is send instead of Private Key. The DNS security uses Message Digest Algorithm to compress the Message (text file) and PRNG (Pseudo Random Number Generator) Algorithm for generating Public and Private Key. The message combines with the Private Key to form a Signature using DSA Algorithm, which is send along with the Public key. The receiver uses the Public key and DSA Algorithm to form a Signature. If this Signature matches with the Signature of the message received, the message is Decrypted and read else discarded. Networking 29. The Implementation of a Web Crawler URL Filter Algorithm Based on Caching 30. The COQUOS approach to continuous queries in unstructured overlays. The current peer-to-peer (P2P) content distribution systems are constricted by their simple ondemand content discovery mechanism. The utility of these systems can be greatly enhanced by incorporating two capabilities, namely a mechanism through which peers can register their long # 94/C, 2nd Floor, 9th Cross, Opp HKBK College Main gate, Near Nagawara Ring Road,Bangalore-560045 66
  • 67. Zetta Networks, 9980499700 term interests with the network so that they can be continuously noti_ed of new data items, and a means for the peers to advertise their contents. Although researchers have proposed a few unstructured overlay-based publish-subscribe systems that provide the above capabilities, most of these systems require intricate indexing and routing schemes, which not only make them highly complex but also render the overlay network less _exible towards transient peers. This paper argues that for many P2P applications implementing full-_edged publishsubscribe systems is an overkill. For theseapplications, we study the alternate continuous query paradigm, which is a best- effort service providing the above two capabilities. We present a scalable and effective middleware called CoQUOS for supporting continuous queries in unstructured overlay networks.Besides being independent of the overlay topology, CoQUOS preserves the simplicity and _exibility of the unstructured P2P network. Our design of the CoQUOS system is characterized by two novel techniques, namely cluster-resilient random walk algorithm for propagating the queries to various regions of the network and dynamic probability-based query registration scheme to ensure that the registrations are well distributed in the overlay. Further, we also develop effective and ef_cient schemes for providing resilience to the churn of the P2P network and for ensuring a fair distribution of the noti_cation load among the peers. This paper studies the properties of our algorithms through theoretical analysis. We also report series of experiments evaluating the effectiveness and the costs of the proposed schemes. 31. Reliable routing algorithm based on fuzzy logic for Mobile Adhoc Network 32. Efficient Speculative Transmission Scheme For Avoiding Scheduling Latency 33. Secure Data Transmission In Wireless Broadcast Services With Efficient Key Management Wireless broadcast is an effective approach for disseminating data to a number of users. To provide secure access to data in wireless broadcast services, symmetric-key-based encryption is used to ensure that only users who own the valid keys can decrypt the data. With regard to various subscriptions, an efficient key management for distributing and changing keys is in great demand for access control in broadcast services. In this paper, we propose an efficient key management scheme, namely, key tree reuse (KTR), to handle key distribution with regard to # 94/C, 2nd Floor, 9th Cross, Opp HKBK College Main gate, Near Nagawara Ring Road,Bangalore-560045 67
  • 68. Zetta Networks, 9980499700 complex subscription options and user activities. Key Tree Reuse has the following advantages. First, it supports all subscription activities in wireless broadcast services. Second, in KTR, a user only needs to hold one set of keys for all subscribed programs instead of separate sets of keys for each program. Third, KTR identifies the minimum set of keys that must be changed to ensure broadcast security and minimize the rekey cost. Our simulations show that KTR can save about 45 percent of communication overhead in the broadcast channel and about 50 percent of decryption cost for each user compared with logical-key-hierarchy-based approaches. 34. SKIP: A Secure Key Issuing Scheme for Peer-to-Peer Networks 35. A Simplified Anonymous Dynamic Source Routing Protocol. To meet the diverse quality-of-service (QoS) requirements of emerging multimedia applications, communication networks should provide end-to-end QoS guarantees. QoS routing is the first step towards this goal. The route computing overhead caused by on-demand calculation of QoS routes, especially in large networks with heavy traffic, is a concern and can cause scalability problems. This paper addresses this problem by introducing novel distributed cache architecture. The distributed nature of the proposed cache architecture facilitates its deployment in large networks. To maximize the performance of the distributed cache architecture, cache snooping has been proposed to alleviate the side effects of network states fluctuations on the cached route so that the overall routing performance is significantly improved. Assuming a bandwidth-based QoS model, in performance evaluation of the proposed distributed cache architecture, we use a broad range of realistic network topologies, network traffic conditions, routing protocols, and aggregation techniques to evaluate different aspects of the proposed cache architecture under different conditions. The results confirm that the route caching is quite effective in reduction of route computing overhead. In addition, our results suggest that the cache snooping can significantly increase the overall routing performance, especially in the presence of highly inaccurate network state information. 36. A novel congestion-avoidance mechanism to prevent congestion in internet # 94/C, 2nd Floor, 9th Cross, Opp HKBK College Main gate, Near Nagawara Ring Road,Bangalore-560045 68
  • 69. Zetta Networks, 9980499700 The Internet’s excellent scalability and robustness result in part from the end-to-end nature of Internet congestion control. End-to-end congestion control algorithms alone, however, are unable to prevent the congestion collapse and unfairness created by applications that are unresponsive to network congestion.To address these maladies, we propose and investigate a novel congestion-avoidance mechanism called Congestion Free Router (CFR). CFR entails the exchange of feedback between routers at the borders of a network in order to detect and restrict unresponsive traffic flows before they enter the network, thereby preventing congestion within the network. 37. Error Control for Data Transmission Efficiency in the network packet losses We propose a model-based analytic approach for evaluating the overall efficacy of FEC coding combined with interleaving in combating packet losses in IP networks. The loss of various packets during the data transmission can be reduced by using FEC coding. In this project we are going to evaluate the efficacy of FEC coding. In Particular we model the network path in terms of a single bottleneck node. We develop a recursive procedure for the exact evaluation of the packet-loss statistics for general arrival processes, based on a framework. We study both single-session and multiple- session scenarios, and provide a simple algorithm for the more complicated multiple-session scenario. We show that the unified approach provides an integrated framework for exploring the tradeoffs between the key coding parameters; specifically, interleaving depths, channel coding rates and block lengths. The approach facilitates the selection of optimal coding strategies for different multimedia applications with various user quality-of-service (QoS) requirements and system constraints. We also provide an information-theoretic bound on the performance achievable with FEC coding in IP networks. 38. Denial of service attack on packet floods The denial-of-service (DOS) attack has been a pressing problem in recent years. DoS defense research has blossomed into one of the main streams in network security. Various techniques such as the pushback message, ICMP traceback, and the packet filtering techniques are the results from this active field of research. The probabilistic packet marking (PPM) algorithm by Savage et al. has attracted the most attention in contributing the idea of IP traceback. The most interesting point of this IP traceback approach is that it allows routers to encode certain information on the attack packets based on a predetermined probability. Upon receiving a sufficient number of marked packets, the victim (or a data collection node) can construct the set # 94/C, 2nd Floor, 9th Cross, Opp HKBK College Main gate, Near Nagawara Ring Road,Bangalore-560045 69
  • 70. Zetta Networks, 9980499700 of paths that the attack packets traversed and, hence, the victim can obtain the location(s) of the attacker(s). 39. Content management services by intermediary proxies 40. Ensuring cache freshness in on-demand dynamic source routing protocols (DSR) To meet the diverse quality-of-service (QOS) requirements of emerging multimedia applications, communication networks should provide end-to-end QoS guarantees. QoS routing is the first step towards this goal. The route computing overhead caused by on-demand calculation of QoS routes, especially in large networks with heavy traffic, is a concern and can cause scalability problems. This paper addresses this problem by introducing novel distributed cache architecture. The distributed nature of the proposed cache architecture facilitates its deployment in large networks. To maximize the performance of the distributed cache architecture, cache snooping has been proposed to alleviate the side effects of network states fluctuations on the cached route so that the overall routing performance is significantly improved. Assuming a bandwidth-based QoS model, in performance evaluation of the proposed distributed cache architecture, we use a broad range of realistic network topologies, network traffic conditions, routing protocols, and aggregation techniques to evaluate different aspects of the proposed cache architecture under different conditions. The results confirm that the route caching is quite effective in reduction of route computing overhead. In addition, our results suggest that the cache snooping can significantly increase the overall routing performance, especially in the presence of highly inaccurate network state information. 41. Guaranteed reliability against multiple correlated link failures We study routing problems in networks that require guaranteed reliability against multiple correlated link failures. We consider two different routing objectives: The first ensures “local reliability,” i.e., the goal is to route so that each connection in the network is as reliable as possible. The second ensures “global reliability,” i.e., the goal is to route so that as few as possible connections are affected by any possible failure. We exhibit a trade-off between the two objectives and resolve their complexity and approximability for several classes of networks. # 94/C, 2nd Floor, 9th Cross, Opp HKBK College Main gate, Near Nagawara Ring Road,Bangalore-560045 70
  • 71. Zetta Networks, 9980499700 Furthermore, we propose approximation algorithms and heuristics. We perform experiments to evaluate the heuristics against optimal solutions that are obtained using an integer linear programming solver. We also investigate up to what degree the routing trade-offs occur in randomly generated instances. 42. An Acknowledgement Approach For The Detection Of Routing Misbehavior We study routing misbehavior in MANETs (Mobile Ad Hoc Networks) in this paper. In general, routing protocols for MANETs are designed based on the assumption that all participating nodes are fully cooperative. However, due to the open structure and scarcely available battery-based energy, node misbehaviors may exist. One such routing misbehavior is that some selfish nodes will participate in the route discovery and maintenance processes but refuse to forward data packets. In this paper, we propose the 2ACK scheme that serves as an add-on technique for routing schemes to detect routing misbehavior and to mitigate their adverse effect. The main idea of the 2ACK scheme is to send two-hop acknowledgment packets in the opposite direction of the routing path. In order to reduce additional routing overhead, only a fraction of the received data packets are acknowledged in the 2ACK scheme Analytical and simulation results are presented to evaluate the performance of the proposed scheme. 43. Dynamic Load Balancing Mechanism For A Parallel System A regeneration-theory approach is undertaken to analytically characterize the average overall completion time in a distributed system. The approach considers the heterogeneity in the processing rates of the nodes as well as the randomness in the delays imposed by the communication medium. The optimal one-shot load balancing policy is developed and subsequently extended to develop an autonomous and distributed load-balancing policy that can dynamically reallocate incoming external loads at each node. This adaptive and dynamic load balancing policy is implemented and evaluated in a two-node distributed system. The performance of the proposeddynamic load-balancing policy is compared to that of static policies as well as existing dynamic load-balancing policies by considering the average completion time per task and the system processing rate in the presence of random arrivals of the external loads. # 94/C, 2nd Floor, 9th Cross, Opp HKBK College Main gate, Near Nagawara Ring Road,Bangalore-560045 71
  • 72. Zetta Networks, 9980499700 44. Rate And Delay Guarantees Provided By Clos Packet Switches With Load Balancing 45. Integration Of Explicit Effective-Bandwidth-Based Qos Routing With Best-Effort Routing This paper presents a methodology for protecting low-priority best-effort (BE) traffic in a network domain that provides both virtual-circuit routing with bandwidth reservation for QoS traffic and datagram routing for BE traffic. When a QoS virtual circuit is established, bandwidths amounting to the traffic’s effective bandwidths are reserved along the links. We formulate a new QoS-virtual-circuit admission control and routing policy that sustains a minimum level of BE performance. In response to a QoS connection request, the policy executes a two-stage optimization. The first stage seeks a minimum-net-effective-bandwidth reservation path that satisfies a BE protecting constraint; the second stage is a tie- breaking rule, selecting from tied paths one that least disturbs BE traffic. Our novel policy implementation efficiently executes both optimization stages simultaneously by a single run of Dijkstra’s algorithm. According to simulation results, within a practical operating range, the consideration that our proposed policy gives to the BE service does not increase the blocking probability of a QoS connection request. 46. Optimal Communication Complexity Of Generic Multicast Key Distribution Ensuring privacy of communication over broadcast channels is a security task of considerable practical importance. At a high level, the problem involves a source of information (say, a PayTV broadcast station), which wants to transmit data privately to a privileged subset of users of a broadcast channel (say, the subscribers to the PayTV service), while ensuring that users outside this privileged group cannot decipher what is being sent. Furthermore, membership of the privileged group changes dynamically (in an arbitrary a priori unknown manner) and the source desires to keep its data hidden from unprivileged recipients at each point in time. The challenge lies in devising secure solutions for this problem in such a way that the communication and storage overhead is minimized. In this paper, our focus is on multicast key distribution protocols and, specifically, those that are designed using efficient symmetric-key cryptographic techniques. Quite commonly, key distribution in multicast is implemented using a central distribution authority, called the group center, responsible for establishing a shared key # 94/C, 2nd Floor, 9th Cross, Opp HKBK College Main gate, Near Nagawara Ring Road,Bangalore-560045 72
  • 73. Zetta Networks, 9980499700 among all privileged group members and for “rekeying” the group (that is, changing the shared key) every time a new member joins and/or an existing member leaves the group. The shared key can subsequently be used for various purposes, and, in particular, it can be used to guarantee privacy of group data (by encrypting all such data under the said key using a symmetric-key encryption scheme). Here we are interested in studying the communication complexity (the cost of transmitting rekey messages) of protocols that fall within this class. One simple way in which rekey operations can be handled is to have the center share individual longlived secret keys with every user of the channel and, after any membership change, transmit a fresh group key encrypted under the individual keys of only the new set of members. 47. A Priority Based Mac Scheduling Algorithm For Enhancing Qos Support In Bluetooth Piconet Bluetooth is a personal wireless communication technology and is being applied in many scenarios. Current existing MAC (Medium AccessControl) scheduling scheme only provides best-effort service for all master-slave connections. It is very challenging to provide QoS (Quality of Service) support for different connections due to the feature of Master Driven TDD (Time Division Duplex). This paper addresses the issue of how to enhance QoS support in a Bluetooth piconet. We propose an MAC scheduling algorithm which can provide different QoS for different connections based on priorities. Considering the feature of Master Driven TDD, we define token counters to estimate traffic of real-time slaves. To increase bandwidth utilization, a backoff mechanism is then presented for best-effort slaves to decrease the frequency of polling idle slaves. Simulation results demonstrate that our scheme achieves better performance over the existing schemes. 48. An Active process transformation of conceptual structure for group ware applications Group editors allow a group of distributed human users to edit a shared multimedia document at the same time over a computer network. Consistency control in this environment must not only guarantee convergence of replicated data, but also attempt to preserve intentions of operations. Operational transformation (OT) is a well-established method for optimistic consistency control # 94/C, 2nd Floor, 9th Cross, Opp HKBK College Main gate, Near Nagawara Ring Road,Bangalore-560045 73
  • 74. Zetta Networks, 9980499700 in this context and has drawn continuing research attention since 1989. However, counterexamples to previous works have often been identified despite the significant progress made on this topic over the past 15 years. This paper analyzes the root of correctness problems in OT and establishes a novel operational transformation framework for developing OT algorithms and proving their correctness. 49. Designing Qualitative Distributed application network for Expected Lifespans It is very important to allocate and manage resources for multimedia traffic flows with real-time performance requirements in order to guarantee quality of service (QoS). In this paper, we develop a scalable architecture and an algorithm for admission control of real-time flows. Since individual management of each traffic flow on each transit router can cause a fundamental scalability problem in both data and control planes, we consider that each flow is classified at the ingress router and data traffic is aggregated according to the class inside the core network as in a DiffServ framework. In our approach, admission decision is made for each flow at the edge (ingress) routers, but it is scalable because per-flow states are not maintained and the admission algorithm is simple. In the proposed admission control scheme, an admissible bandwidth, which is defined as the maximum rate of a flow that can be accommodated additionally while satisfying the delay performance requirements for both existing and new flows, is calculated based on the available bandwidth measured by edge routers. The admissible bandwidth is a threshold for admission control, and thus, it is very important to accurately estimate the admissible bandwidth. The performance of the proposed algorithm is evaluated by taking a set of simulation experiments using bursty traffic flows. 50. Trust –Based Community Formation in Peer-to-Peer File sharing Networks In modern computing There are various networks coming up for different uses and specifications, Internet is the best example of such network where using this network information and messages can be shared or mobile network is also one such example where voice can be shared among its users.Inspired by these networks we intend to build a new network of our own where files can be shared among its users, to understand this concept lets take an example: Imagine when you want some information about a particular city where you plan to go. what will you do, You will call some one whom you know has gone to that city ask him about the city. In other words you are using phone network to share information. Let us take one more example, when ever you want to find # 94/C, 2nd Floor, 9th Cross, Opp HKBK College Main gate, Near Nagawara Ring Road,Bangalore-560045 74
  • 75. Zetta Networks, 9980499700 certain information may be related to software, you will normally use internet and go to sites like google.com and search for the information, Google will show you list of locations where related information is available and then you go to the particular location of website and get the information this is how information is shared on internet. 51. Efficient Search in informal distributed network architecture Designing efficient search algorithms is a key challenge in unstructured peer-to-peer networks. Flooding and random walk (RW) are two typical search algorithms. Flooding searches aggressively and covers the most nodes. However, it generates a large amount of query messages and, thus, does not scale. On the contrary, RW searches conservatively. It only generates a fixed amount of query messages at each hop but would take longer search time.We propose the dynamic search (DS) algorithm, which is a generalization of flooding and RW. DS takes advantage of various contexts under which each previous search algorithm performs well. It resembles flooding for short-term search and RW for long-term search. Moreover, DS could be further combined with knowledge-based search mechanisms to improve the search performance.We analyze the performance of DS based on some performance metrics including the success rate, search time, query hits, query messages, query efficiency, and search efficiency. Numerical results show that DSprovides a good tradeoff between search performance and cost. On average, DS performs about 25 times better than flooding and 58 times better than RW in power-law graphs, and about 186 times better than flooding and 120 times better than RW in bimodal topologies. 52. Excellent Assurance of tree-based Distributed application network We have three sections in this project where first part consists of the how to design a network and also how to maintain the same network when it leads to some problem like node is de active. In the first part of the project, we use two algorithm named Network Construction and Network Maintenance which operates the whole network by adding the host to the network and also if the host is de active the tree diameter is maintained same when any action such as adding and removing of the host in the network.In the second part of the project consist of the how to send the message from one host to another host which is under the maintains of tree by using the process of Socket Connection. # 94/C, 2nd Floor, 9th Cross, Opp HKBK College Main gate, Near Nagawara Ring Road,Bangalore-560045 75
  • 76. Zetta Networks, 9980499700 53. Calculation of Maximum Transmission Rate between targeted path segments Measurement of network bandwidth is important for many Internet applications and protocols, especially those involving the transfer of large files and those involving the delivery of content with real-time QoS constraints, such as streaming media. Some specific examples of applications which can leverage accurate bandwidth estimation include end-system multicast and overlay network configuration protocols content location and delivery in peer-to-peer (P2P) networks network-aware cache or replica placement policies and flow scheduling and admission control policies at massively- accessed content servers Cloud Computing 54. Fuzzy Keyword Search over Encrypted Data in Cloud Computing As Cloud Computing becomes prevalent, more and more sensitive information are being centralized into the cloud. For the protection of data privacy, sensitive data usually have to be encrypted before outsourcing, which makes effective data utilization a very challenging task. Although traditional searchable encryption schemes allow a user to securely search over encrypted data through keywords and selectively retrieve files of interest, these techniques support only exact keyword search. That is, there is no tolerance of minor typos and format inconsistencies which, on the other hand, are typical user searching behavior and happen very frequently. This significant drawback makes existing techniques unsuitable in Cloud Computing as it greatly affects system usability, rendering user searching experiences very frustrating and system efficacy very low. In this paper, for the first time we formalize and solve the problem of effective fuzzy keyword search over encrypted cloud data while maintaining keyword privacy. Fuzzy keyword search greatly enhances system usability by returning the matching files when users’ searching inputs exactly match the predefined keywords or the closest possible matching files based on keyword similarity semantics, when exact match fails. In our solution, we exploit edit distance to quantify keywords similarity and develop an advanced technique on constructing fuzzy keyword sets, which greatly reduces the storage and representation overheads. Through rigorous security analysis, we show that our proposed solution is secure and privacy-preserving, while correctly realizing the goal of fuzzy keyword search # 94/C, 2nd Floor, 9th Cross, Opp HKBK College Main gate, Near Nagawara Ring Road,Bangalore-560045 76
  • 77. Zetta Networks, 9980499700 55. Client-side Load Balancer using Cloud Web applications' traffic demand fluctuates widely and un-predictably. The common practice of provisioning a fixed capacity would either result in unsatisfied customers (un-derprovision) or waste valuable capital investment (overprovision). By leveraging an infrastructure cloud's ondemand, pay-per-use capabilities, we finally can match the capacity with the demand in real time. This paper investigates how we can build a large-scale web server farm in the cloud. Our performance study shows that using existing cloud components and optimization techniques, we cannot achieve high scalability. Instead, we propose a client-side load balancing architecture, which can scale and handle failure on a milli-second time scale. We experimentally show that our architecture achieves high throughput in a cloud environment while meeting QoS requirements. 56. Enabling Public Auditability and Data Dynamics for Storage Security in Cloud Computing 57. Towards Secure and Dependable Storage Services in Cloud Computing 58. Dynamic Load- - Balanced Multicast for Data Intensive Applications on Clouds Data-intensive parallel applications on clouds need to deploy large data sets from the cloud’s storage facility toall compute nodes as fast as possible. Many multicast algorithms have been proposed for clusters and grid environments. The most common approach is to construct one or more spanning trees based on the network topology and network monitoring data in order to maximize available bandwidth and avoid bottleneck links. However, delivering optimal performance becomes difficult once the available bandwidth changes dynamically. In this paper, we focus on Amazon EC2/S3 (the most commonly used cloud platform today) and propose two high performance multicast algorithms. These algorithms make it possible to efficiently transfer large amounts of data stored in Amazon S3 to multiple Amazon EC2 nodes. The three salient features of our algorithms are (1) to construct an overlay network on clouds without network topology information, (2) to optimize the total throughput dynamically, and (3) to increase the # 94/C, 2nd Floor, 9th Cross, Opp HKBK College Main gate, Near Nagawara Ring Road,Bangalore-560045 77
  • 78. Zetta Networks, 9980499700 download throughput by letting nodes cooperate with each other. The two algorithms differ in the way nodes cooperate: the first ‘non-steal’ algorithm lets each node download an equal share of all data, while the second ‘steal’ algorithm uses work stealing to counter the effect of heterogeneous download bandwidth. As a result, all nodes can download files from S3 quickly, even when the network performance changes while the algorithm is running. We evaluate our algorithms on EC2/S3, and show that they are scalable and consistently achieve high throughput. Both algorithms perform much better than having each node downloading 59. Service Oriented Architecture for Cloud based Travel Reservation Software as a Service Cloud is gaining popularity as means for saving cost of IT ownership and accelerating time to market due to ready-to-use, dynamically scalable computing infrastructure and software services offered on Cloud on pay-per-use basis. Design of software solution for delivery as a shared service over Cloud requires specific considerations. In this paper we describe an approach for design of travel reservations solution for use by corporate business travelers based on Service Oriented Architecture, Software-as-a-Service, and Cloud Computing paradigms. 60. A New Wireless Web Access Mode Based on Cloud Computing As most websites are designed for desktop PCs, it is extremely uncomfortable to browse these large pages on a wireless handheld device with small screen and limited user interface. So it is necessary to adapt these web pages to small screen devices. Besides, as the limited computing ability and capacity of storage of wireless handheld devices, it is also extremely challenging to deploy existing web page adaptation engine. By referring to huge computing ability and storage resource of cloud computing infrastructure, a new wireless web access mode is proposed. Firstly, the system framework is present. Subsequently, the two key components of system are described in detail: the one is distributed web page adaptation engine, which is designed for the purpose that the engine can be carried by computing cloud distributed and parallel; the other is distributed web page blocks management based on cloud computing, which is proposed so that the web page adaptation engine can be deployed reasonably. Moreover, a prototype system and a set of evaluation experiments have been implemented. # 94/C, 2nd Floor, 9th Cross, Opp HKBK College Main gate, Near Nagawara Ring Road,Bangalore-560045 78
  • 79. Zetta Networks, 9980499700 Wireless Communication 61. Power Aware Ad Hoc On-demand Distance Vector (PAAODV) Routing for MANETS Compromised-node and denial-of-service are two key attacks in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). In this paper, we study data delivery mechanisms that can with high probability circumvent black holes formed by these attacks. We argue that classic multipath routing approaches are vulnerable to such attacks, mainly due to their deterministic nature. So once the adversary acquires the routing algorithm, it can compute the same routes known to the source, hence making all information sent over these routes vulnerable to its attacks. In this paper, we develop mechanisms that generate randomized multi-path routes. Under our designs, the routes taken by the “shares” of different packets change over time. So even if the routing algorithm becomes known to the adversary, the adversary still cannot pinpoint the routes traversed by each packet. Besides randomness, the generated routes are also highly dispersive and energy efficient, making them quite capable of circumventing black holes. We analytically investigate the security and energy performance of the proposed schemes. We also formulate an optimization problem to minimize the end-to-end energy consumption under given security constraints. Extensive simulations are conducted to verify the validity of our mechanisms 62. Power Management for Throughput Enhancement in Wireless Ad-Hoc Networks In this paper we introduce the notion of power management within the context of wireless adhoc networks. More specifically, we investigate the effects of using different transmit powers on the average power consumption and end-to- end network throughput in a wireless ad-hoc environment. This power management approach would help in reducing the system power consumption and hence prolonging the battery life of mobile nodes. Furthermore, it improves the end-to- end network throughput as compared to other ad-hoc networks in which all mobile nodes use the same transmit power. The improvement is due to the achievement of a tradeoff between minimizing interference ranges, reduction in the average number of hops to reach a destination, the probability of having isolated clusters, and the average number of transmissions (including retransmissions due to collisions). The protocols would first dynamically determine an optimal connectivity range wherein they adapt their transmit powers so as to only reach a subset of the nodes in the network. The connectivity range would then be dynamically changed in a # 94/C, 2nd Floor, 9th Cross, Opp HKBK College Main gate, Near Nagawara Ring Road,Bangalore-560045 79
  • 80. Zetta Networks, 9980499700 distributed manner so as to achieve the near optimal throughput. Minimal power routing is used to further enhance performance. 63. A Secure and Power Efficient Routing Scheme for Ad Hoc Networks Wireless Sensor Networks 64. PowerNap: An Energy Efficient MAC Layer for Random Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks Idle-listening is the biggest challenge for energy- efficiency and longevity of multihop wireless sensor network (WSN) deployments. While existing coordinated sleep/wakeup scheduling protocols eliminate idle-listening for simple traffic pat- terns, they are unsuitable to handle the complex traffic patterns of the random routing protocols. We present a novel coordinated sleep/wakeup protocol POWERNAP , which avoids the overhead of distributing complex, large sleep/wakeup scheduling information to the nodes. POWERNAP piggybacks onto the relayed data packets the seed of the pseudo- random generator that encodes the scheduling information, and enables any recipient/snooper to calculate its sleep/wakeup schedule from this seed. In essence, POWERNAP trades off doing extra computation in order to avoid expensive control packet transmissions. We show through simulations and real implementation on Telos B motes that POWERNAP eliminates the idle-listening problem efficiently and achieves self-stabilizing, low-latency 65. Multi-User Broadcast Authentication in Wireless Sensor Networks 66. FDAC: Toward Fine-grained Distributed Data Access Control in Wireless Sensor Networks Web based (Datamining / Webmining) # 94/C, 2nd Floor, 9th Cross, Opp HKBK College Main gate, Near Nagawara Ring Road,Bangalore-560045 80
  • 81. Zetta Networks, 9980499700 67. A Service Versioning Model For Personalized E- Learning System(SOA) Service Versioning is a hot topic that has generated a broad range of guidance from a variety of sources. Several Web services standardization efforts are underway but none of them address the problem of service versioning. Service versioning with metadata in e-learning system makes easy search, retrieval, import and evaluate. In E learning systems, learning objects with metadata allow the learners to use quality educational contents filling their characteristic and teacher may use quality educational contents to structure their courses. A service versioning model in e-learning objects system with metadata satisfies the requirements for learning environment. In personalized e-learning systems, when more numbers of learner searching data the retrieval time is being delayed when the data volume is increasing continuously. This problem can be solved by designing and applying a proper service versioning model to personalized e- learning systems. Hence, it is proposed to design a service version model with metadata for personalized e-learning system. This proposed service versioning model satisfies some of the requirements like accessibility, interoperability, adaptability, durability and reusability in learning environment. Support multiple versions of a service isolate more expensive business behavior calls to specific versions so as to reduce impact to all of the other learners. 68. Monitoring Service Systems from a Language-Action Perspective (SOA) Business processes are increasingly distributed and open, making them prone to failure. Monitoring is, therefore, an important concern not only for the processes themselves but also for the services that comprise these processes. We present a framework for multilevel monitoring of these service systems. It formalizes interaction protocols, policies, and commitments that account for standard and extended effects following the language-action perspective, and allows specification of goals and monitors at varied abstraction levels. We demonstrate how the framework can be implemented and evaluate it with multiple scenarios that include specifying and monitoring open-service policy commitments. 69. SOA an Approach for Information Retrieval Using Web Services # 94/C, 2nd Floor, 9th Cross, Opp HKBK College Main gate, Near Nagawara Ring Road,Bangalore-560045 81
  • 82. Zetta Networks, 9980499700 70. Mining Web Graphs for Recommendations As the exponential explosion of various contents generated on the Web, Recommendation techniques have become increasingly indispensable. Innumerable different kinds of recommendations are made on the Web every day, including movies, music, images, books recommendations, query suggestions, tags recommendations, etc. No matter what types of data sources are used for the recommendations, essentially these data sources can be modeled in the form of various types of graphs. In this paper, aiming at providing a general framework on mining Web graphs for recommendations, (1) we first propose a novel diffusion method which propagates similarities between different nodes and generates recommendations; (2) then we illustrate how to generalize different recommendation problems into our graph diffusion framework. The proposed framework can be utilized in many recommendationtasks on the World Wide Web, including query suggestions, tag recommendations, expert finding, image recommendations, image annotations, etc. The experimental analysis on large datasets shows the promising future of our work. 71. One Size Does Not Fit All: Towards User- and Query-Dependent Ranking For Web Databases With the emergence of the deep Web, searching Web databases in domains such as vehicles, real estate, etc. has become a routine task. One of the problems in this context is ranking the results of a user query. Earlier approaches for addressing this problem have used frequencies of database values, query logs, and user profiles. A common thread in most of these approaches is that ranking is done in a user- and/or query-independent manner. This paper proposes a novel query- and user-dependent approach for ranking query results in Web databases. We present a ranking model, based on two complementary notions of user and query similarity, to derive a ranking function for a given user query. This function is acquired from a sparse workload comprising of several such ranking functions derived for various user-query pairs. The model is based on the intuition that similar users display comparable ranking preferences over the results of similar queries. We define these similarities formally in alternative ways and discuss their effectiveness analytically and experimentally over two distinct Web databases. # 94/C, 2nd Floor, 9th Cross, Opp HKBK College Main gate, Near Nagawara Ring Road,Bangalore-560045 82
  • 83. Zetta Networks, 9980499700 72. Communication-Aware Load Balancing Cluster computing has emerged as a primary and cost-effective platform for running parallel applications, including communication-intensive applications that transfer a large amount of data among the nodes of a cluster via the interconnection network. Conventional load balancers have proven effective in increasing the utilization of CPU, memory, and disk I/O resources in a cluster. However, most of the existing load-balancing schemes ignore network resources, leaving an opportunity to improve the effective bandwidth of networks on clusters running parallel applications. For this reason, we propose a communication-aware load balancing technique that is capable of improving the performance of communication-intensive applications by increasing the effective utilization of networks in cluster environments. To facilitate the proposed loadbalancing scheme, we introduce a behavior model for parallel applications with large requirements of network, CPU, memory, and disk I/O resources. Our load-balancing scheme can make full use of this model to quickly and accurately determine the load induced by a variety of parallel applications. Simulation results generated from a diverse set of both synthetic bulk synchronous and real parallel applications on a cluster show that our scheme significantly improves the performance, in terms of slowdown and turn-around time, over existing schemes by up to 206 percent (with an average of 74 percent) and 235 percent (with an average of 82 percent), respectively 73. Effective Scheduling in Grid Environments for high throughput Grid computing is a recently developed technology. Although the developmental tools and techniques for the grid have been extensively studied.. This paper is the first one that presents a hierarchical model for the grid service reliability analysis and evaluation. The hierarchical modeling is mapped to the physical and logical architecture of the grid service system and makes the evaluation and calculation tractable by identifying the independence among layers. Various types of failures are interleaved in the grid computing environment, such as blocking failures, time-out failures, matchmaking failures, network failures, program failures, and resource failures. This paper investigates all of them to achieve a complete picture about grid service reliability. Markov models, Queuing theory, and Graph theory are mainly used here to model, evaluate, and analyze the grid service reliability. Numerical examples are illustrated. 74. SLA-Driven Clustering Of QOS Aware Application Servers. # 94/C, 2nd Floor, 9th Cross, Opp HKBK College Main gate, Near Nagawara Ring Road,Bangalore-560045 83
  • 84. Zetta Networks, 9980499700 In this paper, we discuss the design, implementation, and experimental evaluation of a middleware architecture for enabling Service Level Agreement (SLA)-driven clustering of QoS-aware application servers. Our middleware architecture supports application server technologies with dynamic resource management: Application servers can dynamically change the amount of clustered resources assigned to hosted applications on-demand so as to meet application-level Quality of Service (QoS) requirements. These requirements can include timeliness, availability, and high throughput and are specified in SLAs. A prototype of our architecture has been implemented using the open-source J2EE application server JBoss. The evaluation of this prototype shows that our approach makes possible JBoss’ resource usage optimization and allows JBoss to effectively meet the QoS requirements of the applications it hosts, i.e., to honor the SLAs of those applications. 75. Signature generation technique in websites for Intrusion and anamoly detection This paper reports the design principles and evaluation results of a new experimental hybrid intrusion detection system (HIDS). This hybrid system combines the advantages of low falsepositive rate of signature-based intrusion detection system (IDS) and the ability of anomaly detection system (ADS) to detect novel unknown attacks. By mining anomalous traffic episodes from Internet connections, we build an ADS that detects anomalies beyond the capabilities of signature- based SNORT or Bro systems. HIDS extracts signatures from the output of ADS and adds them into the database for fast and accurate intrusion detection.The HIDS approach proves the vitality of detecting intrusions and anomalies, simultaneously, by automated data mining and signature generation over Internet connection episodes. 76. Social Networking In communities around the world, teenagers are joining social network sites (SNSes) like MySpace, Facebook, and Bebo. Once logged into one of these systems, participants are asked to create a profile to represent themselves digitally. Using text, images, video, audio, links, quizzes, and surveys, teens generate a profile that expresses how they see themselves. These profiles are sewn together into a large web through 'Friends' lists. Participants can mark other users as 'Friends'. If that other person agrees with the relationship assertion, a photo of each is displayed on the profile of the other. Through careful selection, participants develop a 'Friends' list. # 94/C, 2nd Floor, 9th Cross, Opp HKBK College Main gate, Near Nagawara Ring Road,Bangalore-560045 84
  • 85. Zetta Networks, 9980499700 77. Image processing Toots The brief definition of image processing is the ability to retrieve information from images. This is achieved by, first transforming the image into a data set. Mathematical operations can be done on this new format(GIF — an 8-bit [256 colors], JPEG-24 bit [16 million colors], TIFF-the standard 24 bit publication bitmap format). Different kinds of information are retrieved by the different operations that are performed on the data set for eg colored images can be transformed to either black and white or gray scale images and vice versa . In this project the size of the image can be changed i.e either maximized or minimized and also it can be rotated in any direction. 78. ODAM An Optimized Distributed Association Rule Mining Algorithm With the explosive growth of information sources available on the World Wide Web, it has become increasingly necessary for users to utilize automated tools in find the desired information resources, and to track and analyze their usage patterns. Association rule mining is an active data mining research area. However, most ARM algorithms cater to a centralized environment. In contrast to previous ARM algorithms, ODAM is a distributed algorithm for geographically distributed data sets that reduces communication costs. Recently, as the need to mine patterns across distributed databases has grown, Distributed Association Rule Mining (DARM) algorithms have been developed. These algorithms, however, assume that the databases are either horizontally or vertically distributed. In the special case of databases populated from information extracted from textual data, existing D-ARM algorithms cannot discover rules based on higher-order associations between items in distributed textual documents that are neither vertically nor horizontally distributed, but rather a hybrid of the two. 79. Dynamic indexing technique for Effective data retrieval from large database systems Usually users are interested in querying data over a relatively small subset of the entire attribute set at a time. A potential solution is to use lower dimensional indexes that accurately represent the user access patterns. If the query pattern change, then the query response using the physical database design that is developed based on a static snapshot of the query workload may significantly degrade. To address these issues, we introduce a parameterizable technique to # 94/C, 2nd Floor, 9th Cross, Opp HKBK College Main gate, Near Nagawara Ring Road,Bangalore-560045 85
  • 86. Zetta Networks, 9980499700 recommend indexes based on index types that are frequently used for high-dimensional data sets and to dynamically adjust indexes as the underlying query workload changes. We incorporate a query pattern change detection mechanism to determine when the access patterns have changed enough to warrant change in the physical database design. By adjusting analysis parameters, we trade off analysis speed against analysis resolution. 80. Dendoextract for identifying and visualizing the trends Organizations and firms are capturing increasingly more data about their customers, suppliers, competitors, and business environment. Most of this data is multiattribute (multidimensional) and temporal in nature. Data mining and business intelligence techniques are often used to discover patterns in such data; however, mining temporal relationships typically is a complex task. This paper propose a new data analysis and visualization technique for representing trends in multiattribute temporal data using a clustering based approach. This paper introduce Clusterbased Temporal Representation of EvenT Data (C-TREND), a system that implements the temporal cluster graph construct, which maps multiattribute temporal data to a two-dimensional directed graph that identifies trends in dominant data types over time. This paper present temporal clustering-based technique, discuss its algorithmic implementation and performance, demonstrate applications of the technique by analyzing data on wireless networking technologies and baseball batting statistics, and introduce a set of metrics for further analysis of discovered trends. 81. Indexing with signature for efficient retrieval from temporal patterns A number of algorithms have been proposed for the discovery of data’s from the large database. However, since the number of generated patterns can be large, selecting which patterns to analyze can be nontrivial. There is thus a need for algorithms and tools that can assist in the selection of discovered patterns so that subsequent analysis can be performed in an efficient and, ideally, interactive manner. In this project, we propose a signature-based indexing method to optimize the storage and retrieval of a relative data’s from the large database. 82. Accessing information based on Associative rules # 94/C, 2nd Floor, 9th Cross, Opp HKBK College Main gate, Near Nagawara Ring Road,Bangalore-560045 86
  • 87. Zetta Networks, 9980499700 Data mining techniques have been widely used in various applications. Data mining extracts novel and useful knowledge from large repositories of data and has become an effective analysis and decision means in corporation. The sharing of data for data mining can bring a lot of advantages for research and business collaboration; however, large repositories of data contain private data and sensitive rules that must be protected before published. Motivated by the multiple conflicting requirements of data sharing, privacy preserving and knowledge discovery, privacy preserving data mining has become a research hotspot in data mining and database security fields. 83. SIDN GENERATOR)(unique identification system by using SIDN The SIDN generator enables authorized personnel to verify and retrieve details about any individual who is registered under an organization. Every registered individual is given a unique ID, and records may be maintained about the individual consisting of his/her name, current photograph, personal details, educational qualifications and other types of information. 84. Truth discovery in web search engines. The world-wide web has become the most important information source for most of us. Unfortunately, there is no guarantee for the correctness of information on the web. Moreover, different web sites often provide conflicting in- formation on a subject, such as different specifications for the same product. In this paper we propose a new problem called Veracity that is conformity to truth, which studies how to find true facts from a large amount of conflicting information on many subjects that is provided by various web sites. We design a general framework for the Veracity problem, and invent an algorithm called Truth Finder, which utilizes the relationships between web sites and their information, i.e., a web site is trustworthy if it provides many pieces of true information, and a piece of information is likely to be true if it is provided by many trustworthy web sites. Our experiments show that Truth Finder successfully finds true facts among conflicting information, and identifies trustworthy web sites better than the popular search engines. # 94/C, 2nd Floor, 9th Cross, Opp HKBK College Main gate, Near Nagawara Ring Road,Bangalore-560045 87
  • 88. Zetta Networks, 9980499700 85. Detection and Punishment of Malicious Wireless Stations in IEEE 802.11e EDCA Network 86. Packet dropping 87. An Extensible Framework for Efficient Secure SMS LINUX NEW PROJECTS 1) IMPLEMENTATION OF MOBILE: The aim of this project is to implement the basic functionality of the cell phones, in this project we are learning the operation of the GSM modem. The design of the GUI for the functions of mobile such as dialing pad, text editor for SMS are involved in this project. In The practical or development part we are using ARM9 processor, writing the API(driver) for the GSM modem, porting the OS(linux) on the board and development of the GUI as stated above to interact with the GSM modem. Development of GSM API involves the firmware development of the UART available in the ARM9, using the firmware to interact with the modem and developing the API and finally using the API's in GUI development. We are using the QT to develop the GUI for our project as QT is most widely used for mobile application development. Hardware requirements: GSM, GPS software requirements: QT, Linux Kernel 2) INTELLIGENT HIGH-WAY: The vision of this project is to implement the digital traffic/high way sign boards. The design & development of the wireless transmitter which transmit the signal/code to the vehicle, receiver to receive the signal in vehicle. The transmitter is static, they replacing the current sign boards on the roads, the receiver is a mobile device which shall be mounted on the vehicles. As the vehicle enters the region of the transmitter it receives the signal and displays the sign to indicate the status to the driver of vehicle. The vehicle module has the transmitter which can be used only to # 94/C, 2nd Floor, 9th Cross, Opp HKBK College Main gate, Near Nagawara Ring Road,Bangalore-560045 88
  • 89. Zetta Networks, 9980499700 communicate across the vehicle around them, this can be used for asking the vehicles to give way to over take which replaces the horn thus reducing the noise pollution. Hardware requirements: zigbee, 8051 micro controller, RF Software requirements: QT, Linux kernel 3) RFID PASSES: The aim of this project is to provide the digital passes for passengers, the RFID can be issued for public as transportation passes. In this project the bus, metro train etc... are mounted with the RFID receiver which allows the passenger only has the passes & the civilians has to use their passes as their ID to travel & which tells the account No. of the traveler so that he can be recharge his account. As the passengers enters the vehicle the vehicle tracks the ID of every individual and when they get down the module again tracks it and automatically draws the traveling charge from his/her account. Implementation part involves the development of the RFID tracker/receiver, the transmitter to update the main server and the software to maintain the account of passengers. Hardware requirement: RFID Software requirements: QT(sql database) 4) HUMAN ARM CONTROLLER: The aim of this project is to control the cranes in the industry by capturing the movement of the human arm. The operator will be provided with the gloves , which makes the crane/machine to move according to the movements of the human arm(operator). The gloves will be having sensors, that pass the data to the system through network(zigbee/wifi) and it make the robotic arm movements corresponding to the human arm movement. The system which is connected to the robotic arm, will receive the data passed from the sensors present in the gloves and act according to the signal. 5) CATCH ME MAMA: # 94/C, 2nd Floor, 9th Cross, Opp HKBK College Main gate, Near Nagawara Ring Road,Bangalore-560045 89
  • 90. Zetta Networks, 9980499700 The aim of this project is to automate & connect the RTO regional offices & thevehicles. The idea is to monitor the status of the vehicle under the law & against thetheft. The Server placed in the central office administrates & authorize the vehicles. The first priority is given to server later comes the owner or user of the vehicle. The system regulates the rules that should be followed by every driver. It primarily checks for the status of the vehicle as given below. • Check the validity of the insurance. • Check if crime cases booked on vehicle/driver • Check the validity of the user license The user has to place the license in the card holder to login & access the car, the vehicle module will then send the vehicle Reg.No, license No. & the gps value to the nearest server through wireless media requesting the access. The server get the message logged & checks the all the primary condition mentioned above. The insurance will be verified first, the complaints on the vehicle will be the next, if the server verifies the 2 condition and if it passes the both case then the access will be given to vehicle. The vehicle receive the commands sent by server and it will give permission to start the vehicle. If the last condition failed the driver will be given access and as he travels if he encounter any police men(catch module) the vehicle will inform the driver and it will stop the vehicle sending the message to the police. Until he pays the fine the vehicle can not be accessed. As explained above to implement this system we have to design 3 system module. • Vehicle module • Central Server • Police module(mobile phones with bluetooth/ wifi) Hardware requirements: zigbee, RFID, 8051, 3-way communication # 94/C, 2nd Floor, 9th Cross, Opp HKBK College Main gate, Near Nagawara Ring Road,Bangalore-560045 90
  • 91. Zetta Networks, 9980499700 Software requirements: Visual Studio, QT 6) TOUCH SCREEN WHELL CHAIR: Description: Implementing a wheel chair, that can be controlled by touch screen option(GUI). This concept is help the physically disabled people. This modules uses the touch screen as controlling part for the wheel chair. The user can navigate the chair using the buttons on the screen, but the scope is not limited here we are designing the audio & video player so that they can be used it as gadget. A physically disabled person can move from one place to another by monitoring the touch screen wheel chair. Through GUI a wheel chair can be controlled. Through the audio and video players , a physically disabled person will be aware of the obstacles. Hardware requirements: Robotic kits Software requirements: QT 7) e-WAITER: Implementing a Robot, that serves the customers of the hotel by taking the menu order through wifi. And the menu selection can be done the customers using touch screen option on the table. Implementation involves these modules: • Touch screen Menu • Receiver(order) which receives the order from the customers through zigbee/wifi • robot(e-waiter) , which delivers the order Once the customers selected the menu items by touch screen option mounted on the table. The data(order) will get transferred to the system and then the serviceto the customer will be done by the robot, which will be provided with the directions to reach the particular table and to deliver the service. Hardware requirements: Robotic kits, zigbee/wifi Software requirements: QT # 94/C, 2nd Floor, 9th Cross, Opp HKBK College Main gate, Near Nagawara Ring Road,Bangalore-560045 91
  • 92. Zetta Networks, 9980499700 8) ENERGY THEFT MONITOR: This will help to detect the misuse of the electric power by the people using zigbee.And helps in finding where the power is getting theft. The implementation of this project involves the following modules: • Detect the power consumption. • Detect the power transmission. Find the difference between the transmission and consumption. The power consumption by the single unit and also the system will be calculated and also we will calculate the power transmission. If we find any difference between the consumption and transmission of power, we can say that the power has been theft and easily can detect the power theft. Hardware requirements: ADC, 8051, zigbee Software requirements: QT VLSI PROJECTS: ABSTRACT 1. Design and FPGA Implementation of Dual Data Rate SDRAM Controller (64 Bit) Synchronous DRAM (SDRAM) has become a mainstream memory of choice in design due to its speed, burst access and pipeline features. For high-end applications using processors, the interface to the SDRAM is supported by the processor’s built-in peripheral module. However, for other applications, the system designer must design a controller to provide proper commands for DRAM initialization, read/write accesses and memory refresh. This SDRAM controller reference design, located between the SDRAM and the bus master, reduces the user’s effort to deal with the SDRAM command interface by providing a simple generic system interface to the bus master • Simplifies SDRAM command interface to standard system read/write interface. • Internal state machine built for SDRAM power-on initialization. # 94/C, 2nd Floor, 9th Cross, Opp HKBK College Main gate, Near Nagawara Ring Road,Bangalore-560045 92
  • 93. Zetta Networks, 9980499700 • Read/write cycle access time optimized automatically according to the SDRAM timing spec and the mode it’s configured to. • Dedicated auto-refresh request input and acknowledge output for SDRAM refresh. • Easily configurable to support different CAS latency and burst length. 2. Design and FPGA Implementation of Asynchronous Transfer Mode Knockout Switch The Knockout switch is an N-input N-output packet switch with all inputs and outputs operating at the same bit rate. Fixed-length packets arrive on the N-input in a time-slotted fashion, with each packet containing the address of the output port. The Knockout switch has application in both Datagram and virtual circuit packet networks. Aside from having control over the average number of packet arrivals destined for a given output, we assume no control over the specific arrival time of packets on the inputs and their associated output addresses. 3. A Reconfigurable Coprocessor for Redundant Radix-4 Arithmetic The coprocessor is designed to perform many powerful floating point operations. This frees the main processor from performing the floating point computations while the coprocessor simultaneously performs the numeric calculations. Besides numeric computations, coprocessors are also available for other specific computation – intensive application areas such as signal processing, graphics, image processing and many others. In recent times, designing coprocessors for parallel fast multiplications of numbers has become an important field of research. Several algorithms have been developed for multiplication of binary numbers that are easily being implemented on a VLSI chip. 4. An efficient architecture for 3-D Lifting based Discrete Wavelet Transform This paper proposes an improved version of lifting based 3D Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) VLSI architecture which uses bi-orthogonal 9/7 filter processing. The whole architecture was optimized in efficient pipeline and parallel design way to speed up and achieve higher hardware utilization. The Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) was based on time-scale # 94/C, 2nd Floor, 9th Cross, Opp HKBK College Main gate, Near Nagawara Ring Road,Bangalore-560045 93
  • 94. Zetta Networks, 9980499700 representation, which provides efficient multi-resolution. The lifting based DWT architecture has the advantage of lower computational complexities transforming signals with extension and regular data flow. This is suitable for VLSI implementation. It uses a cascade combination of three 1-D wavelet transform along with a set of in- chip memory buffers between the stages. 5. Design of an architecture for Advanced Encryption System to Improvise System Speed. Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), also known as Rijndael, is an encryption standard used for securing information. AES was published by NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology). AES is a block cipher algorithm that has been analyzed extensively and is now used widely. AES is a symmetric block cipher that is intended to replace DES as the approved standard for a wide range of applications. The block cipher Rijnddael was designed by Dr. Joan Daemen and Dr. Vincent Rijmen and the name of the algorithm is a combination of the names of its two creators. Rijndael is very secure and has no known weakness. Rijndael is conventional (symmetric key) system and is relatively simple cipher in many respects. It takes an input block of a certain size, usually 128, and produces a corresponding output block of the same size. The transformation requires a second input, which is the secret key. It is important to know that the secret key. 6. Design of Digital Base Band Processor for UWB Transceiver on RFID Tags Automatic identification procedures (Auto-ID) have become very popular in many service industries, purchasing and distribution logistics, industry, manufacturing companies and material flow systems. Automatic identification procedures exist to provide information about people, animals, goods and products in transit. RFID (Radio-Frequency Identification) technology has drawn a swirl of attention in the past few years as it helps identify objects and people in a fast, accurate and inexpensive way. It has been applied into many areas, including passports, transportation payment, product tracing, automotive as well as animal identification etc. Nowadays the applications of RFID are increasing rapidly, including supply chain management, access control to buildings, public transportation, open-air events, airport baggage and so on. To meet the market requirements, the preferred RFID system must exhibit features like low cost, long operation range and high data rate, requiring a small and low-voltage/lowpower integrated circuits. # 94/C, 2nd Floor, 9th Cross, Opp HKBK College Main gate, Near Nagawara Ring Road,Bangalore-560045 94
  • 95. Zetta Networks, 9980499700 7. Design of Quadrature Phase Shifting key Modulator Module. Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK) is one of the most popular digital modulations. The term "Quadrature" implies, the carrier can have one of the four possible phases, at a given time slot. The phase shift of 90º in each time period, gives four possible states in the complete cycle of 360º. In this type of digital modulation, each phase shift represents 2-bits of information, called ‘Symbol’. Hence it has four symbols in total and each stands for two bits. The means of conveying information through phase variations i.e. the cosine carrier is varied in phase by keeping the amplitude and frequency as constant is called Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK). Although, this process may seem to be insignificant at initial stage, but this modulation scheme enables the carrier to transmit the 2-bits of information instead of 1-bit. This doubling makes the bandwidth of the carrier, more effective. 8.Design of efficient SYSTOLLIC Architecture for Discrete Wavelet Transform The Discrete Wavelet Transform is a signal processing technique in which has found wide acceptance data compression. Considerable work has been done in designing systolic architecture to perform DWT. This paper proposes systolic array architecture to compute 1-D discrete wavelet transform (DWT). The proposed systolic array consists of L processing elements (PE), where L denotes the number of levels. The main focus of this project is to achieve power reduction and reduction of Hardware complexity. 9DESIGN OF AN OFDM TRANSMITTER AND RECEIVER USING FPGA. Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) is a multi carrier modulation technique. OFDM provides high bandwidth efficiency because the carriers are orthogonal to each other’s and multiple carriers share the data among themselves. The main advantage of this transmission technique is their robustness to channel fading in wireless communication environment. The main objective of this project is to design and implement a base band OFDM transmitter and receiver using FPGA. This project focuses on the core-processing block of an OFDM system, which are the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) block and the Inverse Fast Fourier Transform (IFFT). The 8 points IFFT / FFT decimation-in-frequency (DIF) with radix-2 algorithm is analyzed in detail to produce a solution that is suitable for FPGA implementation. The FPGA implementation of the project is performed using Very High Speed Integrated Circuit # 94/C, 2nd Floor, 9th Cross, Opp HKBK College Main gate, Near Nagawara Ring Road,Bangalore-560045 95
  • 96. Zetta Networks, 9980499700 (VHSIC) Hardware Descriptive Language (VHDL). This performance of the coding is analyzed from the result of timing simulation using Altera Max Plus II. 10. FPGA Implementation of Interpolation and Decimation Unit for Rake Receiver Signal processing for communication systems require or work at different sampling rate. In digital signal processing (DSP) applications like rake receiver, sampling rate conversion is a common operation. Interpolators and decimators are utilized to increase or decrease the sampling rate. The FIR compiler automatically creates interpolation and decimation filters using polyphase decomposition. Polyphase filters simplify the overall system design and also reduce the number of computations per cycle required by the hardware. Computationally efficient implementation of interpolators and decimators employ polyphase decomposition. 11. Design and FPGA Implementation of Single Data Rate SDRAM Controller (64 Bit) Synchronous DRAM (SDRAM) has become a mainstream memory of choice in design due to its speed, burst access and pipeline features. For high-end applications using processors, the interface to the SDRAM is supported by the processor’s built-in peripheral module. However, for other applications, the system designer must design a controller to provide proper commands for SDRAM initialization, read/write accesses and memory refresh. This SDRAM controller reference design, located between the SDRAM and the bus master, reduces the user’s effort to deal with the SDRAM command interface by providing a simple generic system interface to the bus master. 12.Design of JPEG IMAGE COMPRESSION (BASELINE METHOD) This project aims to design a single chip VLSI architecture for implementing the JPEG BASELINE IMAGE COMPRESSION standard. The architecture exploits the principles of pipelining and parallelism to the maximum extent in order to obtain high speed The architecture for discrete cosine transform and the entropy encoder are based on efficient algorithms designed for high speed VLSI implementation. The entire architecture can be implemented on a single VLSI chip . Data compression is the reduction or elimination of redundancy in data representation in order to achieve savings in storage and communication costs. Data compression techniques can be broadly classified into two categories: Losless,Lossyschemes. In # 94/C, 2nd Floor, 9th Cross, Opp HKBK College Main gate, Near Nagawara Ring Road,Bangalore-560045 96
  • 97. Zetta Networks, 9980499700 lossless methods, the exact original data can be recovered while in lossy schemes a close approximation of the original data can be obtained. 13.Design of 8 bit PICCO PROCESSOR The picoProcessor (pP) is an 8-bit processor. The picoProcessor has separate instruction and data memories. The instruction memory is 4K instructions in size, and data memory is 256 bytes. The picoProcessor can also address I/O devices using up to 256 input ports and 256 output ports. Within the processor there are eight 8-bit general purpose registers r0 to r7. r0 is always read as zero and ignores writes. There is also a return address stack of depth 4, an interrupt return register and Zero(Z) and Carry(C) condition codes. Pipeline architecture is employed. The instruction register fetches the next instruction from the instruction memory depending on the value in the program counter. This is the ‘fetch’ cycle .The program counter is incremented using a program counter updating logic block. The instruction fetched by the instruction register is decoded by a decoding logic and the required control signals are generated and are registered. This is the ‘decode’ cycle. Depending on the control signals generated, the corresponding execution units are enabled. The outputs are registered in the following clock cycle. This is the ‘execute’ cycle. The registered outputs are then written to the register file or the memory in the ‘write back’ cycle. 14. IMPLEMENTATION OFON RAIL-PASSENGER INFORMATION SYSTEMUSING VHDL (FPGA) People always prefer to travel by train. But in most of the cases, passenger on rail is unaware of approaching station, distance left to reach the next station, and time left to reach the next station. Always it causes all sort of inconvienance. It will be comfortable if passenger gets all information related to the approaching station on rail itself. This system enables the passengers to be aware of the details of the journey in terms of the distance left to reach an approaching station and the corresponding time left. A display unit in the train shows all these information.The whole system is divided into two parts. One block calculates the Distance Left to reach the next station and the second part calculates Time Left to travel that much of distance. Calculations are repeated for every 32 seconds. 15.Design of a MICROCONTROLLER (8 BIT) # 94/C, 2nd Floor, 9th Cross, Opp HKBK College Main gate, Near Nagawara Ring Road,Bangalore-560045 97
  • 98. Zetta Networks, 9980499700 The main aim of the project is to design, simulate and synthesis an 16-bit Micro Controller using a hardware description language i.e.VHDL (Very high speed integrated circuit Hardware Description Language). This document contains the brief description of 8-bit Micro Controller. A typical Micro Controller contains a CPU, RAM, ROM memory and various parallel inputoutput interfaces, all on a single chip. This type of Micro Controller can be used in simple control applications such as Thermostats, Appliance Controllers, and Key less entry systems etc. 16:Design of Data Encryption Standard (DES) for data Encryption In cryptographic terminology, the message is called plaintext or cleartext. Encoding the contents of the message in such a way that hides the contents from outsiders is called encryption. The encrypted message is called ciphertext. The process of retrieving the plaintext from the ciphertext is called decryption. Encryption and decryption usually make use of a key and the coding method is such that the decryption can be performed only by knowing the proper key. The method of encryption and decryption is called cipher. All modern algorithms base their security on the usage of a key, a message can be decrypted only if the key used for decryption matches the key used for encryption. There are two classes of key-based algorithms, symmetric (or secret key) and asymmetric (or public key) algorithms. Some algorithms do not require a key. Generally cryptographic algorithms can be classified into three types 17.Design of Universal Asynchronous Transfer Mode Module The main objective of this project is to perform serial communications with computers. The device changes incoming parallel information to serial data, which can be sent on a communication line. A second UART can be used to receive the information. The UART performs all the tasks, timing, parity checking, etc. needed for the communication. The only extra devices attached are line driver chips capable of transforming the TTL level signals to line voltages and vice versa The UART is capable of operating in one of two modes, 'polled' and 'interrupt driven'. The serial communications functions in the BIOS use the polled method. In this approach, the CPU is typically in a loop asking the UART over and over again if it has a byte ready. If a byte is ready, the polling code returns the byte. But, if the next byte comes in before the polling code is executing again, then that byte is lost. # 94/C, 2nd Floor, 9th Cross, Opp HKBK College Main gate, Near Nagawara Ring Road,Bangalore-560045 98
  • 99. Zetta Networks, 9980499700 18.Design of Control Area Network Protocol Controller Area Network (CAN) was initially created by German automotive system supplier Robert Bosch in the mid-1980s for automotive applications as a method for enabling robust serial communication. The goal was to make automobiles more reliable, safe and fuel-efficient while decreasing wiring harness weight and complexity. Since its inception, the CAN protocol has gained widespread popularity in industrial automation and automotive/truck applications. Other markets where networked solutions can bring attractive benefits like medical equipment, test equipment and mobile machines are also starting to utilize the benefits of CAN 19.Design of I2C bus Protocol The PCF8584 is an integrated circuit designed in CMOS technology which serves as an interface between most standard parallel-bus microcontrollers /microprocessors and the serial I2Cbus. The PCF8584 provides both master and slave functions. Communication with the I2C-bus is carried out on a byte-wise basis using interrupt or polled handshake. It controls all the I2Cbus specific sequences, protocol, arbitration and timing. The PCF8584 allows parallel-bus systems to communicate bi- directional with the I2C-bus. 20.Design of Arithmatic Unit (ALU) for arithmetic operations ALU (Arithmetic And Logical) is the part of CPU. It perform arithmetic operations like addition, multiplication and division and Logical operations like AND, NAND, OR, XOR, NOR, NOT. The ALU is made up of devices called gates that receive one or more inputs and, based upon what function they are designed to perform, output a result. The ALU in our example performs one of seven functions: NOT, Left Shift, Right Shift, Add, Subtract, AND, and OR. 21.Desingin a module for Floating Point Multiplier Image and digital signal processing applications require high floating-point calculations throughput. Floating point multiplication is one of the performance bottlenecks in highSpeed and low power image and digital signal processing applications. The single precision floating point multiplication algorithm is divided into three main parts corresponding to the three parts of the single precision format.The bottleneck of any single precision floating-point design is # 94/C, 2nd Floor, 9th Cross, Opp HKBK College Main gate, Near Nagawara Ring Road,Bangalore-560045 99
  • 100. Zetta Networks, 9980499700 the 24x24 bit integer multiplier. Conventional 24x24 multiply architectures are implemented in floating point multipliers using array multipliers, redundant binary architectures (Pipeline Stages), modified booth encoding. 22. Desingin a module for Floating Point Adder This is an open source floating point adder. It was designed to fully conform to the IEEE 754 standard. In its fully-featured format, this adder supports all rounding modes: round to nearest even, round to plus infinity, round to minus infinity, and round to zero; it supports de normalized numbers as both input and output; it supports all applicable exception flags: overflow, underflow, inexact, and invaid.It supports trapped overflow and underflow, where the result is returned with an additional bias applied to the exponent. All of these features are supported in hardware. This adder was designed with area minimization in mind, so it is single path, has a leading zero encoder rather than predictor, etc. The adder is also a single-cycle design. 23.Design of Finite Impulse Response filter This project details with major design considerations before the design and implementation of a 15-tap programmable Finite Impulse Response (FIR) Filter. Firstly, two adder structures are examined and compared in terms of area, speed and power consumption. In this delay-balancing techniques were applied to the block to reduce power consumption further The mathematical structure of a 3-tap FIR filter is shown below. The signal input is a number representing the magnitude of a sampled analogue signal. The z-1 blocks store their input and delay it by one sample period. The Cox blocks contain the coefficients that shape the FIR filter frequency response. The design specification for the system to be designed details the coefficients for the test of the system as signed floating-point numbers. 24.Desining a module to Implement REED SOLMEN ENCODER Reed Solomon (RS) codes have been widely used in a variety of communication systems. Continual demand for ever higher data rates makes it necessary to devise very high-speed implementations of RS decoders. This eliminates the need of retransmission of messages # 94/C, 2nd Floor, 9th Cross, Opp HKBK College Main gate, Near Nagawara Ring Road,Bangalore-560045 100
  • 101. Zetta Networks, 9980499700 over a noisy channel First the syndrome unit calculates the syndromes. Then the key equation solver solves the key equation for the error location polynomial. The correction unit calculates the error location and value and then adds the error sequence to the received code word to get the corrected code word. The memory unit is used to store the received code word while the decoder calculates the syndromes and solves the key equation. During the correction stage, the stored code word is read out from the memory and added to the error sequence to get the corrected code word. 25.Design of Peripheral Connect Interface Protocol The main aim of the project is to design, simulate and synthesis a Peripheral Component Interconnect- Extend using a hardware description language i.e.verilog. This project deals with designing the MASTER of the PCI-X. The PCI (Peripheral Component Interconnect) is a high performance Bus for interconnecting chips, expansion boards, and memory cards. It was originated at Intel Inc. In the early 1990’s as standard methods of interconnecting chips on a board. The proposed project “ PCI-X Master” aims for the design of system and devices that can operate at higher speeds. Devices are beginning to appear on the market that supports either a 64-bit bus, 66 MHz clock frequency on both with peak bandwidth capabilities up to 533 MB/sec. Because of faster I/O Technologies such as Giga bit Ethernet, Ultra 3 SCSI and fiber channel, faster system-interconnect buses are required. 26.Design of RS232 system Controller The main aim of the project is to design, simulate and synthesis a RS-232 SYSTEM CONTROLLER using a hardware description language i.e.verilog. we are implementing RS-232 which is an interface, for carrying information between two devices, distance of up to 20 meters. It is intended inunderstanding what is available in the core, and how to use it.The RS-232 is a popular communications protocol for connecting computers to modems and varied peripherals. RS-232 is interface for carry information between two devices distance of up to 20 meters. The information is carry along patch wires higher voltage than is standard 5V for greater interference immunity. Data transfer is asynchronous with closely set transmission speed and synchronization by trailing edge start pulse . Its purpose was to develop a “serial-port-to-bus-interface” # 94/C, 2nd Floor, 9th Cross, Opp HKBK College Main gate, Near Nagawara Ring Road,Bangalore-560045 101
  • 102. Zetta Networks, 9980499700 27. Design of a MICROCONTROLLER (16 BIT) The main aim of the project is to design, simulate and synthesis an 16-bit Micro Controller using a hardware description language i.e.VHDL (Very high speed integrated circuit Hardware Description Language). A typical Micro Controller contains a CPU, RAM, ROM memory and various parallel input-output interfaces, all on a single chip. This type of Micro Controller can be used in simple control applications such as Thermostats, Appliance Controllers, and Key less entry systems etc. 28.Design of Cyclic Redundancy Checker Generator The Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) is a technique for detecting errors in digital data, but not for making corrections when errors are detected. It is used primarily in data transmission. In the CRC method, a certain number of check bits, often called a checksum, are appended to the message being transmitted. The receiver can determine whether or not the check bits agree with the data, to ascertain with a certain degree of probability whether or not an error occurred in transmission. If an error occurred, the receiver sends a “negative acknowledgement” (NAK) back to the sender, requesting that the message be retransmitted. Basically the CRC is based on polynomial arithmetic, in particular, on computing the remainder of dividing one polynomial in GF (2) (Galois field with two elements) by another. It is a little like treating the message as a very large binary number, and computing the remainder on dividing it by a fairly large prime such as intuitively, one would expect this to give a reliable checksum. The technique is also sometimes applied to data storage devices, such as a disk drive. In this situation each block on the disk would have check bits, and the hardware might automatically initiate a reread of the block when an error is detected, or it might report the error to software. The material that follows speaks in terms of a “sender” and a “receiver” of a “message,” but it should be understood that it applies to storage writing and reading as well. 29.Design of Phelix Algorithm for fast Encryption and Authentication Securing data in transmission is the most common real-life cryptographic problem. Basic securityservices require both encryption and authentication.Thisis almost always done using a symmetric cipher—public-key systems are only used to set up symmetric keys—and a Message Authentication Code (MAC).The AES process provided a number of very good block cipher designs, as well as a new block cipher standard. The cryptographic community learned a lot during the selection process about the engineering criteria for a good cipher. AES candidates # 94/C, 2nd Floor, 9th Cross, Opp HKBK College Main gate, Near Nagawara Ring Road,Bangalore-560045 102
  • 103. Zetta Networks, 9980499700 were compared in performance and cost in many different implementation settings. We learned more about the importance of fastrekeying and tiny- memory implementations, the cost of Sboxes and circuit-depth for hardware implementations, the slowness of multiplication on some platforms, and other performance considerations. 30. A VLSI Progressive Coding for Wavelet-based Image Compression The proposed TSIHT coding keeps low bit-rate quality as SPIHT algorithm and has three improved features. Firstly, to reduce the amount of memory usage, TSIHT coding introduces tag flags to store the significant information instead of the coordinate-lists in SPIHT. The tag flags are four two-dimensional binary tag arrays including Tag of Significant Pixels (TSP), Tag of Insignificant Pixels (TIP) and Tag of Significant Trees (TST) respectively. When comparing with SPIHT coding, TSIHT only needs 26 K bytes memory to store four tag-arrays for a 256×256 gray-scale image. Secondly, both sorting-pass and refinement-pass of SPIHT coding are merged in one in TSIHT coding in order to simplify hardware- control and save unnecessary memory. Finally, TSIHT uses the Depth-First- Search (DFS) traversal order to encode bitstream rather than the Breadth-First-Search (BFS) method as the SPIHT coding. Since, DFS method searches the root node and each one of the branching node of the immediate descendants until it reaches the deepest leaves. For the hierarchical pyramid nature of the spatial orientation tree, DFS provides a better architecture than BFS method. Additionally, a VLSI image compressor called PIE (Progressive Image Encoder) core for TSIHT coding has been implemented onto a chip with 0.38 μm one-poly-four-metal CMOS technology. 31. Design of Triple Des Algoritm Cryptography is the study of mathematical techniques related to aspects of information security such as confidentiality, data integrity, entity authentication and data origin authentication. In data and telecommunications, cryptography is necessary when communicating over any unreliable medium, which includes any network particularly the internet. In cryptographic terminology, the message is called plaintext or clear text. Encoding the contents of the message in such a way that hides the contents from outsiders is called encryption. The encrypted message is called cipher text. The process of retrieving the plaintext from the cipher text is called decryption. Encryption and decryption usually make use of a key and the coding method is such that the decryption can be performed only by knowing the proper key. # 94/C, 2nd Floor, 9th Cross, Opp HKBK College Main gate, Near Nagawara Ring Road,Bangalore-560045 103
  • 104. Zetta Networks, 9980499700 32.Design of 10/100 Mbps Ethernet Switch Ethernet is a low level data delivering technology used in Local Area Networks (LAN’s) and data is transmitted over network in discrete packets and Ethernet switch allows mutually independent connections to be established among pairs of computers through the same interconnecting device. Therefore, if a LAN of N node uses a switch, there can be as many as N/2 one-to-one connections at any given instant. LAN switching provides dedicated, collisionfree communication between network devices, with support for multiple simultaneous conversations. LAN switches are designed to switch data frames at high speeds. A LAN Switch Can Link 10-Mbps and 100-Mbps Ethernet Segments. 33.Design of a module to implement I2C Interface I2C is an integrated circuit, which serves as an interface between most standard parallel-bus micro controllers/microprocessors and the serial I2C-bus. These provides both master and slave functions. Communication with the I2C-bus is carried out on a byte-wise basis .It converts the data from serial to parallel and from parallel to serial. That means in transmitter mode it receives the data from micro controller/microprocessor serially and send it to the slaves parallel and when it is in receiving mode it receives data from slaves parallely and send it to the master serially. I²C is a multi-master serial computer bus invented by Philips that is used to attach low-speed peripherals to a motherboard, embedded system, or cell phone. The name stands for Inter- Integrated Circuit and is pronounced I-squared-C. The I2C bus physically consists of 2 active wires and a ground connection. The active wires, called SDA and SCL, are both bidirectional. SDA is the Serial Data line, and SCL is the Serial Clock line. 34.Implementatin of TURBO ENCODER FOR LTE PROCESS In a digital transmission system, error control is achieved by the use of channel encoder at the transmitter and a corresponding decoder at the receiver. The aim is to ensure that the received information is as close as possible to the transmitted information. A well known result from information theory is that the randomly chosen code of sufficiently large block length is capable of approaching channel capacity. The goal of coding theorist has been to develop codes that have large equivalent block lengths.Turbo codes are a class of high performance error correcting codes of all practical error correction methods, turbo codes comes closest to the approaching Shannon limit, the theoretical limit of maximum information transfer rate over a noisy channel # 94/C, 2nd Floor, 9th Cross, Opp HKBK College Main gate, Near Nagawara Ring Road,Bangalore-560045 104
  • 105. Zetta Networks, 9980499700 35.Design of DDR3 based lookup circuit for high performance network Processing Double Data Rate (DDR) SDRAMs have been prevalent in the PC memory market in recent years and are widely used for networking systems. These memory devices are rapidly developing, with high density, high memory bandwidth and low device cost. However, because of the high-speed interface technology and complex instruction-based memory access control, a specific purpose memory controller is necessary for optimizing the memory access trade off. In this paper, a specific purpose DDR3 controller for high-performance table lookup is proposed and a corresponding lookup circuit based on the Hash-CAM approach is presented. 36. Design of Dual Elevator Controller Elevator controller controls the entire operation of the Dual elevator system. The proximity sensors located to sense the positions of the cars, provide the current state storing it in register. The obstruction sensors provide the status of obstruction. The elevator controller also reads the requests, if any, from any of the request positions through the flip-flops. If the door of any elevator is open, the timer signals from the elevator keep the controller informed of being busy. The control state machine receives all these signals. It is programmed to the algorithm by which it should control the system. The CSM then generates control signals for the next position and movement of the elevators. Elevators on receiving the signal address to the request, as been asked by the controller. In this work, the real-time Dual elevator controller will be modeled with Verilog HDL code using Finite-State machine (FSM) model to achieve the logic in optimized way. Abstract: Robotics 1. Obstacle Sense And Anti-Falling Robot. The objective is to design an intelligent and autonomous robot. This work is a small scale prototype model which can be used with great versatility in other robotics applications. This # 94/C, 2nd Floor, 9th Cross, Opp HKBK College Main gate, Near Nagawara Ring Road,Bangalore-560045 105
  • 106. Zetta Networks, 9980499700 obstacles sensing and anti falling sensor robot senses the edges and obstacles. A set of infrared sensors avoid it falling from heights and Ultrasonic sensor is interfaced with controller so that when it senses obstacle it will send signals to the controller so that appropriate action is taken by controller. Movements and directions are displayed on a local liquid crystal display (LCD) interfaced with 8-bit processor. 2. Dtmf Based Rescue Robot. The objective of the project is for Rescue operations. ROBOT is based on 8 bit controller. It is interfaced with GSM modem, DTMF decoder circuitry, LCD and DC motor Control to perform rescue operation. The user has to first make a call from his mobile to the GSM modem in the above system. This call is identified by the controller using GSM modem and it accepts this call by sending the appropriate command to the GSM modem. Once the call is answered by the system, the user can press appropriate keys on his mobile keypad to perform Rescue operation. When the user presses a key, the corresponding DTMF signals are received from GSM modem. This DTMF signal from GSM modem is given to DTMF decoding circuit which decodes it and finds out the key pressed and feeds it to the controller. Depending on this key, the controller wills Perform Specific Action 3. Automatic Color Sensing Robot. 4. Voice Controlled Intelligent Wheelchair. 5. The Design And Implementation Of An Autonomous Campus Patrol Robot. The main aim of this project is to develop a computer controlled hi-tech car with RF camera. We have a camera in our system through which we can see the video. A car, which will be having the camera. The police can keep track of the gangster’s movements by seeing the video, which is displayed in the computer. The computer is placed in Police Car so that they can control the device from a particular distance and keep track of their movements so that if the police come to know where they are, they can easily attack and catch them .The Car can be moved in all directions such as left, right, forward and reverse to get their positions properly. Using this car we can find the Bomb place also since human beings cannot go to find that bomb and also the explosion time is not known. # 94/C, 2nd Floor, 9th Cross, Opp HKBK College Main gate, Near Nagawara Ring Road,Bangalore-560045 106
  • 107. Zetta Networks, 9980499700 6. Line Follower Robot With Intelligence. The main aim of this project is develop a Robot vehicle which will find out its lane using proximity sensor. We can implement this robot where ever we want routine work for long time. The path is tracking by proximity sensor. According to sensor output signal the microcontroller controls the vehicle by using (forward/reverse/stop) DC motor which are placed in vehicle. If there is no path the microcontroller will stop the vehicle. The buzzer will indicate the status of the vehicle in the form of sound and the LCD will display the current moving direction (forward/reverse/stop) of the vehicle. 7. Use Of A Cellular Phone In Mobile Robot Voice Control. Advanced Robotic Pick And Place Arm And Hand System. This is the most advance version of “Pick n Place Robot” using visual perception, perhaps and most popular and widely used in recent industries. A person from a remote place can comfortably control the motion of robotic arm without any wire connection. Again there are two systems one at the transmitter side in which a software program written in Embedded C generates control signals. These signals are encoded and transmitted by RF transmitter chip. At another end RF receiver chip will demodulate these signals and decoder will decode it & finally Microcontroller will take desired controlling action on robotic arm. # 94/C, 2nd Floor, 9th Cross, Opp HKBK College Main gate, Near Nagawara Ring Road,Bangalore-560045 107