Dna Mutations

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Dna Mutations

  1. 1. DNA MUTATIONS BY SARA KANWAL BS-MT 3 RD YEAR 6 TH SEMESTER
  2. 2. CONTENTS: <ul><li>DNA </li></ul><ul><li>DNA MUTATION </li></ul><ul><li>TYPES </li></ul><ul><li>CLASSIFICATION </li></ul>
  3. 3. DNA: (deoxyribo nucleic acid) <ul><li>DNA is a DOUBLE HELICAL structure consist of DEOXYRIBOSE SUGAR and FOUR NITROGEN BASES. </li></ul><ul><li>Four bases : </li></ul><ul><li>Adenine </li></ul><ul><li>Guanine </li></ul><ul><li>Thiamine </li></ul><ul><li>cytosine </li></ul>
  4. 4. DNA MUTATIONS : <ul><li>Mutation is a permanent change in the DNA . </li></ul><ul><li>Mutations in germ cells are transmissible. </li></ul><ul><li>Mutations in somatic cells are non-transmissible but may contribute to change( malignant transformation) </li></ul>
  5. 5. TYPES OF MUTATIONS: <ul><li>POINT MUTATION: </li></ul><ul><li>Missense mutation. </li></ul><ul><li>Silent mutation. </li></ul><ul><li>Non-sense mutation. </li></ul><ul><li>FRAME-SHIFT MUTATION : </li></ul><ul><li>Insertion </li></ul><ul><li>Deletion </li></ul><ul><li>inversion </li></ul>
  6. 6. POINT MUTATIONS: <ul><li>Point mutations are the single-based mutations. ( a change in one nucleotide of the sequence) </li></ul>
  7. 7. CLASSIFICATION OF POINT MUTATION : <ul><li>Missence mutation </li></ul><ul><li>Silent mutation </li></ul><ul><li>Non-sense mutation </li></ul>
  8. 8. MISSENSE MUTATION: <ul><li>The new codon causes an incorrect AMINO ACID to be inserted into the protein. </li></ul><ul><li>This effect on the function of the protein depend on what is inserted in place of normal amino acid. </li></ul>
  9. 10. NON-SENSE MUTATION: <ul><li>The new codon causes the protein to prematurely TERMINATE, producing a product that is shortened and often does not function . </li></ul>
  10. 12. SILENT MUTATION: <ul><li>Silent mutation does not causes any change </li></ul><ul><li>in amino acid. </li></ul><ul><li>(Silent mutation codes for same amino acid) </li></ul>
  11. 13. FRAME-SHIFT MUTATION: <ul><li>Frame-shift mutation is a change in the reading frame of DNA. </li></ul>
  12. 14. <ul><li>The loss or gain of 1 or 2 nucleotides causes the affected codon and all of the codons that follow to be misread. </li></ul><ul><li>This leads to a very different and often non-functional protein product . </li></ul>
  13. 16. DELETION : <ul><li>Mutations that result in MISSING DNA are called DELETIONS. </li></ul><ul><li>Deletions can also cause frame-shift mutation </li></ul>
  14. 17. For example: <ul><li>ORIGINAL: </li></ul><ul><li>The fat cat ate the wee rat </li></ul><ul><li>DELETION: </li></ul><ul><li>The fat ate the wee rat </li></ul>
  15. 18. INSERTIONS: <ul><li>Mutations that result in the addition of extra DNA are called insertions. </li></ul><ul><li>Insertions can also cause frame shift mutations, and general result in a nonfunctional protein. </li></ul>
  16. 19. For example: <ul><li>ORIGINAL: </li></ul><ul><li>The fat cat ate the wee rat </li></ul><ul><li>INSERTION: </li></ul><ul><li>The fat cat xlv ate the wee rat </li></ul>
  17. 20. INVERSIONS : <ul><li>In an inversion mutation, an entire section of DNA is reversed. </li></ul><ul><li>inversions involve large regions of a chromosome containing several genes. </li></ul>
  18. 21. For example: <ul><li>ORIGINAL: </li></ul><ul><li>The fat cat ate the wee rat </li></ul><ul><li>INVERSION: </li></ul><ul><li>The fat tar eew eht eta tac </li></ul>

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