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"The Evolving Arab City: Tradition, Modernity and Urban Development” is a sequel to Elsheshatwy’s edited book “Planning Middle Eastern Cities: An Urban Kaleidoscope in a Globalizing World” ...

"The Evolving Arab City: Tradition, Modernity and Urban Development” is a sequel to Elsheshatwy’s edited book “Planning Middle Eastern Cities: An Urban Kaleidoscope in a Globalizing World” published by Routledge (2004). It prolongs the debate initiated by the first book by introducing critical assessments of more contemporary Middle East cities. This new collection reveals the contrasts and similarities between older, traditional Arab cities and the newer oil-stimulated cities of the Gulf in their search for a place in the world order. In addition to the six cities covered in the first book - Algiers, Baghdad, Sana’a, Tunis, Cairo and Dubai - the eight cities which form the core of the new book – Rabat, Amman, Beirut, Kuwait, Manama, Doha, Abu Dhabi and Riyadh – provide a unique insight into today’s Middle East cities.

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The Evolving Arab City: Tradition, Modernity and Urban Development - Introduction The Evolving Arab City: Tradition, Modernity and Urban Development - Introduction Presentation Transcript

  • Architecture in the Middle East 0690-421 Dr. Yasser Mahgoub
  • The Evolving Arab City
        • The Evolving Arab City: Tradition, Modernity and Urban Development
        • Editor - Yasser Elsheshtawy
        • Chapter 1: 1. Introduction: The Great Divide: Struggling and Emerging Cities of the Arab World Pages 1-26
  • The Evolving Arab City Chapter 1: Introduction: The Great Divide: Struggling and Emerging Cities of the Arab World
      • 1. Introduction: The Great Divide: Struggling and Emerging Cities of the Arab World
      • 2. Prologue: The New Arab Metropolis
    • Part I: The Struggling Arab City
      • 3. Amman : Disguised Genealogy, Recent Urban Restructuring and Neo-liberal Threats
      • 4. From Regional Node to Backwater and Back to Uncertainty: The Refashioning of Beirut , 1943–2006
      • 5. Rabat : From Capital to Global Metropolis
    • Part II: The Emerging Arab City
      • 6. Riyadh : A City of ‘Institutional’ Architecture
      • 7. Kuwait : Learning from a Globalized City
      • 8. Manama : The Metamorphosis of a Gulf City
      • 9. Rediscovering the Island: Doha ’s Urbanity from Pearls to Spectacle
      • 10. Cities of Sand and Fog: Abu Dhabi ’s Arrival on the Global Scene
    • Table of Contents
  • The Evolving Arab City Chapter 1: Introduction: The Great Divide: Struggling and Emerging Cities of the Arab World
    • The book prolongs the debate initiated by the first book by introducing critical assessments of more contemporary Middle East cities .
    • Introduction
  • The Evolving Arab City Chapter 1: Introduction: The Great Divide: Struggling and Emerging Cities of the Arab World
    • This new collection reveals the contrasts and similarities between older, traditional Arab cities and the newer oil-stimulated cities of the Gulf in their search for a place in the world order .
    • Introduction
    Older traditional Oil
  • The Evolving Arab City Chapter 1: Introduction: The Great Divide: Struggling and Emerging Cities of the Arab World
    • In addition to the six cities covered in the first book - Algiers, Baghdad, Sana’a, Tunis, Cairo and Dubai - the eight cities which form the core of the new book – Rabat, Amman, Beirut, Kuwait, Manama, Doha, Abu Dhabi and Riyadh – provide a unique insight into today’s Middle East cities.
    • Introduction
  • The Evolving Arab City Chapter 1: Introduction: The Great Divide: Struggling and Emerging Cities of the Arab World
    • In his introductory chapter titled “ The Great Divide: Struggling and Emerging Cities of the Arab World ”, Elsheshtawy states the aim of the book as to enrich the study of urbanism and of globalization process as an accompaniment to the earlier book .
    • Introduction
  • The Evolving Arab City Chapter 1: Introduction: The Great Divide: Struggling and Emerging Cities of the Arab World
    • Do Arabs still exist?
      • Doom and hopelessness
      • Colonialism
      • Symbols of Arab identity
    • Negative stereotype:
      • Arabs not contributing to science, literature and the arts.
      • Recipients, consumers, and proponents of extremist ideologies.
    • Introduction
  • The Evolving Arab City Chapter 1: Introduction: The Great Divide: Struggling and Emerging Cities of the Arab World
    • There is a growing conservatism sweeping the Arab world, even in formerly liberal and cosmopolitan cities.
    • Introduction
  • The Evolving Arab City Chapter 1: Introduction: The Great Divide: Struggling and Emerging Cities of the Arab World
    • How is this related to cities?
    • Baghdad and Beirut: Sites of struggle and contestation
    • Dubai and Doha: “New Arab Metropolis” by opening up to global capital adapting western models forms and planning models.
    • Introduction
  • The Evolving Arab City Chapter 1: Introduction: The Great Divide: Struggling and Emerging Cities of the Arab World
    • There is a divide in the region between newly emerging cities and the traditional centers.
    • Gulfication!
    • Dubaization!
    • New centers are influencing and shaping the urban form of “traditional” cities.
    • Introduction
    Emaar Tunis - Cedar village
  • The Evolving Arab City Chapter 1: Introduction: The Great Divide: Struggling and Emerging Cities of the Arab World
    • The Struggle
    • Struggle for modernity: trying to ascertain one’s place in the 21 st century.
    • Determining the region’s direction.
    • Introduction
  • The Evolving Arab City Chapter 1: Introduction: The Great Divide: Struggling and Emerging Cities of the Arab World
    • Exclusion discussed by:
      • John Friedmann
      • Gotez Wolff
      • Saski Sassen
      • Peter Marcuse
    • Newtworking:
      • Cities are conceived as lying on a network
      • Level of connectivity
    • Global City Theory
      • Space of flows vs. Space of Places
      • (Manuel Castells)
  • The Evolving Arab City Chapter 1: Introduction: The Great Divide: Struggling and Emerging Cities of the Arab World
    • Saki Sassen
    • Impact of network infrastructure on city form.
    • Fragmentary nature of contemporary urban structure.
    • Global City Theory
  • The Evolving Arab City Chapter 1: Introduction: The Great Divide: Struggling and Emerging Cities of the Arab World
    • Marginalized Cities
    • Certain cities are offered as a model to which other cities must aspire to if they are to emerge from “off the map” or otherwise be marginalized!
    • Global City Theory
    Marginalized City Global City
  • The Evolving Arab City Chapter 1: Introduction: The Great Divide: Struggling and Emerging Cities of the Arab World
    • “ A New Middle East”!
    • Global City Theory
  • The Evolving Arab City Chapter 1: Introduction: The Great Divide: Struggling and Emerging Cities of the Arab World
    • He structures the book using both geographic and socio-cultural markers .
    • The structure of the book
    Struggling cities Emerging Cities
  • The Evolving Arab City Chapter 1: Introduction: The Great Divide: Struggling and Emerging Cities of the Arab World
    • Struggling cities:
    • Rabat, Amman and Beirut are included in the first group title ” Struggling cities ” as traditional centers desiring to move away from the restrictions of the tradition and to embrace modernity.
    • The structure of the book
  • The Evolving Arab City Chapter 1: Introduction: The Great Divide: Struggling and Emerging Cities of the Arab World
    • Struggling cities :
    • Elsheshtawy points to the theme of the ‘ struggle ’ as cities are viewed as both recipients of modernity and at the same time a focal point for Arabic-Islamic identity .
    • The structure of the book
  • The Evolving Arab City Chapter 1: Introduction: The Great Divide: Struggling and Emerging Cities of the Arab World
    • Emerging Cities:
    • Cities from the Arabian Peninsula: Riyadh, Manama, Kuwait, Doha and Abu Dhabi are included in the second group titled “ Emerging Cities ” .
    • The structure of the book
  • The Evolving Arab City Chapter 1: Introduction: The Great Divide: Struggling and Emerging Cities of the Arab World
    • Emerging Cities:
    • Cities in the Arabian Gulf region are eager to reassert themselves as world cities and not mere producers and exporters of oil .
    • The structure of the book
  • The Evolving Arab City Chapter 1: Introduction: The Great Divide: Struggling and Emerging Cities of the Arab World
    • Riyadh, Kuwait and Manama are reintroducing themselves as regional capital and investment centers , while Doha and Abu Dhabi are emerging as global educational and cultural centers .
    • The structure of the book
  •  
  • The Evolving Arab City Chapter 1: Introduction: The Great Divide: Struggling and Emerging Cities of the Arab World
    • The Arab city is undergoing massive urban transformation comparable to changes that took place during the 20 th century, while they were under foreign occupation or protection .
    • However this time changes are fuelled by globalization and global capital .
    • Emerging Themes
  • The Evolving Arab City Chapter 1: Introduction: The Great Divide: Struggling and Emerging Cities of the Arab World
    • Furthermore, the impact of Dubai – Dubaization!- is quite strong as Dubai’ ‘daily’ successes are being envied by other cities.
    • Emerging Themes
  • The Evolving Arab City Chapter 1: Introduction: The Great Divide: Struggling and Emerging Cities of the Arab World
    • Moments of change
    • Rupture
    • Change in cities urban form
    • Local and external elements
    • Emerging Themes
  • The Evolving Arab City Chapter 1: Introduction: The Great Divide: Struggling and Emerging Cities of the Arab World
    • Gap between GCC and the rest of the Arab world.
    • Economic growth and development
      • GCC population = 37 M in 2006 – 12% of Arab Population
      • GCC economy = US$ 1.25 trillion – 55% of Arab World
      • GCC 1995 per capita income = US$ 8,500 – 7.3 of Arab Countries
      • GCC 2006 per capita income = US$ 19,300 – 10.4 of Arab Countries
      • Qatar per capita income = US$ 63,000
      • UAE per capita income = US$ 38,000
    • Emerging Themes: The Great Divide
  • The Evolving Arab City Chapter 1: Introduction: The Great Divide: Struggling and Emerging Cities of the Arab World
    • In his prologue to the chapters titled “The New Arab Metropolis”, Fuad Malkawi calls for a new research agenda pertaining to Arab cities .
    • He notes the absence of the Arab city from global city literature .
    • Fuad Malkawi
  • The Evolving Arab City Chapter 1: Introduction: The Great Divide: Struggling and Emerging Cities of the Arab World
    • He argues that “ no city should be viewed in isolation or as part of some global network; in their globalizing efforts they interact with a variety of forces at different scale and levels, simultaneously guiding and shaping their development .”
    • Fuad Malkawi
  •  
  • The Evolving Arab City Chapter 1: Introduction: The Great Divide: Struggling and Emerging Cities of the Arab World
    • Jamila Baragach’s chapter on Rabat titled “ From Capital to Global Metropolis ” describes the role of the ‘ State ’ in constructing housing environments and the experiences of residents within these constructed environments illustrating the ‘ clash ’ between state policies and citizens .
    • Rabat
  • The Evolving Arab City Chapter 1: Introduction: The Great Divide: Struggling and Emerging Cities of the Arab World
    • Sofia Shwayri’s chapter titled “ From Regional Node to Backwater and Back to Uncertainty: Beirut, 1943–2006 ” shows the role of both ‘ local and global’ actors in the reconstruction process of Beirut .
    • Beirut
  • A devastated street in Beirut during the Lebanese Civil War
  • A devastated street in Beirut during the Lebanese Civil War
  • Down Town Beirut.
  • Down Town Beirut.
  • Banks Street in Down Town Beirut
  • The Evolving Arab City Chapter 1: Introduction: The Great Divide: Struggling and Emerging Cities of the Arab World
    • In his chapter titled “ Amman: Disguised Genealogy and Recent Urban Restructuring and Neoliberal Threats ” , Rami Daher discusses the impact of global capital on Amman’s urban development focusing on Abdali project , modeled after Beirut’s Solider, as a case study.
    • Amman
  • The massive Abdali Downtown development in Amman, Jordan was launched in June 2003 with the goal of creating a vibrant central business and residential district to catapult the city into the 21st century. Although the project is still in its construction phase, early signs indicate that it is well on its way to meeting its objectives.
  •  
  •  
  • The Evolving Arab City Chapter 1: Introduction: The Great Divide: Struggling and Emerging Cities of the Arab World
    • In his chapter titled “ Riyadh: A City of ‘Institutional’ Architecture ”, Al-Naim provides a critical insider’s account of Riyadh – a city rarely written about.
    • Introduction
  • The Evolving Arab City Chapter 1: Introduction: The Great Divide: Struggling and Emerging Cities of the Arab World
    • He introduces this state capital as a ‘ city of institutional architecture ’ projecting an image that is resisting modernization while at the same time providing an alternative .
    • Introduction
  • King Abdul Aziz Foundation for Research and Archives   1996-1999
  • King Abdullah Financial District
  • Riyadh business park
  • Sport City Riyadh
  • Sport City Riyadh
  • The Evolving Arab City Chapter 1: Introduction: The Great Divide: Struggling and Emerging Cities of the Arab World
    • Yasser Mahgoub’s chapter on Kuwait titled “ Kuwait: Learning from a Globalized City ” provides an overview of this cities’ development and the impact of global economics, politics and regional conflicts on its development.
    • Introduction
  • The Evolving Arab City Chapter 1: Introduction: The Great Divide: Struggling and Emerging Cities of the Arab World
    • As one of the early cities to modernize in the Gulf during the middle of the 20th century, Kuwait is experiencing a second wave of modernization following major setbacks during the 1990’s .
    • Introduction
  • The Evolving Arab City Chapter 1: Introduction: The Great Divide: Struggling and Emerging Cities of the Arab World
    • The chapter introduces the voices of local architects and the struggle to regain Kuwait’s lost position in the region .
    • Introduction
  • The Evolving Arab City Chapter 1: Introduction: The Great Divide: Struggling and Emerging Cities of the Arab World
    • Adopting a planning perspective, Mustapha Ben Hamouche’s chapter on Manama titled “ Manama: The Metamorphosis of a Gulf City ” provides a unique account of the first city in the Gulf to encounter the depletion of oil economy.
    • Introduction
  • The Evolving Arab City Chapter 1: Introduction: The Great Divide: Struggling and Emerging Cities of the Arab World
    • He identifies three modes of urbanism that characterized its growth and their impact on its urban form.
    • The city is remerging as financial hub through new projects such as the Bahrain Financial Harbour .
    • Introduction
  • The Evolving Arab City Chapter 1: Introduction: The Great Divide: Struggling and Emerging Cities of the Arab World
    • Hamouche advocates a policy of preservation for the ‘dying heart of the old city’ that is degrading under the influence of new developments and rapid urbanism of globalization .
    • Introduction
  • The Evolving Arab City Chapter 1: Introduction: The Great Divide: Struggling and Emerging Cities of the Arab World
    • Khaled Adham’s chapter on Doha titled “ Rediscovering the Island: Doha’s Urbanity from Pearls to Spectacle ” provides an analysis of a city that is emerging as a global center for media, education, culture and finance.
    • Introduction
  • The Evolving Arab City Chapter 1: Introduction: The Great Divide: Struggling and Emerging Cities of the Arab World
    • ‘ Qatar Foundation for Education, Science and Community Development’
    • ‘ Pearl Island’ reclamation project ,
    • 180 high rises of the West Bay area
    • I.M.Pei Islamic museum project .
    • Introduction
  • I.M. Pei Designed Museum of Islamic Art to Open in Qatar, November 2008
  • The Evolving Arab City Chapter 1: Introduction: The Great Divide: Struggling and Emerging Cities of the Arab World
    • In his chapter on Abu Dhabi titled “ Cities of Sand and Fog: Abu Dhabi’s Arrival on the Global Scene ”, Elsheshtawy illustrates this city new global orientation through the spectacular development of Saadiyat Island – which will house four museums and performance centers designed by word top ‘ starchitects ’ – Gehry, Hadid, Nouvel and Ando .
    • Introduction
  • The Evolving Arab City Chapter 1: Introduction: The Great Divide: Struggling and Emerging Cities of the Arab World
    • In his chapter on Abu Dhabi titled “ Cities of Sand and Fog: Abu Dhabi’s Arrival on the Global Scene ”, Elsheshtawy illustrates this city new global orientation through the spectacular development of Saadiyat Island – which will house four museums and performance centers designed by word top ‘ starchitects ’ – Gehry, Hadid, Nouvel and Ando .
    • Introduction
  • The Evolving Arab City Chapter 1: Introduction: The Great Divide: Struggling and Emerging Cities of the Arab World
    • He raises significant issues related to social sustainability , the role of capital in creating spaces of exclusion , and the role of museums and art in a globalizing world .
    • Introduction
  • The Evolving Arab City Chapter 1: Introduction: The Great Divide: Struggling and Emerging Cities of the Arab World
    • By using the symbols of Arab/Islamic architecture these new cities are projecting themselves as the new centers of the region.
    • Concluding Thoughts
  • Emirates Palace Hotel, Abu Dhabi
  • Emirates Palace Hotel, Abu Dhabi
  • Emirates Palace Hotel, Abu Dhabi
  • The Evolving Arab City Chapter 1: Introduction: The Great Divide: Struggling and Emerging Cities of the Arab World
    • The chosen symbols suggest power , a new hegemonic condition.
    • They are not ‘ tribes with flags ’ anymore.
    • Concluding Thoughts
  • The Evolving Arab City Chapter 1: Introduction: The Great Divide: Struggling and Emerging Cities of the Arab World
    • Muscat
    • While being part of the GCC, has adopted a different mode of development. It still retains its traditional cityscape, its growth is measured and sustainable.
    • Concluding Thoughts
  • The Evolving Arab City Chapter 1: Introduction: The Great Divide: Struggling and Emerging Cities of the Arab World
    • Artificial neo-Islamic symbols of power should not deflect our attention from the intimate scale of our old markets .
    • Concluding Thoughts
  • The Evolving Arab City Chapter 1: Introduction: The Great Divide: Struggling and Emerging Cities of the Arab World
    • The Great Divide in the Arab World !
      • (Is there is still an “Arab World”?!)
    • The poor are driven out to invisible labor camps.
    • The city is designed for the rich and powerful .
    • Concluding Thoughts
  • The Evolving Arab City Chapter 1: Introduction: The Great Divide: Struggling and Emerging Cities of the Arab World
    • Dubaization!
    • The increasing presence of Dubai’s real-estate companies in the Arab world’s major centers.
    • Concluding Thoughts
    Emaar Misr - Uptown Cairo Emaar Middle East - Jeddah Gate Emaar Tunis - Cedar village
  • The Evolving Arab City Chapter 1: Introduction: The Great Divide: Struggling and Emerging Cities of the Arab World
    • Inequality
    • The great rift in the Arab World and the extent to which this is negatively affecting socio-cultural sustainability among other things.
    • Concluding Thoughts
  • The Evolving Arab City Chapter 1: Introduction: The Great Divide: Struggling and Emerging Cities of the Arab World
    • Arabs don’t exist anymore!
    • With regard to cities, Arabs are simply hapless recipients of modernism .
    • Officials in the Gulf are turning towards western architects and planners to plan, design, form and shape their cities .
    • Concluding Thoughts
  • The Evolving Arab City Chapter 1: Introduction: The Great Divide: Struggling and Emerging Cities of the Arab World
    • Arabs don’t exist anymore!
    • The “ New Middle East ” is based on Western conceptions of what our cities should look like.
    • Arabs have disappeared from contributing to the design of their built environment .
    • Concluding Thoughts
    ? ?
  • The Evolving Arab City Chapter 1: Introduction: The Great Divide: Struggling and Emerging Cities of the Arab World
    • Signs of new urbanity .
    • The emergence of a ‘ new Arab metropolis ’.
    • Growing presence of civic institutions which are effectively beginning to question authorities and planners .
    • Concluding Thoughts
  • The Evolving Arab City Chapter 1: Introduction: The Great Divide: Struggling and Emerging Cities of the Arab World
    • Arab architects and planners need to take advantage of this unique ‘ global moment ‘ and begin to adopt a view that unshackles us from the heavy burden of the past and embraces modernity.
    • Concluding Thoughts
  • The Evolving Arab City Chapter 1: Introduction: The Great Divide: Struggling and Emerging Cities of the Arab World
    • We do exist after all !!!
    • Concluding Thoughts
  • The Evolving Arab City Chapter 1: Introduction: The Great Divide: Struggling and Emerging Cities of the Arab World
    • This book and its predecessor provide unique insiders’ accounts of Middle Eastern cities’ development and current state of globalization .
    • The stories reveal the struggles of these cities to retain their Arab/Islamic identities while emerging as global cities .
    • Epilogue
  • The Evolving Arab City Chapter 1: Introduction: The Great Divide: Struggling and Emerging Cities of the Arab World
    • Other cities that can provide even a greater insight into the struggle are still absent from the spectrum – Jerusalem, Damascus, Khartoum, Mecca, Jeddah, Tripoli and Masqat .
    • Epilogue
  • END