Building Performance Evaluation - Post Occupancy Evaluation


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Building Performance Evaluation - Post Occupancy Evaluation

  1. 1. 1st Arab Architecture / Design Convention & Exposition 24-27 October 1999 Kuwait Lecture Building Performance Evaluation An Integrative Framework For Architectural and Urban Design Projects Evaluation Presented by: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Department of Architecture College of Engineering and Petroleum Kuwait University
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>This lecture outlines a comprehensive approach to Building Performance Evaluation applicable to all architectural and urban design projects. </li></ul><ul><li>The Building Performance Evaluation process encompasses functional and technical performance of buildings alongside human performance criteria, while recognizing the cultural context of the project. </li></ul><ul><li>Building Performance Evaluation ( BPE ) offers feedback on design and contributes to architectural knowledge . </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Three Major Elements of Evaluation
  4. 4. Six Phases of the Building Life Cycle <ul><li>The six phases of the building life cycle are: </li></ul><ul><li>1- Planning, </li></ul><ul><li>2- Programming, </li></ul><ul><li>3- Design, </li></ul><ul><li>4- Construction, </li></ul><ul><li>5- Occupancy, and </li></ul><ul><li>6- Recycling. </li></ul>Occupancy Recycling Construction Design Program- ming Planning
  5. 5. Participants in the Building Life Cycle <ul><li>Initiators : Owners - Investors - Institutions - Governmental Agencies - … </li></ul><ul><li>Designers : Architects - Interior Designers - Landscape Architects - Specialists (Structural - Electrical - mechanical - …) </li></ul><ul><li>Builders : Contractors - Sub-contractors - … </li></ul><ul><li>Operators : Managers - Maintenance staff </li></ul><ul><li>End Users : the actual persons occupying the building </li></ul>
  6. 6. Linear Design Methods
  7. 7. Cyclical Design Methods
  8. 8. The Theoretical Base of the BPE Concept <ul><li>Over the past 30 years efforts in this field turned out to be the process called Post-Occupancy Evaluation (POE). </li></ul><ul><li>In the USA, POEs derived their name from the “ Occupancy Permit ” which is issued when a building is completed, inspected, and deemed to be safe to occupy in accordance with building codes and regulations. </li></ul><ul><li>In the USA, Canada, Australia and new Zealand, several government agencies have established ongoing POE programs in order to evaluate the performance of their facilities. </li></ul><ul><li>After evolving over the past 20 years, POE feedback is now most commonly used in large corporations and in the institutional sector. </li></ul><ul><li>In an attempt to improve upon building performance with each building delivery cycle , POEs are mostly used in situations where there are recurring construction programs or repetitive building types . </li></ul>
  9. 9. Quantitative and Qualitative Measurements of Performance <ul><li>Many aspects of building performance are in fact quantifiable , such as: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lighting, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Acoustics, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Temperature and humidity, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Durability of materials, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Amount and distribution of space, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>User satisfaction and so on. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>The evaluation of qualitative aspects of building performance, such as aesthetic beauty or visual compatibility with a building’s surroundings, is somewhat more difficult to measure. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Measurements of Performance <ul><li>Observed Performance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Measured by an expert or panel of experts. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information is recorded with the help of a checklist during a walkthrough of the building. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Perceived Performance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Measured by the users or occupants of a particular environment. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In most cases this information is recorded by a questionnaire. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Measured Performance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Measured performance is captured through monitoring of physical phenomena. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Measurements of Performance
  12. 12. Aspects of Building Performance Evaluation
  13. 13. An Integrative Framework for BPE
  14. 14. Levels of BPE Effort <ul><li>There are three levels of effort at which BPEs can be undertaken: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Indicative </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Investigative </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Diagnostic </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Levels of BPE Effort <ul><li>Indicative </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quick, walk-through evaluations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Selected interviews with knowledgeable informants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Structured interviews with key personnel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Group meetings with end-users </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive and negative aspects of building performance are documented </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Photography and/or notes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be carried out within a few hours of on-site data gathering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Executive summary results with prioritized issues and recommendations for action </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indicates major strengths and weaknesses of a particular building’s performance. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Levels of BPE Effort <ul><li>Investigative </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More in-depth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interviews and survey questionnaires </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Photographic/video recordings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical measurements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Involve a number of buildings of the same type </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Take anywhere from a week to several months </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Levels of BPE Effort <ul><li>Diagnostic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focused, longitudinal and cross-sectional evaluation studies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One or more performance aspects (e.g. stair safety, orientation, wayfinding, privacy, overcrowding, ...) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resemble traditional in-depth research in a very focused topic area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>From months to years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires highly sophisticated data gathering and analysis techniques </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. The Application of BPE <ul><li>Institutions and Government Agencies </li></ul><ul><li>Over the past few years, there has been an increasing concern for budget overruns , building failure , or inappropriate design decisions made during the planning and development of facility. Government agencies are interested in the performance evaluation concept and process in order to avoid these disadvantages. </li></ul><ul><li>Private Sector and Facility Managers </li></ul><ul><li>There is an increasing acceptance of the performance evaluation concept and process in the private sector in order to solicit user feedback on existing buildings . </li></ul><ul><li>Design Firms </li></ul><ul><li>While some design firms are fearful that BPE results may be used against them, and others are unable to convince clients to pay for evaluation studies . Evaluation studies today constitutes an important contribution in the quest to provide quality assurance . </li></ul>
  19. 19. BPE Outcomes <ul><li>Short term outcomes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Feedback on existing problems in buildings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identification of appropriate solutions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Medium term outcomes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inform the next building delivery cycle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Database development </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Long term outcomes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Generation of planning and design criteria for specific building types </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Add to existing architectural knowledge </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. BPE Outcomes <ul><li>Feedback from occupants combined with state-of-the-art knowledge : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Improves building performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Measures quality in terms of health, safety and security </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assesses functionality and psychological/cultural satisfaction. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adds to the state-of-the-art knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recognizes local experience and contextual factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Saves cost of maintaining and operating facilities over the life cycle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improves morale of occupants and staff </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creates databases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generates benchmarks/successful concepts and design guidelines </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Conclusions <ul><li>In summary, Building Performance Evaluation (BPE) identifies both successes and failures in building performance, with an emphasis on human factors and the interaction with the design of physical setting and building systems . If BPEs are made part of standard practice, it will help establish a performance-based approach to design . </li></ul><ul><li>Most important of all, building performance evaluation contributes to the state-of-the-art knowledge of environmental design research and thus make significant contributions towards improving the profession of architecture . </li></ul><ul><li>The benefits of BPEs are several: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>better quality of the built environment; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>greater occupant comfort </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>more satisfactory experience in visiting, using, or working in a facility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>improved staff morale and productivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>significant cost savings </li></ul></ul>