Game plan• Interesting facts about the Capitol Region and how we stack up• Site Selection Methodology – what ours is and how we use it to mitigate risk• Site selection for the cloud
Capitol Area Statistics• 31 facilities in Virginia – 5 in Vienna – 9 in Ashburn – 1 in Chantilly – 1 in Manassas – 4 in sterling – 1 in Springfield – 1 in Harrisonburg – 5 in Richmond – 4 in Reston
Statistics continued• 16 Data centers in Maryland – 1 in Annapolis – 6 in Baltimore – 2 in Beltsville – 2 in Frederick – 2 in Laurel – 2 in Silver Spring – 1 announced in Glen Burnie
Statistics Continued• Washington D.C. – 6 in the District In total 52+ data centers in the Capitol region
Fed Closures10 Fed Data center closures last year in the region
U.S. Data Center Concentration1. California has 1462. Texas has 973. New York has 844. Florida has 495. Illinois has 48These are the top 5 states with listed/known datacenters. Neither Virginia nor Maryland is in the top5, with Virginia home to twice the number offacilities as Maryland.
Why Silver Spring Maryland?• It’s NOT in Northern Virginia• It’s close to DC, but outside the beltway• Not in flight paths of 3 major airports• Financial grade facility, on top of a hill• The mechanical and electrical systems are <3 years old• 100,000+ hours of continuous uptime (11 years)• In short – great site + new equipment = where we would want to put our IT
We Drink OurIt is our site selection methodology in actualpractice. We looked at over 20 opportunities lastyear for footprint expansion and didn’t selectone of them.Here is a peek inside a consistent site selectionmethodology…
Site selection One of the first (and still the most comprehensive) books on the subject Focuses on the site location and associated risks from FEMA data to floor loads I have given this book as a gift many times to clients and peers over the years
The CriteriaKey:1= Fully Comply2= Partially Comply3= Does Not ComplyN/A= Not Applicable Criteria Comply Description Natural Environment Seismic Activity 1 Site should not be in seismic, volcanic, or landslide area Subsurface Stability 1 Avoid quick, unstable, or expansive soil Ground Water 1 Soil should not be at risk for saturation Wind 1 Site should not be in area with typhoon, tornado, high wind, sand storm risk Flood Plain 1 Site should be above 100 year flood plain levels Topographical 1 Risk of wild fire, landslide, mudslide, debris flow Air Quality 1 Avoid risk for air intake and contamination Altitude 1 Site is not above 3050m Heat 1 Facility should not be centered within an urban heat sink Noise 1 Site is not adjacent to residential or entertainment area
Utilities - PowerUtility EnvironmentPower Underground cabling 1 Overhead cabling is not desired, or if unavoidable, at least one of a diverse route should be in buried to site (Power. conduit Telecom) Proximity to 1 Site should be within 3km to at least one utility substation substation Capacity available 1 Power utility should have at least 10MVA available to site Power reliability 1 Power failure disruption outage not to exceed 8 hours per year Diverse power feeds 1 Preference to duel feeds from two separate substations Site substations 1 Utility should provide at least 12,000v to site Site transformers 1 Utility transformer on site at 380v, meter on facility side of transformer Backup Generator 1 Site will support up to 7x 2~2.5MW generators (depending on project scope)
Utilities - TelecomTelecomBuried fiber optic cable 1 Carriers should provide service to site via buried conduit Diverse cable routes 1 Carriers should place facility on ring, or have two diverse route feeds Proximity to carriers 1 Site should be within 3km of carrier fiber routes Fiber capacity to site 1 Carriers should POP the site with minimum 12 count fiber Dark Fiber 1 Carriers should provide dark fiber for provisioning to site Carrier Lit Services 1 Carrier should provide managed services (Ethernet, SDH, Internet, VPN)
Utilities – Water, Fuel, & TransportationWater Water utility 1 Potable water for domestic site services (drinking) Industrial water 1 Industrial water for landscaping and mechanical services (cooling) Private well 1 Potential for on-site water and water conditioning Sewage 1 Sanitary waste water removalFuel Diesel Fuel 1 Availability of diesel fuel, and priority contracting for diesel fuel Natural Gas 1 Proximity and access to natural gas feed Renewable energy 2 Site potential for wind/solar supplemental powerTransportation Public access road 1 Access to facility from main road (can support large vehicles) Traffic type 1 Facility should not be near hazardous vehicle routes Proximity to main 1 At least 3.2 km to main highway or arterial roadway roads Proximity to railways 1 At least 1.6km to railways (except for dedicated feeder spur) Proximity to airport 1 At least 8km from airport, not under runway approach or takeoff Proximity to seaport 3 At least 1.6km from cargo loading/handling facility
RegulationsRegulations and codes Air quality 1 Restrictions on diesel generator or cooling systems Noise levels 1 Restrictions on site decibel levels, including diesel generators Zoning 1 Restrictions on use of land, types of business, or litigation within community for zoning change Communication 1 Site construction does not interfere with line of site or communications towersDiesel and water tanks 1 Restrictions on fuel and water storage Parking 1 Number of spots required, disabled spots required Traffic N/A Restrictions on truck or large vehicle access Setbacks 1 Distance required from building to property line or roads – see aerial in brochure Contamination 1 Land should be free of soil contamination
Environment/SurroundingsLocation EnvironmentHazardous buildings 1 Site should not be near properties with chemicals or explosives on siteTraffic 1 Site should not share access road with high volume trafficImpact on operations 1 Avoid locations near following properties that could impact operations 1 Embassy/consulate (>5km) 1 Military base (>15km) 1 Police station or barracks (>5km) 1 Fire station (>1.6km) 1 Hospital (>1.6km, <8km) 1 Chemical plant (> 8km) 1 Politically sensitive sites (>5km) 1 Religious sites 1 Research labs (>1.6km) 1 Media (broadcast/print) locations (>1.6km) 1 Vacant lots that could be built to support any of the above high risk sites 1 Unknown tenants in adjacent lots 1 Power plants (>20km) 1 Explosives and hazardous chemicals (> 1 Flood Plain (>1.6km from 100 year floodplain)
Level of security/interferenceSecurity Perimeter fence 1 Allow installation of minimum 3M fence – already in place High crime areas N/A Avoid high crime areas On site security 1 Supports 24x7 on-site security staff w/defensive weapons Risk of terrorist 1 Low terrorist threat zone activityInterference Vibration 1 Should not present risk of rail, air traffic, roadway vibration Electromagnetic 1 Should not be at risk of electromagnetic interference
Physical/Site specific GroundsAre there secure (underground) electric and communications 1 There is one way into the buildingutility service entries?Does the building layout present the ability to limit or restrict 1 Yes. Fence, setback, parking, and access controlphysical access to the data center?Is there nearby public transportation available? 3 Public transportation is limited but availableIs there adequate parking available? 1 Yes, in one secure lot and one unsecure (setback) lotIs the parking area equipped with barriers or landscaping to 1 Fences and gates into parking area, as well as perimeter of sitesegregate vehicles from the external walls?Does parking restrict public or commercial traffic? 1 YesIs the labor market adequate to support requirements? 1 yesDoes the external profile of the building conceal the existence of a 1 Yesdata center facility?Are the external walls of the facility constructed to prevent 2 They are thick concreteunauthorized access?Do the grounds support additional power and cooling 1 Yesinfrastructure?
Building attributes BuildingDo ground floor windows exist in the facility? 1 At the secure entranceIs there a loading dock with access at truck bed height? 1 yesAre there ramps for the loading dock? 1 yesIs loading dock and staging area secure and segregated from 1 Yes, physically diversesensitive areas?Are there local ordinance/codes restricting truck/delivery traffic? 1 Limitations would be physical, not policy basedIs the parking area equipment with barriers or landscaping to 1 Yes. Fences, curbs, and landscapingsegregate vehicles from the external walls?Can elevators, ramps, doors, and other passageways 1 Yes. Two elevators. One to 5000 lbs, the other to 8,000accommodate large equipment?Slab height (floor to ceiling) 14 feet slab to slabCan support raised floor or drop ceiling 1 Yes in BG-1 raised floor in place. BG-2, has its own separate power service to support containersColumn spacing in M&E rooms, computer roomsPlate size in M&E and Target computer areas“POD” partitions or capability for PODs 1 Can take containers or other modular deployments (Merlin, Dell, SCIF, etc.)Riser space for multi-level building (multiple risers, usage, space) 2 Two floor buildingFloor loading capacity >100lbs/sqft 1 278 lbsBuilding supports TIA-942 layout requirements 1 YesBuilding should be rated for highest recommended seismic 1standard in each location (i.e., IBC/UBC recommendations)
Mechanical and Electrical Mechanical/ElectricalAre utility substation/transformers located in a secure vault? YesWhat is the total capacity of utility transformers feeding site? 2 x 8.6 UPS with 22MW of generatorCan the utility add additional substation feeds or capacity to site? Yes, power can be doubledAre utility substations on site shared with other facilities? noLease tenants billed at utility meter, not from landlord If they pay utility for metering infrastructure, BCM is used as wellUtility power uses “green” (non-fossil fuel) energy Green available at a premiumIs the stand-by generator physically isolated and secured? Yes, indoorsWhat is the existing generator run time at full load (hours)? 72 hoursIs there secure, building code compliant fuel storage for generators? Yes, underground tanks 100k gallonsWhat is the total fuel capacity on site? Expandable? 4x25,000 gallons, expandable above groundCurrent arrangement in place with fuel provider for 12~24 hour refill? yesIs special floor loading support required for UPS, generators, cooling or other heavy No, this is at ground level, separate from data center hallsequipment? YesIs the UPS (batteries) located in a separate, secured and ventilated area? Yes. There are two UPS (#1 & #2) that are being replaced Q2 2011.Is age of UPS/DC Plant batteries less than 2 years?Current load on UPS/DC Plant system <60%? Yes, currently ~25%Current hold time on UPS/DC Plant system >10 minutes? Yes, 16 minutesExisting facility PUE < 1.8? (includes existing tenants) YesPlanned PUE for new build out or expansion will support <1.5? Yes – 1.2-1.4 plannedIs external power equipment (chillers, pumps, towers) able to be secured and made Yes, these are secureaccessible only by authorized personnel?Is there evidence of frequent or extended power outages to the facility? If evidence of No. There has been5 minutes of downtime since building was ‘lit’ in 1980outages exists describe frequency and durations.Does power to the facility appear clean? Visual evidence of light flicker, or the existence of Power is very clean to the sitemotors and other industrial equipment on the site. Yes, on site onlyCan the electrical utility’s performance data be reviewed (i.e. interruptions)?Does the site have power metering and monitoring solutions Including branch circuit Yesmonitoring)?Does the facility have isolated equipment grounding in place? Yes
Mechanical/ElectricalIs the facility protected from transient ground faults and lighting? YesIs external cooling equipment (chillers, pumps, towers) able to be Yessecured and made accessible only by authorized personnel?Does the site have temperature and humidity metering and Yesmonitoring solutions?Does the facility or existing tenant use an integrated CMMS? YesHas mechanical equipment (fans, condensers) been in place less yesthan 5 years?As part of preventive maintenance schedule does facility complete Yes, some annual, some quarterly, some monthly testing occurs onannual electrical and mechanical load bank testing? various equipmentCan facility manager show complete record of preventive and Yes, on siteemergency maintenance on all mechanical and electricalequipment?Does facility have an operational BMS/BSS with active monitoring, Yes, on sitestatus, alarms generation, and performance/event history?If tenant space separate from main building, does building Yesmanager allow export of relevant BMS data to tenant monitoringor management systems?Does building manager or tenant analyze BMS data and feedback Yes, constantlyto improve facility performance?As part of annual preventive maintenance schedule does facility Yesperform InfraRed testing on all electrical breakers and buss barjoints?Has a CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) study been done for Yes.M&E and computer rooms?Will existing HVAC system support heat loads >150 watts/sqft? Yes
CR Specific Computer Rooms (Existing and Planned)No external windows in computer room(s)? No windows in the CRIf there are external windows, are they shatter-proof and secure? YesAre equipment staging areas secure, conditioned and physically Yesseparated from computer room(s)?Raised floor does not require ramps for access (e.g., sunken floor Nodesign).Are water lines under computer room floor for cooling equipment Yes, no toilets/sinksonly?Is the flooring surface able to withstand freight handling Yes 250 lbs/ftequipment without damage?Does adequate hot water supply exist for humidifiers servicing the Yesdata center (if required)?Do all fire doors comply with local fire codes (or other relevant Yes, all are secureregional, national, or regulatory standards)?Are the external fire doors failsafe? yesCan the computer room(s) be made air-tight if a gaseous fire Yes, Halon toosuppression agent is to be used (FM-200)?Computer room(s): Positive drainage of area under raised floor? YesComputer room(s): Positive check valve to prevent sewer gases or Yesother drain backup?Are equipment staging areas secure, conditioned and physically Yesseparated from computer room(s)?Do cabinets use blanking panels to prevent hot air recirculation? Hot – cold aisle containment is utilizedIs cabling within racks structured? yesDoes facility use hot or cold aisle containment? yesAre copper (telecom), fiber optic, and electrical cabling separated yesinto fiber trough, ladder rack, and conduit/gutter IAW BICSI/NECStandard?Does the facility use conduit to protect security and security yesmonitoring circuits?Does the facility utilize conduit to protect data communications yesbetween floors and rooms?Is there room for expansion? yes
Internal securityBuilding SecurityHas the landlord or the enterprise made use of security guards? Yes. 24x7x365Are security guards stationed at all public entrances to the Yesfacility?Have security personnel been briefed on how to react to civil Yesdisturbances?Are security personnel trained to handle bomb threats? YesDoes a liaison program exist with local law enforcement? YesAre background checks performed on all new employees or Yescontractors?Are backgrounds rechecked periodically? YesAre policies established for dismissing employees or contractors Yeswho might be a threat to the data center?Is the security perimeter clearly marked and defined (inside the Yesfacility and outside)?Are all external perimeter fire doors alarmed? YesAre all external perimeter fire doors monitored? YesDoes the facility have intruder detection systems? YesDo the intruder detection systems comply with applicable local, Yesnational or international standards?Does the facility use physical entry controls to project secured Yesspaces?Do the physical entry controls restrict access to only authorized Yespersonnel?Is the physical entry control system recording entry and exit for Yessecure areas (date, time)?Does security CCTV monitor all entry/exit points, electrical Yes, inside and outsidedistribution, mechanical, perimeter, and loading areas?Are CCTV recordings kept for >60 days? Yes, on & offsiteDo all parties accessing the facility (employees, contractors, Yesvisitors, etc.) wear visible identification?Will all personnel alert security if they encounter anyone not Yeswearing visible identification?Will third-party support personnel or contractors be allowed Nounescorted access within the facility?
What does it all add up to?• We do this level of homework on behalf of our clients and tenants because it’s a lot of work• The framework assesses and scores risk in a consistent manner. Since tenants and customers ultimately buy risk, we need to be able to assess risk as well or better than those we serve• We, as an industry, need to do it in a consistent manner
What it doesn’t account for• Cost of a site whether it’s dirt, shell or operating facility.• Competency of the operators – evaluating skillsets, experienceIn general, this methodology does not substituteany part of a due diligence process, nor is itintended to. What it gives us is a yardstick withconsistent units of measurement for us andultimately our tenants
Example Tank farms Midwest USACompressed gasdistribution
So What?• Tenants & customers buy risk, and filter risk through a series of trade offsWhether you are a cloud company, a Fortune 50bank, or a hospital you need to assess risk morestringently as the value of the assets increases
What does cloud do to risk?• Increase?• Decrease?• Shift to vendor?• Nothing?
Cloud Pitch & Does it Deliver?• Apps & data always available• OS independent• Never down• Backups are a thing of the past• Truly Elastic / scales up & down easily• The holy grail of computing• Shift from open bar IT to cash bar IT
To Cloud or Not to Cloud?The most common goals-• Reduce Costs• Improve availability• Be proactive with ITAre these realistic?
To cloud or not to cloud?• Understand what the specific business goal of implementing a cloud model is – cut costs by 20%, improve application availability by 25%, increase server utilization to a steady state of 75%+, keep out IT staff from being reactive 95% of the timeEach of these goals has a risk associated with it thatmust be evaluated much like a site. At the end ofthe day it’s a data center site
What does cloud do to risk?• Increase?• Decrease?• Shift to vendor?• Nothing?All of the above.**If it is designed to do just that
How do you de-risk cloud?• You start with the same process you follow when looking at a data center. Ask ‘What are we trying to accomplish moving to the cloud?’• Take a look at the underlying architecture of what you signing up for – cloud doesn’t mean bulletproof• Uncover internal ‘social unrest’ early• Quantify exactly how a move to a cloud supports the specific stated business goals
Cloud Eval Questions• Where is the hardware located? How much of it is dedicated to me?• How is it connected? How many carriers? Size of pipe?• Can you show me the orchestration layer and how it operates?• What is your bursting capability? How do you track and correct bottlenecks?You will want to make sure that the answers givenare supported in the contracts/SLA’s you sign up for
It Might not be a Cloud Architecture• If your SLA is for 100% uptime, but it has maintenance windows, it might not be a cloud architecture• If your data copy/backup SLA indicates that it is in a single location, it may not be a cloud architecture• If software licensing is involved and looks like they changed the font of a traditional EULA, it may not be a cloud architecture
How we View Cloud• It is driving a fair amount of leasing right now• There are as many solutions as there are vendors• Cloud Access Peering – CAP – will evolve much like peering has• Cloud is only as good as its design – outages can still occur• We have one of the best facilities on the East Coast in which to build a major CAP site
In Summary• The data center business continues to grow and what is driving the growth is shifting• Using a consistent methodology to evaluate sites reduces risk, and adds value to client and tenant relationships• Cloud site selection = data center site selection plus more complex architectural considerations to insure risk mitigation