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Alfredkim electrical earthing


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Alfredkim electrical earthing

  2. 2. ABOUT US – ALFREDKIM PROFILEWe are a professionally managed Company engaged inmanufacturing of chemical pipe earthing systems at ourworks at Faridabad, Haryana (India). The Company isaggressively persuing the cause of safety and protectionof People, Property & Equipments in Industrial,Commerical and Domestic Installations in the country. Inthe short period of our 1 Year experience, we haveexported reasonable quantities of chemical pipe earthingsystems for a Cement Plant in Jordon & 6.6 KV Sub-Station in Kabul (Afghanistan).
  3. 3. BIOGRAPHY OF ELECTRICITY I am Electricity. My home is in wires and conductors. My Father is Volta. My mother is Magnet and I ma a very important source of energy in modern times. I have a son called “Electron” If you want to know about me you can consult my subordinate “Voltmeter” I have a brother called  Voltage.  I am very useful. Without me your life is very difficult. I am mostly used in Industries ;   Agriculture etc. Without me no “ SUPER COMPUTER” can work. I would like to summarize myself as follows :- I am an electric current And not very tolerant I am extremely useful If you are careful The moment you become careless I also become senseless And I become the cause of tragedy Whether it is “a Man” or “a Lady”
  4. 4. The quality products offered by us are being well-accepted by most of the leading electrical consultants inIndia.The Company is Promoted by Sh. Anil Kumar and hisfamily who have vision for the growth of electricalindustry and infra-structure. The dynamic leadership andthe foresight of Sh. Anil Kumar will lead the companysuccessfully in the years to come to attain a leadershipposition in the earthing/grounding system and solutionsin the country.
  5. 5. Electrical Earthing is most neglected part of the electrical safety for people and property Let us discuss What is Earthing? Application of Earthing• Allow zero potential to supply system• Provide zero connection for Neutral• Protect human against lightning and earth fault condition• Protect the premises against lightning and earth fault condition• Provide low resistance and safe path for lightning and fault current• All metallic enclosure and extraneous conductive parts are at equipotential• LV System Earth• Equipment Earth• Clean Earth for signaling and noise• Create equipotential platform
  6. 6. EXTENSIVE APPLICATIONS Alfredkim Systems & Solutions Pvt. Limited specializes in full range of professional services from engineering, manufacturing, installation and testing of sealed maintenance free chemical filled earth electrodes for grounding system. The grounding system we offer is permanent & completely maintenance free, no need for periodic watering of the ground pit sand, thoroughly tested product even in unfavorable soil conditions with specified international norms.
  7. 7. Alfredkim exceeds all the design code and safety standards developed to protect personnel property & sensitive equipments which includes all capital equipments and sensitive electronics at Radio & TV broadcast facilities, airports, air traffic control centers, railways infrastructure & network, hotels & hospitals, power generating units, electrical utility substations, metrological data sites, fuel depots, refineries, chemical plants, telecommunication centers, computer data centers, amusement parks and domestic, residential, commercial & Industrial establishments
  8. 8. Hospitals Hotels AirportsCommunication Towers Residential colonies Ammusement parks
  9. 9. Railways Data centers RefineriesCommercial Establishments Fuel Depots Industries
  10. 10. Glossary• Reference to IS3043 – 1987 Reaffirmed 2006• “Earth” means the Ground, reference zero potential• Rely on the system earth to maintain the system voltage andnormal voltage supply• Equipment earth connects all non-conductive parts to protecthuman against electric shock• Class I protection – use of barrier/insulation and connection ofprotective conductor to equipment metallic enclosure in order toprotect against electric shock• Class II protection – beside of the basic insulation, addition layerof insulation apply to the enclosure. Therefore no extraneousconductive part. The additional layer is independent to the basicinsulation so that under failure of basic insulation, it offersadditional protection
  11. 11. Types of Earthing• Supply System – Neutral Earth• System Earth• Electrical Safety Earth• Lightning Earth• Generator Earth• Protection Earth (i.e. surge arrestor)• Telecom / Computer Earth• Shielding Earth• Integrated Earthing System (Advocated)• Electrostatic Earth (Clean Room / Hospital)• Cathodic protection (prevent rusty)
  12. 12. Functions of Earthing• Equipment Earth : Path for faultcurrent, lower touch voltage,protection against electric shock• Lighting Earth : Low resistance path todiverse the current under lightningattrack• Telecom Earth : Signal Earth,reducenoise and interference, stabilize DCsupply voltage and prevent electricshock• Computer Earth : reduce interference,maintain supply voltages
  13. 13. Earthing System• Two Alphabetic system description• First Alphabet – arrangement at Supply side– T represents system directly earthed, multi-earthed– I represents live part and earth path are separated, single pointearthed through high impedance• Second Alphabet – arrangement at Consumer side– T represents extraneous parts directly earthed, the earth pointindependent from Supply side– N represents extraneous parts connected to the protectiveconductor of supply• TN systems have two category:–S protective conductor and neutral conductor are two wires– C protective conductor and neutral conductor are the sameconductor
  14. 14. Earthing SystemTN-S‧protective conductor and neutral conductor are independent• All exposed metallic part connected with protectiveconductor PE• System Characteristics:– Low earth fault loop impedance– High earth fault current• Advantages: earth fault protection device operates faster;allow multi point earth, better earthing continuity; minimizethe use of earth fault relay because of low earth fault loopimpedance• Disadvantages: high earth fault level; under earth faultcondition, low power factor (high inductance of long cable)
  15. 15. Earthing SystemTN-C‧protective conductor and neutral conductor are combinedinto one• All exposed conductive parts connected to PEN• System Characteristics :– Low earth fault loop impedance– High earth fault current– More than one earth fault loops• Advantages : no earth wire required; allow of multi-pointearth, better earthing continuity; neutral never have floatvoltage; impedance of earth fault loop could be predicted• Disadvantages : If not multi-point earthed, and the neutralearth broken, the exposed metallic part may have floatvoltage; high earth fault level, intervenue the operation ofearth fault protective device, current operated type device isnot appropriated, voltage detected type could be employed
  16. 16. Earthing System
  17. 17. Earthing SystemTT• Supply side has one point earthing only• Exposed metal connected to consumer earth system• System characteristics :– High earth fault loop impedance– Low earth fault current– Utility company need not to provide earth forconsumer• Advantages : Under earth fault condition, higherpower factor; save earth wires• Disadvantages : high demand of E/F relays,individual earth system need higher investment,higher touch voltage; induce Potential gradient
  18. 18. Earthing System
  19. 19. Earthing SystemIT • System not connected with the earth (highimpedance earth or isolated earth), all exposedconductive part connect to earth• Neutral is totally isolated• Infinity earth fault loop impedance• Deemed less chance of electric shock• Many disadvantages: phase current equal to livevoltage (because of floating Neutral); no zeroreference, may cause arcing when earth fault occurs;to small of earth fault level, current type earth faultdetector cannot work properly
  20. 20. Earthing SystemModern Current Earthing System• Code 12 stipulated that electric equipment used to install its ownearthing protection system (TT system) and Main Earth Terminal shallconnected with utility company earth point. For instance, star oftransformer or metallic earth from supply cable
  21. 21. Earthing System
  22. 22. Earthing System
  23. 23. FACT ABOUT SOIL RESISTIVITY - The resistivity of earth mayvary over extremely wide limits, depending on the composition ofthe soil and the moisture content. Representative values are:General average 100 ohm-metersSwampy ground 10-100 ohm-metersSea water 0.01-1 ohm-metersDry earth 1000 ohm-metersPure slate 107 ohm-metersSandstone 108 ohm-meters
  24. 24. Earthing SystemEarth Electrode• Design concerns:• Resistance/impedance to earth• Heat capacity (during earth fault,max 40kA)• The potential gradient around the electrode during faults• Mechanical strength and ability in anti-corrosion• Earth electrode shall be rod / pipe, tape, buried copper plate,re-bar and superstructure• More than one electrode could be connected, the electrodecould be a mixed system• Long electrode generally effective than short one. Howeverelectrode too long does not have significant effects; largersize do not have great effects in earthing impedance
  25. 25. ALFREDKIM – EARTHELECTRODEAlfredkim Earthing Electrode is an ultraefficient low serge impedance groundingsystem and provides the desired lowmaintenance interface with real earth bycontinuously conditioning the surroundingsoil. And manufactured by using strip in pipepasses through hot dip galvanized processensuring 100% corrosive protection & waterresistant and ensures maximum conductivity.This is achieved by applying a thick layer ofZink coating (80-100 microns).
  26. 26. Earthing SystemElectric Shock Protection• Every premises shall have basic consideration to itselectric equipment’s safety – Electric Shock Protection• Means of electric shock – Direct contact or indirectcontact• Direct contact means direct touch to the live parts• Indirect Contact means human contact to non-conductivemetal, of which the extraneous part becomes live duringfaults• Electric Shock Protection shall meet the requirements inCode 11B including equipotential zones and automaticdisconnection under fault• IEC report 479-1(1984) had studied “The effects in injectof current into human and concerns on the currentmagnitude, duration and flowing path
  27. 27. INDIAN ELECTRICITY RULES-Let us review the important rules to get properinsight into safety aspectsRule 29 : Construction, installation, protection,operation and maintenance of electric supply linesand apparatus.All electric supply lines and apparatus shall be sufficientrating for power, insulation and estimated fault currentand of sufficient mechanical strength for the duty whichthey may be required to perform under theenvironmental conditions of installation and shall beconstructed, installed, protected, worked and maintainedin such a manner as to ensure safety of human beings,animals and property.
  28. 28. 1. Save as otherwise provided in these rules, the relevant code of practice of the Bureau of Indian Standards including National Electrical Code, if any, may also be followed to carry out the purposes of this rule and in the event of any inconsistency the provision of these rules shall prevail.2. The material and apparatus used shall conform to the relevant specifications of the Bureau o Indian Standards where such specifications have already been laid down.
  29. 29. Rule 30 : Service lines and apparatus on consumer’s premises.The supplier shall ensure that all electric supply lines, wires, fittings and apparatus belonging to him or under his control which are on consumer’s premises, are in a safe condition and in all respects fit for supplying energy and the supplier shall take due precautions to avoid danger arising on such premises from such supply lines, wires, fittings and apparatus.
  30. 30. 2. Service-lines placed by the supplier on the premises of a consumer which are underground or which are accessible shall be so insulated and protectetd by the supplier as to be secure under all ordinary conditions against electrical, mechanical, chemical or other injury to the insulation.3.The consumer shall, as far as circumstances permit, take precautions for the safe custody of the equipment on his premises belonging to the supplier.4. The consumer shall also ensure that the installation under his control is maintained in a safe condition.
  31. 31. Rule 31 : Cut-out on consumer’s premises :1. The supplier shall provide a suitable cutout in each conductor of every service-line other than an earthed or earthed neutral conductor or the earthed external conductor of a concentric cable within a consumer’s premises, in an accessible position. Such cut-out shall be contained within an adequately enclosed fireproof receptacle. where move than one consumer is supplied through a common service-line, each such consumer shall be provided with an independent cut-out at the point of junction to the common service.
  32. 32. 2. Every electric supply line other than the earth or earthed neutral conductor of any system or the earthed external conductor of a concentric cable shall be protected by its owner.
  33. 33. Rule 32 : Identification of earthed and earthedneutral conductors and Positions of switches therein.Where the conductors include an earthed conductor of atwo-wire system or a conductor which is to be connectedthereto, the following conditions shall be compiled with :1. An indication of a permanent nature shall be providedby the owner of the earthed neutral conductor, or theconductor which is to be connected thereto, to enablesuch conductor to be distinguished from any liveconductor. Such indication shall be provided –a. where the earthed or earthed neutral conductor is theproperty of the supplier, at or near the point ofcommencement of supply;
  34. 34. b. where a conductor forming part of a consumer’s system is to be connected to the supplier’s earthed or earthed neutral conductor, at the point where such connection is to be made;c. in all other cases, at a point corresponding to the point of commencement of supply or at such other points as may be approved by an inspector or any officer appointed to assist the inspector and authorized under sub-rule (2) of rule 4A.
  35. 35. 2. No cut-out, link or switch other than a linked switcharranged to operate simultaneously on the earthed orearthed neutral conductor and live conductors shall beinserted or remain inserted or remain inserted in anyearthed or neutral earthed neutral conductor of a two-wire system or any earthed or earthed neutral conductorof a multi-wire system or in any conductor connectedthereto with the following exceptions :A link for testing purposes, orB. switch for use in controlling a generator ortransformer.
  36. 36. Rule 33 : Earthed terminal on consumer’s Premises :1. The supplier shall provide and maintain on theconsumer’s premises for the consumer’s use a suitableearthed terminal in an accessible position at or near thepoint of commencement of supply as defined under rule58. Provided that in the case of medium, high orextra-high voltage installation the consumer shall, inaddition to the aforementioned earthing arrangements,provide his own earthing system with an independentelectrode. Provided further that the supplier may notprovide any earthed terminal in the case of installationsalready connected to his system on or before the date tobe specified by the State Government in this behalf if heis satisfied
  37. 37. 2. The consumer shall take all reasonable precautions to prevent mechanical damage to the earthed terminal and its lead belonging to the supplier3. The supplier may recover from consumer the cost of installation on the basis of schedule of charges notified in advance and where such schedule of charges is not notified, the procedure prescribed, in sub-rule (5) of rule 82 will apply.
  38. 38. Rule 34 : Accessibility of bare conductors.Where bare conductors are used in a building, the owner of such conductors Shall.a. ensure that they are inaccessible;b. provide in readily accessible position switches for rendering them dead b. whenever necessary; andc. take such other safety measures as are considered necessary by the inspector.
  39. 39. Rule 35 : Danger Notices :The owner of every medium, high and extra-high voltage installation shall affix permanently in a conspicuous position a danger notice in Hindi or English and the local language of the district, with a sign of skull and bones of a design as per the relevant ISS No. 2551 on –a. every motor, generator, transformer and other electrical plant and equipment together with apparatus used for controlling or regulating the same;b. all supports of high and extra-high voltage overhead lines which can be easily climbed upon without the aid of ladder or special appliances;
  40. 40. Explanation :- Rails, tubular poles, wooden supports, reinforced cement concrete poles without steps, I- sections and channels, shall be deemed as supports which cannot be easily climbed upon for the purposes of this clause.c. Luminous tube sign requiring high voltage supply, X- ray and similar high-frequency installations;
  41. 41. Provided that where it is not possible to affix such notices on any generator, motor, transformer or other apparatus, they shall be affixed as near as possible thereto; or the Word ‘Danger’ and the voltage of the apparatus concerned shall be permanently painted on it.Provided further that where the generator, motor, transformer or other apparatus is within an enclosure one notice affixed to the said enclosure shall be sufficient for the purposes of this rule.
  42. 42. RULE 36 : Handling of electric supply lines and apparatus :1. Before any conductor or apparatus is handled, adequateprecautions shall be taken by earthing or other suitable means,to discharge electrically such conductor or apparatus, and anyadjacent conductor or apparatus if there is danger there from,and to prevent any conductor or apparatus from beingaccidentally or inadvertently electrically charged when personsare working thereon.Every person who is working on an electric supply line orapparatus or both shall be provided with tools and devices suchas gloves, rubber shoes, safety belts, ladders, earthing devices,helmets, line testers, hand lines and the like for protecting himfrom mechanical and electrical injury. Such tools and devicesshall always be maintained in sound and efficient workingconditions.
  43. 43. 2. No person shall work on any live electric supply line or apparatus and no person shall assist such person on such work, unless he is authorized in that behalf, and take the safety measures approved by the Inspector.3. Every telecommunication on supports carrying a high or extra-high voltage line shall, for the purpose of working thereon, be deemed to be a high voltage line.
  44. 44. RULE 37 : Rules 37 to 41A : These appertain to provisions in respect of supply to vehicles, cranes etc, cables for portable or transportable apparatus, cables protected by bituminous materials, street boxes and distinction of different and multiple feed installations.
  45. 45. RULE 37 : Rules 43 to 46 : These concern stipulations regarding protective equipment like fire buckets, fire extinguishers, First- aid boxes, gas masks, Instructions for restoration of persons suffering from electric shock, intimation of accidents, precautions to be adopted by consumers, owner occupiers, electrical contractors, electrical workmen and suppliers along with provisions for periodical inspection and testing of installations.RULE 61 : Connection with earth. These rules lay down the requirements of connection with earth of systems at low voltage in cases where the voltage exceeds 125 volts and of systems at medium voltage.
  46. 46. RULE 61A : Earth leakage protective device The supply of energy to every electrical installation other than low voltage installation below 5 KW and those low voltage installations which do not attract provisions of Section 30 of the Indian Electricity Act, 1910, shall be controlled by an earth leakage protective device so as to disconnect the supply instantly on the occurrence or earth fault or leakage of current. Provided that the above shall not apply to overhead supply lines having protective devices which are effectively bonded to the neutral of supply transformers and conforming to Rule 91 of IE Rules,1956.
  47. 47. DISCARD PIT TYPE EARTHING–SWITCH TO CHEMICAL PIPE EARTHING! The conventional copper pit type earthing is out of date because:-1. The water level is going down at most of the geographical areas & therefore one has to dig deep holes may be to the extent of 20-50mtr.2. The commonly used substances in pit type earthing were sodiumChloride known as common salt, soft coke & charcoal.3. The common salt (sodium chloride) is a hygroscopic substance & it gets dissolved in water & losses its hygroscopic properties whenbecome water itself.4. The salt is known to be a corrosive electrolyte which decays the pipe and the conductor used for earthing. Due to decay one does notget the consistent ohmic values.5. The soft coke & charcoal tend to become ash due to heavy heatgenerated by heavy electric fault currents generated in the system especially at higher voltages at 1.1kv, 3.3kv, 6.6kv, 11kv, 33kv, 66kv&133kv transmission distribution line & at substation.
  48. 48. 6. The heat generated is proportional to I2Rt (Time in seconds) e.g. if the faultcurrent of 10,000amps in the system with an earth resistance 2 ohms aspermitted by IS in 0.01 seconds is given as under.H=I2Rt H=10,000x10, 000x2x0.01=20, 00,000 calories =1053 °CThis much heat generated in one fault. Assuming 6 faults in a year. Then in aperiod of four year -24 fault occur , each fault generating 1053 °C & Above.7. Each fault of this magnitude will turn the soft coke/ charcoal into ashgradually in a period of 3-4 years. The earth system will deteriorate and givelarger value of ohmic resistance thereby endangering the entire installationconsequently people & property.8. If the ohmic values goes up from 2 to 3 ohms because of faulty earthsystems heat generated will be 30,00,000 calories (i.e. 1600 °C )this results thatthe pit type earthing is inefficient , not reliable & cause serious damage to life &property in a period of 3-4 years .
  49. 49. 9. It is therefore observed that separate watering arrangement required to be made for maintaining moisture through a separate pipe dug along the earthingsystem.10. Instead of water producing the moisture in the earth pit the additional quantity of water poured in with a natural rain fall will wash away the charcoal& the soft coke from its main position thereby it will further deteriorate the functioning of the earth system. 
  50. 50. Why install chemical earthing:The above points conclude that pit type earthing is out ofdate and it is being replaced and preferred over chemicalpipe earthing for reasons given below:-1. The pipe for the chemical earthing are generally 2 mtr or 3mtr in length therefore the earth bore need not more thanthe 250 to 300mm dia & maximum depth of 3mtr.2. The moisture is maintained at a small depth of 3mtr byusing ground enhancement material, commonly known asGBFC (Grounding Back Fill Compound).3. The efficacy of the chemical earthing to maintain the moisture which is essential for low ohmic values of earthing resistance is due to use of hygroscopic chemical likealuminum silicate etc. which absorb the moisture but doesn’t get dissolved in the water unlike salt.
  51. 51. 4. The heat generated due to electric faults developing heatof 1060 °C and above is resisted by CCM (CrystallineConducive Material) which can withstand upto 2500°C.5. The CCM is filled in the pipe of appropriate dimension of50mm or 80mm dia and sealed at both ends. It incorporatesthe earth conductor of GI strip of suitable size of 30x6mm or40x6mm depending upon the individual design ofmanufacturer.  
  52. 52. 6. The CCM filled in the pipe being a good conductor increases the fault current capacity of the system because the pipe is hollow but when filled with CCM itbehaves like almost solid pipe.7. The CCM resists cracking, warping, shrinking, or distortion even whentemperature exceed 2500 °C due to severe repeated electric faults which may happen in operations over the year. 8. The GI pipe used are adequately galvanized (80-100 microns) as per IS-3047 1987. 9. Zinc oxide will be formed during the use of the earth system. Zinc oxide hasfollowing advantages over the conventional earthing which uses the copperplate or copper conductors:-a) Zinc oxide so formed is insoluble in water.b) Zinc oxide has a unique Dielectric strength that exhibits semiconducting &piezoelectric dual properties. (Unlike in copper where the copper oxide is abad conductor of electricity & becomes powdered Red Oxide (Copper Oxide)under high fault current that generate high temperatures)
  53. 53. c) ZnO finds application in Varistors which are used toprevent voltage surges in the electronic devices like mobilephone.d) ZnO is not combustible & used as a fire extinguishantmaterial.CONCLUTION:- The industry, project managers & theelectrical consultants find it very convincing to use & specifythe chemical pipe earthing which is convenient to install, nomaintenance what so ever with a long life of over 15 years.
  54. 54. a) Sub: Install ALFREDKIM CHEMICAL EARTHING. PreventElectrical Hazards!!Need for Protection! To protect Industrial, commercial, and residential Buildings withproper electrical earthingReasons:1. Lightening Damage2. Electrical leakages 3. Short circuits between phases / between phase and Neutral4. Surges in Supply lineWhy Earthing?Effective Earthing in the building protects People, Property andEquipments.
  55. 55. Result: Protection of persons within the buildingwho are occupants as owners or tenants oremployees or visitors or residentsType Of Hazards:Electric fires resulting in loss of Property and loss ofHuman lives in these divesting tragic fires. Good Earthing: ALFREDKIM chemical earthing islike an insurance for protection of property , peopleand equipments.Any compromise on quality or absence of earthingis willful act of inviting electric hazards in theinstallation
  56. 56. B. Why Electrical /Electronic fail to perform tooptimum in industry and commercial buildings.The electrical /electronic equipment e.g UPS system,Computers, cfl lamps Eapbx , ac/dc VFd ,SpeedDrives, CNC Machines, Printing Machines , Machinetools with electronic controls, Welding machines.Lifts ,EOT cranes and all such devices fitted withPCB/electronic cards have tendency to distort thesine wave of AC supply there by causing theresultant unbalanced voltage leading to HigherVoltage between Neutral and earth which lead tohigher neutral currents which sometimes are 1.73times of the phase currents
  57. 57. Hazards Prevented: Poor performance of the above equipment resulting in lossof production and loss of man hours i.e idle man hours dueto equipment failure or inefficient operation and additionalrupee expense on maintenanceMalfunctioning of equipments: Why electronic EquipmentMalfunction Specially in the IT Industry e.g. call centers,BPO`s and similar industries in particular.The electronic circuits in this equipment are operating atdifferent switching voltages as per the design of the individualmanufacturers therefore it is essential that voltages betweenneutral and earth are maintained to minimum level so that thePCB`s/electronic cards are not damaged due to highneutral currents and unbalanced voltages.
  58. 58. INSTALLATION OF ALFREDKIM CHEMICAL EARTHING b) Why watering is required for New Earth bore? When the pipe earthing /chemical earthing/maintenance free earthing/Gel earthing or whatever name it is called by various manufacturers the watering of the bore is necessary for the following reasons. a. Unlike pit earthing where the salt (Nacl) & coal is used with copper plate, the pit is dug very deep approximately 40ft to 70 ft. depending on soil conditions where the dampness/moisture is achieved at various level of depth.
  59. 59. b. In case of the modern type of earthing which is free fromfuture maintenance .The watering of the bore prior toinstallation is necessary for the following reasons.1. The depth of the bore is either 2m/3m (6ft/10ft) which ismuch less than the normal depth required in pit earthing.2. The diameter of the bore is also limited to 200/300mmagainst the pit earthing which is almost in square meters.3.Unlike salt which is used in pit earthing which dissolves inwater and salt it self becomes water in the course of timeand dries it self, thereby loosing the conductivity insurrounding of the pit. Salt itself reacts with copper &makes copper chloride & other corrosive chemicals whichcorrode the copper plates.
  60. 60. 4. The GEM used by us absorbs the water upto 13 to 15times its weight & dosen’t dissolve in the water therefore itretains its moisture property upto the lifetime of theelectrode which is more than 25 years as it contains soilfriendly materials.5. Since there is no need to recharge the pit as the GEM willremains moist through out the life, therefore it is desirableand absolutely necessary to keep watering the bore forthree to four days continuously before installing theelectrode and filling it with GEM so that the GEM will havemoist bore available with enough water soaked in the boredue to continuous watering before installation.
  61. 61. 6. After the installation no watering is necessary for futuremaintenance in whatever soil condition it has been installedeither indoor or outdoor installation.7. The earthing is quite successful in the normal climaticcondition where the average rain fall in a year may notexceed 250mm. This will give enough moisture to the soil.8. This earthing is being recommended by most of theconsultant in desert areas where there is scanty rain fall indesert areas where the water level to achieve the normaldampness is very-very deep.
  62. 62. 9. Since we are able to achieve required dampness in adepth of 2 to 3meters with continuous watering of the bore&adequate quantity of the GEM filled at the time ofearthing which remains moist for the rest of life & maintainsthe good ohmic values of earth resistance.10.To conclude the old copper pit type earthing is out ofdate & maintenance free earthing is easy to install, occupiesless space & economical in the long run.CONCLUSION:- The industry, project managers & theelectrical consultants find it very convincing to use & specifythe chemical pipe earthing which is convenient to install, nomaintenance what so ever with a long life of over 15 years.
  63. 63. c) Subject: - Location of Earthing?Question: Should it be near to the point ofapplication/Equipment or away from it?Answer: It must be near to the point of application.Reason:Please read on!1. OLD TRADITIONAL SYSTEM:- I) The conventional pit type copper plate Earthing withlarge Quantity of Charcoal & Salt was requiring largearea of about 4’x3’or 6’x4’ & depth used to be 20’ to60’(7 to 20 mtr)depending on the soil condition.II) This much area was conveniently available in thefactories/office premises in earlier days when thespace was not constraint.
  64. 64. III)The distance between the earth pit & the point ofapplication used to be few meters may be50-100mtrs & therefore to maintain the low resistance ofthe earthing wire from the earth pit to the machinery thecopper wire of 8/10 swg was used.IV) The copper wire thus used was cash & carry item forprofessional wire cutters who used to cut the wire at thefirst opportunity there by disconnecting the earthingsystem & causing an electrical danger to the system.
  65. 65. 2. PRESENT MODERN SYSTEM:- I) The space is become expensive & in short supply.II) The conventional pit type earthings is very cumbersome, laborious &occupies more space in term of sq. mtr & it is being replaced with chemicalpipe earthings.III) The advantages of pipe earthing are:-a) It needs a bore of 250-300mm dia & the depth of 2 to 3 mtr.b) It is a neat & clean installation.c) Doesn’t spoil the look of the office or factory.d) It is conveniently covered up which can be flagged showing the location ofthe earthing.e) The pipe earthing is a compact unit & can be installed very near to theequipment hardly 2-5 mtr away from the equipment.f) The closeness of the earthing has a advantage of providing very lowresistance value to the system which requires less length of the wire (ASresistance is directly proportional to the length i.e. the smaller the length,it is better for earthing)
  66. 66. g) Since the length of the earthing is required is very small in theinstallation of pipe earthings due to nearness to the equipment.h) The G.I. strip of cross section area of 10x3mm or more are used forconnecting the pipe electrode to the equipment.I) G.I. wire is not favorite of wire cutters so there are no chances ofdisconnection of wire cutting or theft.j) The copper wire of 8/10 swg which was used earlier were subjectedto more mechanical damages because of very low cross section area &the round wire is more subjected to more cross sectional damagethan the rectangular strip of 10x3 mm or aboave.CONCLUSION:- In view of above application the earthing electrodeclose to the point of application or equipment are more desirable forelectrical & electronics equipment which demand low value of ohmicresistance through out the year under all working condition i.e.extreme dry ,extremely cold or wet climates. 
  67. 67. d) Why Neutral Earthing /Grounding 1 All Neutral should have Zero Potential Difference.2. Why Neutral Voltage is Noticed Now a Days.Reasons for Neutral voltage.A. The use of electronic equipment /ups/computers /CFL lamps/Speed drives etc. These devices on operate at different cut off voltages in the  sine wave cycle and hence the sine wave is distorted resulting in the higher   PD in the Neutral and cause  the flow of currents in the Neutral Circuit which results inthe damage of PCB cards and other sensitive components in the electroniccircuit/equipmentsB) The Industrial loads are in general Not Balanced Loads and therefore the line voltages are spill over to Neutral   which results into stray currents therebydamaging the electronic equipments/ PCB cardsWhy Neutral Grounding.A. To maintain the ZERO PD between the Neutral and earth and to ground the Spill over voltages the Neutral is   grounded.
  68. 68. It is therefore very necessary to immediatelyconnect Neutral to the Earth by Solid Permanentcontact so that there is no possibility of looseconnection /disconnection at any stage OFOPERATION to prevent any electrical mishaps.Method of testing the New Earth ElectrodeA) Connect the New Electrode to the Neutral ofSupply Line by very Good secure ConnectionEither Bolted or soldered.B) Connect the Volt meter as shown in the Picture(P1) below.,C) When the Neutral is properly grounded and theearthing is Successful the voltmeter should giveNearly ZERO voltage between Earth and Neutral
  69. 69. D) Electricity finds always easier path to flow therefore the spill over voltage in the neutral will go to the newly installed earth electrode. In case earthing is not successful or has higher ohmic value of resistance or loose contact/ disconnection in the earthing circuit the voltmeter will show the undesirable voltage. In case the earthing is ok and correctly done the voltmeter will show almost Zero Volts.Kindly follow the above testing methods and ensure the testing is properly done.CONCLUTION:- The industry, project managers & theelectrical consultants find it very convincing to use & specifythe chemical pipe earthing which is convenient to install, nomaintenance what so ever with a long life of over 15 years.
  70. 70. SYSTEMS OF GRID EARTHINGReasons of Grid Earthing: -1. To manage very high fault currents So that the lowohmic value of earth resistance will reduce the effectivewatt loss thereby controlling the heat generated in thesystem.2. To maintain very low level of ohmic values of earthresistance like 0.1 etc. so that the sensitive electricalprotective devices& relays used in substations & powerhouses.
  71. 71. System at Substations/Power Houses:-1. The connected loads at your power Houses are heavy & at an extra highvoltage as well.2. The reason for maintaining the value of resistance appears to us forpreventing the malfunction of the protective devices & Relays. How can we maintain the low ohmic earth resistance:-The examples are given below:-Formula to calculate the Resistance in Parallel:-If there is n resistance connected in parallel. Than1/R=1/R1+1/R2+1/R3+1/R4+--------------------------------------------+1/Rn.
  72. 72. A.) GRID of 12 EARTHING ELECTRODE:Case-IEarthing R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 R8 R9 R10 R11R12hmic 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.9 0.9 0.9 1.0 1.01.0Value  On applying formula of Resistance:-1/R=1/R1+1/R2+1/R3+1/R4+1/R5+1/R6+1/R7+1/R8+1/R9+1/R10+1/R11+1/R121/R=1/0.6+1/0.7+1/0.7+1/0.8+1/0.8+1/0.8+1/0.9+1/0.9+1/0.9+1/1.0+1/1.0+1/1.01/R=1.67+1.43+1.43+1.25+1.25+1.25+1.11+1.11+1.11+1.0+1.0+1.01/R=14.61R=0.068 Ω
  73. 73. Case-IIIn case the earthing no.1 & 12 after some time becomeOut of order due to some reason likeI) Accidently disconnectedII) Loose Electrical Contacts.III) Any type of cut in the distribution system due toMechanical stress
  74. 74. III) Any type of cut in the distribution system due toMechanical stressEarthing R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 R8 R9 R10 R11 R12Ohmic 0.0 0.7 0.7 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.9 0.9 0.9 1.0 1.0 0.0 ValueOn applying formula of Resistance:-1/R=1/R1+1/R2+1/R3+1/R4+1/R5+1/R6+1/R7+1/R8+1/R9+1/R10+1/R11+1/R121/R=1/0.0+1/0.7+1/0.7+1/0.8+1/0.8+1/0.8+1/0.9+1/0.9+1/0.9+1/1.0+1/1.0+1/0.01/R=0.0+1.43+1.43+1.25+1.25+1.25+1.11+1.11+1.11+1.0+1.0+0.01/R=11.94R=0.08 Ω
  75. 75. B.)GRID of 15 EARTHING ELECTRODE:Case-IEarthing R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 R8 R9 R10 R11 R12 R13 R14 R15Ohmic Value 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 
  76. 76.  On applying formula of Resistance:-1/R=1/R1+1/R2+1/R3+1/R4+1/R5+1/R6+1/R7+1/R8+1/R9+1/R10+1/R11+1/R12+1/R13+1/R14+1/R151/R=1/0.6+1/0.7+1/0.7+1/0.8+1/0.8+1/0.8+1/0.8+1/0.9+1/0.9+1/0.9+1/0.9+1/1.0+1/1.0+1/1.0+1/1.01/R=1.67+1.43+1.43+1.25+1.25+1.25+1.25+1.11+1.11+1.11+1.11+1.0+1.0+1.0+1.01/R=17.97R=0.056 Ω
  77. 77. Case-IIIn case the earthing no.1, 8 & 14 after some time become Out of order due tosome reason likeI) Accidently disconnected.II) Loose Electrical Contacts.III) Any type of cut in the distribution system due to Mechanical damage.Earthing R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 R8 R9 R10 R11 R12 R13 R14 R15Ohmic Value 0.0 0.7 0.7 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.0 0.9 0.9 0.0 1.0 1.0 0.0 1.0 
  78. 78. On applying formula of Resistance:-1/R=1/R1+1/R2+1/R3+1/R4+1/R5+1/R6+1/R7+1/R8+1/R9+1/R10+1/R11+1/R12+1/R13+1/R14+1/R151/R=1/0.0+1/0.7+1/0.7+1/0.8+1/0.8+1/0.8+1/0.8+1/0.0+1/0.9+1/0.9+1/0.0+1/1.0+1/1.0+1/0.0+1/1.01/R=0.0+1.43+1.43+1.25+1.25+1.25+1.25+0.0+1.11+1.11+0.0+1.0+1.0+0.0+1.01/R=15.47R=0.07 Ω
  79. 79. We have given two cases for each type of grid earthing i.e. twelve earthsystems & fifteen Earth systems.Our recommendations are for fifteen earth systems to maintain a long termlow ohmic values because of the following factors:- 1. Change of a soil condition for a period of a time is choosing a differentlocation for the earthing system in the same premise.2. Change of CLIMATE CONDITION:a. Extremely dry climate- SUMMERb. Extremely cold climate- WINTERc. Extremely humid climate-RAINSCONCLUSION:- In view of above application the earthing electrodeclose to the point of application or equipment are more desirable forelectrical & electronics equipment which demand low value of ohmicresistance through out the year under all working condition i.e.extreme dry ,extremely cold or wet climates.
  80. 80. CORE FEATURES OF ALFREDKIM CHEMICAL EARTHNG• Ultra low resistance grounding electrode.• Make certain maximum safety from electrical system faults.• Maintenance free system, no need to dispense water recurrently.• Maintains dependable & unfailing earth resistance.• Limits the system-to-ground or system-to-frame voltage to values safe for personnel.• Offer a relatively firm & secure system with a minimum of transient over voltages.• Authorize any system fault to ground to be quickly isolated.• Protection against static electricity from friction.• Prevents static charge & stray current accidents.
  81. 81. • Endow with good grounds for electric process control and communication circuits.• Conductive compound constructs a conductive zone and offers much increased area for peak current dissipation• Low earth resistance. High conductive.• Transmits high peak current repeatedly. Endlessly sustain almost the identical earth resistance value regardless of soil & climate conditions.• Multi-directional dissipation of current.• Stabilize circuit potential with respect to ground and limit overall potential rise.• Eco Friendly, safe, reliable and anti corrosive.• Much stretched life.• Straight forward & trouble free to mount.
  82. 82. CHEMICALS USED - BENTONITEBentonite is naturally occuring hydrated Aluminium Silicate. The most important use of Bentonite is based on its natural swelling can surely say that bentonite is most economic natural thickner available to industries.It has ability to absorb water several (15) times its weight and give thickstropic fluid.Chemically Bentonite is HYDRATED ALUMINIUM SILICATE.Chemical Formula : Al2O34SiO2H2OPhysical Properties :Sp. Gravity : 2.4Bulk density : 0.6PH of 10% Aqueous solution : 8 to 8.8Chemical Composition :Silica : 54.26Aluminium : 18.34Ferric Oxide : 10.91TiO2 : 01.25
  83. 83. The Exceptional Nature of Graphite - Graphite - Properties The most significant property of graphite is its dimensional strength and stability at ultra-high temperatures. It resists cracking, warping, shrinking, or distortion even when temperatures exceed 2500oC. Graphite is resistant to both thermal shock and chemical attack, and can act as either a thermal conductor or insulator, depending on the application. At the same time, it is electrically conductive and naturally lubricating. Essentially inert, graphite is considered to be environmentally safe and non-toxic. While standard synthetic graphite is quite pure, extremely pure grades are available for special applications such as research and elemental analysis. It can also be processed into a variety of forms from felts and foils to composites and precisely machined components.
  84. 84. Uses of Graphite Application - Why Graphite WorksCrucibles : High purity. Excellent resistance to thermal shockand chemical attack. Non-wetting by most moltenmetals.Electrical Heating Elements : With electrical properties fallingbetween thoseof metals and ceramics, the electrical resistivity can be varied over aconsiderable range.Bushings : Self-lubrication and durability in the absence ofpetroleum-based lubricants, at temperatures to 1,200 FSintering Trays and Boats : Thermal stability, low wettability andlow specific heat.EDM Electrodes : Electrical conductivity, resistance to wear fromelectrical arcing and excellent machinability into complex shapes.
  85. 85. Molds : Dimensional stability, low wettabilityand high purity.Seal Faces : Self-lubrication, dimensional stabilityand resistance to chemical attack.Continuous Casting Dies : Dimensional stability,excellent machinabilityhigh thermal conductivity and self-lubrication.
  86. 86. UTTRAKHAND ELECTRICITY REGULATORY COMMISSIONIn the matter of:UPCL not inspecting and testing applicant’s installation andmaintaining recordof test results obtained in the specified format, in accordance withprovisions of UERC(Release of New LT connection, Enhancement and Reduction ofLoads) Regulations,2007 read with Rules 47 & 48 of IE Rules, 1956. CoramV.J. Talwar Chairman Anand Kumar Member Date of Order: October 27, 2008
  87. 87. UTTRAKHAND ELECTRICITY REGULATORY COMMISSIONThe Order is based on Rule 67(1-A) “the neutral point of every generator and transformer shall be earthed byconnecting it to the earthing system as defined in Rules 61 (4) andhereinabove by not less than two separate and distinct connections”Rule 61(4) defines earthing system as: “All earthing systems shall – (a) consist of equipotential bonding conductors capable of carrying theprospective earth fault current and a group of pipe/rod/plate electrodes fordissipating the current to the general mass of earth without exceedingthe allowable temperature limits as per relevant Indian Standards inorder to maintain all non-current carrying metal works reasonably at earth potential and to avoid dangerous contact potentials being developedon such metal works;
  88. 88. (b) Limit earth resistance sufficiently low to permit adequate faultcurrent for the operation of proactive devices in time and to reduceneutral shifting.(c) Be mechanically strong, withstand corrosion and retain electricalcontinuity during the life of the installation. All earthing systems shall betested to ensure efficient earthing, before the electric supply lines orapparatus are energised.”
  89. 89. UTTRAKHAND ELECTRICITY REGULATORY COMMISSION22. Concluding the order, the following action is required to be takenup by the licensee.•To complete the works for providing proper earting in lines inaccordance with Rule 90 of IE Rules 1956- by 31st March 2010.•To provide protective device in accordance with Rule 91(1) and anticlimbing. Device in accordance with Rule 91(2) in electrical lines –by31st March 2010. Proposal along with Action Plan to achieve the above, givingmilestones for geographical areas/ activities, to reach theCommission within one month of this order i.e. 27.11.20087.To submit a detailed report, after investing the matter of accident invillage Syali as given at para 19 of this order, within one month ofthis order i.e. 27.11.2008.9.Detailed Order given in your folders
  90. 90. Some of Our Prestigeous Cients :Faridabad: 9. Prime Electronics 14/3, Mathura Road, Faridabad1. Pyramid Control System pvt Ltd 10. Fine Turn14/4, Mathura Road, Faridabad 240, Sector -24, Faridabad2. Havells India Pvt Ltd 11. S. R. Engineers14/3, Mathura road, Faridabad A-150 Sector-31, Faridabad3. Laroiya Medicare Centre Pvt Ltd 12. Saraswati Sishu School 997/7C, Faridabad Tegoan, Ballabgarh, Faridabad4. Siya Ram Engineers 13. Dev tech PrintersShed No. 150 Type-A, HSIIDC Sec-31, Faridabad14/3 Mathura Road, Faridabad5. Joneja Bright Steel Pvt Ltd 14. Iskan India,Plot No.239&244, sec-24, Faridabad Gandhi Colony, Railway Road, Faridabad6. Vijay Engineering & Metal Works 15. SPCP Industries,Plot no.165/66, Sec-24, Faridabad A-50, 16/5, Mathura Road,7. Sawatik Automatics Kakhanabag, FaridabadS.G.M Nagar, Faridabad 16. Malhotra Shaving Products Pvt Ltd8. Asha Telecom Pvt ltd Factory-23/7, Sec-59, Ballabgarh,17/3, Mathura Road, Faridabad Faridabad-121004
  91. 91. Some of Our Prestigeous Cients : Delhi:-Faridabad: 1. Tri Square Switchgears Private Limited1. Lakhani India Limited A-8, DSIDC Sheds, Narera, DelhiPlot No.131, Sec-24, Ballabgarh, Faridabad2. Krishna Grover Private Limited 2. Control & Switchgear Private Limited13/7, Inside G.D.Industries, Mathura Road, (For Installation at South Block)Faridabad-121003, Haryana 222, Okhla Industrial area,3. Super Lamnicote Private Limited Phase-III, ND-11002013/7, G.D. Industrial Engineers Compound,Mathura Road, Faridabad-1210034. Heena Off-set Priter Gurgaon:-Plot No.44, Sec-58, Ballabhgad Faridabad5. SP Industries 1. Nutek India LimitedPlot No.80 Sec-25 Ballabhgad Faridabad (AIRCEL Tower, Baljeet Nagar, Delhi) B-27, Sector-34, Info city, Gurgaon
  92. 92. Some of Our Prestigeous Cients :Noida: Rajasthan:1. Castrol ZoneA-14 Sector 58, Noida 1. Daikin Air-Conditioning (India) Pvt, Ltd2. Keizer Pvt ltd Sp-2/12, To Sp-2/15 And Sp-2/24 To Sp-2/27D-328, Sector 63, Noida RIICO New Industrial Complex3. U Flex Industries Ltd (Nimrana) Distt- Alwar, RajasthanPlot No.-1 sector 60, Noida4. Daltronics India Ltd.A-88 Sec 57, Noida Ghaziabad:5. Daltronics India Ltd.E-3, Sec-59, Noida 1. SiddhoMal paper Conversion Pvt Ltd6. Supertech Diesel Power Engineers 20 Loni roads Industrial Area,C-89, Sector-44, Noida-201301 Mohan Nagar, Ghaziabad 
  94. 94. LIGHTER MOOD - VACANCY FOR AN ELECTRICIAN IN INDIA!Immediate requirement, No previous experiencenecessary.All gear supplied, pliers and screwdriver available at depot.No overtime restrictions,Salary: negotiableWorking hours: till the job is doneEssential requirement - fault finding skills!IMPORTANT: To get an idea of your first assignment
  95. 95. Don’t let the earthing faults happen!                                 ...simply doesn’t work!!
  96. 96. THANKSMANAGEMENT & STAFF OFALFREDKIM SYSTEMS AND SOLUTIONS (PVT) LTD.14/3, Bolton Compound, Matura Road,Faridabad-121003 (Haryana), IndiaPh : 0129 – 4158603Mobile : +91 9810531603, 8800797774