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Organizational change


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Presentation for OS210 Organizational Communication, Goodwin College, East Hartford CT

Presentation for OS210 Organizational Communication, Goodwin College, East Hartford CT

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  • 1. Week 6Chapter 10
  • 2. Models ofOrganizational Change
  • 3. Models ofOrganizational Change Change is constant as organizations evolve and age, especially as we move further into this new millennium. Organizations must organize for continuous change to become flexible and adapt quickly to environmental changes  Mergers  Layoffs  Job redefinitions
  • 4. Models ofOrganizational Change Start upKimberly & Miles |Hannan & Freeman –80’s Organizational Decay Growth Life Cycle Harvest
  • 5. Models ofOrganizational Change The natural life cycle of an organization might include:  Start-up– company develops a market and creates systems and procedures  Growth – clients relationship are developed and the size of the company grows  Harvest – the company serves existing customers  Decay stage – the services become less relevant to the marketplace and the firm eventually folds or is bought by another company.
  • 6. Models ofOrganizational Change Other models look at planned change  Implementation not simple  Disseminate information about the change  Integrate changes into the day-to-day operations of the organization
  • 7. Models ofOrganizational Change Model of planned change (Connor & Lake, 1994)  Involve a number of different types of change (individual, behavior, organizational, process es)  It is accomplished using different methods (technical, structural, managerial)
  • 8. Models ofOrganizational Change Schools introducing the new method for teaching reading because of the national standard No Child Left Behind initiative  Changes in the school population  New developments in elementary school
  • 9. Models ofOrganizational Change School‟s culture, textbooks, lesson plans, community involvement and pressure make the change complicated.
  • 10. Models ofOrganizational Change Many organizational practitioners are concerned with ways of managing change and don‟t support the idea of just letting the organizational life cycle take its course. Successful organizations are those that initiate change, respond to change, plan change and implement change as an ongoing way of life.
  • 11. Reactions toOrganizational Change Management support for the change process is critical  Senior management has the most impact on change  When senior management don‟t backup the change, change effort is not successful Ownership tension
  • 12. Reactions toOrganizational Change Another area of concern in the change process is the resistance to change.  Change can threaten the organizational culture of a workplace  Companys core values  Mission  Work environment
  • 13. Reactions toOrganizational Change  Employees gain a sense of group identity and belonging from organizational culture.  Fear is natural.
  • 14. Reactions toOrganizational Change Resistance to Change  Behavior that prevent the implementation or use of a system to prevent systems designers from achieving their objectives.
  • 15. Reactions toOrganizational Change Reasons for Resistance to change  Ignorance of a change initiative  Inadequate training  Fear
  • 16. Reactions toOrganizational Change Another reaction to change is the uncertainty of organizational members because of  Stress  Anxiety  Defense mechanism
  • 17. Communication in theChange Process Communication and Information  The best ways to deal with uncertainty and anxiety.
  • 18. Communication in theChange Process Employees prefer having negative information to having no information about organizational change.
  • 19. How do communication activitiestranslate into meaningfulcoordinated strategy? Assessment - to understand the territory before taking action, and especially to identify interests  What are their key beliefs and values? (cognitive)  What is their emotional state? (emotional)  What are they willing to do and why? (intentions, interests)
  • 20. Case Study
  • 21. How do communication activitiestranslate into meaningfulcoordinated strategy? Assessment - to understand the territory before taking action, and especially to identify interests  Evaluate the existing communication system  What are the existing channels of communication?  What are the communicative goals for each channel?  What types of messages are typically transmitted in these channels?  What is the target audience for each channel?
  • 22. SMART Goal To educate 100% of employees about the state of the business, by January, 2012 at a cost of $3,000.
  • 23. Strategies for Communicatingabout Change Clampitt, DeKoch, and Cashman (2000) proposed communication strategies that management can use in communicating about change to employees.
  • 24. Strategies for Communicatingabout Change Spray & Pray: Executives shower employees with all kinds of information, hoping that employees will be able to sort out the significant from insignificant Tell & Sell: Executives communicate a more limited set of messages, first telling employees about the key issues, then selling them on the wisdom of their approach.
  • 25. Strategies for Communicatingabout Change Underscore & Explore: Executives focus on developing a few core messages clearly linked to organizational success, while actively listening for potential misunderstandings and unrecognized obstacles. Identify & Reply: Executives identify key employee concerns and then reply to them.
  • 26. Strategies for Communicatingabout Change Withhold & Uphold: Executives withhold information until necessary. Secrecy and control are the implicit values of this strategy.
  • 27. Strategies forCommunicating aboutChange The Spray and Pray strategy creates the illusion that everyone is informed. Spray and Pray and Withhold and Upload are least effective. The Tell & Sell strategy demonstrates the (cheer) leader‟s enthusiastic endorsement of an initiative. But, no one ever asks for employee feedback or checks to see if the message was understood.
  • 28. Strategies for Communicatingabout Change The Underscore & Explore strategy is the most effective strategy.  It addresses fewer issues and explores employee interpretations.  It has the added benefit of creating dialogue around a few core concepts that have the greatest potential to transform the organization.
  • 29. Tactics to Implement Strategies Repetition & Redundancy  Repeating a slogan while varying the examples increases the likelihood to hear, remember and act on a similar message: Moving forward, We try harder  Repetition also help to break the resistance.  Car license tags, acronyms, conferences, newsletter s, employee stories
  • 30. Tactics to Implement Strategies Opinion Leaders  Identify a leader who serves a vital role in the social structure of employees  Provides insight and expertise  Clarify opinions for others  Help the group make sense of the organizational life  set the norms for acceptable and unacceptable behavior
  • 31. Tactics to Implement Strategies Select the right Communication Channels  Build new channels into the system to allow for the routine and systematic discussion of key issues.  Channels of communication, and the way they are used, influence how messages are interpreted.  The channel choice symbolizes „importance‟.  When announcing major changes, leaders should use multiple channels because it increases the probability employees will hear key messages.
  • 32. Tactics to Implement Strategies Use “rich” channels, such as face-to-face meetings, to allow for rapid feedback and quick adaptation to employee concerns. Provoke Dialogue – a meaningful dialogue promotes deeper commitment to the leader‟s ideas, purpose or mission.
  • 33. Tactics to Implement Strategies Check the pulse  A survey to identify employee concerns  A Pulse Report with a summary of the findings  A “Talking Points” document, which is a summary for managers, outlining how executives think about the issues drawn from the current Pulse. This serves as the basis for the updates managers provide to their employees.
  • 34. 1.Organizational Crisis Organizational crisis evolves in three stages 1. Precrisis – prevent or prepare for possible problems  Have a crisis management plan and update it at least annually.  Have a designate crisis management team that is properly trained.  Conduct exercise at least annually to test the crisis management plan and team.  Pre-draft select crisis management messages including content for dark web sites and templates for crisis statements. Have the legal department review and pre-approve these messages.
  • 35. 1.Organizational Crisis 2. Crisis – there is a trigger that can damage the reputation of organizations; there is uncertainty  Avoid the phrase “no comment” because people think it means the organization is guilty or try to hide something.  Present information clearly by avoiding jargon or technical terms. Lack of clarity makes people think the organization is purposefully being confusing in order to hide something.
  • 36. 1.Organizational Crisis  Appear pleasant on camera by avoiding nervous habits that people interpret as deception.  Brief all potential spokespersons on the latest crisis information and the key message points the organization is trying to convey to stakeholders.
  • 37. Organizational Crisis 3. Postcrisis – communication focuses on determining responsibility, or apologizing and establishing systems to deal with similar crisis in the future.  Deliver all information promised to stakeholders as soon as that information is known.  Keep stakeholders updated on the progression of recovery efforts including any corrective measures being taken and the progress of investigations.  Analyze the crisis management effort for lessons and integrate those lessons in to the organization‟s crisis management system.