Models ofOrganizational Change Change is constant as organizations evolve and age, especially as we move further into this new millennium. Organizations must organize for continuous change to become flexible and adapt quickly to environmental changes Mergers Layoffs Job redefinitions
Models ofOrganizational Change Start upKimberly & Miles |Hannan & Freeman –80’s Organizational Decay Growth Life Cycle Harvest
Models ofOrganizational Change The natural life cycle of an organization might include: Start-up– company develops a market and creates systems and procedures Growth – clients relationship are developed and the size of the company grows Harvest – the company serves existing customers Decay stage – the services become less relevant to the marketplace and the firm eventually folds or is bought by another company.
Models ofOrganizational Change Other models look at planned change Implementation not simple Disseminate information about the change Integrate changes into the day-to-day operations of the organization
Models ofOrganizational Change Model of planned change (Connor & Lake, 1994) Involve a number of different types of change (individual, behavior, organizational, process es) It is accomplished using different methods (technical, structural, managerial)
Models ofOrganizational Change Schools introducing the new method for teaching reading because of the national standard No Child Left Behind initiative Changes in the school population New developments in elementary school
Models ofOrganizational Change School‟s culture, textbooks, lesson plans, community involvement and pressure make the change complicated.
Models ofOrganizational Change Many organizational practitioners are concerned with ways of managing change and don‟t support the idea of just letting the organizational life cycle take its course. Successful organizations are those that initiate change, respond to change, plan change and implement change as an ongoing way of life.
Reactions toOrganizational Change Management support for the change process is critical Senior management has the most impact on change When senior management don‟t backup the change, change effort is not successful Ownership tension
Reactions toOrganizational Change Another area of concern in the change process is the resistance to change. Change can threaten the organizational culture of a workplace Companys core values Mission Work environment
Reactions toOrganizational Change Employees gain a sense of group identity and belonging from organizational culture. Fear is natural.
Reactions toOrganizational Change Resistance to Change Behavior that prevent the implementation or use of a system to prevent systems designers from achieving their objectives.
Reactions toOrganizational Change Reasons for Resistance to change Ignorance of a change initiative Inadequate training Fear
Reactions toOrganizational Change Another reaction to change is the uncertainty of organizational members because of Stress Anxiety Defense mechanism
Communication in theChange Process Communication and Information The best ways to deal with uncertainty and anxiety.
Communication in theChange Process Employees prefer having negative information to having no information about organizational change.
How do communication activitiestranslate into meaningfulcoordinated strategy? Assessment - to understand the territory before taking action, and especially to identify interests What are their key beliefs and values? (cognitive) What is their emotional state? (emotional) What are they willing to do and why? (intentions, interests)
How do communication activitiestranslate into meaningfulcoordinated strategy? Assessment - to understand the territory before taking action, and especially to identify interests Evaluate the existing communication system What are the existing channels of communication? What are the communicative goals for each channel? What types of messages are typically transmitted in these channels? What is the target audience for each channel?
SMART Goal To educate 100% of employees about the state of the business, by January, 2012 at a cost of $3,000.
Strategies for Communicatingabout Change Clampitt, DeKoch, and Cashman (2000) proposed communication strategies that management can use in communicating about change to employees.
Strategies for Communicatingabout Change Spray & Pray: Executives shower employees with all kinds of information, hoping that employees will be able to sort out the significant from insignificant Tell & Sell: Executives communicate a more limited set of messages, first telling employees about the key issues, then selling them on the wisdom of their approach.
Strategies for Communicatingabout Change Underscore & Explore: Executives focus on developing a few core messages clearly linked to organizational success, while actively listening for potential misunderstandings and unrecognized obstacles. Identify & Reply: Executives identify key employee concerns and then reply to them.
Strategies for Communicatingabout Change Withhold & Uphold: Executives withhold information until necessary. Secrecy and control are the implicit values of this strategy.
Strategies forCommunicating aboutChange The Spray and Pray strategy creates the illusion that everyone is informed. Spray and Pray and Withhold and Upload are least effective. The Tell & Sell strategy demonstrates the (cheer) leader‟s enthusiastic endorsement of an initiative. But, no one ever asks for employee feedback or checks to see if the message was understood.
Strategies for Communicatingabout Change The Underscore & Explore strategy is the most effective strategy. It addresses fewer issues and explores employee interpretations. It has the added benefit of creating dialogue around a few core concepts that have the greatest potential to transform the organization.
Tactics to Implement Strategies Repetition & Redundancy Repeating a slogan while varying the examples increases the likelihood to hear, remember and act on a similar message: Moving forward, We try harder Repetition also help to break the resistance. Car license tags, acronyms, conferences, newsletter s, employee stories
Tactics to Implement Strategies Opinion Leaders Identify a leader who serves a vital role in the social structure of employees Provides insight and expertise Clarify opinions for others Help the group make sense of the organizational life set the norms for acceptable and unacceptable behavior
Tactics to Implement Strategies Select the right Communication Channels Build new channels into the system to allow for the routine and systematic discussion of key issues. Channels of communication, and the way they are used, influence how messages are interpreted. The channel choice symbolizes „importance‟. When announcing major changes, leaders should use multiple channels because it increases the probability employees will hear key messages.
Tactics to Implement Strategies Use “rich” channels, such as face-to-face meetings, to allow for rapid feedback and quick adaptation to employee concerns. Provoke Dialogue – a meaningful dialogue promotes deeper commitment to the leader‟s ideas, purpose or mission.
Tactics to Implement Strategies Check the pulse A survey to identify employee concerns A Pulse Report with a summary of the findings A “Talking Points” document, which is a summary for managers, outlining how executives think about the issues drawn from the current Pulse. This serves as the basis for the updates managers provide to their employees.
1.Organizational Crisis Organizational crisis evolves in three stages 1. Precrisis – prevent or prepare for possible problems Have a crisis management plan and update it at least annually. Have a designate crisis management team that is properly trained. Conduct exercise at least annually to test the crisis management plan and team. Pre-draft select crisis management messages including content for dark web sites and templates for crisis statements. Have the legal department review and pre-approve these messages.
1.Organizational Crisis 2. Crisis – there is a trigger that can damage the reputation of organizations; there is uncertainty Avoid the phrase “no comment” because people think it means the organization is guilty or try to hide something. Present information clearly by avoiding jargon or technical terms. Lack of clarity makes people think the organization is purposefully being confusing in order to hide something.
1.Organizational Crisis Appear pleasant on camera by avoiding nervous habits that people interpret as deception. Brief all potential spokespersons on the latest crisis information and the key message points the organization is trying to convey to stakeholders.
Organizational Crisis 3. Postcrisis – communication focuses on determining responsibility, or apologizing and establishing systems to deal with similar crisis in the future. Deliver all information promised to stakeholders as soon as that information is known. Keep stakeholders updated on the progression of recovery efforts including any corrective measures being taken and the progress of investigations. Analyze the crisis management effort for lessons and integrate those lessons in to the organization‟s crisis management system.