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01 organisational change

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01 organisational change

  1. 1. Organizational Change An Introduction © Ramakrishna Kongalla, Asstt. Professor Rtist @ Tourism
  2. 2. Lesson Plan• Objectives• Introduction• Concept of organizational change• forces for change• levels of change• Types of change• Steps in managed change• Resistance to change• Implementing change successfully• Methods of introducing @ Tourism Rtist change
  3. 3. OBJECTIVES• Discuss the nature and process of change;• Make aware about the nature and process of change;• Understand different types of changes;• Know the reasons and causes of resistance to change; and• Understand how change can be introduced in an organisation. Rtist @ Tourism
  4. 4. Organisation• Organization is a social system.• All parts of organization affect all other parts• Anything happening at one end is transmitted to the other end• Interrelationship between the elements & environment• Orderly behaviour – equilibrium• Becomes an established way of life• Disturbance to this naturally exercises pressure• Evokes a reaction – acceptance/rejection Rtist @ Tourism
  5. 5. Change• Alternation which occurs in the overall work environment of an organization• ‘Change is the law of nature’• Nothing is permanent except change • Change often results from the pressure of forces which are both outside and inside the organisation; • The whole organisation tends to be affected by the change in any part of it; and • Change takes place in all parts of the organisation, but at varying rates of speed and degrees of significance. Rtist @ Tourism
  6. 6. External & Internal forces• External Forces • Macro environment (PEST factors) • Micro Environment (Consumers, Suppliers, Stake Holders) • Opportunities & Threats (SWOT)• Internal Forces • Internal Environment (Men, Money, Machinery, Materials, Minutes) • Strengths & Weaknesses (SWOT) Rtist @ Tourism
  7. 7. Change In an Organization• It is in a constant interactional and interdependent relationship with its environment • Change in its external environment, such as changes in consumer tastes and preferences, competition, economic policies of the Government, etc., make it imperative for an organisation to make changes in its internal system• Composed of a number of subsystems which are also in a dynamic relationship of interaction and interdependence with one another • Any change in a subsystem creates a chain of changes throughout the entire system Rtist @ Tourism
  8. 8. CONCEPT OF ORGANISATIONAL CHANGE• ‘Organisational change’ implies the creation of imbalances in the existing pattern of situation• Operations & Functions for a long time establishes structural set-up• Members evolve a tentative set of relations with the environment, adjustment with job, working conditions, friends and colleagues etc.• Change requires individuals to make new adjustments. Hence the fear of adjustment gives rise to the problem of change and resistance to change Rtist @ Tourism
  9. 9. Management of Change is Defined as…• A conscious and concerted initiative by those who are in-charge of the destiny of the business undertaking or firm to keep a constant and intelligent watch over the behaviour of uncontrollable forces, to assess their impact and influence of the controllable forces, and to evolve appropriate strategies and action programmes to maintain a dynamic equilibrium between the controllable and uncontrollable forces.• Controllable forces are those forces about which sufficient information is available. Such forces can be managed easily• Uncontrollable forces are those about which not much is known. These forces exert a powerful influence on the behaviour of controllable forces and limit the scope of managerial action. Rtist @ Tourism
  10. 10. FORCES FOR CHANGE(a) External Forces . – Demographic characteristics, – Technological advances, – Market changes, and – Social and political pressures(b) Internal Forces – Human resource problems and Prospects – Managerial behavior/decisions Rtist @ Tourism
  11. 11. LEVELS OF CHANGE• (a) Individual Level Change – Job assignment, physical Move, Change in maturity of a person – Not significant on organisation, but significant on group• b) Group Level Changes – Major effect because organizational activities are done in groups like departments or informal groups – affect workflows, job design, social organisation, influence and status systems, and communication patterns. – Managers must consider group factors• (c) Organization Level Changes – involves major programs that affect both individuals and groups – Decisions regarding these changes are generally made by senior management and are seldom implemented by only a single manager Rtist @ Tourism
  12. 12. TYPES OF CHANGE• a) Strategic Change – Change in the mission (when acquired)• b) Structural Change – Decentralization• c) Process-oriented Change – In manufacturing operations• d) People-oriented Change – Self – actualization (Motivation, Loyalty, Training, Relationships) Rtist @ Tourism
  13. 13. STEPS IN MANAGED CHANGE• Need for change can be identified either through internal factors or through external forces that may be in place. Once this need is identified, the following steps can be taken to implement such change: • 1. Develop new goals and objectives • 2. Select an agent for change • 3. Diagnose the problem • 4. Select methodology • 5. Develop a plan • 6. Strategy for implementation of the plan • 7. Implementation of the plan • 8. Receive and evaluate feedback Rtist @ Tourism
  14. 14. RESISTANCE TO CHANGE• Resistance to change - a natural phenomenon• Not all change is resisted• In organisation changes are accepted than resisted• Acceptance to change is Adaption• Resistance to change is Unnatural behavior• Failure to understand this characteristic of resistance can cause many managers to attempt to run through changes rather than try to understand the sources of the resistance. Rtist @ Tourism
  15. 15. Sources of resistance to change may be rational or emotional.• Rational resistance • Emotional resistance – occurs when people do – involves the not have the proper psychological problems knowledge or of fear, anxiety, information to evaluate suspicion, insecurity, the change. and the like. – Providing information – These feelings are (in the form of data, evoked because of facts, or other types of people’s perception of concrete information) how the change will reduces the resistance affect them. Rtist @ Tourism
  16. 16. (a) Causes of Resistance• All changes are not resisted. Some are wanted by the workers• Resistance to change is caused by individual’s attitudes which are influenced by: – 1. Economic Factors • Workers apprehend technological unemployment. – 2. Psychological Factors • Fear of psychological needs affected (sense of pride, achievement, self-fulfilment) – 3. Social Factors • social needs like friendship, belongingness (informal groups) Rtist @ Tourism
  17. 17. (b) Symptoms of Resistance• Hostility or aggression is the immediate reaction• Apathy towards his work• Absenteeism and tardiness• Anxiety and tension• Signs of resistance (strikes, “restriction of output”) Rtist @ Tourism
  18. 18. (c) Benefits of Resistance• Contrary to popular opinion, resistance to change is not bad.• Resistance can bring some benefits: – Encourage the management to re-examine its change proposals – Identify specific problem areas where change is likely to cause difficulties – Encouraged to do a better job of communicating the change – Resistance also gives management information about the intensity of employee emotions on an issue – Encourage employee to think and talk more about a change Rtist @ Tourism
  19. 19. IMPLEMENTING CHANGE SUCCESSFULLY• Successful implementation of change requires knowledge about the change process• The change process, propounded by Kurt Lewin, consists of 3 stages: – (1)unfreezing, – (2) changing, – (3) refreezing Unfreezing Changing RefreezingRecognising the need for New values, behaviours Making changechange, casting aside old and permanent . Practice whatvalues, behaviour, or structures replace old was learnt inOrganisational structures ones. Action oriented the second stage Rtist @ Tourism
  20. 20. METHODS OF INTRODUCING CHANGE• Kotter and Schlisinger have suggested six methods of introducing change – 1. Education + Communication – 2. Participation + involvement – 3. Facilitation+ Support – 4. Negotiation + Agreement – 5. Manipulation + cooptation – 6. Explicit + implicit coercion Rtist @ Tourism
  21. 21. How to make the change the permanent• Use of group forces,• Use of leadership,• Shared rewards,• Working with unions, and• Concern for employees. Rtist @ Tourism
  22. 22. Thank You…!!!©Ramakrishna Kongallae-mail: Rtist @ Tourism
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