The Processes Of Organization and Management


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The Processes Of Organization and Management

  1. 1. Presented by : Pedram Toloei Hamid Abbasi Under supervision of : Dr. Ekhlassi
  2. 3. David A. Garvin is Professor of Business Administration at the Harvard Business School. He joined the Business School faculty in 1979 and has since then taught courses in leadership, general management, and operations in the MBA and Advanced Management programs, as well as serving as faculty chair of the School's Teaching and Learning Center. [email_address] Other interests: Change through persuasion, learning in action
  3. 4. <ul><li>Many modern organizations are functional and hierarchical; they suffer from isolated departments, poor coordination, and limited lateral communication. </li></ul><ul><li>Processes together—and only together—transform inputs into outputs. </li></ul><ul><li>What are we going to do? </li></ul><ul><li>First, processes provide a convenient, intermediate level of analysis. Because they consist of diverse, interlinked tasks, they open up the black box of the firm without exposing analysts to the “part–whole” problems </li></ul><ul><li>Second, most past research has highlighted the fragmented quality of managers' jobs rather than their coherence. A process approach, by contrast, emphasizes the links among activities. </li></ul>
  4. 5. <ul><li>(1) Work processes </li></ul><ul><li>(2) Behavioral processes </li></ul><ul><li>(3) Change processes </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  5. 6. <ul><li>“ organizations accomplish their work through linked chains of activities cutting across departments and functional groups” </li></ul><ul><li>      Operational processes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ create, produce, and deliver products and services that customers want” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>e.g., new product development, manufacturing, logistics, distribution </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>      Administrative processes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ do not produce outputs that customers want, but that are still necessary for running the business” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>e.g., strategic planning, budgeting, performance measurement </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 7. <ul><li>Similarities : </li></ul><ul><li>sequences of activities </li></ul><ul><li>beginnings and ends </li></ul><ul><li>customers </li></ul><ul><li>Differences: </li></ul><ul><li>outputs </li></ul>
  7. 9. <ul><li>Insights for managers </li></ul><ul><li>Reasons for failure </li></ul>
  8. 10. <ul><li>Organizations tend to have “ingrained behavioral processes. </li></ul><ul><li>Embedded in everyday work flows </li></ul><ul><li>These patterns reflect an organization’s characteristic ways of acting and interacting; decision-making, communication and learning processes. </li></ul>
  9. 11. <ul><li>They are lengthy, complex, and slow to change. </li></ul><ul><li>organizational decision making was a distributed activity, extending over time, involving a number of people. </li></ul><ul><li>Their effectiveness can be judged, using criteria such as speed, flexibility, range of alternatives considered, logical consistency and results. </li></ul>
  10. 12. <ul><li>The nature, direction, and quality of discussion flows </li></ul><ul><li>The interrelationships among group members </li></ul><ul><li>Their stances toward one another </li></ul><ul><li>The tenor and tone of group work </li></ul>
  11. 13. <ul><li>I speak you hear </li></ul><ul><li>I speak you see </li></ul><ul><li>I speak you understand </li></ul><ul><li>I speak you respond </li></ul><ul><li>A perfect communication is when a thought or idea was transmitted so that the mental picture perceived by the receiver was exactly as envisioned by the sender </li></ul><ul><li>Communication helps us: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To sort out, categorize, understand and interpret messages we receive from others. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To understand, interpret and create our own responses to messages we have received. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 14. <ul><li>Information : provides the information that individuals and groups need to make decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Control : acts to control member behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation : fosters motivation by clarifying the employees what is to be done to improve performance </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional expression : provides a release for emotional expression of feelings and frustrations. </li></ul>
  13. 15. Medium Information richness Feedback Channel Type Language source Face-to-face High Immediate Visual, audio Personal Body, verbal Telephone High/mod Fast Audio Personal Limited body, verbal Personal written Mod Slow Limited visual Personal Verbal Formal written Mod/low Very slow Limited visual Impersonal Verbal Formal numeric Low Very slow Limited visual Impersonal Numeric
  14. 16. <ul><li>Knowledge acquisition </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge interpretation </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge dissemination </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge retention </li></ul>
  15. 17. <ul><li>Each involves distinctive tools, systems, and behaviors and is associated with a particular learning style. </li></ul><ul><li>DuPond: brainstorming, creativity </li></ul><ul><li>Boeing and Microsoft internal manufacturing and development experiences </li></ul><ul><li>AT&T and Xerox benchmarking competitors and world leaders </li></ul><ul><li>Royal Dutch/Shell: hypothetic planning </li></ul>
  16. 18. <ul><li>… focus on sequences of events over time. These sequences, called processes, describe how individuals, groups, and organizations adapt, develop, and grow. e.g., Darwinian evolution. </li></ul>
  17. 19. <ul><li>Four areas: creation, growth, transformation, and decline. </li></ul><ul><li>Two categories: autonomous and induced. </li></ul>
  18. 21. Time Work Admin. Decision making Communication, org. learning Change processes Another Change Process Change processes Behavioral processes
  19. 22. Work Processes Decision setting Are there clear goals for operational and strategic performance? Negotiating. Selling Have we obtained the necessary agreements and resources from upstream and downstream department Monitoring, control Do we know how well our performance matches plans?
  20. 23. Behavioral Processes Decision setting Are there well-specified approaches to communication, decision making and learning? Negotiating Selling Is there wide acceptance of the desired approaches to communication, decision making and learning? Monitoring, control Do we know how well our current behaviors match the desired approaches
  21. 24. Change Processes Decision setting Is there a clear rational, direction and path of change? Negotiating. Selling Are others in the org. convinced that change is needed and that the proposed changes are the right one? Monitoring, control Do we know whether critical milestones have been reached and planned changes have been implemented?
  22. 25. Managerial processes <ul><li>Management: getting things done </li></ul><ul><li>Since complex : unilateral action is seldom sufficient </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore: managers need to work with and through people </li></ul>
  23. 26. Challenges managers face <ul><li>1.How to get the organization moving in the desire direction </li></ul><ul><li>2. How to gain allegiance </li></ul><ul><li>3. How to harmonize diverse group interests and goals </li></ul><ul><li>These are questions of process </li></ul>
  24. 27. <ul><li>When focusing on implementation ,the question of how things are done arises. </li></ul><ul><li>Content does not matter as much. </li></ul><ul><li>Managers’ emphasis is on orchestrating activities and engaging others </li></ul>
  25. 28. <ul><li>Here the key is action . </li></ul><ul><li>The term process implies “ a skilled professional practice “ in the context involving </li></ul><ul><li>1. artistry </li></ul><ul><li>2.subjectivity </li></ul><ul><li>3.careful discrimination </li></ul>
  26. 29. Complexities of managerial processes <ul><li>1. Organizations are fundamentally political entities </li></ul><ul><li>2.They are composed of diverse groups and interest which may cause conflict </li></ul><ul><li>3.Aligning and harmonizing competing interest </li></ul><ul><li>is a difficult task particularly while … </li></ul><ul><li>4.Cultivating commitment and motivation is crucial </li></ul>
  27. 30. Two major classes of empirical studies on managerial process <ul><li>1.anthropological </li></ul><ul><li>2.scholastic </li></ul><ul><li>a) direction setting </li></ul><ul><li>b) negotiating and selling </li></ul><ul><li>c) monitoring and control </li></ul>
  28. 32. Direction setting process <ul><li>The most widely managerial activity which involves : </li></ul><ul><li>1. charting an organizations course </li></ul><ul><li>2. mobilizing support </li></ul><ul><li>3. ensuring alignment with stated goals </li></ul>
  29. 33. Kotter’s description <ul><li>1. developing an agenda </li></ul><ul><li>2. collecting information </li></ul><ul><li>3. assimilating the information </li></ul><ul><li>4. forming the few general goals </li></ul><ul><li>5. framing messages </li></ul>
  30. 34. Critical process choices for managers <ul><li>1. which information sources to tap </li></ul><ul><li>2. which communication media and supporting systems to emphasize </li></ul><ul><li>3. which approaches to use in framing, testing, and revising initiatives </li></ul>
  31. 35. <ul><li>To get the job done managers need to form relationships : </li></ul><ul><li>1.Horizontally </li></ul><ul><li>2.Vertically </li></ul><ul><li>to gain support . </li></ul>Negotiating and selling
  32. 36. Various approaches to gain support <ul><li>1. currying favor </li></ul><ul><li>2. creating dependence </li></ul><ul><li>3. providing quid pro quos </li></ul><ul><li>4. appealing to compelling organizational needs </li></ul>
  33. 37. <ul><li>Successful negotiating requires an understanding of: </li></ul><ul><li>1.The strengths and weaknesses of others </li></ul><ul><li>2.The relationships important to them </li></ul><ul><li>3. what their agendas and priorities are </li></ul>
  34. 38. <ul><li>Sayles: Managers need to begin with </li></ul><ul><li>“ missionary work “ </li></ul>
  35. 39. Critical process choices <ul><li>1. framing and presentation </li></ul><ul><li>2. deciding how to solicit help and present proposals </li></ul>
  36. 40. Monitoring and control <ul><li>Because of the unstable environment a number of unexpected shocks and disturbances may arise. </li></ul><ul><li>Monitoring involves : </li></ul><ul><li>1. detecting perturbations(formal,informal) </li></ul><ul><li>2. initiating corrective actions </li></ul><ul><li>3. restoring the organization to its previous equilibrium </li></ul>
  37. 41. Critical process choices <ul><li>1. Information to tap </li></ul><ul><li>2. Data to request </li></ul><ul><li>3. Questions to pose </li></ul><ul><li>4. Amount of time to allow before conclusions and initiating corrective action </li></ul>
  38. 42. All these processes involve the following variables (choices) <ul><li>1. participants </li></ul><ul><li>2. timing and sequencing </li></ul><ul><li>3. duration </li></ul><ul><li>4. framing & presenting </li></ul><ul><li>5. format </li></ul><ul><li>6. style </li></ul>
  39. 43. Implications for action <ul><li>Process approach : </li></ul><ul><li>A movie rather than a snapshot </li></ul>
  40. 44. Framework for action
  41. 45. Framework for action <ul><li>The 2 uses of the framework: </li></ul><ul><li>1.Through columns </li></ul><ul><li>2.Through rows </li></ul>
  42. 46. <ul><li>Thanks for your patience </li></ul>