Chinese Cataloging Through History

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Chinese library classification schemes through the millennia.

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Chinese Cataloging Through History

  1. 1. Chinese Cataloging Through History<br />Victoria Ludas<br />Dr. Pattuelli<br />LIS 653-02 Knowledge Organization<br />Spring 2011<br />Image source: http://ed101.bu.edu/StudentDoc/current/ED101fa09/lbryfo/quizhome.html<br />
  2. 2. The sevenfold classification scheme: <br /><ul><li>1st century BC to 1st century AD: Seven Epitomes, by Liu Hsiang and his son Liu Hsin.
  3. 3. Oldest known bibliography in the world. 
  4. 4. 7 main classes and 38 subdivisions, ordered in terms of ideological importance:
  5. 5. General Summary (more of an introduction than full class)
  6. 6. Classics
  7. 7. Philosophy
  8. 8. Poetry
  9. 9. Military Science
  10. 10. Science and Occultism
  11. 11. Medicine
  12. 12. Original 7 Epitomes lost around 10th century, and what remains was saved by scholars from other works, particularly the History of the Former Han Dynasty
  13. 13. Written by Pan Ku, AD 82, who based his bibliography on the 7 Epitomes but took out the General Summary
  14. 14. Oldest extant bibliography in the world</li></li></ul><li>The sevenfold classification scheme:<br /><ul><li>Used with various modifications for the next 500 years:
  15. 15. Wang Chien's Seven Reviews (473)
  16. 16. Juan Hsiao-hsu's Seven Records (523)
  17. 17. Hsu Shan-hsin's Seven Groves (597)</li></ul>The fourfold classification scheme:<br /><ul><li>First devised in the 3rd century by Cheng Mo, for an imperial catalog of the Wei dynasty known as Chung Ching (Medium Canon)
  18. 18. Classics
  19. 19. Philosophy
  20. 20. History
  21. 21. Literature
  22. 22. Adopted by imperial curators who compiled catalogs of imperial libraries:
  23. 23. Hsun Hsu, Chin dynasty (279)
  24. 24. Added notation in the form of the first four characters of the ten "Celestial Stems," Chia, I, Ping, Ting</li></li></ul><li>The fourfold classification scheme:<br /><ul><li>Li Ch'ung, Eastern Chin dynasty (345-357)
  25. 25. Established fourfold scheme's official order:
  26. 26. Chia: Classics
  27. 27. I: History
  28. 28. Ping: Philosophy
  29. 29. Ting: Poetry
  30. 30. Fourfold scheme adopted for official bibliographies (618-1911)
  31. 31. History of the T'angDynasty (945, later rewritten 1061)
  32. 32. History of the Sung Dynasty (1345)
  33. 33. History of the Ming Dynasty (1739)
  34. 34. Draft History of the Ch'ing Dynasty (1927, allowed to continue, though not to finish, by the People’s Republic)
  35. 35. Complete Collection of Four Treasuries (1773-1782):
  36. 36. 2,000+ scholars worked to preserve and annotate 10,254 works in 36,275 volumes color-coded to correspond with their classification
  37. 37. Green for classics, red for history, blue for philosophy, brown for literature
  38. 38. 4 main divisions, 99 classes and subclasses</li></li></ul><li>Modernization: Chinese Library Classification<br /><ul><li>Dewey Decimal Classification introduced late 19th century, adopted by some university libraries to classify their foreign collections.
  39. 39. Evolution of catalog entries from book to loose-leaf to card
  40. 40. Initial effort to centralize library cataloging by National Library of Beijing, which distributed catalog cards starting in 1931
  41. 41. 1949: Communist Revolution
  42. 42. Classification for Chinese Libraries (aka Chinese Library Classification), begun in mid-1960s, first published 1975
  43. 43. 5th edition published August 2010
  44. 44. Currently contains more than 43,000 categories in 5 major groups with 22 subclasses
  45. 45. Enlarged version: Chinese Classification for Monographs and Materials with 50,000 classes 
  46. 46. Also includes:
  47. 47. Chinese Classified Subject Thesaurus
  48. 48. CCL for Grade Schools and Children's Libraries
  49. 49. CCL for Periodicals; Agriculture; Education
  50. 50. Used by almost all public, academic, and school libraries around China for Chinese, Korean, and Japanese materials, which has helped to standardize national information research and retrieval language</li></ul> <br />
  51. 51. Chinese Library Classification<br />A. Marxism, Leninism, Maoism & Deng Xiaoping Theory<br />§  A1 The Works of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels<br />§  A2 The Works of Vladimir Lenin<br />§  A3 The Works of Joseph Stalin<br />§  A4 The Works of Mao Zedong<br />§  A49 The Works of Deng Xiaoping<br />§  A5 The Symposium/Collection of Marx, Engels, Lenin, Stalin, Mao and Deng Xiaoping<br />§  A7 The biobibliography and biography of Marx, Engels, Lenin, Stalin, Mao and Deng Xiaoping<br />§  A8 Study and Research of Marxism, Leninism, Maoism & Deng Xiaoping Theory<br />B. Philosophy and Religion<br />§  B0 Philosophical schools<br />§  B1 Philosophy (World-wide)<br />§  B2 Philosophy in China<br />§  B22 Pre-Qin Dynasty Philosophy( ~before 220 BC)<br />§  B222 The Confucian School<br />§  B222.2 Confucius (KǒngQiū, 551-479 BC)<br /> <br />Image of the 5th edition of the CLC from http://www.nlc.gov.cn/en/2010/0902/article_185.htm<br />
  52. 52. An example of Chinese classification at work:<br />D923.4 = Intellectual property<br />Image source: Judiciary Library of Hong Kong, http://library.judiciary.gov.hk/search<br />
  53. 53. Works Cited<br /><ul><li>Lee, H.-L. (2010), Organizing knowledge the Chinese way. Proceedings of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 47: 1–7. DOI: 10.1002/meet.14504701019. 
  54. 54. Liu, S., & Shen, Z. (2002, January 01). The Development of Cataloging in China. Cataloging & Classification Quarterly, 35, 137-154. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=lih&AN=27648450&site=ehost-live.
  55. 55. Tsien, T.-H. (1952, January 01). A History of Bibliographic Classification in China. The Library Quarterly, 22, 4, 307-324. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/4304148.
  56. 56. Zhang, W. (2003, January 01). Classification for Chinese Libraries (CCL): Histories, Accomplishments, Problems and Its Comparisons. Jiao Yu Zi Liao Yu TuShu Guan Xue (Journal of Educational Media & Library Sciences), 41, 1-22. Retrieved from http://joemls.dils.tku.edu.tw/fulltext/41/41-1/1-22.pdf.</li>

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