Cloud computing


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  • Cloud computing may futuristic but it is nothing more than a way to pull together proven technologies, including virtualization, SOA, and service management. (Note: Don’t need all three but cloud is most powerful at the intersection where all three technologies converge.) The central ideas of the Cloud Computing model: 1. Abstraction maximizes the benefit of skills and expertise. It decouples the user from operational details, allowing them to focus on high-value work 2. Virtualization allows the complex IT environment to be managed as one single large resource providing services 3. Dynamically allocation provisions, configures, reconfigures, and de-provisions IT capability as and when needed, transparently and seamlessly That’s the big picture for cloud. Tie back to the three examples outlined earlier. Celerity (speed) and reliability is achieved through standardization, where commonly used configurations are stored in a catalog, ready for automatic deployment, reducing downtime and error rate flexibility is achieved through virtualization, smart resource sharing and allocation. It anticipates needs and uses the most appropriate resource to address the need, With complete control over the environment, it can pool resources together and react to unexpected demand. efficiency is achieved through better automation, standardization, and prioritization, minimizing processing time and matching the best resources with the most important and difficult tasks Transition line : Let’s look at the impact of cloud in a real-life scenario.
  • Also: According to Gartner , "Worldwide total software revenue for software as a service (SaaS) within the enterprise software markets is projected to surpass $5.1 billion in 2007 , a 21 percent increase from 2006 revenue. The market is poised for strong growth through 2011, when worldwide revenue will reach $11.5 billion." – M2 Presswire – September 2007 Gartner says that 25% of the whole enterprise software industry, will be software as a service by 2012 and that’s right around the corner. Despite the current economic downturn, the software industry is poised for growth in 2008, with worldwide enterprise software revenue totaling $190.7 billion in 2008, an 8.2 percent increase from 2007 revenue of $176.3 billion, according to Gartner, Inc. – Business Wire, February 2008
  • Consulting methodogies – business SOA – for technology What does it yield – and what is the impact (Give an example – self service provisioning) At IBM, we have been working on a maturity model and process for achieving desirable stages of maturity, a model called the Service Integration Maturity Model (SIMM). The level of de-coupling and amount of flexibility achievable at each stage of maturity are what make up the following seven levels of maturity: Silo (data integration) Integrated (application integration) Componentized (functional integration) Simple services (process integration) Composite services (supply-chain integration) Virtualized services ( virtual infrastructure) Dynamically reconfigurable services (eco-system integration) Each level has a detailed set of characteristics and criteria for assessment, and what follows is a brief description of the highlights of each level: Silo : The organization starts from proprietary and quite ad-hoc integration, rendering the architecture brittle in the face of change. Integrated : The organization moves toward some form of EAI (Enterprise Application Integration), albeit with proprietary connections and integration points. The approaches it uses are tailored to use legacy systems and attempt to dissect and re-factor through data integration. Componentized : At this level, the organization componentizes and modularizes major or critical parts of its application portfolio. It uses legacy transformation and renovation methods to re-factor legacy J2EE or .NET-based systems with clear component boundaries and scope, exposing functionality in a more modular fashion. The integration between components is through their interfaces and the contracts between them. Services : The organization embarks on the early phases of SOA by defining and exposing services for consumption internally or externally for business partners -- not quite on a large scale -- but it acts as a service provider, nonetheless. Composite Services : Now the organization extends its influence into the value chain and into the service eco-system. Services form a contract among suppliers, consumers, and brokers who can build their own eco-system for on-demand interaction. Virtualized Services : The organization now creates a virtualized infrastructure to run applications. It achieves this level after decoupling the application, its servcies, components, and flows. Now the infrastructure is more finely tuned, and the notions of the grid and the grid service render it more agile. It externalizes its monitoring, management, and events (common event infrastructure). Dynamically Reconfigurable Services : The organization now has a dynamically re-configurable software architecture. It can compose services at run-time using externalized policy descriptions, management, and monitoring. The business domain looks primarily at three things: the maturity of the business architecture, the relationship between business and IT and the business value achieved by moving to a service-oriented paradigm. We assess the business architecture and IT support of service orientation with the goal of improved reuse and flexibility, reduced complexity and time-to-market and in both business architecture and IT solutions. The organization domain looks at the maturity of the enterprise and/or business units in the context of organization structure, processes, mechanisms, learning and knowledge enablement, and governance in support of service orientation. This includes the ability to deliver on changing business requirements. The method domain looks at the maturity of the enterprise and or business units in their use of specific software (system) development method and process to support the SOA life-cycle and methods. This includes project management and project estimation considerations for the development of services, components and flows for the SOA life-cycle. The application domain looks at the maturity of the application portfolio to leverage service orientation. It focuses on the use of services for sharing and reuse of business functionality across business units and the ability to flexibly interchanging functionality to meet changing business needs. The architecture domain looks at the maturity of various levels of the architecture including, the enterprise and application architecture to support service orientation. The information domain looks at the maturity of the information and data architecture and management to support service orientation. It includes the notions of information as a service and the ability to apply best practices such as MDM and appropriate application of best practices such as Data Cleansing and Migration. The infrastructure domain looks at the maturity of the infrastructure, monitoring and management in areas of service monitoring and management, service security, and service virtualization. Designing the infrastructure to support the non-functional and operational requirements and service-level agreements needed to operate in a specific scope of the service eco-system.
  • Massive number of services To massive number of users With quality of service
  • Futures: SQL – Structured Query Language (Microsoft Database product Oracle – Database SOE – Standard Operating Environment – Proposed standards for application software ESM – Enterprise System Management – Standard system control software – Remote operations and reporting LAMP – Linux, Apache, MySql, PHP (or Perl) – Standard Web design suite for Linux – RedHat or Suse
  • GCDS: GIG Content Delivery Service EFDS: Enterprise File Delivery Service JIPM TSP/GBS IW PS4 UVDS – Unified Video Delivey Service Consumer RIA Clients
  • Cloud computing

    1. 1. Introduction <ul><li>What is cloud computing? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When computing services are provided over the Internet rather then locally on a user’s own machine. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Computation is run on an supporting infrastructure which is independent of the applications themselves. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The infrastructure can take on many forms, but to the end user, the implementation is irrelevant, hence the “cloud” abstraction. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What isn’t cloud computing? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cloud computing does not necessarily include grid computing, resources as a utility, or self managing computing. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each of these can however be used in some cloud computing systems, but cloud computing can also be done with free and decentralized architectures. </li></ul></ul>
    2. 2. Types of Cloud Computing Services <ul><li>Software as a service </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Software is provided to end users in an “On-demand” fashion. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduces upfront costs, i.e. buying multiple licenses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Utility-based” computing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Infrastructure as a service </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An “infrastructure” referring to much of the background hardware (contrast to software) needs of an organization </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Platform as a service </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When the software needed to develop cloud applications are themselves provided in a “software as a service” fashion </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Software as a service <ul><li>A common problem: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Business software installed on a work computer cannot be used from other computers (home, mobile computers) because the EULA doesn’t allow it (licensing costs) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remote access a possibility, but issues with uptime, security… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Instead the software is abstracted to a cloud application which can be accessed anywhere via cloud client (e.g. web browser) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Features of Software as a Service: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Commercial software that can be used and configured over a network, file servers and remote configuration storage, one application used by many clients, application updateability. </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Software as a service: Types <ul><li>Multi-level architectures: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Level 1: Customized, Ad-hoc basis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Level 2: Configurability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Level 3: Configurability + multi-tenancy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Level 4: Configurability + multi-tenancy + Scalability </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Virtualization in contrast with multi-tenancy </li></ul>
    5. 5. Infrastructure as a service <ul><li>Components of Infrastructure as a service: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Computing hardware </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. Client Storage Space, Processing power needs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Virtualization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. VM Ware, VirtualBox </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Networking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Security, communication speeds, servers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet Access </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Connecting clients applications to servers anywhere </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Utility Computing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. Charging by hour, gigabyte, process load </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contracts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Specific service levels which must be adhered too. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Platform as a service <ul><li>Implements the “Software Lifecycle” on the cloud. </li></ul><ul><li>Common S.E. practices: client elicitation, software design, component design, implementation, testing, maintenance, data handling and documentation </li></ul><ul><li>How does it work? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cloud servers allow not just hosting of completed application, but applications in progress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>U.I. design tools right inside the web browser to use them </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides testing in real situations: heavy client loads </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Automatic integration with other data sources on the cloud </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tools for the developers to work efficiently with one another </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Profit simulations </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Clouds: Heavier than you think <ul><li>A lot of constituent elements are necessary to make Cloud Computing work: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cloud applications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cloud clients </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cloud hardware </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cloud platform </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cloud services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cloud storage </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Example: Google Apps Cloud Application (Google Docs) Cloud Client (Mozilla Firefox) <ul><ul><li>Cloud hardware </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Apps Server) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cloud Platform </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Apps Engine) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cloud Services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Word Processing) </li></ul></ul>BigTable Cloud storage (BigTable DB)
    9. 9. Cloud Architecture <ul><li>Heavily relies on communication and communication protocols </li></ul><ul><li>Standards are implemented openly (publicly) to aid collaboration between services </li></ul><ul><li>Software designers are “cloud architects”, software is integrated into the cloud system by a “cloud integrator” </li></ul><ul><li>API’s extremely important </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Without APIs, there is no cloud computing.” – Dave Rosenberg </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Role-based Cloud Computing <ul><li>Providers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Responsible for creation and maintenance of the hardware infrastructure which supports cloud computing applications. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Developers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Responsible for the creation of software to be ran on a cloud computing system. Often works with provides for integration. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Users </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Responsible for the consumption of cloud-computing services. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Vendors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Responsible for creation and distribution of lower-end platforms for cloud computing. </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Ideal Cloud Computing <ul><li>Low cost for users and providers </li></ul><ul><li>Independence of device and software </li></ul><ul><li>Efficient utilization of all resources </li></ul><ul><li>Constant, or near-constant uptime through the use of resource distribution </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to continually add new users and applications by easily increasing resources when necessary </li></ul><ul><li>Data is secure with policies to protect its security </li></ul>
    12. 12. How to keep the clouds floating <ul><li>Cloud Computing issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Security of providers access to user data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trustworthiness of providers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Security of data placement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Security of data representation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recoverability of data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tracking of illicit activities on the cloud </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Long-term costs of cloud development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Vendor” lock-in </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. Advantages VS. Disadvantages
    14. 14. <ul><li>Eliminating the need for expensive long-distance leased lines </li></ul><ul><li>Reducing the long-distance telephone charges for remote access. </li></ul><ul><li>Transferring the support burden to the service providers </li></ul><ul><li>Operational costs </li></ul><ul><li>Cisco VPN Savings Calculator </li></ul>Advantages: Cost Savings
    15. 15. <ul><li>Flexibility of growth </li></ul><ul><li>Efficiency with broadband technology </li></ul>Advantages: Scalability
    16. 16. <ul><li>VPNs require an in-depth understanding of public network security issues and proper deployment of precautions </li></ul><ul><li>Availability and performance depends on factors largely outside of their control </li></ul><ul><li>Immature standards </li></ul><ul><li>VPNs need to accommodate protocols other than IP and existing internal network technology </li></ul>Disadvantages
    17. 17. Applications: Site-to-Site VPNs <ul><li>Large-scale encryption between multiple fixed sites such as remote offices and central offices </li></ul><ul><li>Network traffic is sent over the branch office Internet connection </li></ul><ul><li>This saves the company hardware and management expenses </li></ul>
    18. 18. Site-to-Site VPNs
    19. 19. Applications: Remote Access <ul><li>Encrypted connections between mobile or remote users and their corporate networks </li></ul><ul><li>Remote user can make a local call to an ISP, as opposed to a long distance call to the corporate remote access server. </li></ul><ul><li>Ideal for a telecommuter or mobile sales people. </li></ul><ul><li>VPN allows mobile workers & telecommuters to take advantage of broadband connectivity. i.e. DSL, Cable </li></ul>
    20. 20. Industries That May Use a VPN <ul><li>Healthcare: enables the transferring of confidential patient information within the medical facilities & health care provider </li></ul><ul><li>Manufacturing : allow suppliers to view inventory & allow clients to purchase online safely </li></ul><ul><li>Retail: able to securely transfer sales data or customer info between stores & the headquarters </li></ul><ul><li>Banking/Financial: enables account information to be transferred safely within departments & branches </li></ul><ul><li>General Business: communication between remote employees can be securely exchanged </li></ul>
    21. 21. Statistics From Gartner-Consulting* *Source:
    22. 22. Some Businesses using a VPN <ul><li>CVS Pharmaceutical Corporation upgraded their frame relay network to an IP VPN </li></ul><ul><li>ITW Foilmark secured remote location orders, running reports, & internet/intranet communications w/ a 168-bit encryption by switching to OpenReach VPN </li></ul><ul><li>Bacardi & Co. Implemented a 21-country, 44-location VPN </li></ul>
    23. 23. Where Do We See VPNs Going in the Future? <ul><li>VPNs are continually being enhanced. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Equant NV </li></ul><ul><li>As the VPN market becomes larger, more applications will be created along with more VPN providers and new VPN types. </li></ul><ul><li>Networks are expected to converge to create an integrated VPN </li></ul><ul><li>Improved protocols are expected, which will also improve VPNs. </li></ul>
    24. 24. Agenda <ul><li>What and why is Cloud Computing? </li></ul><ul><li>Cloud Computing and Storage </li></ul><ul><li>Ensembles as Cloud and Enterprise Infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>Storage Ensembles </li></ul>
    25. 25. Cloud Computing <ul><li>Notes: </li></ul><ul><li>Abstraction – alleviates IT consumers from the operations of applications, allowing end users to focus instead on the execution and high-value activities </li></ul><ul><li>Virtualization – access to business services on-demand independent of location and resource constraints </li></ul><ul><li>Dynamic allocation – dynamically provisions, configures, reconfigures, and de-provisions IT capability as and when needed, transparently and seamlessly </li></ul>Speed and reliability through standardization, higher level of automation, and abstraction Flexibility through virtualization, dynamic resource sharing, and proactive capacity allocation Efficiency through higher level of automation, catalog standardization, and prioritization Abstraction Current Environment SOA Service Mgmt <ul><li>Emerging model where users can have access to applications or compute resources from anywhere through their connected devices through a simplified UI </li></ul><ul><li>Applications reside in massively-scalable data centers where compute resources can be dynamically provisioned and shared to achieve significant economies of scale </li></ul><ul><li>A strong service management platform results in only marginal incremental management cost, if any, when more workload needs to be handled by the cloud </li></ul>Virtual- ization Information Virtualization Elasticity Work Mobility
    26. 26. Key Attributes of Cloud Computing <ul><ul><li>Simple “self service” user interface </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>where underlying technology and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>services are irrelevant to the user. </li></ul></ul>*A Service Management platform allows an operations management team to collect or discover information about how the resources associated with a service are configured and consumed and then access that information to support integrated management processes that address changes to and problems with the service. <ul><ul><li>When adding IT resources to </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the service, the incremental </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cost to manage these new </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>resources approaches zero </li></ul></ul>Provides for an infinitely scalable pool of connected computing resources Although often associated with Internet Services, clouds will exist both inside a data center to support that customers & internal users as well as supporting third-party managed service offerings. Efficient, green, and cost effective infrastructure
    27. 27. <ul><li>AaaS - Architecture as a Service </li></ul><ul><li>BaaS - Business as a Service </li></ul><ul><li>CaaS - Computing as a Service </li></ul><ul><li>CRMaaS - CRM as a Service </li></ul><ul><li>DaaS - Data as a Service </li></ul><ul><li>DBaaS - Database as a Service </li></ul><ul><li>EaaS - Ethernet as a Service </li></ul><ul><li>FaaS - Frameworks as a Service </li></ul><ul><li>GaaS - Globalization or Governance as a Service </li></ul><ul><li>HaaS - Hardware as a Service </li></ul><ul><li>IaaS - Infrastructure or Integration as a Service </li></ul><ul><li>IDaaS - Identity as a Service </li></ul><ul><li>LaaS - Lending as a Service </li></ul><ul><li>MaaS - Mashups as a Service </li></ul><ul><li>OaaS - Organization or Operations as a Service </li></ul><ul><li>SaaS - Software as a Service </li></ul><ul><li>StaaS - Storage as a Service </li></ul><ul><li>PaaS - Platform as a Service </li></ul><ul><li>TaaS - Technology or Testing as a Service </li></ul><ul><li>VaaS - Voice as a Service </li></ul>A variety of ‘as-a-Service’ terms have been used to describe the services offered in Clouds:
    28. 28. Who’s Offering Cloud Services today? 3Tera Grid-based Platform For Cloud Apps Akamai Application Performance Services Amazon Web Services AretiInternet Virtual Hosting Bungee Labs Virtual Labs-as-a-Service software CohesiveFT Cloud Platform Elastra Hosted Elastic Computing EMC Storage Cloud – Decho(Mozy, Pi) + Cloud Infrastructure & Services Division Enki Computing Utility Flexiscale Utility Computing on Demand Fortress ITX DynamicGrid Google Search Services HP Adaptive Infrastructure as a Service iCloud Desktop Cloud IBM Computing Cloud, Advanced UIs, Deep Capacity on Demand Joyent Accelerator for Applications Layered Technology GridLayer Microsoft CRM, email and IM Services Mosso Hosting Cloud Terremark Infinistructure XCalibre FlexiScale
    29. 29. Cloud Computing Users and Business Models <ul><li>Main actors and their interaction mode in the use and delivery of Cloud Services, enable the identification of the models and evolving technologies that support the Cloud Computing strategy: </li></ul><ul><li>Acquisition Model (Service): &quot;All that matters is results; I don't care how it's done&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Business Model (Pay for usage): &quot;I don't want to own assets - I want to pay for elastic usage, like a utility&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Access Model (Internet): &quot;I want accessibility from anywhere, from any device&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Technical Model (Scalable, elastic, shareable): &quot;It's about economies of scale, with effective and dynamic sharing&quot; </li></ul>Garter, 2008 Service Consumers Service Catalog, Component Library Cloud Administrator Datacenter Infrastructure Monitor & Manage Services & Resources Component Vendors / Software Publishers Publish & Update Components, Service Templates Access Services IT Cloud
    30. 30. Cloud Computing: A New Paradigm Enterprise Cloud Network Cloud INNOVATIVE BUSINESS MODELS End Users / Requestors Government/ Academics Industry (Startups/ SMB/ Enterprise) Consumers <ul><li>An “Elastic” pool of high performance virtualized compute resources </li></ul><ul><li>Cloud applications enable the simplification of complex services </li></ul><ul><li>A cloud computing platform combines modular components on a service oriented architecture </li></ul><ul><li>New combinations of services to form differentiating value propositions at lower costs in shorter time </li></ul><ul><li>Internet protocol based convergence of networks and devices </li></ul>SIMPLIFIED SERVICES Source: Corporate Strategy
    31. 31. Cloud computing perceived benefits and demand drivers <ul><li>Awareness and demand for cloud computing are fueled by perceived / potential benefits to business entities , individual users , and IT providers (includes enterprises + service providers) </li></ul>Cloud computing’s “nirvana-like” promise drives higher service level expectations among business entities and individual users Which in turn puts pressure on the enterprise data center to deliver higher service quality (at lower cost) <ul><li>IT Providers </li></ul><ul><li>Key Benefit: </li></ul><ul><li>Competitivenes </li></ul><ul><li>Lower TCO </li></ul><ul><li>Faster Time to Market </li></ul><ul><li>Higher Cust Rentention </li></ul><ul><li>Service quality </li></ul><ul><li>Resource optimization </li></ul><ul><li>Resiliency </li></ul><ul><li>Flexibility </li></ul><ul><li>Efficiency </li></ul><ul><li>“ Green” </li></ul><ul><li>Enhanced chargeback </li></ul><ul><li>Business Entities </li></ul><ul><li>Key Benefit: </li></ul><ul><li>Innovation </li></ul><ul><li>Faster, easier innovation </li></ul><ul><li>New business models </li></ul><ul><li>New products and services </li></ul><ul><li>Faster time to market </li></ul><ul><li>Lower IT cost </li></ul><ul><li>Lower IT risk (brand protection) </li></ul><ul><li>Improved IT user productivity </li></ul><ul><li>Improved Client Satisfaction </li></ul><ul><li>Improved Disaster Recovery </li></ul><ul><li>IT Users </li></ul><ul><li>Key Benefit: </li></ul><ul><li>Quality of Experience </li></ul><ul><li>Speed of access </li></ul><ul><li>Ease of access (anywhere, anytime) </li></ul><ul><li>Ease of use </li></ul><ul><li>Minimal software requirements on access device </li></ul><ul><li>No long-term commitments </li></ul>
    32. 32. Model for Delivering Cloud Services (single provider) Fulfillment Services <ul><li>End Users make requests using a catalog of services </li></ul><ul><li>The Provider delivers service using fulfillment processes and technology </li></ul><ul><li>Services are normalized to achieve Abstraction and Encapsulation </li></ul>Fulfillment Process Fulfillment + Enterprise Process (e.g. Open Account) Fulfillment + Enterprise Process + Governance (e.g. ITIL) Provisioning Services Usage & Accounting Services Monitoring Services Security Services Energy Management Services Technology … . End User Requestors & Operators … Service Requestor Service Catalog Request UI Operational UI Service Provider Service Creator Federated Data Repository Service Definition Tools Service Publishing Tools Service Fulfillment & Configuration Tools UI, Fulfillment, Data, MetaData Service Monitoring Tools KPIs Service Planning
    33. 33. August 24, 2008 Architectural Model for Cloud Computing End User Requests & Operators … Service Request & Operations Design & Build Image Library (Store) Deployment Operational Lifecycle of Images IT Infrastructure & Application Provider Service Creation & Deployment Virtual Image Management Service Catalog Request UI Operational UI Standards Based Interfaces Virtualized Infrastructure Service Management Service Oriented Architecture Information Architecture Standards Based Interfaces Service Catalog, Component Library Datacenter Infrastructure Cloud Administrator Access Services Optimized Middleware (image deployment, integrated security, workload mgmt., high-availability) Service Oriented Architecture Information Architecture User Request Management/Self Service Portal Security: Identity , Access, Integrity, Isolation, Audit & Compliance Usage Accounting License Management Image Lifecycle Management Provisioning Performance Management Availability/Backup/ Restore Service Lifecycle Management Service Management Virtual Resources & Aggregations SMP Servers Network Hardware Storage Servers System Resources Blades Storage Virtualized Infrastructure Server Virt. Storage Virt. Network Virt.
    34. 34. The Role of Storage in Clouds - 1 Deep Infrastructure (What cloud?) Service Management SOA Application Middleware Virtualized Infrastructure Server / Storage / Network Virtual Image Management Cloud Service User <ul><li>The ‘Cloud Service’ is an application or upper layer function, or a platform service </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g., hosted computing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Application computing” is done by the Cloud Service and is co-located with the storage </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Incremental cost and time to add a new user is effectively zero </li></ul><ul><li>Desired Storage Infrastructure is the same as advanced Enterprise Storage (only cheaper) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrated server & storage management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Automated provisioning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Performance & security controls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chargeback </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TCO challenges </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Value of the Cloud Service </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Complete application stack offload </li></ul></ul>Compute Requires some new/better storage function
    35. 35. The Role of Storage in Clouds - 2 Storage Application As a Cloud Service Service Management SOA Storage Application Storage Optimized Infrastructure Virtual Image Management Cloud Service User <ul><li>The ‘Cloud Service’ is a Storage Intensive application or upper layer function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. Medical Image Archive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Backup/DR for SMB </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data Warehousing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Content serving </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Client could be an individual or a server farm </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Desired Storage Infrastructure is an optimized Storage Application </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Archive + Indexing + Search, long term retention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Video/large object access </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Local compute limited to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ingest and playback </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Optimization, management </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Value in the Cloud Service </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multi-tenancy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Content </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specialty storage application </li></ul></ul>Compute Compute Requires some new/better storage function Requires specialty storage/function
    36. 36. The Role of Storage in Clouds - 3 ‘ Storage in the Cloud’ (like the old SSPs) Service Management SOA Storage Application – Device emulation Storage Optimized Infrastructure Virtual Image Management Cloud Service User <ul><li>Storage devices are seen as local, deployed across the cloud </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E: drive on laptop/desktops – Amazon S3 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ Capacity on Demand’ for server farms </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Desired Storage Infrastructure is a very low cost ‘Network Virtual Disk’ facility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Upsell services? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Archive + Indexing + Search, long term retention </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Local compute limited to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ingest and playback </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Optimization, management </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Value in the Cloud Service </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Convenience, cost </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capacity on demand </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Challenges </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multi-tenancy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Application Synergy </li></ul></ul>Compute Compute
    37. 37. Making Cloud Computing a Reality requires: Virtualization Integrated virtualization and management with optimized systems and networks to break the lock between IT resources and business services Autonomic Management Autonomic management methods for both application and infrastructure services to meet user needs and expectations for delivery of high quality of service Ensembles Simplified IT infrastructure, reduced complexity and management through the creation of large, consistent pools of resources that are managed as one. Software Services Hardware
    38. 38. Methods for IT Simplification Service oriented architecture technologies frame business processes as services, ease of deployment, composition, reuse, change… Topologies of federated services must be mapped onto large numbers of diverse physical and virtual resources Business Processes as Services Heterogeneous servers, storage, networks “ Enterprises report that IT operational overhead = 70% of their IT budget and growing . . . leaving precious few resources for new initiatives.” – Forrester, 2007 OLD Virtual Resource Objects/Appliances, Libraries will reduce the labor required for software stack development and management Ensemble Ensemble Ensemble Ensembles, scalable pools of like systems that are manageable as single systems will replace multitudes of individual servers and reduce the labor required for physical systems management Service management software spans the diversity of heterogeneous physical and virtual resources, providing unified cross-platform management in support of SOA NEW
    39. 39. Ensemble Components <ul><li>An Ensemble generally consists of the following components: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A pool of compatible system nodes (e.g., N physical servers; need not be homogeneous) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Virtual resource mobility within an ensemble and with compatible ensembles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The networks which interconnect the ensemble nodes (may be local / optimized) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resource virtualizers (hypervisors, I/O virtualizers, storage virtualizers, …) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An ensemble manager appliance that provides platform management for the ensemble virtual and physical resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tools for planning, ensemble creation, P2V migration, image mgmt. & composition, … </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensemble-local automated optimization software of performance, availability, energy usage, security, … with intelligent defaults </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multi-system services (locking, caching, message queuing, …) may be integrated with some ensembles </li></ul></ul>Ensemble definition: a pool of like systems that is manageable as a single system OS OS OS Hypervisor Server OS OS OS Hypervisor Server Workload Mobility Server Ensemble Example Ensemble Manager
    40. 40. Standards for Cloud Storage <ul><li>Service access interfaces </li></ul><ul><li>Storage service interfaces </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provisioning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>QOS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Performance management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chargeback accounting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data protection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Storage Security </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Storage infrastructure management interfaces (SMIS) </li></ul>Service Management SOA Application Middleware Virtualized Infrastructure Server / Storage / Network Virtual Image Management Cloud Service User Compute
    41. 41. What is Cloud Computing? <ul><li>Multiple Choice: Cloud Computing is… </li></ul><ul><li>A way to access applications hosted on the web through your web browser (Software as a Service -- SaaS)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>A pay-as-you-go model for IT resources accessed over the Internet (Platform as a Service – PaaS)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>Use of commodity computers, distributed throughout an internet, to perform parallel processing, distributed storage, indexing and mining of data </li></ul><ul><li>Gartner: “Cloud computing is a style of computing where massively scalable IT-related capabilities are provided ‘as a service’ across the Internet to multiple external customers” </li></ul><ul><li>An IT buzzword that assures potential clients that your product is on the cutting edge of technology </li></ul><ul><li>All of the above </li></ul>
    42. 42. Common Cloud Themes <ul><li>They’re big – massively scalable </li></ul><ul><li>Always there when you need them – on-demand, dynamic </li></ul><ul><li>Only use what you need – elastic, no upfront commitments, use on short term basis </li></ul><ul><li>Out there on the network somewhere – accessible via Internet, location independent </li></ul><ul><li>Transparent – complexity concealed from users, virtualized, abstracted </li></ul><ul><li>Service oriented – easy to use, SLAs, accessible </li></ul>Simple Metaphor Like Power Company Better Metaphor Cooperatively Owned Semiconductor Fab
    43. 43. IT Trends enabling (and driven by) Cloud Computing <ul><li>Increased Parallelism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New Moore’s Law - 2X processors per chip generation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parallel software industries emerging to address challenges </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Redundant networks and storage increasing performance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Increased Virtualization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Processing, Storage, Bandwidth, Delivery </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Commodity Components </li></ul><ul><ul><li>X86 servers, consumer hard drives, ethernet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Open Source SW – Freedom to customize and adapt </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Increased Outsourcing of Core Elements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ By 2012, 80 percent of Fortune 1000 companies will pay for some cloud computing service, and 30 percent of them will pay for cloud computing infrastructure.” Gartner </li></ul></ul>
    44. 44. Commercial Cloud Formation
    45. 45. Cloud Deployment Models <ul><li>Deployment Models: </li></ul><ul><li>Internal (private) cloud. The cloud infrastructure is operated within the consumer’s organization. </li></ul><ul><li>Community cloud. The cloud infrastructure is jointly owned by several organizations and supports a specific community that has shared concerns (e.g., mission, security requirements, policy, and compliance considerations). </li></ul><ul><li>Public cloud. The cloud infrastructure is owned by an organization selling cloud services to the general public or to a large industry group. </li></ul><ul><li>Hybrid cloud . The cloud infrastructure is a composition of two or more clouds (internal, community, or public) that remain unique entities but are bound together by standardized or proprietary technology that enables data and application portability. </li></ul>NIST working definitions
    46. 46. Business Case for Cloud Computing <ul><li>Automation/On-Demand = Better, Faster & Cheaper </li></ul><ul><li>Moving from ‘hand crafted’ software to repeatable assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Reuse of interchangeable components </li></ul><ul><li>Repeatable processes with increased automation & collaboration </li></ul><ul><li>Division of labor – let developers focus on new software </li></ul><ul><li>Ease of use – abstract complexity out of developers’ lives </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid over & under provisioning – CAPEX outlays </li></ul><ul><li>Data Intensive Computing </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to index and make sense of large data sets – parallization </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-format data in large repositories for low BW transmissions </li></ul><ul><li>Better access to data with large multi-tenant distributed cloud databases </li></ul><ul><li>Default backup and most cost effective archival of large data sets. </li></ul><ul><li>Accessibility = Any time, any place, any device </li></ul><ul><li>Cloud serviced clients </li></ul><ul><li>Leverage low cost compute cycles and assured data storage in the cloud </li></ul><ul><li>Communications is pacing factor </li></ul><ul><li>Challenge is to balance platform agnostic vs. end point device innovations </li></ul>
    47. 47. Ease of Assembly - Fabrication Abstract complexity away from developers & users (virtualization, widgets, open APIs)‏ Put skills in the machines, enabling use of semi-skilled rural work force Moving from hand crafted -> repeatable assembly. Let SW developers focus on value add new functionality, let others focus on repeatable hosting and underlying platform tasks Division of labor, specialization Repeatable SW development CM processes with increased automation & collaboration New materials handling processes Interchangeable abstracted resources, reuse of SW components, web service standards Interchangeable parts, engineering tolerances Cloud SW Development & Deployment, Data Fusion 2009 Assembly Line – Muskets -> Ford 1815
    48. 48. Cloud Related Service Offerings Level of Abstraction <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Rackspace </li></ul><ul><li>Savvis </li></ul><ul><li>Managed Hosting </li></ul><ul><li>Collocation </li></ul><ul><li>Internet Service Provider </li></ul><ul><li>Unmanaged hosting </li></ul>Physical Infrastructure Adapted from Forrester Research Taxonomy <ul><li>Akamai </li></ul><ul><li>Amazon EC2 </li></ul><ul><li>CohesiveFT </li></ul><ul><li>Mosso (from Rackspace)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>Joyent Accelerators </li></ul><ul><li>Nirvanix Storage Delivery Network </li></ul><ul><li>Virtual servers </li></ul><ul><li>Logical disks </li></ul><ul><li>VLAN networks </li></ul><ul><li>Systems Management </li></ul>Virtual Infrastructure-as-a-Service <ul><li>Google App Engine and BigTable </li></ul><ul><li>Microsoft SQL Server Data Services </li></ul><ul><li>Engine Yard </li></ul><ul><li>’s </li></ul><ul><li>Development-platform-as-a-service </li></ul><ul><li>Database </li></ul><ul><li>Message Queue </li></ul><ul><li>App Servicer </li></ul><ul><li>Blob or object data stores </li></ul>Software-platform-as-a-Service <ul><li>Amazon Flexible Payments Service and DevPay </li></ul><ul><li>’s AppExchange </li></ul><ul><li>Yahoo! Maps API </li></ul><ul><li>Google Calendar API </li></ul><ul><li>zembly </li></ul><ul><li>APIs for specific service access for integration </li></ul><ul><li>Web-based software service than can combine to create new services, as in a mashup </li></ul>App-components -as-a-Service <ul><li>Flikr </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Cisco WebEx office </li></ul><ul><li>Gmail </li></ul><ul><li>IBM Bluehouse </li></ul><ul><li>Rich Internet application web sites </li></ul><ul><li>Application as Web Sites </li></ul><ul><li>Collaboration and email </li></ul><ul><li>Office Productivity </li></ul><ul><li>Client apps that connect to services in the cloud </li></ul>Software-as-a-Service Examples Types of Offerings Cloud Market Types
    49. 49. RACE Rapid Access Computing Environment – What is it Today? Track - Thursday, April 23 1:30-2:30 PM CSD - Cloud Computing & Software as a Service forge
    50. 50. RACE Phase IIa Pathway to Production (dev-test-prod)‏ Track - Thursday, April 23 1:30-2:30 PM CSD - Cloud Computing & Software as a Service
    51. 51. Extending the Cloud to Deployed Users Web Services CDN/WOA/PEPs RIA Synchronization Low BW protocols User-hosted Caches Fixed Sites Rich Web-based Access Remote/Mobile Access Diverse Users Diverse Infrastructures Cloud <ul><li>DISA Delivery Efforts </li></ul><ul><li>GCDS Akamai </li></ul><ul><li>EFDS </li></ul><ul><li>JIPM </li></ul><ul><li>TSP/GBS </li></ul><ul><li>IW </li></ul><ul><li>PS4 </li></ul><ul><li>UVDS </li></ul><ul><li>Consumer RIA Clients </li></ul>Track - Wednesday, April 22, 3:00-4:30 PM PEO-GES Accelerating and Optimizing the Delivery of Information Track – Friday, April 24 8:00 – 9:00AM PEO-GES GIG Content Delivery Service and EFD Workshop Track - Tuesday, April 21 4:30-5:30 PM PEO-STS Joint IP Modem (JIPM)‏ Track – Wednesday, April 22, 3:00-4:30 PM PEO-STS Joint IP Modem (JIPM)‏
    52. 52. CTO Cloud Research Areas of Interest <ul><li>Automated Dev -> Test -> Production Capabilities </li></ul><ul><li>Data Clouds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Applicability of cloud “shared nothing” databases to C2 app challenges </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Common structured data stores handling multiple data models </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Utility Computing Programming Models for Production Environments </li></ul><ul><li>Common Edge Caching & Acceleration Techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Cloud serviced client platforms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enterprise Mashups: Shindig/GWT, JackBe Presto </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Geo-visualization – NASA Worldwind </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mediaplayers – VLC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mobile computing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Virtual Desktop Infrastructure (VDI) soft & hard thin clients </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Common HW Infrastructure Templates & Data Center Practices </li></ul>
    53. 53. Programming Models What’s the right fit for DoD? Hardware Resources Physical infrastructure Software-platform-as-a-service App-components-as-a-service Virtual-Infrastructure-as-a-Service Data Intensive Amazon Hadoop, Public Data Sets, Simple DB Google App Engine GCDS Akamai Compute Storage Networking Content Delivery
    54. 54. CTO Cloud Research Outreach <ul><li>Partnering with other cloud researchers in DoD/IC aka Multi-Agency Cloud Computing Forum </li></ul><ul><li>Working to track any emerging vendor neutral standards </li></ul><ul><li>Intellipedia-U site for DISA cloud computing research </li></ul>Let us know about your cloud efforts We want to partner & share! Tom Greenfield DISA Office of the CTO Email: 703.882.1394
    55. 55. Some Suggested Readings <ul><li>“ Above the Clouds: A Berkley View of Cloud Computing” 10 Feb 09 – Great overview of cloud computing < 20 pages </li></ul><ul><li>Study </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Amazon Web Services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Google App Engine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MS Azure (future)‏ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Data Analysis Challenges” JASON Report, Dec 2008 – Good description of cloud applicability to DoD data analysis challenges </li></ul>
    56. 56. Increasing the Value of “our” Cloud Clouds Exhibit Network Effect <ul><li>More participation increases value of the system to everyone </li></ul><ul><li>More indexed data = greater opportunity to uncover patterns & make connections </li></ul><ul><li>More participation in collaborative SW development = increased contributions of reusable code </li></ul><ul><li>More design interactions = more seamless interfaces and lower friction processes </li></ul><ul><li>More use = greater statistical multiplexing of loads = increased ability for surge computing </li></ul><ul><li>More use = more machines = better economies of scale </li></ul>