Fungal,viral, bacterial, parasitic and nutritionalinfection of urinary system
SUBMITTED TO :Sir RANA IMTIAZSubmitted By:ZEESHAN AHMAD AWANFaculty of Veterinary & Animal SciencesUniversity Of Arid Agriculture, Rwp.PMASFUNGAL,VIRAL, BACTERIAL, PARASITIC AND NUTRITIONALINFECTION OF URINARY SYSTEM
Principal of infectionUnderstanding the basic principles of infection is essential. It include Diseasetransmission and Prevention of disease transmission. Microorganisms (microbes)are small, living organisms that are not visible to the naked eye. Pathogens(germs) are microorganisms that cause disease. Non-pathogens aremicroorganisms that do not cause disease; can be beneficial. At times, amicroorganism that is beneficial in one body system can become pathogenicwhen it is present in another body system. For example Escherichia coli (E. coli)bacteria when in Large intestine: beneficial, part of the natural flora and when inUrinary system: causes an infection.Type of microorganismBacteria: Simple, one-celled microorganisms that are classified according to theirshape and arrangement.Cause diseases such as strep throat, pneumonia,meningitis and tuberculosis. Antibiotics are used to kill bacteria – however somestrains have become resistant. Less than 1% of bacteria are harmful. There aremore bacteria in our mouths than humans living on the planet.FungiA plantlike organism that lives on dead organic matter.Yeasts and molds canbe pathogenic.Cause conditions such as ringworm, athlete’s foot, yeast infections,and thrush. Antibiotics do not kill fungi. Antifungal medications are available, butexpensive and may cause liver damage.VirusesSmallest of all microorganisms – visible only using an electron microscope.Cannot reproduce unless they are inside another living cell. Spread by contactwith blood and other body fluids. Difficult to destroy. Not affected by antibiotics.Associated with diseases such as the common cold, chicken pox, herpes, hepatitisB, measles, warts, polio, influenza, and AIDSFollowing factors influence microbial growthTemperature, pH, or the values used in chemistry to express the degrees ofacidity or alkalinity of a substance,Darkness,Food,Moisture,Oxygen Pathogenicmicroorganisms cause infection and disease in different ways. Produce poisons
(toxins) which harm the body. Ex: Tetanus. Allergic reaction in the body causingrunny nose, watery eyes, sneezing. Attack and destroy the living cells they invade.Ex: Malaria (rbc’s)Causing an infection In order for disease to occur and spread from one individualto another, certain conditions must be met. If any one condition is not met, thetransmission of the disease will not happen. Pathogens are everywhere andpreventing their transmission is a continuous process. Chain of infection containssix elements. If broken, infection will not occur.Body defenceIf defense mechanisms are intact and the immune system isfunctioning, a human can frequently fight off the causative agent and not contractthe disease,Mucous membranes (traps pathogens),Cilia (propel pathogens out ofrespiratory tract),Coughing and sneezing,Hydrochloric acid (stomach),Tears in theeyes (contain bacteriocidal chemicals),Fever,Inflammation (wbc’s destroypathogens),Immune response (produce antibodies)Sign and symptom Redness, Swelling ,Tenderness, Warmth, Drainage,Red streaksleading away from wound.Parasites of urinary system( parasitic infection )There are two nematodes that occur as parasites of the urinary system in smallanimals, Dioctophyma renale and Capillaria plica. Both are of rare incidence. Theadult worm occurs in the kidney parenchyma and occasionally the peritonealcavity of dogs, mink and other wild carnivores. There is no possibility of confusionin the identification of this worm because of its spectacular size and location. It isthe largest parasite nematode of domestic animals. Dioctophyma renaleultimately destroys the kidney, leaving only a thickened capsule. Unilateralinfections are the rule and the right kidney is most commonly involved. Mostunilateral infections are asymptomatic, with compensatory hypertrophy of theunaffected kidney. Bilateral infections are fatal. One to three worms may occupya kidney. Worms are thought to migrate directly through the wall of theduodenum to the kidney. The duodenum is on the right side and this probablyaccounts for the high incidence in the right kidney. Worms become adult in 1-3
months and are thought to live 1-3 years. In some cases worms may develop inthe peritoneal cavity of dogs. Although infections are rare in dogs, a highincidence may occur in mink and other wild animals (i.e. 8% of mink in Michigan).It is cosmopolitan in the U.S. and has been reported from Louisiana. Outbreaks onmink farms have been reported from feeding raw fish scraps.Capillaria plica occurs uncommonly in the urinary bladder and sometimes kidneypelvis of dogs, wild canids and occasionally the cat. It is not considered to bepathogenic and diagnosis is often made by the incidental finding of characteristiceggs in sediment of routine urinalysis specimens. Larvae enter the kidneys by wayof the renal arteries and migrate through Bowmans capsule and tubularnephrons to the renal pelvis, and finally descend to the bladder via the ureter.Patency occurs 2 months after infection.Fungal infection of urinary trackThree distinct groups of pathogens are noted for causing fungal UTIs:1) Opportunistic organisms2) Environmental3) Rare and unusualBacterial urinary tract infectionsMost infectious diseases of the urinary system in small animals are aerobicbacterial infections. Common organisms include Escherichia coli,Staphylococcus, Enterococcus, and Streptococcus. Less common infectionsinclude Klebsiella, Proteus, and Pseudomonas. Pasteurella is more common incats than dogs. Mycoplasma is an uncommon urinary tract infection and isusually found as a coinfection with bacteria. Leptospirosis is a worldwidezoonotic disease caused by filamentous bacteria that infect the kidney andmany other organs. Fungi, yeast, and parasites uncommonly infect the urinarysystem.Bacterial urinary tract infections (UTI) typically result from normalskin and GI tract flora ascending the urinary tract and overcoming the normalurinary tract defenses that prevent colonization. Bacterial UTI is the mostcommon infectious disease of dogs, affecting 14% of all dogs during their
lifetime. It is less common in cats, and occurs only infrequently in largeanimals. Young cats with feline lower urinary tract disease usually havebacteriologically sterile urine. However, >50% of geriatric cats with urinarytract disease have a bacterial UTI. Approximately two-thirds of those cats alsohave renal failure. Bacterial UTI in ruminants are associated withcatheterization or parturition in females and as both a cause and consequenceof urolithiasis in males. In horses, UTI are uncommon and typically associatedwith bladder paralysis, urolithiasis, or urethral damage.Unlike humans, veterinary patients are often asymptomatic, and the UTI maybe an incidental finding. The consequences of untreated UTI include lowerurinary tract dysfunction, urolithiasis, prostatitis, infertility, septicemia, andpyelonephritis with scarring and eventual kidney failure. Coagulase-positivestaphylococci are involved in the formation of struvite (MgNH4PO4) calculi indogs. In intact male dogs, UTI frequently extends to the prostate gland. Due tothe blood-prostate barrier, it is difficult to eradicate bacteria from the prostate,and the urinary tract may be reinfected following appropriate treatment,causing a systemic bacteremia, infecting the rest of the reproductive tract, orcausing an abscess within the prostate.Large retrospective studies have documented the most common species ofuropathogens in dogs and cats, with Escherichia coli being the single mostcommon pathogen in both acute and recurrent UTI. In equine UTI, E coli,Streptococcus spp and Enterococcus spp predominate, while Corynebacteriumrenale and E coli are the most common pathogens in ruminant infections. Indogs and cats, UTI are caused by more than one pathogen ~30% of the time. Inimmunocompromised patients, funguria from Candida spp may be seen.Antimicrobials are the cornerstone of UTI therapy, and many animals withrecurring UTI are managed empirically with repeated. This approach fails ifthe underlying pathophysiology predisposing the animal to the UTI is notaddressed; as well, it encourages the development of resistant bacteria. Withchronic UTI from highly resistant bacteria, therapeutic options are extremelylimited.Fungal infection of urinary trackAlthough uncommon, most fungal UTI in dogs and cats are caused byCandida spp. Finding Candida organisms in the urine may indicate samplecontamination; however, finding Candida organisms in 2 serial urine samples
collected by cystocentesis is consistent with infection and warrants culture anddefinitive identification. Treatment includes eliminating potential predisposingfactors (eg, excessive endogenous or exogenous corticosteroids, urinarycatheters) and administering antifungal drugs with or without urinaryalkalinization. Fluconazole is the antifungal drug of choice for the treatment ofcandidal cystitis. The dosage in cats is 50 mg/cat, PO, sid-bid, and in dogsis 2.5–5.0 mg/kg/day, PO, divided bid. The duration of treatment needed toeliminate infection is unknown but may be as short as 7 days.