Hrm 381 chapter 1 intro to hr

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Hrm 381 chapter 1 intro to hr

  1. 1. Chapter 1 Jack Welch- Winning “ Elevate HR to a position of power and primacy in the organization, and make sure HR people have the special qualities to help managers build leaders and careers. In fact, the best HR types are pastors and parents in the same package.” “ The head of human resources at any company should be at least as important as the CFO.”
  2. 3. Leaders are Readers <ul><li>Peter Drucker </li></ul><ul><li>The Essential Drucker (2008) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Business management must always, in every decision and action, put economic performance first.” </li></ul>
  3. 4. Leaders are Readers <ul><li>Good to Great </li></ul><ul><li>Jim Collins (2001) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Good is the enemy of great.” </li></ul>
  4. 5. Learning Objectives <ul><li>After you have read this chapter, you should be able to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Define HR management and identify the seven categories of HR activities. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discuss three challenges facing HR today. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Describe how the major roles of HR management are being transformed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify the purposes and uses of HR technology. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discuss why ethical issues affect HR management. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Explain the key competencies needed by HR professionals and why certification is important. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 6. Today <ul><li>In what kind of environment are we doing HR today? </li></ul><ul><li>HR Activities- what do HR people do? </li></ul><ul><li>HR Management Challenges- what external and internal factors influence what HR people do? </li></ul><ul><li>HR Roles- how do HR people do their jobs? </li></ul>
  6. 7. Nature of Human Resource Management <ul><li>Human Resource (HR) Management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The design of formal systems in an organization to ensure effective and efficient use of human talent to accomplish organizational goals. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 8. Nature of Human Resource Management cont . <ul><li>Who Is an HR Manager? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In the course carrying out their duties, every operating manager is, in essence, an HR manager. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HR specialists design processes and systems that operating managers help implement. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 9. Source: HR Department Benchmarks and Analysis Survey 2004 (Washington, DC: Bureau of National Affairs, 2004), 21. To purchase this publication and find out more about other BNA HR solutions visit http://hrcenter.bna.com or call 800-372-1033. Used with permission.
  9. 10. HR Activities <ul><li>Strategic HR Management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is “Strategic”? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Metrics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental Scanning/Anticipation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High Performance Work Practices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leveraging Core Competencies </li></ul></ul>
  10. 11. HR Activities Continued <ul><li>Equal Employment Opportunity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Compliance  Multicultural Organizations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diversity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Affirmative Action </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Global Impacts: Resources, Markets, Employees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EEOC and the OFCCP </li></ul></ul>
  11. 12. HR Activities Continued <ul><li>Staffing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attraction  Selection  Attrition Model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Job Description </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Job Analysis  Qualifications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recruiting, Interviewing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>HR Development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Orientation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Socialization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Job Training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leadership Development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Performance Management </li></ul></ul>
  12. 13. HR Activities Continued <ul><li>Compensation and Benefits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Base Pay </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Merit Pay/Incentives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gainsharing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Employee Ownership </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Management of Health and Dental Costs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cafeteria Plans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Employee Rewards </li></ul></ul>
  13. 14. HR Activities Continued <ul><li>Health, Safety, and Security </li></ul><ul><ul><li>OSHA (1970)…who has the responsibility for healthy employees? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Safety in the workplace </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Security post 9-11 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EAPs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Health Promotion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Employee and Labor Relations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unionization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Policies and Procedures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication (Justice Theory) </li></ul></ul>
  14. 15. Issues of Greatest Concern Small Businesses Large piece of economic sector Larger piece of job creation in U.S. When do we need an HR person? (80-100 employees) Compliance with Government Regulations Shortage of Qualified Workers Increasing Costs of Benefits Rising Taxes
  15. 16. Management of Human Capital In Organizations <ul><li>Physical, Financial, Intangible and </li></ul><ul><li>Human Capital </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The collective value of the capabilities, knowledge, skills, life experiences, and motivation of an organizational workforce. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Also known as intellectual capital. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How to measure the strategic value of human assets? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Core Competency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A unique capability that creates high value and differentiates an organization from its competition. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>HR competencies: a source of competitive advantage. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 17. 1– Human Capital The collective value of the capabilities, knowledge, skills, life experiences, and motivation of an organizational workforce. Core Competency A unique capability that creates high value and differentiates an organization from its competition.
  17. 18. HR Management Challenges <ul><li>Globalization of Business </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Outsourcing and increased competition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stockholder, employee, manager concerns? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is this socially responsible? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Should the U.S. pass legislation protecting these jobs? Why/Why not? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What about the perspective that this is good for the long run as it lowers the costs of goods and services? Do you agree? Why/Why not? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 19. HR Management Challenges <ul><li>Globalization of Business </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The threat of terrorism- How does this impact what we do? OSHA? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Economic and Technological Changes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Occupational shifts from manufacturing and agriculture to service industries and telecommunications. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pressures of global competition causing firms to adapt by lowering costs and increasing productivity. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Technological Shifts and the Internet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Growth of information technology. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 20. 1– FIGURE 1–6 Fastest Growth in Job Changes to 2016 Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, www.bls.gov.
  20. 21. 1– FIGURE 1–6 Fastest Growth in Job Changes to 2016 Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, www.bls.gov.
  21. 22. HR Management Challenges <ul><li>Workforce Availability and Quality Concerns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inadequate supply of workers with needed skills for “knowledge jobs” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>80% of manufacturing jobs report shortage of qualified workers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Education of workers in basic skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Not enough specific skills, not enough technology skills </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Growth in Contingent Workforce </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Represents 20% of the workforce </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increases in temporary workers, independent contractors, leased employees, and part-timers caused by: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Need for flexibility in staffing levels </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increased difficulty in firing regular employees. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced legal liability from contract employees </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Boeing Strategy- manage employment cycles in suppliers and partners </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 23. HR Management Challenges <ul><li>Workforce Demographics and Diversity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasing Racial/Ethnic Diversity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>From the Melting Pot to the Salad Bowl </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More Women in the Workforce </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Single-parent households </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dual-career couples </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Domestic partners </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Working mothers and family/childcare </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Significantly Aging Workforce </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Age discrimination </li></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 24. HR Management Challenges <ul><li>Organizational Cost Pressures and Restructuring </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mergers and Acquisitions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Right-sizing”—eliminating of layers of management, closing facilities, merging with other organizations, and outplacing workers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intended results are flatter organizations, increases in productivity, quality, service and lower costs. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Costs are “survivor mentality”, loss of employee loyalty, and turnover of valuable employees. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HR managers must work toward ensuring cultural compatibility in mergers. </li></ul></ul>
  24. 25. HR Management Roles <ul><li>Administrative Role </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clerical and administrative support operations (e.g., payroll and benefits work) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Technology is transforming how HR services are delivered. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Outsourcing HR services to reduce HR staffing costs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Operational and Employee Advocate Role </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Champion” for employee concerns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Employee crisis management </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Responding to employee complaints </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 26. Note: Example percentages are based on various surveys.
  26. 27. Strategic Role for HR <ul><li>Administrative Role </li></ul><ul><li>Operational Role </li></ul><ul><li>Employee Advocate Role </li></ul><ul><li>Strategic Role </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Contributing at the Table” to organizational results </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HR becomes a strategic business partner by: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Focusing on developing HR programs that enhance organizational performance. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Involving HR in strategic planning at the onset. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Participating in decision making on mergers, acquisitions, and downsizing. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Redesigning organizations and work processes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Accounting and documenting the financial results of HR activities. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Some HR people get this, some don’t…CEOs want those that do and oust those that don’t </li></ul>
  27. 29. HR Technology <ul><li>Human Resource Management System (HRMS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An integrated system providing information used by HR management in decision making. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Purposes (Benefits) of HRMS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Administrative and operational efficiency in compiling HR data </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Availability of data for effective HR strategic planning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses of HRMS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Automation of payroll and benefit activities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>EEO/affirmative action tracking </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>HR Workflow: increased access to HR information </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Employee self-service reduces HR costs. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  28. 30. Uses of an HRMS <ul><li>HRMS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bulletin boards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What information will be available and what is information needed? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data access </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To what uses will the information be put? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Employee self-service </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Who will be allowed to access to what information? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Web-based services and access </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extended linkage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When, where, and how often will the information be needed? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  29. 31. Ethics and HR Management <ul><li>Firms with High Ethical Standards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are more likely to reach strategic goals. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are viewed more positively by stakeholders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are better able to attract and retain human resources. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ethics and Global Differences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Different legal, political, and cultural factors in other countries can lead to ethical conflicts for global managers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prohibits U.S. firms from engaging in bribery and other practices in other countries. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  30. 32. Leaders are Readers <ul><li>The Smartest Guys in the Room (2004) </li></ul><ul><li>McLean and Elkind </li></ul><ul><li>“ The tale of Enron is a story of human weakness, of hubris and greed and rampant self-delusion; of ambition run amok; of a grand experiment in the deregulated world; of a business model that didn’t’ work; and of smart people who believed their next gamble could cover up their last disaster—and who couldn’t admit they were wrong”. </li></ul>
  31. 33. © 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible Web site, in whole or in part. 1– FIGURE 1–4 Business Ethics and HR Management Consequences
  32. 34. © 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible Web site, in whole or in part. 1– Ethics Program Elements Written code of ethics and standards of conduct Employee training on ethical behaviors Advice to employees on ethical situations Confidential reporting of ethical problems
  33. 35. © 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible Web site, in whole or in part. 1– Legal Question Ethical Question <ul><li>Does the behavior or result meet all applicable laws, regulations, and government codes? </li></ul><ul><li>Does the behavior or result meet both organizational standards and professional standards of ethical behavior? </li></ul>
  34. 36. © 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible Web site, in whole or in part. 1– FIGURE 1–5 Examples of HR-Related Ethical Misconduct Activities
  35. 37. HR Ethics and Sarbanes-Oxley (SOX) <ul><li>Reduce the likelihood of illegal and unethical behaviors by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Having a written code of ethics and conduct standards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Providing ethical behavior training and advice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Establishing confidential reporting systems for ethical misconduct </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Providing whistle-blower protection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supporting HR’s role as “keeper and voice” of organizational ethics </li></ul></ul>1–
  36. 38. Ethical Behavior and Organizational Culture <ul><li>Classic Management Article </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ The perpetuation of unethical practices in organizations” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Socialization </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Attrition </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Justification from small to large </li></ul></ul></ul>
  37. 39. HR Management Competencies and Careers <ul><li>Important HR Competencies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategic contribution to organizational success </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Business knowledge of organization and its strategies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effective and effective delivery of HR services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Familiarity with HRMS technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal credibility </li></ul></ul><ul><li>SPEAK THE LANGUAGE OF THE BUSINESS </li></ul>
  38. 40. HR Management as a Career Field <ul><li>HR Generalist </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A person with responsibility for performing a variety of HR activities. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>HR Specialist </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A person with in-depth knowledge and expertise in a limited area of HR. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>HR Manager </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A person who is a line manager for HR Generalists and Specialists </li></ul></ul>
  39. 41. Source: HR Department Benchmarks and Analysis 2004 (Washington, DC: Bureau of National Affairs, 2004), 119. To purchase this publication and find out more about other BNA HR solutions visit http://hrcenter.bna.com or call 800-372-1033. Used with permission.
  40. 42. The Human Resource Certification Institute offers three types of professional certifications for HR generalists. Details on these certifications are available from the Human Resources Certification Institute, www.hrci.org.
  41. 43. Other HR Certifications <ul><li>Certified Compensation Professional (CCP), sponsored by the World at Work Association </li></ul><ul><li>Certified Employee Benefits Specialist (CEBS), sponsored by the International Foundation of Employee Benefits Plans </li></ul><ul><li>Certified Benefits Professional (CBP), sponsored by the WorldatWork Association </li></ul><ul><li>Certified Performance Technologist (CPT), co- sponsored by the American Society for Training & Development and the International Society for Performance Improvement </li></ul><ul><li>Certified Safety Professional (CSP), sponsored by the Board of Certified Safety Professionals </li></ul><ul><li>Occupational Health and Safety Technologist (OHST), given by the American Board of Industrial Hygiene and the Board of Certified Safety Professionals </li></ul><ul><li>Certified Professional Outsourcing , provided by New York University and the Human Resource Outsourcing Association </li></ul>

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