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Josefina B. Bitonio
Associate Professor
Institure of Graduate School and
Professional Studies
Human Resource
Management and
Development
MPA 205
Learning Objectives:
• to Introduce the concept of human resources
management (HRM);
• to learn the various schools of management;
• to review the key names in management theories; and
• to compare and contrast HRM with personnel
• management
When you think about
Human Resource
What comes to your
mind?
Concepts
Human capital plays a vital role in every
organization. Human resource
development is paramount to building a
more robust and effective workforce.
Peterson and Tracy (1981) emphasized
that HRM is an “emerging dynamic field
in terms of both the staff functional and
day-to-day utilization of human
resources throughout the organization”.
HRM is a broad concept from employee
selection, training and development
programs, career development,
promotion, performance review and
union – management interface and
other activities.
Human: refers to the skilled workforce in
an organization.
Resource: refers to limited availability or
scarce.
Management: refers how to optimize and
make best use of such limited or scarce
resource so as to meet the organization
goals and objectives.
Therefore, human resource management is meant
for proper utilization of available skilled workforce
and also to make efficient use of existing human
resource in the organization.
Why
Human Resource Management is
a multidisciplinary subject
• It includes the study of management,
psychology, communication, economics
and sociology.
• It also deals with building team spirit and
team work.
• It is a continuous process.
All organizations need resources of manpower,
money, material, method and machinery to
function effectively. The resources by
themselves cannot fulfill the objectives of the
organization, they need to be collected,
coordinated and utilized through human
resources who in turn are to be managed
effectively and efficiently. Hence human
resource management (HRM) is a major
activity in an organization that deals with
issues related to people.
Manpower
“Management is doing things right; leadership is doing the right things.” “Efficiency is
concerned with doing things right. Effectiveness is doing the right things Peter Drucker .”
We’ve all heard the saying, “It
takes a village to raise a child.”
Likewise, it takes a village – or
at least multiple departments –
to run a business. All your
departments are important, but
human resource management,
or HRM, stands out for its direct
impact on your most important
asset – your team!
Human resource management
is the art and science of managing
people. The scope of HRM has
broadened substantially due to an
improved approach towards
behavioral sciences and advances in
training. New trends seem to have
emerged managing the employees
who are known as knowledge
workers. HRM is now an integral
function in today’s corporate world.
Framework forViewing HRM
Governmental
Pressures
Market
Conditions
Pressures
from Labor
Union
Pressures
from
Employee
association
Governmental
Pressures
(CSC)
Pressures from
Labor Union
Pressures from
Employee
association
Market
Conditions
NGAs/LGUS
funded by GAA
W. French (1990) refers to HRM as that
which embodies the “philosophy, policies,
procedures, and practices related to the
human relations and human resources
approached within the organization.
Human Resources Approach – It assumes
employees will work realistically for the
accomplishment of the organizational goals
and objectives if individual goals,
objectives, needs and interest are being
met.
Managerial Philosophy
Human Relations Approach
• Human relations. It is defined as relations
with or between people, particularly in a
workplace setting. Because an organization
depends on good human relations through its
organizational structure, developing these
skills is important.
• From a personal perspective, human
relations is an important part to our career
success. First, of the top ten reasons people
are fired, several reasons relate back to lack
of human relations skills—for example, the
inability to work within a team, personality
issues, sexual harassment, and dishonesty.
The National Institute of Personal
Management (NIPM) has defined HRM as
‘that part of management which is
concerned with people at work and with
their relationship within an enterprise. Its
aim is to bring together and develop into
an effective organization of the men and
women who make up enterprise and
having regard for the well – being of the
individuals and of working groups, to
enable them to make their best
contribution to its success’.
• With the advancements in technology, businesses expect more from HR professionals.
Aside from managing HR processes, they now need to track activities and productivity to
improve the processes.
• HR technology provides tools that managers need to make better decisions. Here are
other ways that technology transforms the field of human resource management.
What are the technological
changes taking place in your
agency?
Are the system and procedures
computerized?
How are these changes affecting
the operations and personnel
function within your
organization?
Has the service delivery improve
as a result of computerization of
system and procedures?
Has there been a reduction in the
number of personnel involved in
the delivery of service?
Reflection
Carrell, Elbert and Hatfield put a number of principles
which provide the basis for a HR approach.
1. Employees are investment. If effectively managed and
developed, they will provide long term rewards to the
organization in the form of greater productivity.
2. Policies, programs and practices must satisfy both the
economic and emotional needs of employees.
3. A working environment must be created in which
employees are encouraged to develop and utilize their
skills to the maxim extent.
4. Implementation of the HR programs and practices must
meet the goal of balancing the needs and meeting the
goals of both the organization and employees
HR Approach
HIGHER
Employee
Motivation and
Applied Ability
GREATER
Quality and
Quantity of
Work
HIGHER
Organization
productivity
and profits
GREATER
Employee
Rewards and
Profits
Source: Carell, Elbert and Hatfield, 1995, p. 9.
EMPLOYEE
ORGANIZATION
Both
influence
each
other to
promote
their
needs
and well
being
Individual
Characteristics
Describe your individual characteristics
As you described your individual characteristics, you will
come to realize the difficulty of management developing
common or shared values and needs among employees.
Do you think that it is necessary for management to come
up with common or shared values among employees?
If you think so, what are the ways and means by which the
management of your agency would be able to accomplish
this with personnel.
Positive
Helpful
Mindful
Energetic
Motivator
Encourager
influencer
Sense of
Urgency
Responsible
Reliable
An empowered organization
is one in which individuals
have knowledge, skills,
desires and opportunities to
personally succeed in a way
that leads to collective
organizational success
Stephen Covey
Evolution of Human
Resource Management
19th Century
Closed19th Century Beginning of
20th century
1900 -1920
1930-1950
1950-1960
1960 Onwards
1980 -Onwards
Elton Mayo who was a psychologists
from the Australia, did many experiments
on human behavior at different situations
in 1924. He strongly believed in work life
balance for improving productivity of
workers and did emphasis on human
relations influence the productivity of
workers and finally he has been regarded
as father of Human resources
management.
Whatishumanresource.com - Human Resource Management - What is HRM? -
Definitions - Functions - Objectives - Importance - Evolution of HRM from Personnel
management
Difference between Personnel Management and Human Resource
Management
Personnel management is the seed and root for Human
resources management. Main principle of the Personnel
Management was to extract work from an employee for
the remuneration paid to them.
• Not given high priority in decision making process and
weren't much allowed to interact with management.
Personal manager was to see that everything was in
compliance with the labor laws or not but not much
emphasis made on the morale of employees.
• Employees were just treated as tools, obligation to the
organization but not as the asset of the organization,
besides they were seen as cost & expenditure to
company rather than capital and investment.
• Personnel officers mostly were disciplinary oriented
instead of being flexible and interactive with employees.
• Nurturing of employees was not priority by the personnel
managers and employees perspective was ignored
which means personnel managers rather than
understanding situation they used to be punitive if any
error was committed by employee.
Human resource management see employees
from the perspective as a most valuable resources
for the organization and they consider their
employees as assets and capital for their
organization. Main principle of the Human
resource management is to see what should
be given or provided to an employee for
extracting the desired work.
• HR Managers always encourage participation
of employees in decision making and their
suggestions are most valued.
• Flexibility in work, welfare and Work life
balance to employees is high priority for HR
managers and they show much more concern
towards employee issues.
• Adoption of new policies and optimization
methods by the HR manager are well
encouraged and swift. resources management
process and functions for enhanced
productivity and time savings as time is money
Past (Personnel
Management)
Present (HRM)
Work 9 to 5 Work anytime
Work in an office Work anywhere and from anywhere
Use company equipment Use your own modern gadgets and requirements
Focused on inputs Focused on outputs
Climb the corporate ladder Create your own ladder for career
Pre-defined work Customized work
Hoards information Shares information
No voice Can become a leader
Focused on knowledge Focused on adaptive learning
Whatishumanresource.com - Human Resource Management - What is HRM? - Definitions - Functions - Objectives - Importance
- Evolution of HRM from Personnel management
Personnel
Management
HRMD
Perspective I
Structural system
• Fayol’s 14 Principles
• Weber’s 7 Bureaucratic
Structure
• Taylor’s “one best way”
Perspective 2
Information System
• Operations Research –
mathematically
quantifiable parameters
(Churchman - 6 phases,
and
• Forrester’s system
Dynamics
Perspective 3
Human System
all those process affecting
and involving all
employees including
human resources
planning, job design and
information, staffing,
training and development
performance appraisal,
compensation, and
organization development.
History of Various Schools of Management
Each perspective of management grew out of hospitable cultural context, what appear to be
a naïve procedure may at another time have been useful solution to a perceived problem.
Perspective I
Structural System
Perspective II
Information System
Perspective III
Human System
1900 Weber
Taylor
Gilbreth
Roethlisberger
1940 Blackett
Cock and French
Churchman and
Ackoff
Coch and French
(Univ of Michigan Group)
1950 Woodward March & Simon (Ohio State Group)
McGregor
Argyris, Maier
Herzberg, Likert
1960 Etzioni
Seiler
Forrester
Emshoff
Vroom
Blake And Mouton
Reddin
Fiedler
1970 Integrated Systems
Approach
Key Names in
Management
Theory

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1-HRM-and-Development.pptx

  • 1. Josefina B. Bitonio Associate Professor Institure of Graduate School and Professional Studies Human Resource Management and Development MPA 205
  • 2. Learning Objectives: • to Introduce the concept of human resources management (HRM); • to learn the various schools of management; • to review the key names in management theories; and • to compare and contrast HRM with personnel • management
  • 3. When you think about Human Resource What comes to your mind?
  • 4. Concepts Human capital plays a vital role in every organization. Human resource development is paramount to building a more robust and effective workforce. Peterson and Tracy (1981) emphasized that HRM is an “emerging dynamic field in terms of both the staff functional and day-to-day utilization of human resources throughout the organization”. HRM is a broad concept from employee selection, training and development programs, career development, promotion, performance review and union – management interface and other activities.
  • 5. Human: refers to the skilled workforce in an organization. Resource: refers to limited availability or scarce. Management: refers how to optimize and make best use of such limited or scarce resource so as to meet the organization goals and objectives. Therefore, human resource management is meant for proper utilization of available skilled workforce and also to make efficient use of existing human resource in the organization. Why
  • 6. Human Resource Management is a multidisciplinary subject • It includes the study of management, psychology, communication, economics and sociology. • It also deals with building team spirit and team work. • It is a continuous process.
  • 7. All organizations need resources of manpower, money, material, method and machinery to function effectively. The resources by themselves cannot fulfill the objectives of the organization, they need to be collected, coordinated and utilized through human resources who in turn are to be managed effectively and efficiently. Hence human resource management (HRM) is a major activity in an organization that deals with issues related to people. Manpower “Management is doing things right; leadership is doing the right things.” “Efficiency is concerned with doing things right. Effectiveness is doing the right things Peter Drucker .”
  • 8. We’ve all heard the saying, “It takes a village to raise a child.” Likewise, it takes a village – or at least multiple departments – to run a business. All your departments are important, but human resource management, or HRM, stands out for its direct impact on your most important asset – your team!
  • 9. Human resource management is the art and science of managing people. The scope of HRM has broadened substantially due to an improved approach towards behavioral sciences and advances in training. New trends seem to have emerged managing the employees who are known as knowledge workers. HRM is now an integral function in today’s corporate world.
  • 10. Framework forViewing HRM Governmental Pressures Market Conditions Pressures from Labor Union Pressures from Employee association Governmental Pressures (CSC) Pressures from Labor Union Pressures from Employee association Market Conditions NGAs/LGUS funded by GAA
  • 11. W. French (1990) refers to HRM as that which embodies the “philosophy, policies, procedures, and practices related to the human relations and human resources approached within the organization. Human Resources Approach – It assumes employees will work realistically for the accomplishment of the organizational goals and objectives if individual goals, objectives, needs and interest are being met. Managerial Philosophy
  • 12. Human Relations Approach • Human relations. It is defined as relations with or between people, particularly in a workplace setting. Because an organization depends on good human relations through its organizational structure, developing these skills is important. • From a personal perspective, human relations is an important part to our career success. First, of the top ten reasons people are fired, several reasons relate back to lack of human relations skills—for example, the inability to work within a team, personality issues, sexual harassment, and dishonesty.
  • 13. The National Institute of Personal Management (NIPM) has defined HRM as ‘that part of management which is concerned with people at work and with their relationship within an enterprise. Its aim is to bring together and develop into an effective organization of the men and women who make up enterprise and having regard for the well – being of the individuals and of working groups, to enable them to make their best contribution to its success’.
  • 14. • With the advancements in technology, businesses expect more from HR professionals. Aside from managing HR processes, they now need to track activities and productivity to improve the processes. • HR technology provides tools that managers need to make better decisions. Here are other ways that technology transforms the field of human resource management.
  • 15. What are the technological changes taking place in your agency? Are the system and procedures computerized? How are these changes affecting the operations and personnel function within your organization? Has the service delivery improve as a result of computerization of system and procedures? Has there been a reduction in the number of personnel involved in the delivery of service? Reflection
  • 16. Carrell, Elbert and Hatfield put a number of principles which provide the basis for a HR approach. 1. Employees are investment. If effectively managed and developed, they will provide long term rewards to the organization in the form of greater productivity. 2. Policies, programs and practices must satisfy both the economic and emotional needs of employees. 3. A working environment must be created in which employees are encouraged to develop and utilize their skills to the maxim extent. 4. Implementation of the HR programs and practices must meet the goal of balancing the needs and meeting the goals of both the organization and employees
  • 17. HR Approach HIGHER Employee Motivation and Applied Ability GREATER Quality and Quantity of Work HIGHER Organization productivity and profits GREATER Employee Rewards and Profits Source: Carell, Elbert and Hatfield, 1995, p. 9. EMPLOYEE ORGANIZATION
  • 20. As you described your individual characteristics, you will come to realize the difficulty of management developing common or shared values and needs among employees. Do you think that it is necessary for management to come up with common or shared values among employees? If you think so, what are the ways and means by which the management of your agency would be able to accomplish this with personnel. Positive Helpful Mindful Energetic Motivator Encourager influencer Sense of Urgency Responsible Reliable
  • 21.
  • 22. An empowered organization is one in which individuals have knowledge, skills, desires and opportunities to personally succeed in a way that leads to collective organizational success Stephen Covey
  • 23. Evolution of Human Resource Management 19th Century Closed19th Century Beginning of 20th century 1900 -1920 1930-1950 1950-1960 1960 Onwards 1980 -Onwards Elton Mayo who was a psychologists from the Australia, did many experiments on human behavior at different situations in 1924. He strongly believed in work life balance for improving productivity of workers and did emphasis on human relations influence the productivity of workers and finally he has been regarded as father of Human resources management.
  • 24. Whatishumanresource.com - Human Resource Management - What is HRM? - Definitions - Functions - Objectives - Importance - Evolution of HRM from Personnel management
  • 25. Difference between Personnel Management and Human Resource Management Personnel management is the seed and root for Human resources management. Main principle of the Personnel Management was to extract work from an employee for the remuneration paid to them. • Not given high priority in decision making process and weren't much allowed to interact with management. Personal manager was to see that everything was in compliance with the labor laws or not but not much emphasis made on the morale of employees. • Employees were just treated as tools, obligation to the organization but not as the asset of the organization, besides they were seen as cost & expenditure to company rather than capital and investment. • Personnel officers mostly were disciplinary oriented instead of being flexible and interactive with employees. • Nurturing of employees was not priority by the personnel managers and employees perspective was ignored which means personnel managers rather than understanding situation they used to be punitive if any error was committed by employee. Human resource management see employees from the perspective as a most valuable resources for the organization and they consider their employees as assets and capital for their organization. Main principle of the Human resource management is to see what should be given or provided to an employee for extracting the desired work. • HR Managers always encourage participation of employees in decision making and their suggestions are most valued. • Flexibility in work, welfare and Work life balance to employees is high priority for HR managers and they show much more concern towards employee issues. • Adoption of new policies and optimization methods by the HR manager are well encouraged and swift. resources management process and functions for enhanced productivity and time savings as time is money
  • 26. Past (Personnel Management) Present (HRM) Work 9 to 5 Work anytime Work in an office Work anywhere and from anywhere Use company equipment Use your own modern gadgets and requirements Focused on inputs Focused on outputs Climb the corporate ladder Create your own ladder for career Pre-defined work Customized work Hoards information Shares information No voice Can become a leader Focused on knowledge Focused on adaptive learning Whatishumanresource.com - Human Resource Management - What is HRM? - Definitions - Functions - Objectives - Importance - Evolution of HRM from Personnel management
  • 28. Perspective I Structural system • Fayol’s 14 Principles • Weber’s 7 Bureaucratic Structure • Taylor’s “one best way” Perspective 2 Information System • Operations Research – mathematically quantifiable parameters (Churchman - 6 phases, and • Forrester’s system Dynamics Perspective 3 Human System all those process affecting and involving all employees including human resources planning, job design and information, staffing, training and development performance appraisal, compensation, and organization development. History of Various Schools of Management Each perspective of management grew out of hospitable cultural context, what appear to be a naïve procedure may at another time have been useful solution to a perceived problem.
  • 29. Perspective I Structural System Perspective II Information System Perspective III Human System 1900 Weber Taylor Gilbreth Roethlisberger 1940 Blackett Cock and French Churchman and Ackoff Coch and French (Univ of Michigan Group) 1950 Woodward March & Simon (Ohio State Group) McGregor Argyris, Maier Herzberg, Likert 1960 Etzioni Seiler Forrester Emshoff Vroom Blake And Mouton Reddin Fiedler 1970 Integrated Systems Approach Key Names in Management Theory