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Enterprise E­Learning Architecture

Enterprise E­Learning Architecture

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  • S4EEASCORM 2004 Enterprise E­Learning Architecture — Document Transcript 1. SCORM 2004 Enterprise E­Learning Architecture Oklahoma Department of Career &Technology Education 2006.03.14 12. Table of Contents The Integration Challenge............................................................................................. 3 The Ultimate Goal......................................................................................................... 5 SCORM Dreams vs.Reality.......................................................................................... 6 Bending the SCORM..................................................................................................... 6 Breaking the SCORM.................................................................................................... 7 A Modified SCORMInfrastructure................................................................................. 8Appendix 1: Definitions.................................................................................................. 12 Appendix 2: Related Reading........................................................................................ 15 Appendix 3: Related Software....................................................................................... 16 Appendix 4: Architecture OverviewDiagram ................................................................. 17 23. The Integration Challenge E­learning cannot be successful in a vacuum.E­learning leverages existing technology to deliverexisting training that meets existing goals. E­learning does not force a re­toolingof existing IT infrastructure or humanresources development. It does; however, require that these systems exist.Existing Training Development Training developersthat are successful with in­person training programs already possess the skillsnecessary to deploy and manage e­learning. Thee­learning medium should not force philosophical changes on existing trainingdevelopment strategies. The primary goal is toextend existing training frameworks to encompass e­learning. Educational ObjectivesReusing educational objectives consistentlyacross the enterprise requires a standard format and application model. IMS, theleading international e­learning standardsbody, provides a specification called the Reusable Definition of Competency orEducational Objective (RDCEO). The RDCEOspecification provides a ready­to­go model for defining objectives across theenterprise. E­learning initiatives that implementthe SCORM depend on a catalog of RDCEOs to complete the metadata requirements for Page 1
  • S4EEAcontent. However, these RDCEOs provide littleadditional value if they are not placed within a larger framework of competenciesand job descriptions that drive theorganization. Defining objectives and nesting them beneath a hierarchy ofcompetencies unlocks the re­usability of these items.Competencies that exist for multiple jobs share a set of RDCEOs, SCOs, andassessment items. RDCEOs, and the context providedby a competency framework for employees is beyond the SCORM. However, the SCORMwill not thrive without these additionalframeworks. Content Representing content consistently across the enterprise requiresa specification for creating and movingcontent in and out of disparate systems. The SCORM leverages the IMS standard forcontent packaging to achieve this goal. Alesson authored to the SCORM may contain any type and number of files, but it mustbe accompanied by a set of XML documents thatidentify it as a SCO. Systems that import or export these content packages utilizethis information to describe the contentspurpose to the delivery system. Carnegie Mellons Learning Systems Architecture Lab(LSAL) has published numerous guides designed to assist instructional designers with the creation of content that conforms to theSCORM. LSALs SCORM Content DevelopersGuide is a must read for training developers that intend to implement the SCORM.The Content Developers Guide outlines aprocess for extending existing training development practices to produce SCOs. TheSCORM enables training developers to benefitfrom content re­use. It follows that training developers must be able to identifyand capitalize on opportunities for re­use.Taking advantage of these opportunities requires a knowledge management system thatrelates competencies, objectives, and SCOsthroughout the enterprise. Assessment Representing assessment consistently acrossthe enterprise requires a specification forcreating and delivering assessments. IMS has created the Question TestInteroperability specification to meet this challenge.QTI formatted assessments are expressed in XML files and they can be moved in andout of 34. QTI­aware applications throughout the enterprise. It is important to realizethat the SCORM does not address assessment.QTI­formatted assessments can be delivered through a SCORM compliant LMS as SCOs.However, the dominant method for deliveringon­line assessments involves a separate delivery system. Test delivery that occursalongside course delivery is accomplishedthrough an LMS­specific feature set or a separate web service such asQuestionmarks Perception product. The key to integration Page 2
  • S4EEAwith other facets of the SCORM is chunking each assessment into an item bank thatresides with the SCO it supports. Within theknowledge management system, objectives (RDCEOS), content (SCOs), and test items(QTI) should reside together. This facilitatesthe rapid discovery and re­use of all training assets within the enterprise. TheQTI standard is not a formal part of theSCORM. Furthermore, QTI has its own rich communication and presentation model.Including a QTI document within a SCORM contentpackage will do little good unless the receiving system supports the import anddelivery of QTI documents. Existing InformationTechnology E­learning projects must leverage existing IT resources to be successful. E­learning, as it relates to ITinfrastructure, has to do with delivery vehicles and integration. However,deploying a Learning Management System to enable webdelivery is the last task that your IT staff should complete in support of ane­learning initiative. The first task is thestandardization of e­learning business objects and integration with existing ITsystems. Standard representations of e­learning people, e­learning results, and e­learning content must be approved.These e­learning specific objects must then beintegrated with their representations in the existing enterprise architecture.This is best accomplished by extending people,results, and content objects within existing business systems. PeopleRepresenting people consistently throughout theenterprise is the goal of the Internet2 research consortiums MACE­Dir workinggroup. The MACE­Dir group has published a set ofenterprise authentication standards and tools that provide a road­map for extendingexisting authentication systems to representpeople in an inter­operable manner. Results Representing results consistentlythroughout the enterprise requires a standard fordata collection that supersedes specific pedagogies. The CMI data model, developedby the Aviation Industry CBT Committee,forms the basis of the SCORM data model. The SCORM data model standardizes how LMSproducts track student data. Integrationwith existing training data systems requires services that translate CMI data intoa format acceptable to those training systems.Content Representing content consistently throughout the enterprise requires astandard for packaging and describing content.The SCORM Content Package is a standardized approach to managing content as itmoves in and out of systems throughout theenterprise. The SCORM allows for rich metadata to be expressed via the IEEE LOM(Learning Object Metadata) and attached to Page 3
  • S4EEAobjects within a content package. Services that handle content within theenterprise can utilize this metadata to associatecontent objects with educational objectives, organizational goals, courses, etc..45. Standardization and integration of these e­learning business objects is the firsttask of an existing IT staff in support ofan e­learning initiative. Once this task has been completed, an IT staff can deploy Learning Management Systems with confidence.The Ultimate Goal The ultimate goal is a comprehensive infrastructure fore­learning. Achieving this goal requires both adetailed implementation plan and a vision for the outcome. The desired outcome hasto include the formal definition and rigorouspreservation of the link between educational objectives, content, and assessment.Every standard implemented and everytechnology tool deployed must support and enable this relationship. The strongerthe link is between these objects, the strongerthe e­learning initiative becomes. Technology infrastructures and teamcollaboration become focused as this link materializes.ISDs design courseware in accordance with instructional goals, media developersfocus their creative energy, and psychometristsbuild frameworks that accurately measure outcomes. Diagram 1 – Critical Link SCORMDreams vs. Reality The SCORM providesspecifications for packaging content, and a model for communication between thatcontent and the Learning Management System (LMS)that delivers it. The SCORM does not; however, standardize every aspect of contentdesign, development, and delivery. Instead,it strives to codify the minimum set of features and processes necessary to ensurethe reusability of content across multipledelivery vehicles. The dream of the SCORM is the creation of a large pool oflearning objects that are well­defined, and contextneutral. Training developers address training needs by selecting and sequencing acollection of objects from the pool. No re­authoring of the content is necessary for reuse, and a single learning object maybe delivered via multiple SCORM compliant LMSproducts. Course managers can create unlimited course pathways based on the samecontent, and the learner tracking model remainsconsistent for all SCORM­based objects. This facilitates uniform reporting modelsfor all courses regardless of delivery 56. vehicle. The reality of the SCORM is far more challenging. SCORM­based contentobjects use ECMAScript to communicate with theLMS during delivery. Inconsistent support for ECMAScript across browsers canprevent the accurate reporting of student scores,time within lessons, and a host of other valuable progress indicators. Course Page 4
  • S4EEAdevelopers leveraging learning objects originallycreated for other courses struggle with the inconsistent visual styles of theobjects. In addition, the heterogeneity of themedia present in the objects produces a daunting list of required software for theend­user (Flash, Java, Quicktime, etc.).Training developers may be able to package a collection of learning objects, butthey cannot control the learners pathwaythrough the objects without a SCORM 2004 compliant LMS product. SCORM 1.2 (SCORM2004s predecessor) enjoys the greatestindustry traction, but it does not include support for content sequencing. As aresult, most organizations find themselveswithout the SCORM 2004 runtime they need to leverage the sequencing capabilities ofthe SCORM. In addition, the vast majority ofSCORM­ready content available for purchase is formatted for SCORM 1.2. Bending theSCORM Reference not Replication The SCORMPackage Interchange Format (PIF), is a compressed folder of resources that can beimported or exported out of a SCORM compliantsoftware system. SCORM packages are typically used to move copies of courses andlessons in and out of SCORM software systems.However, the fact that these packages contain copies of the content is problematic. Creating 20 sections of the same coursewill create 20 copies of the course content within the LMS. Subsequent changes tothe “master” course will necessitate changesto all 20 copies. The resulting content management nightmare clearly defeats theintent of the SCORM. The solution is toreference content, rather than replicate content, when constructing a SCORMpackage. Referencing content involves embeddinglinks in SCORM packages to content stored on a central server. SCORM packages thatreference content create courses that can becentrally managed. However, some LMS products may not properly import a SCORMpackage that does not contain any references tolocal files within the package. Rigorous testing should be performed on theorganizations candidate LMS products to determinewhat degree of content referencing their SCORM features will support. ContentResolution Reference­only SCORM packages shouldutilize some form of content resolution. Content resolution assigns a uniqueidentifier to every resource and stores its actuallocation in a database. SCORM packages contain references to a resolution servicewith the unique identifier embedded. Anexample URL might look something like this:http://www.example.com/resolver/38a52be4­9352­453e­af97­5c3b448652f0 The contentresolution service would lookup the actual location of the content, fetch it, and Page 5
  • S4EEAreturn it to the browser. Content resolutionallows repository managers to move or restructure the storage of content over timewithout breaking existing content references.Complex content resolution services may also select a secondary or tertiary contentstorage location in the event of a failure atthe primary location. 67. The leading open implementation of this service is the Handle service created bythe Corporation for National ResearchInitiatives (CNRI). Content as XML The SCORM deliberately avoids specifying aformat for content. However, any organizationthat intends to invest in content development should set standards for itscreation. XML is, by far, the most flexible andfuture­proof format for e­learning content. However, not all e­learning contentfiles can be stored as XML. Video and audiofiles, for example, must be stored as binary files. XML is suitable for storingtext­based data, and a wealth of tools exist tomanage content stored in this format. Content stored in XML format can betransformed into context appropriate formats. Thistransformation capability eliminates the visual inconsistencies inherent in SCORMcontent reuse. SCOs created at different timesfor different purposes can be transformed into the same layout. This separatescontent from presentation and gives coursedevelopers flexibility. The key to taking advantage of XML as a content format is toprovide content authors with XML authoring,conversion, and management tools that lower the learning curve associated with thistechnology. There are a number ofoutstanding content management and document management systems that leverage XML asthe raw storage format. These enterpriseapplications move organizations away from simple file management to true knowledgemanagement. Breaking the SCORM Breaking theSCORM involves disregarding or supplanting portions of the model with in­house toolsand processes. Typically, this is done inan effort to compensate for a weakness in the model. One such weakness is theSCORMs dependence on ECMAScript to facilitatecommunication between content and the LMS. Solving this problem involves utilizinganother communication vehicle such as Java,ActiveX, or Flash. The goal of deviating from the SCORM in this way is to increasethe reliability of data reporting withincourses. SCORM 1.2 requires that content call LMSInitialize() and LMSFinish() viaECMAScript code embedded within the content.These functions launch and close each lesson respectively. Content developers thatembed applets or media within courseware can Page 6
  • S4EEAleverage additional communication protocols. Often, these protocols are morereliable and feature­rich than the SCORMsECMAScript runtime. Of course, the LMS must support these additional protocols.SCOs created using this approach might delivera quiz score to the LMS directly from within a Flash quiz rather than through theSCORM ECMAScript runtime. The obligatoryLMSInitialize() and LMSFinish() calls could also be embedded within this SCO fortrue SCORM 1.2 conformance. However, a SCORMLMS will not complain if they are missing. The LMS will simply not collect any datafor that lesson via the SCORM runtime. MostLMS products already support web services as a method for communication between theLMS and other enterprise systems.Integrating a Java applet or Flash animation with existing LMS web services isgenerally trivial. Unfortunately, customizingcontent communication to leverage an LMS­specific web service contradicts the goalof LMS vendor independence. This can beaddressed with an in­house web service designed to integrate with embedded mediaand the protocols they offer. A custom webservice could also provide a SCORM 2004 sequencing engine to SCORM 1.2 LMSproducts. The custom web service would facilitateper user conditional branching independent of the LMS delivering the content.Decoupling the sequencing engine from the LMSproduct allows the sequencing engine to support multiple LMS 78. systems, and eventually evolve into a delivery vehicle for additional servicessuch as chat, file transfer, and help deskapplications. A Modified SCORM Infrastructure The Architecture Overview Diagram(Appendix 4) illustrates the major components ofan infrastructure based on the SCORM modifications presented in this document.Document Repository ➢ Staffing the Repository Theflow of documents in and out of the repository is managed by a group of repositorymanagers that set policy and enforce thestructure of the information stored within the repository. Repository managerscreate and disseminate metadata standards forrepository documents, and they convert electronic documents into XML files forimport into the repository. Repository managersalso collaborate with IT support staff to define the organizations transformationrequirements for XML files. IT staff managethe hardware and software infrastructure necessary to host the document repository. Software developers create XSL documentsthat the repository uses to transform XML files into any number of desired formats. Examples might include web page output forinclusion in a portal, PDF output for printing, and alternate XML formats forinclusion in Java or Flash based e­learning Page 7
  • S4EEAengines. ➢ IT Infrastructure The core of the infrastructure is a documentrepository that facilitates file storage and thetransformation of XML documents residing within the repository. Both binary andXML­formatted files are stored in the repositoryand metadata is associated with any or all of these resources. The documentrepository allows for full text indexing andsearching of documents based on either content or metadata. Catalogs and indexesof the repositorys contents can be generatedand published via organizational portals. Most importantly, the repository allowsfor the transformation of XML documents intomultiple delivery formats. The repository separates the creation and management ofXML files from their transformation so thatboth technical and content contributors can easily collaborate on repositorydocuments. Document repositories do not exist toserve e­learning alone. To the repository, an LMS is simply another consumer ofrepository resources. Portals, presentations,and emails are examples of additional delivery vehicles for repository resources.In the same way, a repository does not storee­learning content exclusively. Contracts, emails, and logo graphics are examplesof general use content that a documentrepository might store. Digitization ➢ Staffing Digitization Organizationalknowledge exists in many formats, and documentdigitization makes it possible to import current resources into a new documentrepository. Classifying, digitizing, andarchiving organizational knowledge is the job of a trained digitizationprofessional. These professionals convert paper­basedresources into repository documents via specialized high­capacity scanningequipment. ➢ IT Resources 89. High capacity scanning equipment drastically reduces the cost and effort requiredto import organizational knowledge into adocument repository. A centralized document digitization bureau requires multiplededicated sheet­fed scanning stations. Asample scanning station might include: (1) Workstation (1) Fujitsu fi­4990CScanner 3.0+ Ghz Processor 2+ GB RAM (1) HP Scanjet8200 500+ GB SCSI RAID 5 DVD­R/W 19+ inch LCD Windows XP Professional OmniPageOffice & Paperport The brand and model of both theworkstation and the flatbed scanner are flexible, but the Fujitsu fi­4990Csheet­fed scanner is a best­of­breed product used bylarge libraries and digitization centers around the world. ➢ Digitization CaseStudy The Oklahoma Department of Career andTechnology Education is located in the north­central Oklahoma town of Stillwater.The department provides leadership, resources, Page 8
  • S4EEAand assures standards of excellence for a comprehensive statewide system of careerand technology education. That system offersprograms and services in 29 technology center districts operating on 56 campuses,398 comprehensive school districts, 25 skillcenters and three juvenile facilities. CareerTechs web­based training offeringsserve over 20,000 students each year, andcontent developed for online delivery leverages industry standards and bestpractices. CareerTechs digitization group processesthousands of pages of curriculum and documentation every month using high capacitysheet­fed Fujitsu scanners. Each scanner iscapable of digitizing 90 pages per minute at up to 400 dpi. Output formats includeGroup­4 TIFF, PDF, XML, and Microsoft Word.CareerTechs paper to XML conversion is a two step process: 1. TIFF images acquiredfrom the scanner are converted to MicrosoftWord format via Scansoft Paperport 2. Microsoft Word Documents are converted to XMLdocuments via Infraes DocmaServer product.The resulting XML documents conform to the Silva DTD and can be imported directlyinto CareerTechs Silva document repository.This process results in greater than 99% accuracy in OCR text conversion, but theOCR process does not automatically convert andplace images within the resulting Word or XML documents. Inline images must bemanually processed by extracting them from TIFFswith Adobe 910. Photoshop. This approach to bulk document digitization allows a single scanningstation to convert several hundred pages ofcurriculum to XML in a single day. Content Resolution ➢ Staffing ResolutionContent resolution maps global unique identifiers(GUIDs) to their actual URLs within the repository. The relationship between thesevalues will be maintained by content owners.➢ IT Resources Content resolution services are available as off­the­shelf softwaresystems. However, there may be integrationadvantages to creating an in­house solution. Given the simplicity of the service,it is reasonable that a single developercould create a content resolution service in the organizations preferred languagein as little as one days time. Oncecompleted, the service must be hosted on an Internet accessible server that canhandle a large and consistent HTTP load.Delivery Vehicles ➢ Learning Management System The technical requirements for anLMS drop significantly if a customized Java orFlash runtime is utilized to deliver content. Virtually any LMS product candeliver an end­user experience that mirrors theSCORM 2004 runtime if reporting and sequencing are handled by a separate webservice that “wraps” the content. Diagram 2 – Flash Page 9
  • S4EEARuntime illustrates how an embedded flash runtime would function. 1011. Diagram 2 – Flash Runtime The Flash wrapper consists of an html file with anembedded swf file. The embedded swf loads thecontents of a small xml control file, which provides the swf with the information itneeds to load content and contact theRuntime application. The Flash wrapper then loads content XML files via HTTP andcommunicates with the Runtime via SOAP orFlashs native “remoting” protocol. The wrapper imposes sequencing rules andcommunicates tracking data by calling remotefunctions within the Runtime. All tracking data is deposited in the trackingdatabase. Creating SCORM packages to leverage thisdelivery system requires the generation of an html and xml file for each lessonwithin a course. A SCORM packager, such asReload, can be employed to package a SCORM course from these files. These packagesare then imported into an LMS product, and acopy of the manifest is imported into the Runtime application. This dual uploadcreates the course within the LMS and registersdata tracking for the course within the Runtime. 1112. APPENDIX 1 : Definitions 1. Web­Based Training (WBT): A type of training that issimilar to computer­based training (CBT);however, it is delivered over the Internet using a web browser. Web­based trainingfrequently includes interactive methods, suchas bulletin boards, chat rooms, instant messaging, videoconferencing, anddiscussion threads. WBT is usually a self­pacedlearning medium, however some systems allow for online testing and evaluation atspecific times. 2. Computer­Based Training(CBT): Also called computer­assisted instruction (CAI) is a type of education inwhich the student learns by executing specialtraining programs on a computer. CBT is especially effective for training people touse computer applications because the CBTprogram can be integrated with the applications so that students can practice usingthe application as they learn. 3. SharableContent Object Reference Model (SCORM): is a collection of standards andspecifications for web­based e­learning. It defines howclient side content and a host system called the Run­time Environment (commonly afunction of a Learning Management System, orLMS) may communicate with each other, as well as how content may be packaged into atransferable ZIP file. SCORM 2004 introducesa complex idea called sequencing ­ rules that specify the order a learner mayexperience content objects in. 4. IEEE: TheInstitute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers or IEEE (pronounced aseye­triple­e) is an international non­profit, Page 10
  • S4EEAprofessional organization for the advancement of technology related to electricity.It has the most members of any technicalprofessional organization in the world, with more than 360,000 members in around175 countries. 5. AICC: The Aviation (AllEncompassing) Industry CBT (Computer­Based Training) Committee (AICC) is aninternational association of technology­basedtraining professionals. The AICC develops guidelines for aviation industry in thedevelopment, delivery, and evaluation of CBTand related training technologies. 6. IMS Global: (usually known as IMS) is anon­profit standards organization concerned withestablishing interoperability for learning systems and learning content and theenterprise integration of these capabilities.Their mission is to "support the adoption and use of learning technologyworldwide". 7. Objectives: A learning objective is astatement of what the learners will be expected to do once they have completed aspecified course of instruction. It prescribesthe conditions, behavior (action), and standard of task performance for thetraining setting. The objective is sometimesreferred to as performance or behavioral objectives. For example, knowledge is astate of mind which cannot be directly measured.This requires an indirect method of evaluation, that of observing behavior orperformance. 8. Content: In the context of WBT,content consists of electronic text, images, video, etc.. These media assets areintegrated and presented to support learningobjectives. 9. Assessment items: The components that make up an assessment. Forexample, the questions that make up a test couldbe referred to as items. IRT (Item response theory) emphasizes that discrete itemresponses are taken to be observablemanifestations of a trait or attribute, the existence of which is hypothesized andmust be inferred from the manifest responses. In other words, individual question responses can indicate specific competencies.10. Reusable Definition of Competency orEducational Objective (RDCEO): The Reusable Definition of Competency orEducational Objective (RDCEO) specification provides ameans to create common understandings of competencies that appear as part of alearning or career plan, as learning pre­requisites, or as learning outcomes. 11. Metadata: is defined as the attributesrequired to fully or adequately describe aLearning Object. Relevant attributes of Learning Objects to be described includetype of object, author, owner, terms ofdistribution, and format. Where applicable, LOM may also include pedagogicalattributes, such as teaching or interaction style, Page 11
  • S4EEAgrade level, mastery level, and prerequisites. It is 1213. possible for any given "learning object" to have more than one set of LOM. 12.Competency: is the condition or state of beingauthorized, or being capable of doing something. The vague nature of thisdefinition leads to confusion with the termobjective. In practice, a student will complete many objectives before gainingcompetency. 13. SCO: The Sharable Content Objectis the smallest chunk of instruction that the SCORM tracks. It is roughly analogousto a lesson. 14. XML: The Extensible MarkupLanguage (XML) is a W3C­recommended general­purpose markup language for creatingspecial­purpose markup languages, capable ofdescribing many different kinds of data. 15. SCORM Runtime: An ECMAScript drivencommunication architecture and data model forfacilitating communication between content and an LMS during delivery. 16. LMS: ALearning management System (LMS) is a softwaresystem designed to facilitate teachers in the management of educational courses fortheir students, especially by helpingteachers and learners with course administration. The system can often track thelearners progress, which can be monitored byboth teachers and learners. While often thought of as primarily tools for distanceeducation, they are most often used tosupplement the face­to­face classroom. 17. ECMAScript: is a scripting programminglanguage, standardized by Ecma Internationalin the ECMA­262 specification. The language is widely used on the web, and is oftenreferred to as JavaScript or JScript,although those two languages are extensions of the ECMA­262 standard. 18. QuestionTest Interoperability (QTI): The IMS Question& Test Interoperability (QTI) specification describes a data model for therepresentation of question (assessmentItem) and test(assessmentTest) data and their corresponding results reports. 19. CMI Data Model:Computer Managed Instruction data set andrules that govern AICC content to LMS communication. This model has beenintegrated with the SCORM. 20. Internet2: Internet2 orUCAID (University Corporation for Advanced Internet Development) is a non­profitconsortium which develops and deploys advancednetwork applications and technologies, mostly for high­speed data transfer."Internet2" is a registered trademark. It is led by207 universities [1] in the United States and partners from the networking (CiscoSystems), publishing (Prous Science) andtechnology industries (such as Comcast, Intel, Sun Microsystems). Some of thetechnologies it has developed include IPv6, IPmulticasting and quality of service. 21. MACE­Dir: Part of Internet2s Middlewareinitiative. Middleware, or "glue," is a layer Page 12
  • S4EEAof software between the network and the applications. This software providesservices such as identification, authentication,authorization, directories, and security. The Internet2 Middleware Initiative(I2­MI) promotes standardization andinteroperability and is working toward the deployment of core middleware servicesat Internet2 universities. 22. IEEE LOM: Theapplicable Standard for LOM is "IEEE P1484.12". The full name of the Standard is:"Standard for Information Technology —Education and Training Systems — Learning Objects and Metadata". "IEEE" stands for"Institute of Electrical and ElectronicsEngineers". The yet­to­be­finalized standard specifis the syntax and semantics ofLOM, and focuses on the minimal set ofattributes, needed to allow Learning Objects to be managed, located, and evaluated.The standards will accommodate the abilityfor locally extending the basic fields and entity types, and the fields can have astatus of obligatory (must be present) oroptional (maybe absent). 23. XSL: the eXtensible Stylesheet Language is a set oflanguage technologies for defining XMLdocument transformation and presentation 24. Java: is an object­orientedprogramming language developed by James Gosling andcolleagues at Sun Microsystems in the early 1990s. The language, which was designedto be platform independent, is a derivativeof C++ with a simpler syntax, a more robust runtime environment and simplifiedmemory management. 1314. 25. J2EE: Java Platform, Enterprise Edition or Java EE (formerly known as Java2 Platform, Enterprise Edition or J2EE up toversion 1.4), is a programming platform—part of the Java platform—for developingand running distributed multi­tier architectureJava applications, based largely on modular software components running on anapplication server. The Java EE platform isdefined by a specification. Java EE is also considered informally to be a standardbecause providers must agree to certainconformance requirements in order to declare their products as Java EE compliant;albeit with no ISO or ECMA standard. 26. Flash: or simply Flash, refers to both the Macromedia Flash Player and to a multimediaauthoring program used to create content for itas well as games or movies created using the program. The Flash Player, developedand distributed by Adobe Systems (formerly byMacromedia), is a client application available in most web browsers. It featuressupport for vector and raster graphics, ascripting language called ActionScript and bidirectional streaming of audio andvideo. 27. HTTP: HyperText Transfer Protocol Page 13
  • S4EEA(HTTP) is the method used to transfer or convey information on the World Wide Web.The original purpose was to provide a way topublish and receive HTML pages. 1415. APPENDIX 2 : Related Reading ➢ SCORM 2004 Content Developers Guide URL:http://www.lsal.cmu.edu/lsal/expertise/projects/developersguide/developersguide/guide­ v1p1­20050405.pdf ➢ SCORM 2004 2nd EditionSpecification URL: http://www.adlnet.gov/downloads/70.cfm ➢ IMS ReusableDefinition of Competency or Educational Objective ­Information Model URL:http://www.imsglobal.org/competencies/rdceov1p0/imsrdceo_infov1p0.html ➢ IMSQuestion and TestInteroperability Overview URL:http://www.imsglobal.org/question/qtiv2p1pd/imsqti_oviewv2p1pd.html ➢ IMS SimpleSequencingInformation and Behavior Model URL:http://www.imsglobal.org/simplesequencing/ssv1p0/imsss_infov1p0.html ➢ IMS ContentPackagingOverview URL:http://www.imsglobal.org/content/packaging/cpv1p2pd/imscp_oviewv1p2pd.html ➢ IEEELOM Draft Standard URL:http://ltsc.ieee.org/wg12/files/LOM_1484_12_1_v1_Final_Draft.pdf 1516. APPENDIX 3 : Related Software ➢ Reload SCORM Content Packager URL:http://www.reload.ac.uk/ ➢ Silva CMS URL:http://www.infrae.com ➢ Atutor LMS URL: http://www.atutor.ca ➢ Handle ContentResolution Service URL: http://www.handle.net 1617. APPENDIX 4 : Architecture Overview Diagram 17 Page 14