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How Muscle Grows
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How Muscle Grows

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    How Muscle Grows How Muscle Grows Presentation Transcript

    • How Muscle Grows
    • How Muscle Grows
      • Increasing the amount of contractile proteins
        • Allows more cross bridges to be formed during muscle action
      • Hypertrophy- increase in size of individual muscle cells
      • Hyperplasia- increased number of fibers (controversial)
      • Resistance training:
        • Increase in muscle size
        • Improves muscular strength
        • Improves bone health
        • Potential to improve athletic performance
        • Offsets sarcopenia (muscle loss)
        • Offsets osteoporosis (bone density loss)
      • Benefits sometimes overlooked
        • Women scared of “bulking-up”
          • Have fewer fibers, esp. in upper body
          • Lower levels of testosterone
        • Good design will increase muscle mass and decrease body fat
      • Limits related to genetics
    • Foundation for Muscle Growth
      • 1) Must be stimulated to increase size
      • 2) Well balanced diet with adequate calories
      • Must integrate properly and adequately
    • Muscle Growth Paradigm
      • Proper resistance stimulus and nutrition
      • Muscle activation to produce force
      • Hormone and immune response
      • Satellite cell activation
      • Protein synthesis
      • Muscle growth
    • Neural Adaptations
      • Early increase in strength
      • Increase activation of agonist and synergist
      • Decrease activation of antagonist
      • Improved inter-muscular group coordination
      • Improved rate of force development
    • Muscle Stimulus
      • Considerations
        • Concentric/eccentric actions
          • Need twice as much work if only concentric
        • Exercise Intensity = load/weight used for lift
        • Exercise Volume = # reps X # sets
          • To maximize hypertrophy recommended to use moderate – heavy loads and high volume
        • Rest = amount of time between sets and sessions
          • Affects muscles response to training
            • Short time with med.-high training volume provides greater response for anabolic hormones
    • Keep in Mind When Developing Program
      • Muscle actions
      • Exercise Intensity
      • Rest Period Length
    • Muscle Metabolism
      • ATP source of energy
      • Only small amounts stored in muscle
      • Carbs, proteins, fats metabolized to create ATP
    • Muscle Metabolism
      • ATP-creatine phosphate pathway
        • Broken down creatine phosphate joins ADP
        • Created quickly but does not last long
      • Anaerobic glycolysis
        • Splits glucose without oxygen
        • Inhibited by lactic acid
      • Oxidative metabolism
        • Produce ATP in mitochondria
        • Uses subtrates
    • Muscle Metabolism
      • Intensity determines which pathway is taken
      • Must replenish substrates for repair after exercise
      • esp. carbs and protein
    • Process of Muscle Growth
      • Motor units must be activated
      • Resistance training provides better stimulus versus endurance training
      • Force sends signals to organs
        • Cardio- blood
        • Endocrine- testosterone and epinephrine
    • Hormonal Responses
      • Epinephrine- helps produce muscular force
      • Testosterone, Growth Hormone, Insulin-like Growth Factor- stimulate protein synthesis, activate satellite cells
      • Muscular stimulus naturally increases release of hormones (esp. within 1 hour after exercise)
      • Greatest response with high volume, heavy loads, short rest, and large muscle groups
    • Immune Response to Muscle Damage
      • Microscopic tears
        • Lead to inflammation and swelling do to increased blood flow
          • Brings in nutrients and takes away waste
          • Activates satellite cells
    • Satellite Cells
      • Myonuclear domain theory- each nucleus is responsible for controlling the functioning of a finite volume of cytoplasm
      • Similar to stem cells
      • Usually inactive, located at periphery of muscle cells
      • Activated and then increase in number (proliferate) and then become part of muscle cell (differentiate)
      • Donate nuclei to muscle cell
        • Increase capacity for growth
      • Regenerate
    • Protein Synthesis
      • Increased by anabolic hormones
      • Increase of actin and myosin
        • Increase size of muscle
        • Increase in the force-generating capacity of muscle
      • Amino acids transported into muscle cell
      • Proper diet
      • Hypertrophy result of increased protein synthesis and decreased protein degredation
    • Fiber Size Increase
      • Combo of endocrine, immune systems, and satellite cells increase protein synthesis
        • Increase in muscle fiber size
      • Increase in cross-sectional area
        • Increased number of actin and myosin