How Muscle Grows

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How Muscle Grows

  1. 1. How Muscle Grows
  2. 2. How Muscle Grows <ul><li>Increasing the amount of contractile proteins </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows more cross bridges to be formed during muscle action </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hypertrophy- increase in size of individual muscle cells </li></ul><ul><li>Hyperplasia- increased number of fibers (controversial) </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Resistance training: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase in muscle size </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improves muscular strength </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improves bone health </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Potential to improve athletic performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Offsets sarcopenia (muscle loss) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Offsets osteoporosis (bone density loss) </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Benefits sometimes overlooked </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Women scared of “bulking-up” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Have fewer fibers, esp. in upper body </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lower levels of testosterone </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Good design will increase muscle mass and decrease body fat </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Limits related to genetics </li></ul>
  5. 5. Foundation for Muscle Growth <ul><li>1) Must be stimulated to increase size </li></ul><ul><li>2) Well balanced diet with adequate calories </li></ul><ul><li>Must integrate properly and adequately </li></ul>
  6. 6. Muscle Growth Paradigm <ul><li>Proper resistance stimulus and nutrition </li></ul><ul><li>Muscle activation to produce force </li></ul><ul><li>Hormone and immune response </li></ul><ul><li>Satellite cell activation </li></ul><ul><li>Protein synthesis </li></ul><ul><li>Muscle growth </li></ul>
  7. 7. Neural Adaptations <ul><li>Early increase in strength </li></ul><ul><li>Increase activation of agonist and synergist </li></ul><ul><li>Decrease activation of antagonist </li></ul><ul><li>Improved inter-muscular group coordination </li></ul><ul><li>Improved rate of force development </li></ul>
  8. 8. Muscle Stimulus <ul><li>Considerations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Concentric/eccentric actions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Need twice as much work if only concentric </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exercise Intensity = load/weight used for lift </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exercise Volume = # reps X # sets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To maximize hypertrophy recommended to use moderate – heavy loads and high volume </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rest = amount of time between sets and sessions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Affects muscles response to training </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Short time with med.-high training volume provides greater response for anabolic hormones </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Keep in Mind When Developing Program <ul><li>Muscle actions </li></ul><ul><li>Exercise Intensity </li></ul><ul><li>Rest Period Length </li></ul>
  10. 10. Muscle Metabolism <ul><li>ATP source of energy </li></ul><ul><li>Only small amounts stored in muscle </li></ul><ul><li>Carbs, proteins, fats metabolized to create ATP </li></ul>
  11. 11. Muscle Metabolism <ul><li>ATP-creatine phosphate pathway </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Broken down creatine phosphate joins ADP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Created quickly but does not last long </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Anaerobic glycolysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Splits glucose without oxygen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inhibited by lactic acid </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Oxidative metabolism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Produce ATP in mitochondria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses subtrates </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Muscle Metabolism <ul><li>Intensity determines which pathway is taken </li></ul><ul><li>Must replenish substrates for repair after exercise </li></ul><ul><li>esp. carbs and protein </li></ul>
  13. 13. Process of Muscle Growth <ul><li>Motor units must be activated </li></ul><ul><li>Resistance training provides better stimulus versus endurance training </li></ul><ul><li>Force sends signals to organs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cardio- blood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Endocrine- testosterone and epinephrine </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Hormonal Responses <ul><li>Epinephrine- helps produce muscular force </li></ul><ul><li>Testosterone, Growth Hormone, Insulin-like Growth Factor- stimulate protein synthesis, activate satellite cells </li></ul><ul><li>Muscular stimulus naturally increases release of hormones (esp. within 1 hour after exercise) </li></ul><ul><li>Greatest response with high volume, heavy loads, short rest, and large muscle groups </li></ul>
  15. 15. Immune Response to Muscle Damage <ul><li>Microscopic tears </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lead to inflammation and swelling do to increased blood flow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Brings in nutrients and takes away waste </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Activates satellite cells </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Satellite Cells <ul><li>Myonuclear domain theory- each nucleus is responsible for controlling the functioning of a finite volume of cytoplasm </li></ul><ul><li>Similar to stem cells </li></ul><ul><li>Usually inactive, located at periphery of muscle cells </li></ul><ul><li>Activated and then increase in number (proliferate) and then become part of muscle cell (differentiate) </li></ul><ul><li>Donate nuclei to muscle cell </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase capacity for growth </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Regenerate </li></ul>
  17. 17. Protein Synthesis <ul><li>Increased by anabolic hormones </li></ul><ul><li>Increase of actin and myosin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase size of muscle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase in the force-generating capacity of muscle </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Amino acids transported into muscle cell </li></ul><ul><li>Proper diet </li></ul><ul><li>Hypertrophy result of increased protein synthesis and decreased protein degredation </li></ul>
  18. 18. Fiber Size Increase <ul><li>Combo of endocrine, immune systems, and satellite cells increase protein synthesis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase in muscle fiber size </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Increase in cross-sectional area </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased number of actin and myosin </li></ul></ul>

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