Body and Exercise Human Body derives energy from food in the form of fats, carbohydrates and proteins The method by which the body generates energy is determined by the rate of energy demand ie intensity and duration of an activity Activities such as sprinting that require sudden bursts of effort need a large production of energy over a short period of time as opposed to distance running that need continued energy production over a prolonged period of time.
Types of training is important Each energy system needs to be trained differently to make it more efficient. One type of training will not improve all 3 energy systems. Therefore different sports need to be trained differently. Eg soccer all 3 energy systems vs gymnastics, mainly phosphate and lactic systems Sports need to train specific energy systems, components of fitness and movements. Remember all energy systems are working together at the same time depending on intensity.
FITT Principle – mainly used for aerobic trainingFITT Cardiovascular StrengthFrequency 3-5 times per week 2-3 times per week (per body part)Intensity Moderate to vigorous 3 sets of 10-15 60-80% maximum repetitions heart rate (MHR)Time 20-60mins 30-45minsType Cardiovascular activity Compound (working many muscle groups) or isolated (working one muscle group)
Aerobic System – how does it work More extended activities like jogging require oxygen to produce continued activation of muscles – aerobic (with oxygen) activities. Energy is produced in the presence of sufficient oxygen As exercising intensity increases the exercising muscles use increasing amounts of oxygen, breaking down glucose (sugar) in the muscles
Aerobic System – how does it work Aerobic energy production utilises carbohydrates and fats as energy sources which are broken down to form ATP with water and carbon dioxide as by products of the process ATP – Adenosine triphosphate is the basic energy currency for all biological work – when it is broken down, energy is released. Aerobic system produces large amounts of ATP without fatiguing by-products hence it is the system used for long distance/endurance events.
Aerobic System Activities used to improve aerobic metabolism should include the following Increased heart rate ie > 120 BPM Use 50% or < of total muscle mass, legs, arms etc Are carried over an extended period ie 30 mins Name as many examples as you can of the type of aerobic activities that would fit the above criteria
Types of Aerobic Training Continuous training eg running for 30 mins Fartlek Training eg walk for 100m, jog for 500m, sprint for 50m, keep repeating pattern without stopping Interval Training using longer distances eg run for 1 km, rest, rung for 1 km rest. Maintain HR in aerobic training zone Circuit Training eg using stations without a break to exercise aerobic system, boxing stations
Anaerobic Energy System Produce energy without depending on oxygen This system is predominantly in operation when the intensity of the exercise increases to a point where the cardiorespiratory (heart/lungs) system can’t supply sufficient oxygen to meet the body’s energy demands. Anaerobic exertion requires specialised training to generate the adaptations necessary for muscular work without oxygen. Training enhances the ability of muscle cells to improve their use of fuel reserves and be more efficient in converting blood sugar to energy during intense exercise..
To improve anaerobic fitness Train body using specific movements/muscles uses in that sport and Practise the movements used in sport at a high intensity to make adaptations occur. Use interval training to train the system – periods of intense work with short rests. Use resistance training exercises eg weights to help muscles make adaptations. Reduce recovery periods to help body adapt. Train at high intensity to help tolerate levels of lactic acid and dispose of waste products.
Phosphate System First process for supplying energy to the muscles when there is insufficient time for the body to break down glycogen for the manufacture of ATP There is enough stored ATP in muscles to sustain 4-6 seconds of an all out sprint effort ATP must be re-synthesised to provide a continuous supply of energy ATP is resynthesised through the breakdown of creatine phosphate which is stored in muscle. Provides enough energy for 5-10 sec of max effort It is restored quickly, 50 % is available 30 sec later and 100% within 2-5 minutes It is possible to repeat many short bouts of activity up to 8 secs without becoming exhausted
Lactic Energy System Glycogen in muscles is partially broken down to form pyruvic acid and ATP under circumstances of max effort over 10-90 secs (anaerobic glycolysis) In the absence of oxygen lactic acid is formed when the above occurs If the intensity of the activity is maintained, lactic acid will pool in the muscles and blood resulting in muscle fatigue Fatigue starts around 35-40 secs of vigorous activity with exhaustion occurring at 55-60 secs Requires 45-60 mins to be removed from the system Important system as it provides a rapid supply of ATP for intense, short bursts of activity