Long Term Neuro-muscular Adaptations to resistance training<br />1<br />
2<br />Overload Principle<br />
Adaptation and Specificity<br />3<br />
Specificity of Training<br />4<br />
Muscle Fiber Types<br />Fast Twitch (FG / Type II)<br />HIGH anaerobic capacity<br />Type IIa (FOG) vs. IIb<br />Fatigue e...
6<br />Muscle Fiber Types<br />
7<br />Muscle Fiber Types and Performance<br />Genetics<br />Specificity of Training<br />Fiber Conversion* Power = Force ...
8<br />Types of Contractions<br />
9<br />Types of Training<br />
10<br />Fatigue<br />
11<br />
12<br />DOMS<br />
Adaptations to Strength Training<br />Neural Adaptations (First 8-12 weeks)<br />Learn Movement (Motor Learning)<br /> Co...
Muscular Adaptations<br />Muscle Fibers (Physical Changes)<br />Increase in Size: Hypertrophy (Particularly Type II)<br />...
Neural Control<br /><ul><li>Initial increase in expression of strength due to improved neural control of muscle contractio...
17<br />Muscle Hypertrophy<br />Muscle enlargement is generally paralleled by increased muscle strength.<br />Increased mu...
Connective Tissue and Bone<br />Supporting ligaments, tendons and fascia strengthen as muscle strength increases.<br />Con...
19<br />Muscle Fiber Conversion?<br />Studies are inconclusive???<br />Most show no change or very little<br />Appears tha...
20<br />Energy System Adaptations<br />
Capillary Supply<br />21<br />
22<br />Gains in the Beginning of a Program<br />Steroids<br />8-12 Weeks<br />Strength<br />Steroids<br />Hypertrophy<br ...
23<br />Other Adaptations<br />
24<br />Other Adaptations<br />
25<br />Other Adaptations<br />
26<br />Specificity of Training<br />
27<br />Specificity of Training<br />
28<br />Strength<br />Strength is a function of:<br />Neural Factors<br />Type of fibers engaged<br />Anthropometrics/Biom...
29<br />Frequency Systems<br />
30<br />Lifting Systems<br />
31<br />Recommendations<br />
32<br />Body Composition Adaptations<br />For the most part,<br />Small decreases in body fat<br />Minimal increases in to...
Recommendations<br />ALWAYS allow 48 hours for complete recovery !<br />Start slow !<br />NEVER overload a sore muscle !<b...
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Physiological adaptations to strength training visual bee - visualbee

  1. 1. Long Term Neuro-muscular Adaptations to resistance training<br />1<br />
  2. 2. 2<br />Overload Principle<br />
  3. 3. Adaptation and Specificity<br />3<br />
  4. 4. Specificity of Training<br />4<br />
  5. 5. Muscle Fiber Types<br />Fast Twitch (FG / Type II)<br />HIGH anaerobic capacity<br />Type IIa (FOG) vs. IIb<br />Fatigue easily<br />Fast contractile velocity (Vmax)<br />5<br />
  6. 6. 6<br />Muscle Fiber Types<br />
  7. 7. 7<br />Muscle Fiber Types and Performance<br />Genetics<br />Specificity of Training<br />Fiber Conversion* Power = Force X Velocity *<br />
  8. 8. 8<br />Types of Contractions<br />
  9. 9. 9<br />Types of Training<br />
  10. 10. 10<br />Fatigue<br />
  11. 11. 11<br />
  12. 12. 12<br />DOMS<br />
  13. 13. Adaptations to Strength Training<br />Neural Adaptations (First 8-12 weeks)<br />Learn Movement (Motor Learning)<br /> Coordination<br /> Motor Unit Recruitment<br /> Coordination of Motor Unit<br />Neuromuscular inhibition (GTO , Muscle Spindles)<br />13<br />
  14. 14. Muscular Adaptations<br />Muscle Fibers (Physical Changes)<br />Increase in Size: Hypertrophy (Particularly Type II)<br />Directly proportional to the VOLUME of overload<br />Volume = Resistance X Repetitions<br />Increase in Number: Hyperplasia (?)<br />14<br />
  15. 15. Neural Control<br /><ul><li>Initial increase in expression of strength due to improved neural control of muscle contraction.</li></li></ul><li>Neural Drive<br />16<br />
  16. 16. 17<br />Muscle Hypertrophy<br />Muscle enlargement is generally paralleled by increased muscle strength.<br />Increased muscle strength is NOT always paralleled by gains in muscle size.<br />Increase in cross-sectional fiber area of both ST and FT muscle fibers.<br />FT fiber area appears to increase to greater extent than ST fiber area.<br />Zoe Smith weighs in at 58kg but can clean and press 100kgs<br />
  17. 17. Connective Tissue and Bone<br />Supporting ligaments, tendons and fascia strengthen as muscle strength increases.<br />Connective tissue proliferates around individual muscle fibers, this thickens and strengthens muscle’s connective tissue harness.<br />Bone mineral content increases more slowly, over 6- to 12-month period.<br />18<br />
  18. 18. 19<br />Muscle Fiber Conversion?<br />Studies are inconclusive???<br />Most show no change or very little<br />Appears that IIb  IIa w/ intense aerobic training<br />Largely genetic and relatively stable (Absolute Number)<br />
  19. 19. 20<br />Energy System Adaptations<br />
  20. 20. Capillary Supply<br />21<br />
  21. 21. 22<br />Gains in the Beginning of a Program<br />Steroids<br />8-12 Weeks<br />Strength<br />Steroids<br />Hypertrophy<br />Progress<br />Neural Adaptations<br />Training Duration<br />
  22. 22. 23<br />Other Adaptations<br />
  23. 23. 24<br />Other Adaptations<br />
  24. 24. 25<br />Other Adaptations<br />
  25. 25. 26<br />Specificity of Training<br />
  26. 26. 27<br />Specificity of Training<br />
  27. 27. 28<br />Strength<br />Strength is a function of:<br />Neural Factors<br />Type of fibers engaged<br />Anthropometrics/Biomechanics<br />Size of Muscle (CSA) *<br />
  28. 28. 29<br />Frequency Systems<br />
  29. 29. 30<br />Lifting Systems<br />
  30. 30. 31<br />Recommendations<br />
  31. 31. 32<br />Body Composition Adaptations<br />For the most part,<br />Small decreases in body fat<br />Minimal increases in total body mass<br />Minimal increases in FFM, about 0.3 kg/weekly<br />
  32. 32. Recommendations<br />ALWAYS allow 48 hours for complete recovery !<br />Start slow !<br />NEVER overload a sore muscle !<br />33<br />

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