Sports nutrition

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Sports nutrition

  1. 1. Nutri&onal  Perspec&ve   Performance  enhancing  substances  
  2. 2. Overview   •  CHO  loading   •  Crea&ne  supplementa&on   •  Colostrum   •  Branched-­‐chain  amino  acids   •  Caffeine   •  Hydra&on  considera&ons   •  Minerals  
  3. 3. Carbohydrate  loading   •  Involves  changes  in   training  and  nutri&on  to   maximise  muscle  and   liver  glycogen  stores   prior  to  endurance   compe&&on   •  An  athlete  con&nuously   exercising  for  90+   minutes  would  benefit   from  CHO  loading  
  4. 4. Carbohydrate  loading   •  When  considering  what   to  eat,  the  Glycemic   index  would  need  to  be   consulted.   •  CHOs  with  a  low   Glycemic  index  would   be  most  beneficial   –  Pasta,  rice  (see  p.  122)  
  5. 5. Carbohydrate  loading   •  It  would  be  impossible  to   achieve  a  proper  CHO   loading  protocol  in  team   sports  because  of  the   weekly  demand  of  games   and  training.   •  Most  common  sports  to   CHO  load  would  be:   –  Tour  cycling   –  Marathon   –  Triathlon   –  Cross-­‐country  skiing    
  6. 6. Carbohydrate  loading   •  Loading  would  generally  begins  3-­‐4  days  prior   to  the  event   •  Exercise  would  taper  to  ensure  more   successful  loading   •  The  day  before  compe&&on,  a  rest  day  is   required.  CHO  loading  will  be  compromised   without  a  rest  day  
  7. 7. Carbohydrate  loading   •  Common  issues  with   CHO  loading   –  Exercise  taper  is   required   –  Some  athletes  find  it   hard  to  lightly  train   leading  up  to  an  event   –  Failure  to  rest   –  Failure  to  eat  enough   CHOs  (7-­‐10g  per  KG  of   body  weight)     •  You  need  to  cut  back  on   fiber  otherwise  you  may   not  be  able  to  eat   enough   –  Too  bulky  to  consume   –  Stomach  upsets   –  Low  fat  foods  also  need   to  be  consumed  
  8. 8. Carbohydrate  loading   •  CHO  loading  VS.  the   extra  weight   •  In  a  70kg  athlete,  they   should  put  on  about  2kg   during  a  loading  period.     •  Example  CHO  loading   diet    on  P.319  -­‐  322   •  Snacks  are  cri&cal  when   CHO  loading.  Why?  
  9. 9. Foods  to  eat  3-­‐4  hours  before  an  event   •  Crumpets  with  honey/jam  +  flavored  milk   •  Baked  beans  on  toast   •  Breakfast  cereal  with  milk   •  Bread  roll  with  meat/cheese/salad   •  Pasta  with  low  fat  sauce  
  10. 10. Foods  to  eat   One-­‐two  hours  before  an  event   •  Milk  shake/smoothie   •  Cereal  bars   •  Sports  bars  (low  protein)   •  Flavored  yogurt     •  Fruit   Less  than  one  hour  before  an   event   •  Sports  drinks   •  Cordial   •  Lollies  
  11. 11. Crea&ne  Supplementa&on   •  Used  by  athletes  hoping   to  increase  their   strength,  power  and   anaerobic   performances   •  The  body’s  stores  of   Crea&ne  are   replenished  either  by   food  (beef,  tuna,   salmon,  herring  and   pork)  or  supplement   •  You  would  need  to  eat   10kg  of  meat  to  achieve   the  same  loadings   provided  by  Crea&ne   monohydrate   supplementa&on  
  12. 12. Crea&ne  supplementa&on   •  Available  in  capsule,   chewable  and  powder   •  Depending  on  the   product,  1  tsp  contains  5g   of  Crea&ne  monohydrate   •  A  ‘fill  up’  phase  is  used  to   load  the  muscles  with   Crea&ne  (10-­‐20g  over  5-­‐7   days)   •  This  protocol  is  claimed  to   increase  Crea&ne  muscle   stores  by  up  to  50%  
  13. 13. Crea&ne  supplementa&on:  Perceived   benifits   •  Increased:   –  Pre-­‐exercise  PC  stores   –  PC  resynthesis   –  Training  intensity   –  Short-­‐term  muscular   performance   •  Decreased:   –  Dependence  on   glycogen   –  Lactate   –  Therefore  delayed  onset   of  fa&gue  
  14. 14. What  PC  does:   •  Provides  the  fuel  for  the  rapid  resythesis  of   ADP  +  pi  into  ATP   •  An  increase  in  Crea&ne  stores  in  the  body  will   ul&mately  lead  to  an  increase  in  PC  store,   which  increase  the  ATP  PC  systems  capacity  to   produce  ATP  
  15. 15. Possible  side  effects   •  Increase  in  body  weight   (Crea&ne  is  an  osmo&c   substance)   •  An  increase  in  water   absorp&on  can  lead  to   –  Muscle  cramps   –  Dehydra&on  problems   –  Heat  intolerance   –  Proper  hydra&on  in   strongly  recommended   •  Other  side  effects   include:   –  Seizures,  vomi&ng,   diarrhoea,  anxiety,   cardiac  arrhythmia  and   DVT  
  16. 16. Ques&ons   •  Are  there  long-­‐term  side  effects  of  use?   •  Is  the  enhanced  performance  great  enough  to   warrant  the  expense  of  the  supplement   •  What  are  the  medico-­‐legal  considera&ons  that   need  to  be  considered?  
  17. 17. Colostrum   •  Some&mes  referred  to  as   ‘mothers  milk’  because  its   taken  from  the  mammary   glands  from  a  cow.     •  Researchers  believe  that   bovine  (cow)  colostrum  is   almost  iden&cal  the   human,  and  is  the  only   safe  form  for  human   consump&on  
  18. 18. Colostrum   •  Contains  nutrients  such   as   –  Proteins   –  CHOs   –  Fats   –  Vitamins   –  Minerals   –  Bioac&ve  growth  factors   –  Immunoglobulin  
  19. 19. Colostrum-­‐  benefits   •  Encourages  good  health   during  training  and   compe&&on   •  Immunoglobulin  boosts   the  body’s  defense   against  disease     •  Some  effect  on  muscle   &ssue  growth  (protein   synthesis)    
  20. 20. Branched-­‐chain  amino  acids   •  Excellent  muscle   building  proper&es   •  Generally  used  by   athletes  who  use  are   aker  increases  in   strength,  power  and   anaerobic  capacity   •  Delay  the  onset  of   fa&gue  
  21. 21. Caffeine   •  Big  increase  in  the   number  of  energy   drinks  consumed   •  Regular  caffeine  drinks   (tea/coffee):  30  –  80mg   of  caffeine   •   Energy  drinks:   100-­‐200mg  
  22. 22. Caffeine   •  Is  absorbed  through  the   stomach  and  peaks  in   the  blood  around  1-­‐2   hours  aker   consump&on   •  Can  affect  most  of  the   bodies  &ssues  
  23. 23. Caffeine  -­‐  benefits   •  Used  to  s&mulate  the  CNS   and  cardiorespiratory   system  or  a  diure&c   •  Increases  the  intensity  of   muscle  contrac&on   •  Can  mask  the  discomfort   of  physical  excursion   •  Can  increase  fat-­‐oxida&on   (therefore  sparing   glycogen  stores)  
  24. 24. Minerals   •  Many  minerals  are  important  electrolytes     •  Minerals  help  control  osmosis  between  body   compartments   •  They  help  maintain  the  acid/base  balance   required  for  normal  cellular  ac&vi&es   •  Table  14.3  summarises  the  minerals  used  to   enhance  performance  
  25. 25. Iron   •  Sources:  Red  meat,   poultry,  shelfish,  green   vegetables.     •  Benefits:  Increase  O2   carrying  capacity,  hence   aerobic  capacity   •  Side  effects:   Cons&pa&on,  upset   stomach  
  26. 26. Calcium   •  Sources:  Dairy,  green   leafy  veggies,  white   flour,  bones  of  small   fish,  soya  beans   •  Benefits:  Prevents   calcium  deficiencies   such  as  osteoporosis.   •  Side  effects:  Excess   dosage  can  decrease   iron  absorp&on    
  27. 27. Magnesium   •  Sources:  Veggies,  fruits,   potatoes,  unprocessed   cereals   •  Benefits:  May  increase   aerobic  capacity  and   vital  to  enzyme  func&on   •  Side  effects:  Diarrhoea  
  28. 28. Potassium   •  Sources:  Veggies,  fruit/ juices,  unprocessed   cereals   •  Benefits:  Reduced  BP,   facilitates  the  secre&on   of  sodium,  may  prevent   cramps,  improves  nerve   transmission   •  Side  effects:  Toxic  effect   is  very  rare.  
  29. 29. Sodium   •  Sources:  Fish,  processed   meats,  cheese,  table   salt   •  Benefits:  Controls   pressures  and  blood   volumes   •  Side  effects:  Excess   results  in  high  BP,   stroke,  cramps  and   dehydra&on    
  30. 30. Zinc   •  Sources:  Meats,  cereals,   milk,  legumes,  peas,   beans  and  nuts   •  Benefits:  Increases   immune  system  func&on,   possibility  increased   protein  synthesis,   improves  CHO  use,  vital   for  muscular  growth  and   repair   •  Side  effects:  Nausea,  can   inhibit  iron  absorp&on   causing  anemia    
  31. 31. Phosphorus   •  Sources:  Meat,  fish,   cereals,  dairy,  products,   green  veggies   •  Benefits:  Improves   aerobic  func&on  and   delays  onset  of  fa&gue   •  Side  effects:  Long  term   use  can  reduce  calcium   levels.  
  32. 32. Glycerol   •  Allows  for  rapid   reten&on  of  extra  fluid   •  Beneficial  when   undertaking  mod-­‐high   intensity  ac&vity  in  hot/ humid  condi&ons   •  Typically  taken  two   hours  prior  to  an  event/ training  session  
  33. 33. Bicarbonate   •  Increases  the  body’s   ability  to  dispose  of   excess  hydrogen  ions   produced  during   anaerobic  glycolysis   •  Acts  as  a  buffer  in  the   muscles  reducing  the   fa&gue  effect  of  a  build   up  of  H+  
  34. 34. Bicarbonate   •  Taken  pre-­‐event  under   the  strict  supervision  of   a  die&&an   •  Relevant  to  high   intensity  ac&vity  las&ng   between  3  and  7   minutes   •  Poten&al  side  effects:   Gastrointes&nal  distress  
  35. 35. Sport  supplement  groupings   Group  A   •  Defini&on   – Products  with  scien&fic  support  for  enhancement   of  performance  or  that  support  specific  nutri&onal   goals  (recommended  by  the  AIS  for  its  athletes)   – Examples:   •  Sports  drinks,  electrolyte  replacement  supplements,   liquid  meal  supplements,  sports  bars  and  gels,  Crea&ne,   Glycerol,  bicarbonate,  caffeine,  iron,  an&oxidants,   glucosamine  
  36. 36. Sport  supplement  groupings   Group  B   •  Defini&on   – Products  that  are  s&ll  under  inves&ga&on,  bit  at   present  –  do  not  have  substan&al  proof  of  health   or  performance  benefits  (under  considera&on  by   the  AIS)   – Examples:   •  Probio&cs,  Colostrum,  Echinacea,  Glutamine,  Butyrate  
  37. 37. Sport  supplement  groupings   Group  C   •  Defini&on   – Products  with  no  proof  of  beneficial  effects  on     performance  –  the  majoirty  of  popular  sports   supplements  belong  to  this  category   – Examples:   •  Amino  acids  (BCAA’s),  Ginseng,  Gingko  biloba,  IV   vitamin  injec&ons,  Oral  B12,  IV  iron  intake  
  38. 38. Sport  supplement  groupings   Group  D   •  Defini&on   – Products  containing  banned  substances  –  these   are  deemed  illegal  by  WADA  and  must  not  be   used  by  AIS  athletes   – Examples:   •  Androstenedione,  any  testosterone  supplement,  beta-­‐ blockers,  etc    
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