Sports Nutrition

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Outlines the requirements from Carbohydrates, Proteins and Lipids together with Hydration and Iron and Calcium Considerations

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Sports Nutrition

  1. 1. SPORTS NUTRITION NOTES FROM AN AUSTRALIAN SPORTS NUTRITIONIST
  2. 2. SPORTS NUTRITION OUTLINE <ul><li>Why is nutrition important for performance? </li></ul><ul><li>The training diet </li></ul><ul><li>Eating before competition </li></ul><ul><li>Eating during exercise / competition </li></ul><ul><li>Fluid and hydration </li></ul><ul><li>Recovery </li></ul><ul><li>Weight control / gain I making weight </li></ul><ul><li>Supplements </li></ul>
  3. 3. WHY IS NUTRITION IMPORTANT FOR PERFORMANCE? <ul><li>Fuel - speed, endurance, strength </li></ul><ul><li>Promotion of muscle gain / repair </li></ul><ul><li>Maintaining concentration </li></ul><ul><li>Immune function </li></ul><ul><li>Control of body fat levels </li></ul><ul><li>Sustaining growth and development in </li></ul><ul><li>children / adolescents </li></ul>
  4. 4. Training nutrition goals in a nutshell <ul><li>Keep the athlete </li></ul><ul><li>well fuelled </li></ul><ul><li>in shape </li></ul><ul><li>healthy </li></ul><ul><li>hydrated </li></ul><ul><li>sane! </li></ul>
  5. 5. PRINCIPLES OF THE TRAINING DIET <ul><li>Eat a wide variety of nutritious foods </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>26 different types of food </li></ul>
  7. 8. <ul><li>Wide variety of grains </li></ul><ul><li>Rice ,less wheat, oats, soya noodles </li></ul><ul><li>Diary – 800 -1000mg / day Ca2 </li></ul><ul><li>Various colours of fruit & veges </li></ul>
  8. 9. PRINCIPLES OF THE TRAINING DIET <ul><li>Eat a wide variety of nutritious foods </li></ul><ul><li>Meet the energy needs of training </li></ul><ul><li>— carbohydrate as fuel </li></ul>
  9. 10. CARBOHYDRATES AS FUEL <ul><li>CHO is primary fuel for high intensity exercise, but also important for endurance, concentration and skill </li></ul><ul><li>Limited storage capacity (muscle, liver) — </li></ul><ul><li>Inadequate CHO leads to fatigue and increased use of protein for fuel </li></ul><ul><li>CHO foods also nutritious, generally low in fat, satisfy the appetite the best and reduce </li></ul><ul><li>likelihood of excess body fat gain </li></ul>
  10. 11. <ul><li>Increase storage thru carbo loading </li></ul><ul><li>Increase muscle mass will increase the ability to hold more glycogen. </li></ul>
  11. 12. CARBOHYDRATE REQUIREMENTS <ul><li>SPORTING ACTIVITY g/kg BM </li></ul><ul><li>General sport, < 6Omins/ 4-6g </li></ul><ul><li>low Intensity </li></ul><ul><li>Moderate training, 90- 6-8g </li></ul><ul><li>120 mins / moderate mt. </li></ul><ul><li>Endurance training, >l20mins 8-10g </li></ul><ul><li>moderate-high intensity </li></ul><ul><li>Extreme exercise, 5-6hrs/day 12-13g </li></ul><ul><li>NB. Optimal carbohydrate Intakes may be different for females vs males </li></ul>
  12. 13. <ul><li>Female lower end </li></ul><ul><li>Males higher end </li></ul><ul><li>Per Kg of athletic body weight </li></ul>
  13. 14. NUTRITIOUS CARBOHYDRATE FOODS <ul><li>Bread, muffins, crumpets </li></ul><ul><li>Rice, pasta, semolina, cous cous, flour, other </li></ul><ul><li>grains </li></ul><ul><li>Breakfast cereals, cereal bars </li></ul><ul><li>Legumes </li></ul><ul><li>Fruit (all forms) </li></ul><ul><li>Milk, low fat yoghurt </li></ul><ul><li>Potato, corn </li></ul><ul><li>Rice cakes, crackers biscuits, pancakes, scones </li></ul>
  14. 15. <ul><li>Legumes - baked beans (navy) </li></ul>
  15. 16. OTHER CARBOHYDRATE FOODS <ul><li>REFINED: Sugar, honey jam, syrup, glucose, fructose, squash, soft drinks, flavoured mineral water, sports drinks, carbo-loader fluids, jelly beans, Jubes, boiled blues </li></ul><ul><li>CAN BE USED TO “TOP UP” OTHER FOODS </li></ul><ul><li>HIGH FAT: Toasted muesli pies, pastries, donuts chips, corn chips crisps, flavoured cracker biscuits, chocolate, rich biscuits and cakes, rich desserts, rich ice cream </li></ul><ul><li>BEST LEFT AS “TREATS” RATHER THAN EVERY DAY FOODS </li></ul>
  16. 17. <ul><li>Increase energy - decrease nutrients </li></ul><ul><li>During events – not much bulk or after </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid – not valveable </li></ul>
  17. 18. PRINCIPLES OF THE TRAINING DIET <ul><li>Eat a wide variety of nutritious foods </li></ul><ul><li>Meet the energy needs of training </li></ul><ul><li>- carbohydrate as fuel </li></ul><ul><li>- sufficient protein </li></ul>
  18. 19. PROTEIN FOR ATHLETES <ul><li>Role In exercise - </li></ul><ul><li>- Growth - body and muscle </li></ul><ul><li>- Repair / recovery of damaged tissue and enzymes </li></ul><ul><li>- Source of fuel, especially when CHO stores are low (5.10% energy needs) </li></ul><ul><li>Athletes at risk of insufficient protein </li></ul><ul><li>- low energy consumers / restrictive eaters </li></ul><ul><li>- vegetarians who don’t replace protein </li></ul><ul><li>- children and adolescents </li></ul>
  19. 20. PROTEIN REQUIREMENTS <ul><li>G/KG BM </li></ul><ul><li>Sedentary adult 0.75 </li></ul><ul><li>Growing child/adolescent 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Strength athlete 1.2-1.7 </li></ul><ul><li>Endurance athlete 1.2-1.6 </li></ul><ul><li>Extreme endurance training/comp 2 </li></ul><ul><li>NB. Adequate energy intake is essential </li></ul>
  20. 21. 10G PROTEIN SERVES <ul><li>2 small eggs </li></ul><ul><li>300m1 low fat milk </li></ul><ul><li>400m1 soy milk </li></ul><ul><li>30g reduced fat cheese </li></ul><ul><li>200g yoghurt </li></ul><ul><li>70g cottage cheese </li></ul><ul><li>40g liquid meal </li></ul><ul><li>replace </li></ul><ul><li>20g skim milk powder </li></ul><ul><li>35-40g lean cooked </li></ul><ul><li>meat I pork / poultry </li></ul><ul><li>50g cooked seafood </li></ul><ul><li>4 slices bread </li></ul><ul><li>120g tofu or soy meat </li></ul><ul><li>60g nuts or seeds </li></ul><ul><li>200g baked beans </li></ul><ul><li>I 50g cooked lentils or </li></ul><ul><li>kidney beans </li></ul>
  21. 22. <ul><li>All essential </li></ul><ul><li>All animal products contain all essential </li></ul>
  22. 23. MATCHING PROTEIN INTAKE TO OTHER SPORTS NUTRITION GOALS <ul><li>choose lean/reduced fat protein rich foods </li></ul><ul><li>Low fat dairy products are valuable sources of calcium </li></ul><ul><li>Low fat meats and shellfish are valuable sources of iron and zinc </li></ul><ul><li>Many high carbohydrate foods are also a valuable source of protein (complement vegetable protein sources) </li></ul>
  23. 24. <ul><li>Low fat foods – contain the same amount of proteins. E.g. low fat milk & regular milk </li></ul>
  24. 25. PRINCIPLES OF THE TRAINING DIET <ul><li>Eat a variety of nutritious foods </li></ul><ul><li>Meet the energy needs of training </li></ul><ul><li>- carbohydrate as fuel </li></ul><ul><li>- sufficient protein </li></ul><ul><li>- limit fat and alcohol </li></ul>
  25. 26. FAT AND ALCOHOL <ul><li>Small amounts of fat needed for health (e.g. omega 3 for immunity, anti-inflammatory effects, fat soluble vitamins) </li></ul><ul><li>Good oils, fish, nuts and seeds, avocado </li></ul><ul><li>Excess fat / alcohol can displace CHO from the diet </li></ul><ul><li>Excess fat / alcohol can lead to unwanted body fat gain </li></ul><ul><li>Alcohol causes dehydration </li></ul><ul><li>Alcohol can delay recovery from injury </li></ul><ul><li>Aim 20-25% energy from fat, <3% from alcohol </li></ul>
  26. 27. <ul><li>Fat 37KJ/g highest density </li></ul><ul><li>Alcohol 20 KJ/g </li></ul><ul><li>10g of alcohol / standard drink </li></ul><ul><li>Fat soluble – ADGK anti-flammatory effects immune function </li></ul>
  27. 28. PRINCIPLES OF THE TRAINING DIET <ul><li>Eat a variety of nutritious foods </li></ul><ul><li>Meet the energy needs of training </li></ul><ul><li>— carbohydrate as fuel </li></ul><ul><li>— sufficient protein </li></ul><ul><li>— limit fat and alcohol </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid dehydration </li></ul><ul><li>Hydration - helps teeth </li></ul>
  28. 29. AVOID DEHYDRATION <ul><li>Any amount of dehydration affects performance </li></ul><ul><li>- 2% dehydration affects performance significantly (due to Increased heart rate and body temperature, reduced mental functioning and motor performance) </li></ul><ul><li>- 5% or more can lead to death </li></ul><ul><li>Signs of dehydration include fatigue, thirst, headache, muscle cramp, nausea, concentrated urine, feeling hot </li></ul>
  29. 30. <ul><li>Gatorade chart on website </li></ul><ul><li>Colour & laminate on toilets </li></ul><ul><li>Weigh before & after </li></ul><ul><li>Urine colour – pale straw colour </li></ul>
  30. 31. SWEAT RATES DEPENDENT ON: <ul><li>Size and gender of athlete </li></ul><ul><li>Age (child/adolescent has special needs) </li></ul><ul><li>Genetics </li></ul><ul><li>Type and intensity of exercise </li></ul><ul><li>Environment conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Training status of athlete </li></ul>
  31. 32. FACTORS INFLUENCING FLUID INTAKE <ul><li>Awareness of sweat losses/thirst </li></ul><ul><li>Awareness of disadvantages of dehydration </li></ul><ul><li>Availability </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunity </li></ul><ul><li>Palatability </li></ul><ul><li>Gastro comfort </li></ul><ul><li>Fear of need to urinate </li></ul>
  32. 33. <ul><li>Individual responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>Must take their own water bottle </li></ul>
  33. 34. Hydration strategies <ul><li>Measure dehydration through body weight changes over exercise session </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t drink when “thirsty” — drink to prevent thirst </li></ul><ul><li>Aim to keep urine clear and copious, most of the time </li></ul>
  34. 35. EXAMPLES OF FLUID REQUIREMENTS <ul><li>Alberto Salazar, Olympic Marathon 1984 — reported sweat rate 3.7 L/hour </li></ul><ul><li>Male team sport players, 800-14O0ml/hr </li></ul><ul><li>Female team sport players, 600-l000ml/hr </li></ul><ul><li>Swimmers - 100-140m1/km </li></ul><ul><li>Intakes generally only meet 50% of requirements </li></ul>
  35. 36. GENERAL FLUID RECOMMENDATIONS <ul><li>ACSM guidelines — drink 150-250m1 every 15- 20mins of exercise </li></ul><ul><li>Actual requirements vary depending on climate, acclimation, body size, gender, etc so best to work out individual requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Promote intake by having fluid readily available, cool (15-20°C), and taste good. (14-16°C increase absorption) </li></ul><ul><li>Plan for individual requirements </li></ul>
  36. 37. PRINCIPLES OF THE TRAINING DIET <ul><li>Eat a variety of nutritious foods </li></ul><ul><li>Meet the energy needs of training </li></ul><ul><li>— carbohydrate as fuel </li></ul><ul><li>— sufficient protein </li></ul><ul><li>— limit fat and alcohol </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid dehydration </li></ul><ul><li>Meet overall nutrient needs (e.g. iron, calcium) </li></ul><ul><li>Eat frequent meals and snacks </li></ul>
  37. 38. <ul><li>Planning snacks </li></ul><ul><li>Food before training </li></ul><ul><li>Logistics & planning </li></ul>
  38. 39. VITAMINS AND MINERALS IN SPORT <ul><li>Daily requirement of some vitamins and minerals may be increased in high activity levels </li></ul><ul><li>- sweat/urine loss, increased free radicals </li></ul><ul><li>Micronutrient status difficult to determine </li></ul><ul><li>Physical performance may be impaired by marginal deficiencies in some individuals — but little conclusive evidence that supplements Improve performance </li></ul><ul><li>Variety of mostly nutrient rich foods should ensure requirements are met/exceeded In most cases </li></ul>
  39. 40. AT RISK ATHELES <ul><li>Low energy Intake </li></ul><ul><li>Vegetarian </li></ul><ul><li>Adolescent growth spurts </li></ul><ul><li>“Bachelor boys” </li></ul><ul><li>Disordered eating </li></ul><ul><li>Fussy eater </li></ul>
  40. 41. <ul><li>Teach athletes how to cook – nutrition meals </li></ul>
  41. 42. IRON <ul><li>Depleted iron stores may occur in athletes involved in regular heavy training programs due to: </li></ul><ul><li>- High Iron requirements </li></ul><ul><li>- Increased losses with intense activity </li></ul><ul><li>• excessive sweating </li></ul><ul><li>• GlT bleedings </li></ul><ul><li>• mectianlcai trauma </li></ul><ul><li>• injury </li></ul><ul><li>- Sub-optimal dietary intakes </li></ul>
  42. 43. <ul><li>Anti-inflammatory </li></ul><ul><li>Can also cause GUT - bleeding </li></ul>
  43. 44. DETECTING IRON DEFICIENCY <ul><li>Symptoms include lethargy, fatigue, decreased aerobic capacity, increased incidence and duration of infection, pale, loss of appetite, feeling ‘flat’ </li></ul><ul><li>Biochemical measures Include: </li></ul><ul><li>- serum ferritin </li></ul><ul><li>- haemoglobin </li></ul><ul><li>- other blood Iron measures </li></ul>
  44. 45. IRON SOURCES <ul><li>Haem </li></ul><ul><li>- organ meats e.g. liver, liverwurst </li></ul><ul><li>- lean red meat e.g. meat </li></ul><ul><li>- other meats, poultry, fish seafood </li></ul><ul><li>Non-Haem </li></ul><ul><li>- eggs </li></ul><ul><li>- green leafy veges e.g. spinach, silverbeet </li></ul><ul><li>- legumes e.g. soybeans </li></ul><ul><li>- wholegrain breads and cereals </li></ul><ul><li>- dried fruits </li></ul><ul><li>- Vitamin C </li></ul>
  45. 46. DIETARY STRATEGIES TO INCREASE IRON INTAKE AND ABSORPTION <ul><li>Increase intake of haem-iron foods </li></ul><ul><li>- include meat/poultry/seaftod in main meals and lunches at least 3-4 times per week each </li></ul><ul><li>Eat iron fortified bread and cereals </li></ul><ul><li>Eat other iron dense plants foods, especially if vegetarian e.g. legumes, green leafy vegetables </li></ul><ul><li>Combine plant foods with meat/Vit C rich foods </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid or limit added bran/wheat germ </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid tea, strong coffee with meals </li></ul><ul><li>Take prescribed supplements + Vitamin C </li></ul>
  46. 47. CALCIUM <ul><li>Low calcium intakes in athletes may occur </li></ul><ul><li>with </li></ul><ul><li>- Low energy intake </li></ul><ul><li>- Restrictive diets/fad diets </li></ul><ul><li>- Eating disorders </li></ul><ul><li>- Vegan diets </li></ul><ul><li>- Avoidance of dairy products </li></ul><ul><li>• lactose Intolerance </li></ul><ul><li>• milk superstitions </li></ul>
  47. 48. DAILY CALCIUM REQUIREMENTS <ul><li>growing males (14-18yrs) 1000-1200mg </li></ul><ul><li>growing females (12-l8yrs) 1000mg </li></ul><ul><li>adult males and females 800mg </li></ul><ul><li>amenorrhoeic athletes 1000-1500mg </li></ul><ul><li>Adequate Intake In adolescence essential for reaching peak bone mass </li></ul><ul><li>Amenorrhoea and eating disorders Identified as a cause of serious and possibly Irreversible bone loss </li></ul>
  48. 49. TO REACH 800mg CALCIUM <ul><li>500ml milk & 30g cheese / 1 carton yoghurt </li></ul><ul><li>5OOml calcium enriched milk </li></ul><ul><li>250ml milk & 1 carton yoghurt & 30g cheese </li></ul><ul><li>ensure calcium enriched soy milk if avoiding dairy </li></ul><ul><li>Lesser sources include fish with bones, oysters, tofu, green vegetables, nuts and seeds </li></ul>
  49. 50. <ul><li>Physical – Ca+ Vit D </li></ul><ul><li>Sun – 10 -15 mins </li></ul>
  50. 51. COMPETITION <ul><li>FINE TUNING FOR THE BIG DAY </li></ul>
  51. 52. EATING BEFORE COMPETITION <ul><li>Days before </li></ul><ul><li>- keep up high CHO intake </li></ul><ul><li>- consider CHO loading if involved in ultra-endurance sport </li></ul><ul><li>- consider low residue diet if trying to make weight </li></ul><ul><li>- maintain good hydration, especially if adapting to new climate (and If adapting to hotter climate, add some salt to diet) </li></ul><ul><li>- avoid alcohol 24-48hrs before competition </li></ul>
  52. 53. <ul><li>Carbo loading </li></ul><ul><li>- 2/3 days prior </li></ul><ul><li>- last 2 hrs then “Hit the wall” </li></ul><ul><li>- 50g CHO / hr </li></ul><ul><li>- plan menu – smorgous board </li></ul>
  53. 54. DAY OF COMPETITION <ul><li>Aims are to: </li></ul><ul><li>- top up liver glycogen stores </li></ul><ul><li>- ensure adequate hydration </li></ul><ul><li>- achieve gut comfort </li></ul><ul><li>- achieve stable blood glucose levels </li></ul><ul><li>- feel comfortable and confident </li></ul>
  54. 55. GUIDELINES FOR PRE-EVENT MEAL <ul><li>Plan a good carbohydrate-rich meal and fluid Intake for the night before (perhaps a late snack also If it will be an early start) </li></ul><ul><li>Large meal 4 hours prior </li></ul><ul><li>Smaller snack 2 hours prior </li></ul><ul><li>Low fat, low fibre, high carbohydrate </li></ul><ul><li>Drink plenty of fluids </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t try anything new on day of competition </li></ul><ul><li>Liquid meals can be useful If nervous / little time </li></ul>
  55. 56. <ul><li>Half the meal (comfortable sized meals) </li></ul><ul><li>Smoothies, sustengen </li></ul>
  56. 57. PRE-EVENT MEAL IDEAS <ul><li>Breakfast cereal, skim milk, fresh/canned fruit </li></ul><ul><li>Toast and baked beans or spaghetti </li></ul><ul><li>Toast / muffin / crumpet and jam / honey or banana roll </li></ul><ul><li>Fruit and low fat yoghurt </li></ul><ul><li>Mini pizzas (low fat) </li></ul><ul><li>Rolls or sandwiches </li></ul><ul><li>Pasta/rice/noodles or baked potato with low fat sauce </li></ul><ul><li>Low fat smoothee </li></ul><ul><li>Porridge </li></ul>
  57. 58. EATING DURING EVENTS <ul><li>• Factors to consider </li></ul><ul><li>- timing of meal / snack </li></ul><ul><li>- quantity of food consumed </li></ul><ul><li>- availability of food at venue </li></ul><ul><li>- fluid </li></ul>
  58. 59. NUTRITION BETWEEN / DURING EVENTS <ul><li><30minutes </li></ul><ul><li>- FLUIDS!! carbohydrate gels, glucose blues, fruit, light crackers and perhaps bars (sport, cereal, fruit type) </li></ul><ul><li>30-60 minutes </li></ul><ul><li>- Also bread/crisbreads with honey/jam/banana, plain pasta/noodles, yoghurt </li></ul><ul><li>1-2 hours or more </li></ul><ul><li>- Also pasta or rice with a low fat sauce or topping, filled sandwiches or rolls </li></ul><ul><li>- a more substantial meal or meal replacement </li></ul><ul><li>In endurance/high Intensity exercise aim for 25-60g carbohydrate/hour In the form of drinks and easily digestible snacks. Start early!! </li></ul>
  59. 60. FLIUDS <ul><li>Is there time to drink DURING exercise? </li></ul><ul><li>Gastrointestinal absorption </li></ul><ul><li>- Start with a bolus In gut </li></ul><ul><li>- Drink early and often to maintain blood flow </li></ul><ul><li>Practice drinking more in training </li></ul><ul><li>Maximise opportunities to drink </li></ul><ul><li>Taste buds differ during exercise — choose a palatable drink </li></ul>
  60. 61. <ul><li>Half cup before event </li></ul><ul><li>Different flavours </li></ul>
  61. 62. CONSIDER USING SPORTS DRINKS <ul><li>“ Sports drinks” more effective than water in replacing lost fluids </li></ul><ul><li>Provide a source of readily absorbed CHO </li></ul><ul><li>Flavour can encourage increased fluid consumption </li></ul><ul><li>Sodium content helps retain fluid more effectively, prevent hyponatremia </li></ul><ul><li>Rinse mouth with water reguiarly and maintain good oral hygiene </li></ul>
  62. 63. 50g CHO OPTIONS <ul><li>750-l000mI sports drink (Isotonic drink) or squash </li></ul><ul><li>5OOmi fnlt juice </li></ul><ul><li>2 medium bananas /3 oranges </li></ul><ul><li>lsportsbaror2breakfastbars </li></ul><ul><li>1 banana sandwich / roll or thick jam sandwich </li></ul><ul><li>6 tbs dried fruit </li></ul><ul><li>5 jaffa cakes </li></ul><ul><li>fruit smoothee with honey in it </li></ul><ul><li>Salad roliandapieceoffruit </li></ul><ul><li>tub of low fat yoghurt and bowl of cereal with skim milk </li></ul>
  63. 64. RECOVERY AFTER EXERCISE <ul><li>Goals of recovery are: </li></ul><ul><li>- replace fluids and electrolytes lost as sweat </li></ul><ul><li>- replace fuel (glycogen) stores </li></ul><ul><li>- repair muscle damage and promote body adaptation to training </li></ul><ul><li>- enough protein </li></ul>
  64. 65. RECOVERY AFTER EXERCISE <ul><li>Guidelines for recovery </li></ul><ul><li>- drink plenty of fluids until urine is consistently clear and copious (1.5x what was lost) </li></ul><ul><li>- consume carbohydrate within 3Omins (1g/kg body mass) </li></ul><ul><li>- aim for CHO with higher glycaemic Index </li></ul><ul><li>- include some protein with CHO, especially if muscle damage / very hard session </li></ul><ul><li>- take care with alcohol, especially if Injured </li></ul>
  65. 66. <ul><li>Lost 2 Kg during training </li></ul><ul><li>- drink 3L, 2 x 1.5 = 3L </li></ul><ul><li>after weight training </li></ul>
  66. 67. 5Og RECOVERY CHO OPTIONS <ul><li>750-l000mL sports drink (isotonic drink or squash </li></ul><ul><li>500mL fruit Juice </li></ul><ul><li>2 medium bananas / 3 oranges </li></ul><ul><li>1 sports bar or 2 breakfast / cereal bars </li></ul><ul><li>1 banana sandwich / roil or thick Jam sandwich </li></ul><ul><li>chunky soup and bread roll with handful sweets* </li></ul><ul><li>300-400ml fruit smoothee with honey in it* or liquid meal (e.g. Sustagen sport)* </li></ul><ul><li>Lean meat / tuna & salad roll and a piece of fruit* </li></ul><ul><li>250g baked bean* with 2 slices of toast </li></ul><ul><li>tub of low fat yoghurt and bowl of cereal with skim milk* </li></ul><ul><li>2 x 2009 low fat flavoured yoghurt* </li></ul>
  67. 68. <ul><li>Recovery meal straight after training session or game. </li></ul>
  68. 69. WEIGHT & BODY FAT ISSUES
  69. 70. WEIGHT & BODY FAT <ul><li>Many athletes relatively lean already </li></ul><ul><li>- scales and BMI not as relevant </li></ul><ul><li>- tend to use skinfolds to assess subcutaneous fit </li></ul><ul><li>Leaner physique needed for higher power to weight ratio, less injury risk </li></ul><ul><li>May also need to strip muscle </li></ul>
  70. 71. <ul><li>BMI 20 – 25 good </li></ul><ul><li>7 skinfold test </li></ul>
  71. 72. “ IdeaI” body fatness Specific to the individual <ul><li>1. Consistent with good performance (including long term) </li></ul><ul><li>2. Consistent with good health — physical and emotional! </li></ul><ul><li>3. Allows the athlete to consume adequate intakes of energy and nutrients to meet all nutritional goals. </li></ul><ul><li>NB. Concept of Ideal may change in relation to training and competition situation </li></ul>
  72. 73. WEIGHT LOSS <ul><li>Can lose too much body fat </li></ul><ul><li>- males reduce testosterone, ? Immune status </li></ul><ul><li>- females become amenorrheic, ? Immunity </li></ul><ul><li>Important to ensure maintain ability to train, and </li></ul><ul><li>maintain health whilst losing weight </li></ul><ul><li>Generally more fine tuning and very small reductions, </li></ul><ul><li>using same principles as general population </li></ul><ul><li>- e.g. 0.5kg/week, 5-10mm skinfold /month </li></ul><ul><li>KJ food < KJ exercise </li></ul>
  73. 74. Are low carbohydrate diets suitable for athletes?? <ul><li>May lead to short term weight loss but at the risk of </li></ul><ul><li>negative performance in long term (particularly </li></ul><ul><li>endurance athletes) </li></ul><ul><li>Some athletes struggling with weight body fat loss may benefit from re-arrangement of carbohydrate </li></ul><ul><li>intake to early in the day or around specific training </li></ul><ul><li>sessions </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid ‘empty kilojoules’ </li></ul><ul><li>Increased protein Intake + sensible inclusion of healthy fats/oils has high satiety value </li></ul>
  74. 75. Athletes - a high risk group for eating disorders? <ul><li>Athlete characteristics Include narrow focus perfectionism, compulsiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Studies show a higher incidence of eating disorders among athletes than general population </li></ul><ul><li>N.B. Bullmia is associated with a 30% risk of sudden death </li></ul>
  75. 76. WARNING SIGNS <ul><li>Rapid weight loss </li></ul><ul><li>Weight loss below Ideal competitive weight </li></ul><ul><li>Refers to being/feeling fat when not the case </li></ul><ul><li>Competing with others re: size/weight </li></ul><ul><li>Preoccupation with food, ‘fat, kilojoules’ </li></ul><ul><li>Secretive eating or disappearing after meals to bathroom </li></ul><ul><li>Excessive extra exercise/training </li></ul><ul><li>Unexplained weakness, dizziness, fainting, headaches </li></ul><ul><li>Denial that anything is wrong </li></ul>
  76. 77. WHAT CAN WE DO? <ul><li>Avoid public discussion or comment on weight, size, shape, skinfolds etc </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on increased lean tissue, strength, energy level’s, good recovery, performance, health and Immunity </li></ul><ul><li>Weigh and measure individuals (where required) in private </li></ul><ul><li>Include education sessions on healthy body image and awareness of signs of potential distorted eating practices </li></ul>
  77. 78. WEIGHT GAIN / BULKING UP <ul><li>Gaining can be as slow and hard as losing weight </li></ul><ul><li>More energy intake than expenditure </li></ul><ul><li>- Increase frequency and volume eating </li></ul><ul><li>- Increase energy density </li></ul><ul><li>- make use of fluids </li></ul><ul><li>- get organised! </li></ul><ul><li>Athletes also need suitable training program for increasing muscle mass </li></ul>
  78. 79. “MAKING WEIGHT” <ul><li>Weight category sports - combative, LWR </li></ul><ul><li>Seeking short term weight loss for competition (can be 2-3kg in 1 day) </li></ul><ul><li>Dramatic weight loss techniques have led to deaths in wrestling, and poor performances </li></ul>
  79. 80. MAKING WEIGHT SAFELY <ul><li>Maintain suitable training weight </li></ul><ul><li>Aim to be within 2kg of competition weight 3 days before </li></ul><ul><li>Low residue diet for 3 days leading into competition </li></ul><ul><li>Minor restriction fluid and food day before competition </li></ul><ul><li>Plan fluid and food intake post weigh-in </li></ul>
  80. 81. NUTRITIONAL SUPPLEMENTS AND ERGOGENIC AIDS <ul><li>Is It safe? </li></ul><ul><li>Is it useful? </li></ul><ul><li>Is it legal? </li></ul><ul><li>Does it work for me? </li></ul><ul><li>Is it expensive? </li></ul><ul><li>Does it provide an excuse not to work hard at training? </li></ul><ul><li>Has It been scientifically researched? </li></ul><ul><li>Check the AIS nutrition website for supplement policy and information www.ausport.gov.au/ais/nutrltlon </li></ul>
  81. 82. <ul><li>lOC study of 634 supplements marketed to athletes found 15% contained banned substances and another 10% were on the borderline for potentially leading to a failed drug test </li></ul><ul><li>Another 15% did NOT contain the active ingredient’ listed on the label </li></ul><ul><li>USA, Holland, South Africa </li></ul>
  82. 83. GOOD RESOURCES <ul><li>Sports Dietitians Australia </li></ul><ul><li>( www.sportsdietitians.com.au </li></ul><ul><li>jnr athletics </li></ul><ul><li>AIS Nutrition Department ( www.ais.org.au/nutrition ) </li></ul>
  83. 84. SAMPLE MEAL PLAN <ul><li>17 year old male swimmer, 10-12 sessions / week training, wanting to bulk up a bit </li></ul><ul><li>Energy req. 4500-5000kcal/day </li></ul><ul><li>CHO 580-750g/day </li></ul><ul><li>Protein 170g/day </li></ul><ul><li>Fat 20-25% energy </li></ul>
  84. 85. <ul><li>BT: 2 Weetbix with milk + 1 glass of fruit juice </li></ul><ul><li>DT: Water bottle full of water </li></ul><ul><li>BF: Large bowl of cereal / 3-4 weetbix + Milk + I tub yoghurt or piece of frult+ 2 slices toast with thin marg, jam / honey + Glass of water or squash or juice or milk </li></ul><ul><li>MM: 1 muesli bar or a scone + a piece of fruit or tub of yoghurt + water </li></ul><ul><li>L: 2 meal/chicken / tuna / cheese / beans and salad rolls / sandwiches / toasties + piece of fruit or tub of yoghurt or handfull dried fruit and nuts + 1 packet crisps OR bar of chocolate + can of coke </li></ul><ul><li>BT: as for mid-morning or a sandwich / roll </li></ul><ul><li>D: Meat / chicken / seafood / eggs / baked beans </li></ul><ul><li>+ pasta (large plate - 2 cups) / rice / potato (8 small or 2 large) + heaps of vegetables + bread ore bread roll OR fruit I yoghurt I dessert + juice / squash / water to drink + Popcorn OR fruit OR large bowl cereal + glass of juice </li></ul>

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