Fueling for endurance3.27.2012


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Fueling for endurance3.27.2012

  1. 1. Fueling for Endurance Kathy G. Wise, RD/LD, LWC, CWP Director, Health & Wellness Mercy Medical Center
  2. 2. Training for the Run Endurance athletes spend months training for a marathon or triathlon with a performance goal in mind.
  3. 3. Endurance Athlete ACSM defines an endurance athlete as one who trains and competes for 90 minutes or longer
  4. 4. Physiologic and MetabolicChanges of the Endurance Athlete CatabolicHormone fluctuations  Muscle protein degradation  Glycogen depletion  Depression of the immune system Changes occur during and after endurance exercise
  5. 5. Catabolic Hormones Catabolic hormones  Cortisol  Epinephrine  Nor epinephrine  Glucagon Released in response to vigorous workout periods and during the recovery process Necessary for promotion of glucose, protein and fat as fuel
  6. 6. Catabolic Environment for Fueling Cortisol is released to stimulate glucose production by the liver and metabolize fat, protein and carbohydrate Strenuous exercise results in net protein loss and decreased protein synthesis Fat and protein breakdown and glycogen depletion occur Catabolic hormones remain elevated for 30 to 60 minutes following a vigorous workout
  7. 7. The Endurance Athlete Physiologic and Metabolic Changes of the Endurance Athlete put the athlete at high risk of bonking
  8. 8. The Endurance Athlete• The body of an endurance athlete is like race car with two fuel tanks Tank A is the body’s fat stores Tank B is the body’s carbohydrate stores
  9. 9. Limited Fuel Tank The body can only store 2,000 calories of stored glycogen
  10. 10. Draining the Tank When we exercise for less than 90 minutes, tank B has sufficient stores to power us through the activity. However, when we exercise for more than 90 minutes, we need to have a nutritional plan to prevent the low fuel light from turning on.
  11. 11. Four Key Areas  Fueling Before Exercise  Fueling During Exercise  Fueling After Exercise  Daily Fueling
  12. 12. Fueling Before Exercise Three or four hours, eat 300-600 calories, primarily of carbohydrate (2-3g/kg body weight) Moderate in protein Low in fat Minimize the amount of fiber in this meal to prevent stomach discomfort during exercise Adequate fluids to replace sweat losses
  13. 13. Pre-exercise Meal Oatmeal with milk, fruit and nuts Turkey sandwich with fruit Cottage cheese with crackers and fruit Toast with peanut butter
  14. 14. Fueling During Exercise Mid-exercise foods can include:  Gels  Energy beans  Energy beverages  Honey  Bananas  Oranges
  15. 15. Fueling Frequency Fuel your body every 45-60 minutes during a long workout. ACSM guidelines recommend 30-60 grams of carbohydrate (120-240 calories) per hour. Provide the body with fluids and electrolytes. If the workout is less than 90 minutes, but at a high intensity, you may want to drink an energy drink instead of water or bring an energy gel with you.
  16. 16. Fueling After ExercisePost workout goal is recovery fuel Replenish glycogen stores Optimize protein synthesis to repair damaged muscle tissue and stimulate the development of new tissue Replace fluids and electrolytes that were lost in sweat
  17. 17. Window of OpportunityWithin 30 to 60 minutes of exercise 300-400 calories Carbohydrate (75-100 grams) Protein (at least 10 grams) The carbohydrate-to-protein ratio:  3:1 ratio in long, high-intensity workouts  Resistance 2:1 ratio  Endurance 3:1 ratio  Longer distance running/multi event 4:1 Fuel again 2 hours post exercise
  18. 18. Post Exercise FuelCarbohydrate and Protein Partners Carbohydrates  Raise insulin levels  Promotes uptake of glucose which turns off the catabolic hormones  Promotes muscle repletion of glycogen Protein  Complete protein supplies the necessary amino acids for protein synthesis and muscle repair
  19. 19. Post Exercise FuelUtilize High Glycemic Index Carbohydrates and Protein CombosPost-exercise foods can include:  Chocolate milk  A high-density nutrition bar  Smoothie with yogurt and fruit  Natural peanut butter and jelly sandwich  Greek yogurt and low fat granola  Fruit and a low fat cheese stick
  20. 20. Daily Fueling The fourth way to prevent your low-fuel light from turning on is to eat a diet consistently high in carbohydrates. Include:  Whole grains  Fruits  Vegetables  Lean protein  (not in cookies and chips)
  21. 21. Pre-Event Meal Exercise performance can be affected by diet Pre-event meal is an integral part of training Pre-event meal cannot compensate for a poor training diet
  22. 22. Pre-Event Meal Focus on Carbohydrate Prevent weakness and fatigue  Low blood sugar  Inadequate muscle glycogen stores Ward off hunger Minimize GI distress Guarantee optimal hydration Familiar and tested
  23. 23. Optimal Pre-Event Meal Carbohydrate and fluids Consumed 2 to 3 hours prior to event  Allow time for digestion and absorption 400 to 500 calories Low in fat Low in fiber Moderate protein
  24. 24. Liquid Meals Liquid carbohydrate can be consumed when time is limited prior to event Sources  Sports drinks  Juices  Low-fat, low fiber smoothies or shakes  Liquid yogurt  AVOID carbonated drinks
  25. 25. Morning Event Fueling The night before:  High carbohydrate meal Early morning:  Light breakfast  Cereal and non-fat milk  Fresh fruit or juice with toast or bagel (limit fat)  Pancakes or waffles (limit fat)  Non-fat or low-fat fruit yogurt  Liquid meal
  26. 26. Afternoon Event The night before:  High carbohydrate meal Breakfast:  High carbohydrate meal Lunch:  Jelly sandwich with a little peanut butter  Fruit with low fat yogurt  Nutrition bar
  27. 27. Good CarbohydratesHigher Glycemic Carbohydrates potatoes, yams, root vegetables beans, peas, corn, carrots wheat bread, cereal, bagels bananas, macaroni, spaghetti, brown rice apples, oranges, bananas, dried fruits such as raisins
  28. 28. Good ProteinsAnimal or Plant Complete Proteins Lean beef Chicken Fish Eggs Low Fat Cheese, cottage cheese Greek yogurt Nuts, peanut butter Tofu and soy products
  29. 29. Good Carbohydrate-Protein Combos Low fat or fat free milk Low fat chocolate milk Low fat yogurt with fruit Beans, legumes, green peas Soy milk, Almond milk
  30. 30. Performance Foods for Vegetarians Plant-based protein foods: legumes, tofu, texturized vegetable and soy protein, quinoa, nuts and seeds Plant-based iron-rich foods: legumes, nuts, seeds, whole and enriched grains, dark green leafy vegetables, dried fruit Calcium-rich foods: dairy products, dark green leafy vegetables, fortified tofu, fortified soy milk and fruit juices, legumes, nuts Vitamin B12 sources: dairy products, eggs, nutritional yeast, fortified foods (soy milk, cereal, meat analogues)
  31. 31. Strategies for Vegetarian Athletes Meet daily needs for protein and essential amino acids by eating a variety of plant-based protein sources Include plant-based iron-rich foods in meals and snacks to facilitate oxygen transport in the body and promote optimal respiratory function during exercise Consume foods high in vitamin C with iron-rich foods to boost iron absorption Select foods high in calcium and vitamin D to build strong bones and reduce risk of stress fractures If you are vegan (avoids all animal products), choose vitamin B12-fortified foods or take a vitamin B12 supplement daily
  32. 32. Energy Bars High-carbohydrate bars make great choices for carbohydrate fueling both before and during a long workout 70 percent of their calories from carbohydrates like sugars (brown rice syrup and sucrose) and grains (oats and rice crisps) Most have a high glycemic index
  33. 33. Energy Bar Considerations Select a bar with about 25-40 grams of carbohydrate Less than 15 grams of protein Low in fat  High fat slows digestion, and is not helpful in exercising. Eat one bar about an hour prior to a long workout. If you are exercising for more than an hour, eat one high-carb bar per hour of exercise and drink plenty of water.
  34. 34. Natural Carbohydrates Real food, such as fruit, can also be used for fueling a workout Fruit, whether dried or fresh, supplies a shot of carbohydrate that is well digested Dried fruit can be easily transported and stored
  35. 35. Fruit Considerations Most fruits provide about 15 grams of carbohydrate per serving A serving of dried fruit equals about 1/4 cup, or the equivalent, of fresh fruit (two nectarine halves or four dried plums) Aim for one to two servings before a workout and two to three fruit servings every hour of running Be sure to consume with plenty of water to stay hydrated
  36. 36. Carbohydrate Gels Carbohydrate gels come in small, single- serve packets, making them portable fuel that you can store in your pocket Gels consist of sugars and maltodextrins which are easily digested Many gels come with added electrolytes that, as in sports drinks, help maintain fluid balance. Some gels also have additions, such as ginseng and other herbs, amino acids, vitamins, and co-enzyme-Q10 Be aware of caffeine content  some gels have as much caffeine as a half cup of coffee  may cause nervousness in those not accustomed to this stimulant
  37. 37. Carbohydrate Gel Considerations Most carb gel packs contain 100 calories, and about 25 grams of carbohydrates Consume one to three packets for every hour of exercise  Goal -30 to 60 grams of carbohydrates per hour during exercise lasting 60 minutes or more Gels come in a variety of flavors Take with four to eight ounces of water Experiment with them PRIOR to the event
  38. 38. Sports Beans (High Tech Jelly Beans) The nutrient levels found in Sport Beans are based upon established recommendations from the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM)  30 to 60 grams of carbohydrates per hour during exercise lasting 60 minutes or more Sport Beans provide a source of easily digestible carbohydrate for fuel Electrolytes sodium and potassium for proper fluid balance B1, B2, B3, and C vitamins for energy metabolism
  39. 39. ACSM Guidelines for Fluids ACSM guidelines also recommend drinking fluid to prevent dehydration  1/4 to 3/4 cup of water every 15 to 20 minutes and to include the electrolyte sodium and potassium
  40. 40. Tips to Take With You Start with a full tank Begin your run well hydrated and with adequate muscle fuel (carbohydrate) Try new products during training sessions to determine what works best for you Consume fluids early and often Refuel within 30 minutes post exercise
  41. 41. Fuel your Body Now for a Great Finish
  42. 42. Next Session Hydration and Fluid Needs April 3, 2012 6:00 to 7:00 PM NC Sports Medicine Center Whipple Ave., North Canton