Nutrition in Sport Teri Lichtenstein June 2010


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Sports Nutrition overview

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  • Give example of Western Force.
  • Sports gels – carb based but not nutrient dense
  • Sports gels – carb based but not nutrient dense
  • CHO produces energy much quicker that fat and does not use as much oxygen as fat to breakdown each gram – therefore excellent fuel for longer duration and higher intensities If you don ’ t replenish CHO lost from muscle glycogen and blood glucose, your body uses more oxygen to break down the fats and therefore tire more easily Your body does start using fats during endurance events because even if you replenish carbs, the rate of absorption cannot keep up with rate of utilisation by muscles Runners undertaking more intense training may require between 7-12 g CHO per kg Symptoms of low carb intake are muscle heaviness, lack of energy to train, particularly at high intensities This is when runners “ hit the wall ” Most ppl store enough glycogen for 90-120 minutes strenuous exercise IF well fed Eating too little carbs can reduce this to less than 1 hour
  • Carb supplements in the form of sports drinks, food bars or gels can provide useful additional CHO for the very active endurance athlete. Snack foods and commercial liquid meals can help athletes reach their carbohydrate and nutrition goals in heavy training.
  • This is less than 4g / kg body weight
  • The extra stockpile is glycogen on hand to use during endurance events Carb depletion followed by carb loading has not been shown to be beneficial Reserve carb loading for select competitions as can be difficult Carb loading is more effective with trained athletes Some runners experience problems with increased fibre from cho loading (e.g. wholegrains) – to avoid this, choose white bread, plain cereals, tinned and peeled fruit If you struggle to get in extra CHO< keep lollies handy, use jam, liquid carb supplements (e.g. sports drinks)
  • Be careful not to overdo protein. A 200g steak contains 60-70g protein Meat + 3 dairy + breads – usually enough protein
  • Rule of thumb: 1g protein to every 3g carbs Other examples: bagel with peanut butter, smoothie made with real fruit and milk and yoghurt / ice cream If you cant stomach food straight away, try a chocolate milk drink. For a training run on a hot day, keep drink in freezer night before and then after run it will have melted but still be cold and refreshing
  • Unrealistic to eat 30g fat per day – most ppl eat over 100g fat per day Other unrealistic advice is to avoid foods containing more than 10% fat (10g per 100g ) – this deletes avocado, polyunsaturated margarine, canola and olive oils, nuts, seeds, peanut butter – all the healthy fats! Oats and muesli also have higher fat content but good food for runners
  • Pre-event eating is like filling your car with petrol before going on a long journey. Aim is NOT to focus on long term nutritional goals Pre-event meals provide an opportunity to tweak your ability to meet your nutritional goals ahead. This could range from a crucial top up of fuel and fluid to a simple psychological boost. Liver glycogen helps to maintain blood glucose levels and becomes very important during prolonged exercise. This is especially important if training / competing first thing in the morning as a normal overnight fast (i.e. sleeping) almost completely depletes liver glycogen levels Most studies have not shown performance differences between pre-event meals of low or high GI foods Examples low GI foods include baked beans, pasta, oats and most fruits
  • The timing of an event will dictate how much you eat and at what time. Given that most races and training takes place in the mornings, it is not worth sacrificing sleep in order to eat and digest a full meal If you suffer from nerves before an event and cant stomach eating, a smoothie or sports drink could be a better option The important thing is to practise during trainings and work out whats best for you It is also important during event to stay well hydrated – this is critical to performance and will also help prevent heat-related illness Dehydration can lead to fatigue, decreased coordination and muscle cramping. If you wait until you are thirsty, you are already dehydrated!! . Be careful not to overdrink and dilute body salts Best strategy is to drink lots in days leading up to event to be well hydrated. Don ’ t drink too much for the 1-2 hours before event and then about 20 minutes before, start slowlsy slipping 200-400mL fluid - this will ensure fluid is slowly absorbed and not make you want to run to the toilet just as the gun goes off! For endurance activities of 90 minutes or longer, a sugary snack before exercise may enhance your stamina. But too much sugar may slow the time it takes for water to leave your stomach so your body wont replace fluids as quickly. Your best approach? Drink diluted fruit juice or a sports drink just before – you ’ ll consume a little sugar to fuel your muscles but not too much to impair hydration
  • But a l;ow-fibre light carb-based snack should be eaten 1-2 hours before training / competing to top up energy stores If you suffer from nerves before an event and cant stomach eating, a smoothie or sports drink could be a better option The important thing is to practise during trainings and work out whats best for you . Be careful not to overdrink and dilute body salts Best strategy is to drink lots in days leading up to event to be well hydrated. Don ’ t drink too much for the 1-2 hours before event and then about 20 minutes before, start slowlsy slipping 200-400mL fluid - this will ensure fluid is slowly absorbed and not make you want to run to the toilet just as the gun goes off!
  • Lots of evidence to show that distance running performance improves of carbs ingested during an event. Cyclists find this easier than runners as they are in a better position (literally) to eat solid foods, while runners are more limited. Easiest and most convenient are sports drinks and gels. Again, don ’ t try anything for the first time on race day – make sure you're comfortable by trialing different options during training It is also important during event to stay well hydrated – this is critical to performance and will also help prevent heat-related illness Dehydration can lead to fatigue, decreased coordination and muscle cramping. If you wait until you are thirsty, you are already dehydrated!! Trained vs. untrained Trained need less oxygen to break down cho Trained athletes have better muscle and and need less cho Trained athletes don ’ t burn up cho as quickly
  • Requirements of recovery will vary according to the nutritional stress caused by the session – i.e. how much energy burned, micronutrients depleted, fluid loss, etc It will also be influenced by your nutritional goals (e.g.. Weight loss) and time before next session Appetite often diminished after a run and food access not always easily available Only small amounts of protein required post training to maximise recovery – e.g. tub yoghurt, glass flavoured milk Studies have shown that muscles are most receptive to building muscle glycogen within the first 30 minutes after a run Also, muscles don ’ t start refueling at a high rate, until carb is eaten Rule of thumb: 1g protein to every 3g carbs Other examples: bagel with peanut butter, smoothie made with real fruit and milk and yoghurt / ice cream If you cant stomach food straight away, try a chocolate milk drink. For a training run on a hot day, keep drink in freezer night before and then after run it will have melted but still be cold and refreshing (see carb list) While you may be keen to celebrate after a big race (especially if it ’ s a PB) with a refreshing beer or two, try to fulfil your body ’ s immediate refueling needs first, before indulging in your “ thirst ” . Alcohol can impair rehydration and recovery, and also make getting up for training the morning after very difficult! New research: post-exercise consumption of low fat chocolate milk was found to provide superior muscle recovery compared to a sports drink with same calories – milk has protein, magnesium, calcium and potassium benefits
  • made with real fruit and milk and yoghurt / ice cream If you cant stomach food straight away, try a chocolate milk drink. For a training run on a hot day, keep drink in freezer night before and then after run it will have melted but still be cold and refreshing
  • As an athlete, you consumer kilograms of CHO and grams of proteins However vitamins and minerals only required in milli or micrograms – that why CHO/protein referred to as macronutrients and vits/minerals as micronutrients Vits and mins don ’ t give you energy (myth that B12 energises you) but they help break down carbs and fats – your primary fuel source Don ’ t think because V&M are vital that more is better Calorie analogy – too little and no strength, too much and fat and wont train well Too little v&m,. Wont train well, too much could develop toxicity Evidence does suggest greater need for runners,. Especially B vitamins. However, you will most likely eat more calories as you burn up more fuel and therefore will get more v&m Inadequate intake of V&M can impair your health and performance, but if you follow healthy diet and take in enough, extra wont make you stronger, faster or feel better
  • As a runner, you place extra stress on your bones Although you don ’ t feel it, your bones are constantly undergoing a remodelling process where bone mineral is dissolved and replaced. Sufficient calcium in your diet ensures efficient bone remodelling and vit D helps calcium absorption from your gut Female athletes at greater risk as they often reduce their fat intake to reduce weight – cut out dairy, cheese, meat sources of vit D
  • Low iron will impact running performance Iron is a component of a protein in your red blood cells called haemoglobin. Haemoglobin grabs hold of the oxygen that your breathe in and holds onto it as red blood cells transport the oxygen to your muscles and other tissues during exercise. So too little iron will prevent enough oxygen getting to your muscles which will impair their ability to work at their best The brain also relies heavily in iron so too little will make you feel tired and irritable Anti-inflammatory can exacerbate iron loss through GI bleeding Low iron stores – general tiredness, increased recovery time, decreased immunity, cold-like symptoms, depression Full blow anaemia shortness of breath to the pt where runner cannot breathe Runners have higher iron demands because they lose more iron through blood (e.g. foot strike associated with running on hard surfaces with poor quality or worn shoes), sweat and urine loss Female runners have a greater risk – loss of iron from menstruation and often fewer calories due to weight control Hard training also stimulates an increase in the number of red blood cells which increases the physiological demand for iron Taking iron supplements when you are tired and run down will not help unless you have been diagnosed with iron depletion If you are experiencing any of these signs and they persist, see a sports dietitian or doctor and ask for an iron blood test. Treatment will involve dietary intervention to increase your intake and absorption of iron. You may need supplements if your iron levels are very low Do not take iron supps without an accurate diagnosis as you may absorb too much iron and this can cause copper and zinc deficiencies It is impossible for a normal healthy person to absorb too much iron from your diet (unl;ess you have hemochromotosis –p rare condition where too much iron absorbed and causes high risk of cancer and heart disease)
  • Refer to handout on iron content of food Wholemeal bread has almost twice the iron content of white bread but the higher phytate content in wholemeal reduced iron availability and absorption Dried fruit, sweet corn, green leafy veges (broccoli, silverbeet) excellent sources of iron with low phytate content – therefore good availability Commercial cereals and cereal bars are fortified with iron – one bowl of iron enriched breakfast cereal has more than 4 x the iron content of a bowl of oats Avoid drinking tea, coffee and red wine when eating iron-rich foods Try include iron enhancers with meal – e.g. meat on sandwich, orange juice with breakfast cereal Many fruit juices have added vit C that can further enhance iron absorption Grapefruit, lemon and lime also enhances iron abortion from plant foods Bioavailability if iron is very important – 2 meals can have same iron content but different bioavailability – choose foods with higher vit C and lower phytates, while still maintaining high CHO intake Eg choose iron-enriched breakfast cereal with milk and fruit juice with added vit C RATHER than muesli mixed with whate germ and bran, soy milk and cup tea
  • Dehydration increases strain on the body so much that it only takes a loss of 2% body weight to impair running performance \\sweat contains 40-80mmol/L sodium On a cold day, you wont sweat a lot and even for longer distance training / events – concentrated carb would be fine Hot day need more fluid and can use more diluted carbohydrates Hyponoatremia can occur in long distance events where exercise intensity and sweat rate is low- especially if fluid has low electrolyte levels – ie body gets too much water and not enough electrolytes. Volume of fluid ingested is more important than timing, but drinking regularly will help maintain a high rate of gastric emptying as fluids leave the stomach faster when gastric volume is high. Start drinking early to minimise dehydration rather than trying to reverse a fluid deficit later in competition Fluid ingested during exercise of less than 30 minutes wont enhance performance – it will not become available within timeframe of competition – but could help if hot, dry mouth, feeling of exertion – weight up benefits of increased body mass and having to slow down to drink
  • Sodium is the major electrolytre in sweat and sweating is crucial to cooling you down while you are running You lose other electrolytes and minerals in sweat but sodium is the one lost in the greatest concentration. If you're out there in the heat and humidity for longer than 1 hour, make sure you include sodium in your hydration strategy There is an abundance of sodium in the everyday food we eat but when you are running (especially at high intensities and high temps) you need extra sodium Easiest way to get fluids and sodium is with a sports drink, although gels will also provide sodium for refueling To test how easily you lose sodium, taste your upper lip and see how salty it is Or when sweat dries, often leaves salty caking It ’ s a myth that sports drink are high in salt. They have a similar sodium content to foods such as milk, bread and breakfast cereal but are much more easily tolerated while running! It is important to experiment with sports drinks to work out your preferred concentration, flavour and amount
  • 2% dehydration = 10% decrease in performance 5% dehydration = 30% decrease in performance
  • Higher sodium concentration increases absorption of water and cho but at sacrifice of taste Sports drinks have same sodium concentration as milk
  • If cho concentration is too high it delays gastric emptying, increases rate of CHO delivery and may cause GI upset (runners trots!)
  • Give example of Western Force.
  • Nutrition in Sport Teri Lichtenstein June 2010

    1. 1. NUTRITION IN SPORT ASCA Level II Teri Lichtenstein Accredited Practising Sports Dietitian
    2. 2. Why is nutrition importance for performance? <ul><li>Fuel for muscle and brain </li></ul><ul><li>Promotion of muscle gain </li></ul><ul><li>Recovery and muscle repair </li></ul><ul><li>Maintaining concentration </li></ul><ul><li>Enhancing immune function </li></ul><ul><li>Achieving body composition goals </li></ul><ul><li>Sustaining growth / development in children / adolescents </li></ul>
    3. 3. Key Food Group Messages From The Dietary Guidelines <ul><li>Eat plenty of breads and cereals (preferably wholegrains), vegetables (including legumes) and fruits </li></ul><ul><li>Eat lean protein </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(Average adult reqs around 0.8 grams of protein per kg of bodyweight) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strength athletes 1.4 – 1.8 grams of protein per kg of bodyweight) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Endurance athletes 1.2 – 1.4 grams of protein per kg of bodyweight) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Strength athletes also require significant carbohydrate replenishment as well </li></ul><ul><li>Eat calcium rich food </li></ul><ul><li>Know your limits for fats, sugars & salt </li></ul>
    4. 4. Making the guidelines sport specific Sport Type Requirements Nutrition consideration Endurance (e.g. long distance runner) Power to weight ratio important High energy intake, may use carbohydrate loading. May need to decrease fibre intake to meet energy goals Power and team sports (e.g. Rugby) High and low intensity workouts, athletes of various body types and stages of development Achieving body composition for position specific requirements. Weight category (e.g. jockey) Need to make body weight target for competition, increased risk of not meeting nutrient requirements Include low energy, nutrient-dense foods (e.g. low fat dairy products). Restrict intake of foods with low nutrient density (e.g. soft drinks)
    5. 5. Nutrition program <ul><li>Well structured program rather than single diet </li></ul><ul><li>Incorporate supplementation, strength vs training nutrition, body composition, travel nutrition, etc </li></ul><ul><li>Training nutrition should follow sport periodisation: </li></ul><ul><li>Early pre-season – body composition, metabolic manipulation (altitude training, heat intensity) </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-season – strength, endurance, skill development (higher carbohydrate needs) </li></ul><ul><li>Competition preparation – nutrition to support added intensity and additional muscle mass </li></ul><ul><li>Competition – game day nutrition focus and recovery </li></ul><ul><li>S&C coaches often the only person that can implement and manage </li></ul><ul><li>nutrition programs </li></ul>
    6. 6. Nutrition program <ul><li>Build nutrition into training program </li></ul><ul><li>Use diary and get athletes to record nutrition intake </li></ul><ul><li>Use Resources – e.g. recovery food chart in changerooms / dining room </li></ul><ul><li>Get others to sell your message </li></ul><ul><li>Create mentors – junior athletes watch older athletes </li></ul>  Monday Tuesday Wed         6am 5km run/swim Strength Strength           sports bar Protein shake protein shake   carb supplement             1pm wt session cycle Run           600mL sports drink 750mL sports drink             protein bar protein supp protein supp         6pm train Train Rest           protein shake protein shake Fruit / yogurt        
    7. 7. Nutrition measures <ul><li>Hydration testing (sweat patches, body weight pre and post competition) </li></ul><ul><li>Body composition – track over time and focus on increasing lean tissue to help build strength and speed </li></ul><ul><li>Nutrition score (1-9 to determine how athlete is meeting nutrition needs on a daily basis) </li></ul><ul><li>Supplementation compliance diary – measure if taking supps correctly </li></ul><ul><li>Suplement database / prescription repeats / single serve delivery </li></ul><ul><li>Recovery nutrition score </li></ul><ul><ul><li>+++ for protein / carb meal and snack </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- - - for drinking alcohol, no food within 30 minutes post event) </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Principles of the training diet <ul><li>Food to Fuel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CARBOHYDRATE </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Food to Repair & Build </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PROTEIN </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Food to Revitalise & Recover </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NUTRIENT DENSE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vitamins & Minerals, good fats </li></ul></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Energy Storage
    10. 10. Carb Power <ul><li>Main energy source for muscle contraction </li></ul><ul><li>Muscle energy comes from muscle/liver glycogen – converted to glucose </li></ul><ul><li>Higher intensity exercise uses more glycogen – once you run out you “ hit the wall ” </li></ul><ul><li>Long endurance events use some glycogen and then relies on fat stores for fuel </li></ul><ul><li>Intake of 5-7g CHO per kg body weight is required for average athlete on any training day – about 360g for a 60kg person </li></ul><ul><li>Higher intensity training (10-15 hours per week) requires 7-12g/kg/day </li></ul><ul><li>Heat, cold and altitude can increase proportion of CHO used at same intensity </li></ul>
    11. 11. Foods containing 50g carbohydrate <ul><li>Sports drink: 700mL </li></ul><ul><li>Liquid meal supplement (e.g. Sustagen) : 250-300mL </li></ul><ul><li>2 cereal bars </li></ul><ul><li>1 ½ carbohydrate gels </li></ul><ul><li>Sports bar: 1 – ½ bars </li></ul><ul><li>Flavoured Milk: 560mL </li></ul><ul><li>2 bananas </li></ul><ul><li>5 snake lollies </li></ul>
    12. 12. Enough carbs? 60kg female training 5 days per week <4g carb/kg per day Breakfast 2 weetbix 200mL reduced fat milk 1 tsp sugar 1 slice toast 1/2 Tbsp Jam Snack 1 banana Lunch 2 slices bread + lean meat and salad 250mL fruit juice Snack 300mL flavoured milk Training 500mL sports drink Dinner Meat 1 medium potato 1 cup carrots 1 scoop ice cream 1/2 cup canned fruit TOTAL Carbs 20g 12g 5g 15g 7g 22g 30g 25g 25g 30g 0g 16g 5g 10g 10g 232g
    13. 13. Carb Loading <ul><li>Only beneficial for exercise >90 minutes </li></ul><ul><li>Allows you to “ stockpile ” 2-3 x more glycogen in your muscles </li></ul><ul><li>It won ’ t make you run faster but could help fight fatigue </li></ul><ul><li>Rest + carb loading = muscle glycogen storage </li></ul><ul><li>For the week before an event, taper training to rest muscles </li></ul><ul><li>3 days before event, increase carb intake to 7-10g/kg/day (low fibre) </li></ul><ul><li>Will increase body weight by about 2kg (mostly water) </li></ul>
    14. 14. Carb Loading <ul><li>Meal Plan: 65kg runner; 650g CHO (10g/kg) </li></ul><ul><li>B/fast: 1 cup cereal with 1 cup low fat milk </li></ul><ul><li>2 crumpets with jam/honey </li></ul><ul><li>250mL fruit juice </li></ul><ul><li>Snack: 2 pieces fruit and 1 tub low fat yoghurt </li></ul><ul><li>Lunch: 2 x sandwiches with lean meat/chicken & salad </li></ul><ul><li> 1 large fruit muffin and 250mL juice </li></ul><ul><li>Snack: 1 sports bar and 600mL sports drink </li></ul><ul><li>Dinner : 2 cups rice with grilled chicken & vegetables </li></ul><ul><li> 2 slices bread </li></ul><ul><li>Snack: 1 x fruit smoothie (low fat milk & honey) </li></ul><ul><li> 2 cups jelly </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
    15. 15. Carb Loading to the Extreme! <ul><li>Martin Moore ate 2,380 baked beans one by one with a cocktail stick in half an hour </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. Ronald Alkana ate 17 bananas in 2 minutes way back in 1973 </li></ul><ul><li>It took only 82 seconds for Peter Dowdeswell of England to chug down 1.4kgs of potatoes. Peter has an earlier record for eating 40 jam sandwiches in 18 minutes </li></ul><ul><li>91.5 metres of spaghetti slid down the throat of Steve Weldon in 29 seconds </li></ul>
    16. 16. Protein: building blocks of working muscles <ul><li>Athletes need more protein than spectators </li></ul><ul><li>Protein needs of an athlete can be met adequately with a variety of healthy foods. It is not necessary to use expensive protein supplements (milk based smoothie makes an excellent protein supplement) </li></ul><ul><li>It ’ s no good to just eat extra protein – you need to work the muscles to build strength </li></ul><ul><li>Protein should make up about 15% of your diet – aim for 1.2-1.8g/kg body weight </li></ul>
    17. 17. Protein content of foods Food Energy (kJ) Prot (g) Carb (g) Low fat yoghurt & banana 1030 13 46 Cereal & low fat milk 1300 17 60 2 toast with jam & cottage cheese 1000 18 39 Smoothie (low fat milk, skim milk powder, honey, banana) 1570 22 72 Ham, cheese & salad sandwich 1000 20 30
    18. 18. Fat Intake <ul><li>Do not avoid all fats – aim for 40 to 60g per day </li></ul><ul><li>Look at reducing intake of “ bad Fats ” </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce fat intake (and total calories) if excess body fat affecting performance </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid restriction of “ good fats ” and fat-soluble vitamins </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oily fish </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seeds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nuts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avocado </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Canola / olive oil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tahini </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lean meats </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. Putting it all together 70kg Male 11,300 kilojoules 6g carb / kg 1.8g protein/kg 20% fat Considerations: Early morning carb snack Protein post training Fluids Time between training and meals Food Weetbix, 3 Milk, reduced fat, 200mL Bread, 2 slices + margarine, 2 tsp Jam, 4 tsp Fruit juice, 150mL Banana Ham & salad sandwich, 2 Flavoured milk, 300mL Flavoured Yoghurt, 200mL Sports drink, 500mL Steamed rice, 2 cups Chicken breast, 150g Vegetables, 1 cup Fruit salad, 1 cup + Ice cream, 1 scoop TOTALS Protein 6 8 5 0 0 2 24 12 9 0 10 42 3 3 124 Fat 1 4 10 0 0 0 21 6 4 0 2 6 0 5 59 Carbohydrate 30 12 30 14 15 22 60 25 25 30 100 0 10 34 407
    20. 20. <ul><li>Nutrition before, during and after training / competition </li></ul>
    21. 21. Pre-event meal <ul><li>Pre-exercise food changes the fuel balance during exercise </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbohydrate and protein intake both stimulate release of hormone insulin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Insulin promotes storage of fat and inhibits the release of fatty acids from fat stores </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Insulin signals the body to get glucose out of blood and into working muscles </li></ul></ul>
    22. 22. Pre-event meal <ul><li>Goals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fuel muscle glycogen stores to their maximum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Restore liver glycogen content (especially morning events) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintain hydration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevent hunger, yet avoid GI upset </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Include foods or practises relevant to personal psychology or superstition! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Checklist: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Easy to digest (practise!) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbohydrate rich (low GI?) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low in fibre (unless practised) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide adequate fluid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>familiar </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Neither STARVED not STUFFED! </li></ul>
    23. 23. Pre-event intake: 2-3 hrs before <ul><li>Time to be emptied from stomach – delayed gastric emptying due to nerves </li></ul><ul><li>High carb (1-2g/kg) intake to optimise muscle and liver glycogen stores </li></ul><ul><li>Low GI may be beneficial </li></ul><ul><li>Low fat, low fibre, low-moderate protein: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Less likely to cause GI upset </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maximise digestion and absorption </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fluid intake essential </li></ul>
    24. 24. 2-3 hours prior to exercise <ul><ul><li>Breakfast cereal with reduced fat milk and fruit (rice bubbles / corn flakes if low fibre needed) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Porridge with reduced fat milk and glass juice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Toasted muffin/crumpet with honey/jam/syrup </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(use white bread if needed) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pasta with low fat tomato sauce </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Roll with banana and honey (portable) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fruit salad with low fat yoghurt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cereal bar and sports drink </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fruit </li></ul></ul>
    25. 25. Pre-event intake: 1-2 hrs before <ul><li>Extra carb (50-80g) intake to continue fuelling </li></ul><ul><li>Carbohydrates easy to tolerate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low fibre, low fat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Liquid carbs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Banana, sports drink, liquid meal supplement (e.g. Sustagen Sport) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fluids: 300-500mL 15 minutes before </li></ul>
    26. 26. During event <ul><li>Goal: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevent fatigue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prolong duration and intensity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevent Dehydration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintain electrolyte balance </li></ul></ul>
    27. 27. Non endurance: 60-90 minutes <ul><ul><li>Fuel comes from existing muscle and liver glycogen stores (provided well stocked) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No need to refuel with carbohydrate but SHOULD replace fluid losses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fluids should be topped up at 150-250mL per hour (dependant on conditions, exercise intensity) </li></ul></ul>
    28. 28. Endurance events: 90 minutes + <ul><ul><li>Fuel comes from sugar in blood and liver/muscle glycogen – needs regular topping up to maximise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Affected by exercise intensity and duration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>General recommendation of 30-60g carbohydrate per hour </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sports drinks, gels, jelly beans, lollies, sports bars </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Untrained athletes rely more on carb as a fuel source than trained athletes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Practise! Practise! Practise! </li></ul></ul>
    29. 29. Post Training <ul><li>Recovery nutrition incorporates the three R ’ s: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>REFUEL glycogen stores with carbohydrate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>REPAIR muscles with protein </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>REHYDRATE with fluids (not alcohol!) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Key: within 30 minutes post training / competition </li></ul><ul><li>Carbs and protein – sports bars good combination </li></ul><ul><li>Aim for 1g/kg carb and 10-20g protein </li></ul><ul><li>Replace 150% fluid losses </li></ul><ul><li>Keep practical foods handy </li></ul><ul><li>Small, frequent meals </li></ul>
    30. 30. Post run carb snacks with 10g protein <ul><li>250 – 350mL milk shake / fruit smoothie / flavoured milk </li></ul><ul><li>Sports bar + 1 cup sports drink </li></ul><ul><li>Bowl of cereal with milk </li></ul><ul><li>1 sandwich with meat/egg filling + 1 piece fruit </li></ul><ul><li>2 crumpets or English muffins with peanut butter </li></ul><ul><li>Large baked potato with cottage cheese </li></ul>
    31. 31. Vitamins and minerals: minor players <ul><li>Key role in metabolism of carbs and fats </li></ul><ul><li>Repair and building of muscle protein </li></ul><ul><li>Strike a balance – not too little and not too much </li></ul><ul><li>Do you need more V&M with higher intensity training? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More calories = more V&M </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Athletes should follow normal population </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Select micronutrients to pay extra attention </li></ul>
    32. 32. Calcium and Vit D: bone-building duo <ul><li>Work together to support bone development </li></ul><ul><li>Low levels – increased risk of stress fractures </li></ul><ul><li>Daily requirement (male and female) – 1000mg </li></ul><ul><li>Good sources calcium: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dairy foods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Canned fish with bones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tofu </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Broccoli, bok choy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oysters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>almonds </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Good sources Vit D: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sunlight! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Liver, eggs </li></ul></ul>
    33. 33. Tips for increasing calcium intake <ul><li>Change to reduced fat milk and yoghurt – more calcium than full cream varieties </li></ul><ul><li>Mix low fat milk or powder into mashed potato </li></ul><ul><li>If you don ’ t like plain milk, add flavouring such as Milo or Nesquik </li></ul><ul><li>If you don ’ t eat dairy foods, choose a calcium-fortified soy beverage </li></ul><ul><li>Eat green leafy veges such as broccoli and bok choy </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce caffeine intake – can affect calcium absorption </li></ul>
    34. 34. Iron: its mission <ul><li>Athletes require 1.3-1.7 x more iron than non-athletes (more in vegetarians) </li></ul><ul><li>Low iron stores more common than anaemia – estimated that 5-50% of athletes suffer from this condition </li></ul><ul><li>Unfortunately, diets high in healthy carbs inhibit iron absorption </li></ul><ul><li>Signs of iron depletion: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Feeling flat, tired and unable to train as hard as usual </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor appetite </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased incidence of colds and infections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Paleness, elevated heart rate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Often no symptoms or confused with over training! </li></ul></ul>
    35. 35. Iron: its mission <ul><li>How much do you need? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Male – 8mg / day </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Female – 18mg / day </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Best sources of iron come from animal protein (15 – 35% absorption) </li></ul><ul><li>Iron from plant sources is not well absorbed (2-15%) </li></ul><ul><li>Absorption increased by up to 4 x with Vit-C rich foods </li></ul><ul><li>Good sources of iron: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Liver, red meat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chicken, fish, egg yolks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Legumes (peas, lentils, beans) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wholegrains, dried fruit, nuts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dark green vegetables (beans, broccoli) </li></ul></ul>
    36. 36. Iron strategies <ul><li>Eat lean red meat 3-4 times per week </li></ul><ul><li>Add meat to high carb meals – e.g. pasta sauce, stir fry, rice </li></ul><ul><li>Use lean red meat, poultry or fish on sandwiches </li></ul><ul><li>Combine high phytate plant foods (cereal grains, breads, breakfast cereals, soy products), with Vit-C rich foods (fruit juice, meat, fish) </li></ul><ul><li>If diagnosed with depleted iron stores or iron deficiency, include a daily Vit-C supplement and avoid drinking tea, coffee and red wine with meals </li></ul><ul><li>Do not take iron supplement without blood test and doctor prescription! </li></ul>
    37. 37. Fluid needs <ul><li>Water is the body ’ s most important nutrient </li></ul><ul><li>In most cases, need to drink enough fluids to allow for pale urine 5-6 times each day </li></ul><ul><li>Active people can sweat up to 1500mL per hour of exercise </li></ul><ul><li>Water makes up 60% of our body weight </li></ul><ul><ul><li>60kg person has 36kg of water </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Following an event / training run, aim to replace 150% of fluid loss </li></ul>
    38. 38. Sodium: sweat it <ul><li>Sweat is made of water and 3 electrolytes (sodium, chloride, potassium) </li></ul><ul><li>Electrolytes help: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>maintain water balance (stimulates absorption of water and carbs) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Muscles contract and relax </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transmit nerve impulses </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sports drinks best option for replacing sodium (with added benefit of hydration) </li></ul><ul><li>Most sports drinks contain 10-25mmol/L sodium – higher levels stimulate thirst receptors which encourages fluid intake </li></ul><ul><li>Cannot train your body to get used to dehydration </li></ul>
    39. 39. Symptoms of dehydration <ul><li>Thirst </li></ul><ul><li>Dizziness </li></ul><ul><li>Headache </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced sweating and urine output </li></ul><ul><li>Confusion </li></ul><ul><li>Increased heart rate & body temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced exercise capacity </li></ul><ul><li>Increased perception of effort </li></ul><ul><li>Muscle cramping </li></ul><ul><li>Nausea and vomiting (decreased gastric emptying) </li></ul><ul><li>Dark coloured urine </li></ul>
    40. 40. Strategies to improve hydration <ul><li>Monitor urine colour and day /night weights </li></ul><ul><li>Drink early to prevent dehydration rather than treat it </li></ul><ul><li>Choose drinks that are cool, contain sodium and taste good </li></ul><ul><li>Practise in training </li></ul>
    41. 41. What fluid is best <ul><li>Water </li></ul><ul><li>Sports drinks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Also provide carbohydrate (6-8%) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Optimal electrolyte composition and concentration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Salt encourages increased uptake </li></ul></ul><ul><li>It is vital to practise drinking strategy during training </li></ul>
    42. 42. % Carb Solution
    43. 43. Sports supplements <ul><ul><li>Athletes think supps are critical to performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Huge range of products with a variety of ingredients </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Marketed with “ scientific theories ” , testimonials and dramatic performance claims </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Few supported by well controlled trials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on sports foods and ergogenics, NOT general health supps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Minimum number supps for max benefit – consider additional calories! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintain database – if run out too early, using too much. If leftover at end of period, not using enough </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ prescription repeats ” help monitor use </li></ul></ul>
    44. 44. Sports supplements <ul><ul><li>62-68% of athletes believe supplementation: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1) Improves performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2) Increases doping risk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3) Increased training means supplements are required </li></ul></ul>
    45. 45. Sports foods and supplements <ul><li>Correct use of specific sports foods and supplements can: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Directly enhance performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Help to meet an athlete ’s nutrition goals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Scientific trial remains the ONLY way to test the value of a supplement </li></ul><ul><li>Popular Supplements that have been shown to be effective in the above are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sports energy drinks (help recovery), also provided there has been a significant amount of sweating and therefore mineral and electrolyte loss. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protein powders/drinks/bars (help recovery and muscle growth, seemed to be used quite extensively, especially if sponsored. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creatine (muscle growth and may aid recovery) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carnitine (reduces muscle soreness -> improve recovery) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fish Oil (Omega 3 ’s) </li></ul></ul>
    46. 46. Too much focus on supplements? <ul><ul><li>Other performance issues (diet, training, recovery strategies) being overlooked </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasis on products with little or no proof of benefits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Products with substantial benefits are being overlooked or poorly used (e.g. carbohydrate gels) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drain of resources (time, money) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small risk of doping positive </li></ul></ul>
    47. 47. Use of supplements <ul><ul><li>Position supplements within a total nutrition program </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on supplements that are most likely to achieve substantial benefits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Too much supplementation can cause negative effects – prevents adaptation to oxidative stress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No supplement or sports food is completely “ risk free ” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Source supplements sold in Australia according to TGA guidelines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AIS Sports Supplement program </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Group A - supported for use by athletes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Group B - considered for provision to AIS athletes only under a research protocol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Group C - little proof of beneficial effects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Group D - should not be used by AIS athletes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
    48. 48. Useful websites <ul><li>Sports Dietitians Australia </li></ul><ul><li>Professionals in Nutrition for exercise and sport </li></ul><ul><li>Australian Institute of Sports nutrition website </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fact sheets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supplement program information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recipes </li></ul></ul>
    49. 49. <ul><li>Questions? </li></ul>