Nonfiction pp

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Nonfiction pp

  1. 1. <ul><li>Some Types of Nonfiction </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Autobiography </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Biography </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Essay </li></ul></ul></ul>What Are the Elements of Nonfiction? Feature Menu <ul><li>Some Elements of Nonfiction </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Perspective </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Subjective and Objective Writing </li></ul></ul></ul>Your Turn
  2. 2. • essay • biography Some Types of Nonfiction Nonfiction provides facts about people, places, things, and events. • autobiography Nonfiction • plays • short stories • novels Fiction People, places, and events are real. People, places, and events can be made up. Grand Canyon In Narnia, animals can talk.
  3. 3. How does nonfiction writing differ from a novel or a poem? Some Types of Nonfiction Nonfiction writing is based on fact.
  4. 4. An autobiography is the story of a person’s life, written or told by that person. Some Types of Nonfiction Autobiography Miss Sullivan attracted my attention to . . . a great horseshoe crab. . . . I felt of him and thought it very strange that he should carry his house on his back. from The Story of My Life, by Helen Keller
  5. 5. An autobiography <ul><li>is based on the author’s firsthand experience </li></ul><ul><li>uses first-person point of view: </li></ul>It is with a kind of fear that I begin to write the story of my life. . . . A few impressions stand out vividly from the first years of my life. from The Story of My Life by Helen Keller I, me, my, we, us, our, ours Some Types of Nonfiction Autobiography [End of Section]
  6. 6. Some Types of Nonfiction Biography Biography A biography is the story of a real person’s life, written or told by another person. This is a biography; someone else wrote it about a real person. Helen Keller was born in 1880. She grew up in northern Alabama. Superman was born on the planet Krypton. He grew up on Earth. This is not a biography; Superman is not a real person. Fiction
  7. 7. A biography <ul><li>is based on primary and secondary sources about a real person </li></ul><ul><ul><li>uses third-person point of view: </li></ul></ul>he, him, his, she, her, hers, it, its, they, them, their Helen Keller was born in 1880. She grew up in northern Alabama. After an illness left her blind and deaf, Helen could communicate only by touch. Then Anne Sullivan became her teacher. —The Story of Helen Keller Some Types of Nonfiction Biography
  8. 8. An eyewitness account is a primary source ; it gives firsthand information. An autobiography is a primary source. A secondary source is based on other sources; it gives secondhand information. Secondary sources may include information from primary sources, as well as from other secondary sources. A biography is a secondary source. Some Types of Nonfiction Biography
  9. 9. An essay is a short piece of nonfiction that examines a single subject or limited topic. An essay often includes personal observations. Some Types of Nonfiction Essay Topics might be everyday experiences, like walking a dog . . . or complex ideas like justice or freedom.
  10. 10. A personal essay generally reveals a great deal about the writer’s personality and tastes. Its tone is often conversational, sometimes even humorous. The focus is the writer’s feelings and response to an experience. Some Types of Nonfiction Essay
  11. 11. Quick Check [End of Section] Some people might not consider Elmer García a hero. They see a tall man with slightly stooped shoulders and large hands. There doesn’t seem to be anything special about him until those hands touch an animal. Dr. García uses his gentle hands to win the trust of sick and wounded pets. He learned the importance of touch during his first year in veterinary school. Is this paragraph part of an autobiography or a biography? How do you know? Some Types of Nonfiction
  12. 12. Quick Check Some people might not consider Elmer García a hero. They see a tall man with slightly stooped shoulders and large hands. There doesn’t seem to be anything special about him until those hands touch an animal. Then Dr. García uses his gentle hands to win the trust of sick and wounded pets. He learned the importance of touch in his first year of veterinary school. Some Types of Nonfiction This is part of a biography. The paragraph uses third-person point of view to describe a real person.
  13. 13. • serious? Some Elements of Nonfiction Nonfiction authors can choose how to present their subjects. Important decisions include • positive? Perspective • feelings? • facts? Objective/Subjective Writing These decisions help writers focus their attitude toward their subject. • one-sided?
  14. 14. <ul><li>The way a writer looks at a subject is called perspective . It is also referred to as </li></ul>• point of view • stance Some Elements of Nonfiction Perspective • viewpoint
  15. 15. In writing, perspective describes the attitude an author takes toward the subject and readers. Some Elements of Nonfiction Perspective How would you describe this writer’s perspective on soccer? <ul><li>negative? </li></ul><ul><li>biased ? </li></ul>“ Playing soccer is a waste of time.”
  16. 16. Some Elements of Nonfiction Perspective Bias is a slanted or one-sided point of view. Someone who likes dogs may believe only good things about them. This is a positive bias . Someone who is afraid of dogs may notice only bad things about them. This is a negative bias .
  17. 17. Some Elements of Nonfiction Perspective What is this writer’s perspective? <ul><li>neutral? </li></ul><ul><li>unbiased? </li></ul>“ Soccer players develop their stamina.”
  18. 18. “ No sport is more fun than soccer.” Some Elements of Nonfiction Perspective What is this writer’s perspective? <ul><li>positive? </li></ul><ul><li>biased? </li></ul>
  19. 19. Some Elements of Nonfiction Perspective [End of Section] Sometimes, authors reveal their biases for or against their topics. Often, they don’t. To detect bias, ask these questions: • Does the author use any loaded words, like wonderful or dangerous ? • Is the information one-sided? Some authors present all sides of an issue. Others give only one point of view.
  20. 20. Objective writing sticks to the facts. Subjective writing can be very personal. Some Elements of Nonfiction Subjective and Objective Writing
  21. 21. Sticks to facts and supports information with evidence Children view about 40,000 ads a year, according to the American Academy of Pediatrics. Some commercials make me laugh; others are just annoying. Freely expresses personal feelings, thoughts, opinions, and judgments Some Elements of Nonfiction Subjective and Objective Writing Term Definition Example Objective writing Subjective writing
  22. 22. To find out whether a writer’s perspective is objective or subjective, ask these questions: <ul><li>Is the focus on the subject, or is it on the writer? </li></ul>If the focus is on facts, it’s objective. “ The relay team set a record” is objective. “I’m thrilled by our victory” is subjective. <ul><li>Is the focus on facts, or is it on feelings? </li></ul>Some Elements of Nonfiction Subjective and Objective Writing
  23. 23. Quick Check [End of Section] Is the writer’s perspective objective, or is it subjective? How do you know? Some Elements of Nonfiction My family likes my cooking—I mean, at least they do now! It took them some time to recover from my first batch of chili. I had promised to make dinner on the day we got a new video game, and I forgot all about cooking. Racing to make dinner, I measured the chili powder by the tablespoon instead of the teaspoon. My brother took one bite and named it “Lane’s Famous Fire-Breathing Chili.”
  24. 24. My family likes my cooking—I mean, at least they do now! It took them some time to recover from my first batch of chili. I had promised to make dinner on the day we got a new video game, and I forgot all about cooking. Racing to make dinner, I measured the chili powder by the tablespoon instead of the teaspoon. My brother took one bite and named it “Lane’s Famous Fire-Breathing Chili.” Quick Check Some Elements of Nonfiction This passage is subjective. It focuses on the writer and the writer’s experience of making chili for the first time.
  25. 25. Analyzing Nonfiction Your Turn <ul><li>Explain the difference between an autobiography and a personal essay. </li></ul><ul><li>Is a personal essay more likely to be an example of subjective or of objective writing? Why? </li></ul><ul><li>What type of writing are you most likely to find in a biography? </li></ul>
  26. 26. The End

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