21st Century Synthesis For Rural Development In Ajk (Pp Tminimizer) (Pp Tminimizer)

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  • Along with burgeoning populations, ruthless exploitation of renewable and non renewable resources to extract as much monetary benefit as possible without caring for the ecological and social cost, have created the need for using Bioenvironmental Management Procedures on emergency basis. It is time to make vigorous efforts to correct the dangerous and life threatening problems that have arisen due to these thoughtless and shortsighted activities.
  • By paying attention to the planning process, the organization will ensure that its action plans address local needs and are realistic and practical. Secondly, Village Development Plans will have a formal frame of reference for formulation.
  • SD2 uses PageRank as a centrality algorithm to analyze votes to determine the center of TRUST and CONSENT in a human trust network. The top three or five lead such an organization with one of them as the executive. This creates a small and efficient locus of trust and accountability to lead the organization eliminating the popularity game of conventional populistic-democracy. In the field of sociology, PageRank is being used as a *centrality* algorithm - its being used to find the *center* of human networks.
  • The idea is to amplify the selective and de-selective evolutionary processes that lead to community strength, by finding the most accountable members so that they will choose the best community building tools available. SD2 uses a holistic mathematical process to analyze the deep-structure of votes to find the three or five group coordinators that would be most likely to represent the values of the community as a whole. Non-populistic algorithms, like PageRank, allow a group member to rise in status without having to play the popularity game and allow members to vote their conscience without wasted votes.
  • In an egalitarian community, those that are determined as being the best at practicing egalitarian values would be selected as the "elite". This would make the community less "elitist" in the negative sense than if the majority ruled.
  • Where numerous models of rural economic development are action-oriented, this particular model relies on word of mouth to advertise the availability of an entrepreneurial facilitator. Enterprise facilitators are “passive” in that they do not initiate any projects until a committed individual comes forward with the enthusiasm to move the idea for a new or expanding business forward. After this individual comes forward, the facilitator helps the individual find a “team” to help with all of the functions that the individual may not have the skills or interest in completing for a business to be a success. The facilitator helps build the team to support the potential entrepreneur. Then the facilitator provides support to the potential entrepreneur by developing a formal business plan and securing financing for the business. This model focuses on individual entrepreneurs who have dreams (assets) of owning their own business in a rural community.
  • The EDGE program focuses on developing local communitycapacity to identify emerging and existing entrepreneurs andprovide technical support to them. Research conducted onthis model illustrates the importance of building community capacity and culture to support entrepreneurial activityin rural communities and regions. Statistical data has suggestedthat developing local coalitions focused on supportingentrepreneurial activity locally increases the number ofjobs created as well as the benefits paid for the newly createdjobs. Drawing upon an asset-based approach the WesternEDGE model has five primary objectives. They include:
  • Careful guidance and support for quality control assure marketing and provide financial security to disadvantaged groups from amongst the populace. This is specifically true for Women’s Groups. The most successful Development Schemes around the world have been and remain those of small producers. These consist of banding together, provision of training, inputs and supervision, production, processing, packaging and eventual sale. The complete support provided by a selfless and non-paternalistic Organization based upon technological excellence has proved to be extremely effective in many Countries around the World. These include the Developed as well as Developing Countries.
  • These diverse objectives and definitions have often left rural people questioning what is in their best interest when it comes to local and regional development. Today, new models of rural economic development are emerging to deal with the changing landscape of rural economies. These models are linking past, current, and future strategies together as they attempt to provide rural communities an opportunity to create a new and invigorating future.
  • There is an urgent need to determine future demand, supply and distribution of food to expanding urban communities; to design comprehensive systems in which rural crop and livestock production are holistically integrated with reliable post-harvest preservation and economic distribution from rural producers to urban processors and markets.

Transcript

  • 1.
  • 2. 21st Century Synthesis for Rural Development in AJ&K
    A WAY AHEAD!
  • 3. Fast Track Sustainable Development for
    Rural Areas:
    IT Can be done!
    Naheed
  • 4. The 21st Century:
    The 21st Century has ushered in a number of complex problems for us to deal with.
  • 5. Rural Night
  • 6. Itemized Threats:
    Burgeoning Populations.
    Global Warming.
    Water scarcity/ receding glaciers and lowered water tables.
    Desertification.
    Low Soil Fertility/ High Erosion.
    Environmental Pollution.
    Clear Cutting/ Canopy Reduction of Forests.
    High Energy Costs.
    Natural/ Manmade Disasters.
  • 7. AJK Rural Support Program:
    AJKRSP was established as a non-profit organization and registered under Section 42 of the Companies Ordinance 1984 on October 29, 2007 as an indigenous Rural Support Program (RSP) in AJK, on the lines of similar RSPs operating in all Provinces of Pakistan.
  • 8. The Main Objectives of AJKRSP:
    Support the Government efforts to alleviate poverty and improve the living standards of the rural poor.
    Form Village Councils (VCs) as legal entities and recognized grassroots institutions to accelerate the development process.
    Build capacity of VCs in preparation and implementation of Village Development Plans (VDPs).
  • 9. Identify innovative ideas regarding wise use and value addition of natural resources for the benefit of communities.
    Create Valley-based Apex Bodies based on VCs for sustainable development.
    Promote self-employment opportunities through marketable skills based trainings and establishment of micro-enterprises.
  • 10. Establish micro credit programs.
    Generate resources from Government/Donor Agencies and prepare project proposals.
  • 11. Community Organization:
    Organize communities for pooling of resources, cutting down overheads and achieving economies of scale.
    Identify and prioritize what people are willing to undertake in terms of opportunities.
    Undertake feasibilities of identified opportunities in terms of people’s capacity, willingness, equity, sustainability, requirement of resources and their availability from within and outside.
  • 12. Arrange, secure and facilitate the flow of required resources to the community.
    Monitor, lobby and establish linkages between communities and other development agencies including Govt. Departments, Local Councils, NGOs and Donors.
  • 13. Village Councils (VCs):
    The AJKRSP is tasked with establishing Village Councils (VCs) as legal entities to represent Villages and Sub-Villages of populations not exceeding 500 individuals.
  • 14. Indicative Impacts:
    Establishing 5000 VCs and preparation of 5000 VDPs in five years
    Significant increase in production of nutritional protein food, value added items, consumable goods, woolen made-ups, silk yarn/ eggs and craft items.
    Enhancement in opportunities of employability to the extent of 4,000 HHs with 50% annual increase through home based handicrafts production, rural poultry, Wood Craft, Livelihood income generation activities, Tourism, Mineral Processing & Development and Fisheries activities.
    Market facilitation, promotion and development of small/ cottage industrial units in the private sector would increase employment opportunities for above 8000 males/ females directly & indirectly also these activities will attract local and foreign investors.
  • 15. HID centre will provide training to 2,500 youths (male & female) annually in technical education and vocational skills.
    Reverse trend of migration from rural to urban areas.
    Rise in social and economic standards of rural areas.
    Leading towards prosperity and well-being of the communities at all levels.
  • 16. Towards a Paradigm Shift.
    Appropriate, Integrated, Sustainable, Rural Development Model
  • 17. MDGs & Vision 2030
  • 18. TARGETS
    Generating Economy.
    Creating Basic Production.
    Improving Employment Opportunities.
    Ensuring Adequate Living Standards.
    Bringing about gradual changes from extensive systems with low productivity to intensive ones with higher productivity.
    Reducing pressure from Natural Resources.
    Producing an adequate Cost/ Benefit Ratio.
    Ushering in Prosperity.
  • 19. RATIONALE:
  • 20. Sustainable Development Action Plans
    Formulation of Sustainable Development Action Plans at State and District levels entailing extensive consultations with local communities in target areas with suitable partners from the private and public sector.
  • 21. 11 Steps Strategy for Institutional Development
    2
    1
    Zoning for Sustainable Development.
    State & District Level Sustainable Development Action Plans.
  • 22. Structural Deep Democracy
    This is a Social Network Optimization approach to democratic-republicanism.
  • 23. SD2's approach to community building doesn't try to change the community member - it tries to change the general environment of the community by selecting community leaders in the most meritocratic way possible - this is a structural approach instead of an ideological approach.
  • 24. SD2 looks for the locus of *legitimacy* by looking for the locus of *mutual consent* using the Page Rank Algorithm.
  • 25. In this analysis Number 2 and not Number 4 is the Chief Executive selected as he has the most “Flow-Betweeness” amongst all members of the Social Network.
  • 26. “Asset-Based” Development:
    Focusing on local assets, instead of needs and deficits, allows residents to identify possibilities for change that they can control, and energizes residents to take action.
  • 27. “Asset-Based” Development:
    Reorients development from a “needs-based” approach. Needs-based models seek to identify weaknesses in a local community and then implement strategies to overcome those weaknesses
  • 28. Needs-Based Community Development:
    Traditional Model:
    Based on Needs
    Goal Institutional Change
    Conversation Problems and Concerns
    Change Agent Power
    Individual View Consumer/ Client
    Needs are based on Community Problems
  • 29. This method of mobilizing citizens focuses on negative characteristics of a community and demoralizes local residents, thus limiting proactive action at the local level.
  • 30. Assets-Based Community Development:
    Alternate Model:
    Based on Assets
    Goal Building Communities
    Conversation Gifts & Dreams
    Change Agent Relationship
    View of Individual Producer / Owner
    Assets are based on Community “Treasures”
  • 31. Focusing on local assets, instead of needs and deficits, allows residents to identify possibilities for change that they can control, and energizes residents to take action.
  • 32. Asset-Based Community Development
  • 33.
  • 34.
  • 35.
  • 36. While the needs-based approach focuses on garnering external resources to solve problems, the alternative asset based approach looks for residents’ personal skills and dreams and links them to action through a public articulation of these local assets.
  • 37. Enterprise Facilitation:
    In the enterprise facilitation model, local community facilitators are identified and moral and technical support is provided toresidents with dreams of becoming entrepreneurs.
  • 38. Economic Gardening:
    Using local resources to grow their own jobs through entrepreneurial activity— “Economic Gardening”—instead of recruiting them from outside the community, or “Economic Hunting.”
  • 39. Community-Based Entrepreneurial Training:
    Another model of community and economic developmentis community-based entrepreneurial training andsupport. This model, originally called EDGE (EnhancingDeveloping and Growing Entrepreneurs), has now beenadapted in the West.
  • 40. Assisting entrepreneurs to create and evaluate their business plans.
    Assisting new and current small business owners develop and implement their business plans, and plan for business growth and expansion.
    Providing program participants with follow-up support from their local communities.
    Creating and retaining jobs through the start-up and expansion of small businesses.
    Facilitating community capacity building by enhancing the structural field around entrepreneurial endeavors.
  • 41. Sustainable Development through Community Participation:
    The most successful development interventions all over the world comprise Small Manufacturers/ Growers Associations. Practical problems that are insurmountable on individual basis are readily resolved through collective efforts.
  • 42. Community Development:
    Defined as economic development, political empowerment, integrated service provision, comprehensive planning, as well as job training and housing programs.
  • 43. Tools:
    Survey and Data Collection/ GIS.
    Bioenvironmental Management.
    Intensive Horticulture & Livestock Development for Food Security.
    Container based, Collective Micro Enterprise.
    Electronic/ Mobile-Commerce.
    Impact Analysis (Social, Environmental, Economic - SEE).
  • 44. Operational Areas:
    Community Based Micro Enterprise/ Value Addition.
    Agriculture/ Horticulture/ Livestock/ Fish.
    Minerals/ Chemicals.
    Services.
    Internal Tourism.
  • 45. Steps:
    Survey/ Collect Data.
    Build up Knowledge Banks (Cross Reference).
    Collate Data/ Prepare GIS.
    Establish HID Training/ Service Centers.
    Build up Organization for Area Development.
    Assess Assets/ Gather Resources.
    Prepare Short/ Medium and Long-Term Plans.
    Implement/ Evaluate/ Adjust.
    Monitor and carry out Impact Analysis.
  • 46.
  • 47. Configured & Pre-Installed CONTAINERIZED FACTORY & HAND LINE CANNING:
    Marmalade; Tomato Paste; Ketchup; Fruit Pulp; Pure Juices; Nectars; Concentrates & Baby Food.Edible Oil Processing Plants.Potato/ Onion Processing.Milling Plants.Milk Products.Fodder Pellets.Slaughtering/ Rendering Plants.Green Beans & Berries Processing/ Freezing/ Packing.Ice Blocks/ Flakes Plant.Mineral Water & Honey Plants.
  • 48. Pilot Community Based Production Project:
    Projects for Wool Spinning, Shawl and Carpet Weaving, Bed Linen and Quilt Production, Bridal Dresses, etc.
    Provision of Training/ Equipment/ Raw material and Collective Marketing.
  • 49. Short Term Plan (1st Year):
    Processing Plants for food, beverage, livestock and dairy industry, Recycling, Wool Spinning, Shawl/ Blanket Weaving, Silk Reeling, Textile Designing and Made-ups (Training and Collective Production/ Marketing).
    Agriculture/ Horticulture/ Livestock: Small Growers/ Herders Associations for Organic yields enhancement (Integrated Plant Nutrition/ Management Systems – IPN/MS)/ growing for Export/ Import Replacement. Establishment of Resource Units – Nurseries/ Germplasm/ Embryos.
    Survey for Mineral Resources, Establishment of Small/ Medium/ Large-Scale Processing Facilities.
    Training for Small/ Medium/ Large-Scale Chemicals Enterprises/ Marketing Support.
  • 50. Target Groups:
    Employment Generation for Disadvantaged Population Groups (Females, Landless, Wage Workers), subject to availability of Funds, Service Center establishment for dissemination of training/ demonstration of excellence for future expansion.
  • 51. Food Systems Analyses:
    Uncontrolled growth of urban communities adversely affects resources and facilities critical to future food security.
  • 52. There is need and opportunities for mathematical simulation models to determine the most efficient channels and times for rural to urban and intra-urban transportation of perishable foods.
  • 53. Past experience in farming and food systems analysis illustrates how development agencies and governments must first analyze and understand what of relevance exists before prescribing potential improvements.
  • 54. Industrial Biotechnologies:
    Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Plants (PMPs):
    Polyacrylamide:
  • 55. Throughout the world the need and demand for improved health care are growing and diversifying. In consequence, health care industries are changing in structure and activities. The cost and time to discover and develop new drugs are becoming prohibitive for even the largest corporations.
  • 56. Polyacrylamide:
    The organic components of polyacrylamide were developed to chemically control erosive forces at the molecular level by holding soils in place and ionically bonding them together to increase the particle size. The result is increased water infiltration through the particle spaces and decreased erodibility of the soil particles.
  • 57. Soil Stabilization:
    Soft Armoring with Matting.
    Hard Armoring with Gabion Netting.
    Hydroseeding & Temporary or Permanent Grassing.
    Dry Spread with Mulch or Straw.
    Channel Stabilization, Stream Crossings.
    Turf Reinforcing Matting, or Earth Berms.
    Soft Armoring Culvert Stabilization.
    Shoulder Stabilization of Roads.
  • 58. HYDRO MULCH SEEDING:THE FASTEST, EASIEST AND LOWEST COST WAY TO STABALIZE SLOPES!
  • 59.
  • 60. Hydro Seeding System simultaneously applies hydromulch, seed, fertilizer, tackifier and water.
    Experience an increase in germination rates with hydro seeding. Seed can be pre-germinated for even faster growth. One easy method is to soak the seed overnight in clear water and growth accelerators in a container
  • 61. System in Action
  • 62. Food Security, Income and Poverty:
  • 63. #
    ITEM
    1
    Establishment of Service Centers.
    2
    Ongoing Small Growers/ Manufacturers Organization in Communities.
    3
    Survey of land Holding/ Skills/ Requirements and detailed data Bank of facilities available.
    4
    Estimate of Input requirements.
    5
    Infrastructure establishment.
    6
    Dissemination of Training.
    7
    Provision of Inputs on Credit.
    8
    On-going Growing / Manufacturing.
    9
    Close Supervision.
    10
    Harvesting/ Manufacturing, Storage, Processing Packaging & Sale.
    11
    Distribution of profits.
    1
    6
    2
    3
    4
    11
    10
    5
    7
    8
    9
  • 64. Cultivable land is a fast-shrinking resource. There is a great need to raise food crop yields and farm productivity throughout Asia, Africa and Latin America. The following urgencies are specified.
  • 65. To protect and enhance the natural resource base: farm land, surface and ground water, genetic diversity;
    To reclaim and restore fertility in land degraded through misuse;
    To promote systematic integration of production with post-production activities and to stimulate establishment and maintenance of rural agro-industries;
    To devote more research to land capacity classification, soil and water management, for ecologically conservative land use.
  • 66. There is diversity, lack of consistency and many contradictions among definitions of, and prescriptions for, sustainable agriculture.
  • 67. In simplest terms, food security depends upon a dynamic balance among disposable income, demand, supply and distribution. Production of food crops, livestock and fisheries must progressively increase to satisfy expanding and diversifying needs and demands of growing populations. Efficient post-production systems, to ensure safe and effective protection, preservation, transformation and distribution must be economically integrated with production systems.
  • 68. Food insecurity, chronic hunger and under-nutrition are both dismal consequences and clear indicators of extreme poverty. People with money, power and control over negotiable assets rarely suffer from chronic hunger. Alleviation of food insecurity requires greater opportunities for paid employment and more equitable access to critical resources and assets among and within nations.
  • 69. Due to climatic variability, years with too little or too much rain, damage and destruction by pests, parasites and pathogens, crop and livestock production inevitably change from year to year.
  • 70. Substantial reductions in food spoilage after harvest could be realized by establishing primary food preservation and protection facilities in rural areas where crops are cultivated and animals husbanded. Food saved from spoilage increases total food available and enhances food availability and security.
  • 71. Energy:
    Biodiesel: Several non-edible oilseeds have been identified as suitable for conversion to biodiesel. Particularly attractive are inedible oils from the seeds of Jatropha curcas.
  • 72. Biogas: Produced by microbial fermentation of human and animal excreta and other waste, methane has been used as a household fuel in the People's Republic of China for many generations.
  • 73. Small Hydroelectric: Azad Jammu & Kashmir has vast potential for installing small Hydroelectric Bulb Turbines for generating electricity. This is all the more important in the light of requirement of local self-reliance in all fields.
  • 74. Solar Energy: Passive and active solar energy use has to be promoted and can be done so if indigenous production facilities are encouraged.
  • 75. Ecosystem Recovery:
    “A system maintains a certain fluid stability that can be destroyed by a misstep in just one niche. A system has order, a flowing from point to point. If something dams that flow, order collapses. The untrained might miss that collapse, until it was too late. That’s why the highest function of ecology is the understanding of consequences.”
  • 76. Living as we do in arid, semi arid, sub tropical dry and Himalayan sub tropical moist zones, we inhabit fragile ecosystems that have had their internal cycles shattered by the exploitive activities of man.
  • 77.
  • 78.
  • 79. By now science has realized that the consequences of the manner in which we conduct agriculture and livestock grazing is extremely destabilizing to the ecosystem wherein they are practiced.
  • 80. When the soil surface is left bare and organic contents are depleted, microorganisms are deprived of their habitat and food source. As a result they are exterminated and a vital link in the ecological chain is destroyed.
  • 81. As such it has been realized that it is essential to maintain ground cover; reduce soil compaction and avoid fire.
  • 82. Direct Seed, Mulch Based Cropping Systems (DMCS) is a close approximation of the Forest Ecosystem. This is also called No Till Farming wherein seed of the next crop is directly sown into the detritus of the previous crop.
  • 83. Carbon sequestration is also catered to as the release of carbon from tilled fields is enormous.
  • 84. We as a civilization are at present indulging in so many destabilizing practices that it is a wonder that the Eco Systems that support us have not already failed. In any case they may be at a point close to collapse in an Eco Catastrophe with all its attendant horrific affects.
  • 85. To enumerate some of these practices:
    FactorDeep Tilling of soil
    Affect Release of carbon
    Affect Compaction of Micro pores
    Affect Added expense and use of fossil fuels
    Affect Killing of soil biota
    Affect Increased erosion
    Affect Depletion of Soil Fertility
    Factor Mining of stream beds for gravel
    Affect Lowering of stream beds to bed rock cutting off lateral and horizontal recharge of aquifers
  • 86. Factor Release of raw sewage
    Affect Befouling Groundwater
    Affect Multiplication of harmful disease vectors
    Factor Clear cutting of forests
    Affect Increased erosion
    Affect Restricted recharge of aquifers
    Affect Increased CO2 levels
    Affect Increased soil surface heat levels
    Affect Destruction of soil biota
    Affect Slope Destabilization
    Factor Burning of grass for increase
    Affect Destruction of soil biota
    Affect Release of CO2
    Affect Killing of saplings
  • 87. The Ecology of Natural Resources:
    “ It is recognized that it is the bioenvironmental systems of the planet which provides resources and that any resource process must be rationally managed in order to ensure a sustained yield – preferably one which is capable of due increase, but in which the existence of limits is recognized”.
    I. G. Simmons, 1974
  • 88. GROSS POLLUTION:
    Over the last hundreds of years there has been a general decline in the water quality of rivers and streams.
    Land clearance for agriculture, urban development and manufacturing have led to increasing levels of phosphorus, turbidity, heavy metals and pathogenic bacterial contamination of major water systems.
  • 89. Bioremediation Technologies
     Phytoremediation  
    • Phytoextraction     
    • 90. Phytostabilization     
    • 91. Phytostimulation
    • 92. Phytotransformation    
    • 93. Rhizofiltration
    • 94. Constructed Wetlands 
    Bioaugmentation
    • Biodegradation 
    Biostimulation  
    • Bioventing
    • 95. Chemical Oxidation ofSoils    
    • 96. In situ Lagoon 
    Bioreactors
    • Compost-based reactor
    • 97. Slurry-based reactor
    Land-based Treatments     
    •  Composting
    • 98. Land Farming 
    Fungal Remediation      
    • White-rot Fungus
  • PRACTICALMEASURES:
    • Rapid Composting.
    • 99. Microbial Liquid Waste Digestion.
    • 100. Environmentally safe Incineration.
    • 101. Community Action.
  • Botanical/ Reed Beds:
    ArtificialWetlands;Constructed wetlands or Botanical/ Reed Beds are designed to mimic the sediment and nutrient removal processes occurring in natural wetlands.
    General design principles are based on holding or slowing the passage of water through the wetland where a range of physical, chemical and biological processes can operate to store, transform or remove various pollutants.
    These processes can be optimized through the control and manipulation of the hydraulic regime, including retention time.
    Constructed wetlands are configured into different zones, with each zone performing different functions.
  • 102. Botanical Bed:Medium Tunnels
  • 103. This Municipal Lagoon receives 2,40,000 liters of domestic sewage per day. A total of 322 Litres of Bacteria was applied over a period of six weeks. The water was purified by 95% and was certified for use in Agriculture, pH was improved to 7.2 and Biological Oxygen Demand was reduced from 40 initially to 13 after treatment. All noxious odors were eliminated as was the presence of insects including flies and mosquitoes.
  • 104. Thus it is clear that we are determined to ruin the very habitat that supports us. In order to address this and many other problems it is imperative that we face them on War Footing.
  • 105. Progressive Implementation
  • 106. INTERVENTIONS:
  • 107. INTERVENTIONS (contd.):
  • 108. INTERVENTIONS (contd.):
  • 109. INTERVENTIONS (contd.):
  • 110. There is no giving up!
    There is hope!
    Generations have fought many valiant battles against many gross violations of the rights of the people!
    The power of evil has repeatedly been overcome by the power of the intrinsic goodness of Mankind!
  • 111. There are many examples to give inspiration, hope and a sense of pride. A people less endowed with the power of the human spirit would have become extinct and wiped off from the face of this planet. This rich heritage should be the source of our empowerment.
  • 112. Indeed it is empowerment for me. I draw strength from past triumphs. They give me reason to fight injustices of today. They remind me of the victorious road which we have traveled and they give me strength for the journey ahead.
  • 113. I am always aware that I am not alone. For I am in the company of men and women whose moral strength has always changed the course of history. The collective force of women and men gathered together has the capacity and the capability to bring about the desired change.
  • 114. We can work together for a better world with men and women of goodwill, those who radiate the intrinsic goodness of humankind. To do so effectively, the world needs a global ethic with values which give meaning to life experiences
  • 115. More than dogmas, sustain the non-material dimension of humanity. Mankind's universal values of love, compassion' solidarity, caring and tolerance should form the basis for this global ethic which should permeate culture, politics, trade, religion and philosophy. It should also permeate the extended family of the Nations.
  • 116. Without such an ethic the power game of hatred, materialism and individualism takes over So also would anarchy and egoism
  • 117. For The Cause That Lacks Assistance!
    For The Wrong That needs resistance!
    And For The Good That We Can Do!
  • 118. Conclusion:
    AJKRSP also serves as a platform for sustainability of development initiatives undertaken by various NGOs and CBOs previously operating in AJK.
  • 119. Rural Day