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  2. 2. BIOLOGICAL <ul><li>Taken to mean all living creatures be they zoological or botanical. </li></ul>
  3. 3. BIOENVIRONMENT: <ul><li>Encompasses the Inorganic Biosphere that we inhabit; the inter-dependent Organic Life Forms and the Life Supporting Ecological Systems that have evolved to work in harmony in order to sustain Life. </li></ul>
  4. 4. RESOURCE: <ul><li>The human decision to use a material enables it to be labeled a resource. </li></ul><ul><li>(I. G. Simmons 1974). </li></ul>
  5. 5. RESOURCE PROCESS : <ul><li>The total flow of a material from its state in nature through its period of contact with man to its disposal can be termed a resource process. </li></ul><ul><li>(Firey 1960). </li></ul>
  6. 6. Natural Resources Management: <ul><li>Efforts made to achieve orderly and sustainable use of Natural Resources can be termed as the Management of Natural Resources. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Bioenvironmental Management: <ul><li>The attempt to minimize the impact on the environment of Natural Resource exploitation can be termed as Bioenvironmental Management. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Goal of Natural Resource Management: <ul><li>More oriented towards development and change rather than the preservation of nature. As a matter of simple economic sense resources are managed in order to keep them available. </li></ul>
  9. 9. AWARENESS: <ul><li>Growing awareness of the inter-dependence between living and non-living components of the natural world has led to the more dynamic concept of Bioenvironmental Management. </li></ul><ul><li>Bennett and Chorley 1978, Holling 1978). </li></ul>
  10. 10. The Ecology of Natural Resources: <ul><li>“ It is recognized that it is the bioenvironmental systems of the planet which provides resources and that any resource process must be rationally managed in order to ensure a sustained yield – preferably one which is capable of due increase, but in which the existence of limits is recognized”. </li></ul><ul><li>I. G. Simmons, 1974 </li></ul>
  11. 11. Sustainability: <ul><li>Thus, it can be safely said that Natural Resource Management is the process of ensuring sustainability of resource exploitation. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Life-Supporting Environment <ul><li>On the other hand, Bioenvironmental Management if the process of ensuring the sustainability of the life-supporting environment. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Aims of Bioenvironmental Management. <ul><li>Reduction of the degree of stress, upon an ecosystem, from contamination or overuse. </li></ul><ul><li>Pursuit of short-term strategies that preserve long-term options while retaining a degree of flexibility. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Manage/ Conserve/ Control: <ul><li>However, it is this very long-term survival that has prompted Bioenvironmental Management. </li></ul><ul><li>Conservation broadly means using without using up. Pollution control is playing an expanding role in the Conservation Movement. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Living Universe! <ul><li>However, it is seldom realized that pollution is the end product of a destabilizing process of the biosphere on a global scale. The proponents of “Spaceship Earth Economy” as an alternate to the present “Cowboy Economy” are still far away from the concept of “Gaia” or the Living Planet in a Living Universe. While concepts may differ it is no longer avoidable to realize the fact that rank and short-term exploitation has to be stopped immediately. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Countries Classification: <ul><li>The contrast between the population-resource relationships of different types of countries allows the construction of regional classification of the type put forward by Zelinsky (1966). </li></ul>
  17. 17. Most Unfortunate! <ul><li>Pakistan lies in the type “D” category or most unfortunate group . Here there is no deficiency of appropriate technology. Rather it is not communicated to the “bewildered poor.” </li></ul>
  18. 18. MSA: <ul><li>Sub group within this group. </li></ul><ul><li>Most Seriously Affected. </li></ul>
  19. 19. RAIN SNOW Evaporation from falling Rain Evaporation from Snow and Glaciers Evaporation from dew on plants Evaporation from Rivers & Lakes Evaporation from Soil Transpiration