Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT
Concepts
• It is the process through which the human being is assisted in his growth and
development...
• The whole process of change and advancement considered in terms of progressive
well-being of society and the individual
...
Various Interpretations of Community Development
As a Process (Phases or Stages)
CD as a process moves by sages from one c...
Community Development Framework
People’s Empowerment, Initiative and Self-Reliance
Community Characterization (Profiling)
...
Elements of Community Development
(Burkey 1993, McKnight and Kretzman 1993
McKnight 1995, and Ronnby 1995, 1996)
• Build o...
Elements of Community Development
(Burkey 1993, McKnight and Kretzman 1993
McKnight 1995, and Ronnby 1995, 1996)
• Build o...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Community development

3,820 views

Published on

community development

Published in: Services
  • Be the first to comment

Community development

  1. 1. COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT Concepts • It is the process through which the human being is assisted in his growth and development within the scope of his potential (Depositario 1991) • The process of assisting ordinary people to improve their own communities by undertaking collective action (Twelvetrees 1991) • It concerns with the development of attitudes, understanding and skills. These are manifested by the change observed in people’s action such as cooperativeness and social responsibilities (Benan 1968) • A process which strengthens the “horizontal patter” of the community, that is the relations of individuals, groups and organizations in local communities (Warren 1963) • The process by which the efforts of the people themselves are united with those of governmental authorities to improve the economic, social and cultural conditions of these communities into the life of the nation, and to enable them to contribute fully to national progress. The complex of processes is then made up of two essential elements: the participation of the people themselves and the provision of technical and other services in ways which encourage initiative, self-help and mutual aid and make this more effective (UN 1963) • It is a planned and organized effort to assist individuals to acquire attitudes, skills and concepts required for their democratic participation in the effective solution of as wide a range of community improvement problems as possible in an order of priority determined by their increasing levels of competence (Gales 1961) • A process by which a community identifies its needs and objectives, orders (or ranks) them, develops the will and confidence to work on them, and in so doing extends and develops cooperative and collaborative attitudes and practices in the community. The result of the community organization process is that the community should be better equipped than at some previous stage, or before the process began to identify and deal cooperatively and skillfully with its common problems (Ross 1955) • A movement designed to promote better living for the whole community with the active participation, and if possible on the initiative of the community, but if this initiative is forthcoming, by the use of techniques for arousing and stimulating it in order to secure its active and enthusiastic response to the movement. • The idea of a positive approach to the handling of affairs which aims at developing the imitative of the individual and the community and at obtaining the willing participation of the people in schemes for promoting their own betterment
  2. 2. • The whole process of change and advancement considered in terms of progressive well-being of society and the individual • Nation-building from the “grassroots” CD has been synonymous with community participation, extension, mass education, fundamental education, rural reconstruction, rural development and social development. Hence CD has been defined in several ways yet has the following common elements: - the concept of self-help - the initiative comes from the people themselves and not imposed from outside - the process of stimulation by a change agent – the development worker - the utilization of techniques and approaches to get cooperative support from all sectors CD in essence consist mainly of procuring, organizing, and utilizing local resources such as materials, energy, people and information for the betterment of the community. CD promotes the acquisition, maturation and connection of community assests to benefit the whole. To sum up, CD as an approach abd as a strategy is about aided self-help which: 1. concerns social as well as economic development (integrated development) 2. challenges the status quo in societies, goes beyond distribution of resources in communities to issues of re-distribution 3. involves participation by diverse interests in community affairs 4. builds democratic structures and accountability within community organizations, emphasizes the need to develop community infrastructure, a structure for social organization, as a vehicle for collective action 5. builds capacity and investment in communities; looks at the strengths and assests in communities rather than community needs, problems and lack of resources, considers the development of social capital as well as economic capital 6. develops linkages: community development is tied to development planning Therefore, community development produces SELF-RELIANT, SELF- SUSTAINING AND EMPOWERED COMMUNITIES, which is also the overall goal of community development focusing on the following: - productivity - equity - access - employment - popular control
  3. 3. Various Interpretations of Community Development As a Process (Phases or Stages) CD as a process moves by sages from one condition or state to the next. It involves a progression of change in terms of specified criteria. A neutral, scientific term, subject to fairly precise definition and measurement expressed chiefly in social relations. Emphasis is upon what happens to people – socially and or psychologically. CD process moves from one stage to another stage improving the condition of the community were major decisions are made by the people to effect change for and of common concern. As a Method (Process and Objective) CD is a means to an end, a way of working so that some goal is attained. Other methods may be supplementary to the CD methods, which seek to carry through the stages suggested under process in order that the will of those using this method may be carried out. The process is guided for a particular purpose, which may prove “harmful” or “helpful” to the local community, depending upon the goal in view and the criteria of the one passing judgment. Emphasis is upon some end. As a Program (Method and Content) The method is stated as a set of procedures and the content as a list of activities. By carrying out the procedures, the activities are supposedly accomplished. When the program is highly formalized as in many five-year plans, the focus tends to be upon the program rather than upon what is happening to the people involved in the program. It is a program that CD comes into contact with the subject matter specialties such as health, welfare, agriculture, industry and recreation. Emphasis is upon activities. As a Movement (Program and Emotional Dynamic) CD is a crusade, a cause to which people become committed. Not neutral (like process) but carries an emotional charge; one is either for it or against it. It is dedicated to progress, a philosophic and not a scientific concept, since progress must be viewed with reference to values and goals, which differ under different political and social systems. CD as a movement becomes institutionalized, building up its own organizational structure, accepted procedure and professional practitioners. It stresses and promotes the idea of community development. Community Development Philosophy “Man as the end goal of development as he views the improvement and transformation of his community. As soon as this is done, development is conducted for total community change resulting from a democratic form, which is participation with an expression of self-reliance and initiative.”
  4. 4. Community Development Framework People’s Empowerment, Initiative and Self-Reliance Community Characterization (Profiling) Problem Identification Analysis Prioritization Conceptualization of Possible Solution through Development Thrusts Management – people’s capability Organizing – people’s prerogative to organize Leadership – wider base of decision-making Development Planning – participatory process Evaluation – participatory evaluation system Research – documentation of development of innovative models of CD practices Transform and mold development initiatives Community Development Approaches and Strategies Focus on the development of self confidence, encourage self awareness and instill self-reliance to communities or societies which results to a collective institutionalization and operationalization of community capabilities and wise use of available community resources. 1. Participatory approaches – operationalize, implement and evaluate a. Education therapy strategy for self-confidence and self-reliance b. Behavioral change strategy to influence community change c. Staff Supplement strategy to encourage voluntarism d. Co-optation results to functional leadership and policy determining structure of an organization e. Power sharing strategy for appropriate delegation of authority f. Confrontation strategy for immediate community action g. Military for immediate compliance and execution or implementation 2. Integrated approach a. Comprehensive, multi-faceted approach dealing with all aspects of development b. Looks at productivity and profitability c. Leads to a desired social change d. Support social and economic development e. Enhance potential of people and community f. Utilize participation and interdisciplinary integration 3. Gender in Development Approach a. Welfare – better development b. Emancipation – increase participation and harness labor c. Equity – equity in development process d. Anti-poverty – ensure and increase productivity e. Efficiency – development for efficiency f. Empowerment – empower women to become self-reliant g. Integration – balance of roles and responsibilities
  5. 5. Elements of Community Development (Burkey 1993, McKnight and Kretzman 1993 McKnight 1995, and Ronnby 1995, 1996) • Build on Community Assets – Problems or unmet needs can be springboards to action, but action occurs through the use of resources. A simple act 1. Joint effort to solve common problem democratically and scientifically on a community basis 2. Activities must correspond to the basic needs of the community 3. Concerted action and the establishment of multi-purpose program 4. Revitalization of existing forms of local government and effective local administration 5. Identification, encouragement and training of local leadership 6. Assistance from the government 7. Promotes self-help and self-reliance 8. Initiatives comes from the people themselves 9. Process of stimulation of a change agent 10. Adoption of consistent policies, specific administrative arrangement, training of personnel, mobilization of local and natural resources 11. Adoption of voluntary NGO’s should be used at all levels 12. Mutual relationship and close co-ordination between the local and national level
  6. 6. Elements of Community Development (Burkey 1993, McKnight and Kretzman 1993 McKnight 1995, and Ronnby 1995, 1996) • Build on Community Assets – Problems or unmet needs can be springboards to action, but action occurs through the use of resources. A simple act 1. Joint effort to solve common problem democratically and scientifically on a community basis 2. Activities must correspond to the basic needs of the community 3. Concerted action and the establishment of multi-purpose program 4. Revitalization of existing forms of local government and effective local administration 5. Identification, encouragement and training of local leadership 6. Assistance from the government 7. Promotes self-help and self-reliance 8. Initiatives comes from the people themselves 9. Process of stimulation of a change agent 10. Adoption of consistent policies, specific administrative arrangement, training of personnel, mobilization of local and natural resources 11. Adoption of voluntary NGO’s should be used at all levels 12. Mutual relationship and close co-ordination between the local and national level

×