WHAT IS THE IMPORTANCE
OF SOIL?
The Big Three

    Anchorage


    Essential Minerals for


    Plants
    Pore Space for Water


    and Air
WHAT IS THE
COMPOSITION OF SOIL?
Composition of Soil
    Mineral Particles


    Organic Matter


    Water


    Air

Organic Composition of Soil
    Leaf Litter


    Remains of Plants


    Droppings and Animal


    Remains
    Fungi
...
WHAT TYPES OF SOILS EXIST
AROUND THE GLOBE?
12 Soil Types
http://soils.ag.uidaho.edu/soilorders/orders.htm
World Soils
U.S. Soil Orders
HOW ARE SOILS FORMED?
From Parent Material to Soil
    Decomposition


    Erosion


    Weathering


    Infiltration

Soil Production Through Decomposition
Soil Production through Wind Erosion
Soil Production Through Weathering
Soil Production through Infiltration
Soil Formation Facts
    To form 2.5 centimeters (1 inch) of topsoil, may

    require between 200 and 1000 years.
    Th...
WHAT ROLE DO ORGANISMS
PLAY IN SOIL FORMATION?
Life Processes in Soil Formation
    Millions of soil organism may inhabit just one teaspoon of

    fertile agricultural...
WHAT IS A SOIL PROFILE?
Layers
WHAT ROLE DOES SOIL TEXTURE
PLAY IN PLANT GROWTH?
Soil Textures
ESTAR
Satellite Detection of Soil Types
Soil Particle Size
    Sand      0.05 to 2 mm


    Silt 0.002 mm to 0.05 mm


    Clay      <0.002 mm

Provides Area for Chemical Reactions

    Oxygen - required by soil organisms for respiration


    Nitrogen - used by ni...
WHAT CAUSES SOIL
EROSION?
Types of Erosion

                       Gully
                   

                       Rill
                   

   ...
Agents of Soil Erosion
    Flowing Water


    Wind


    Human Activity

Soil Compaction from Deforestation
Soil Erosion from Overgrazing in Kenya
Water-borne Coastal Soil Erosion
Severe Soil Erosion in a Wheat Field
Soil Erosion in Rice Terracing
Harmful Affects of Soil Erosion
    Loss of soil fertility through depletion of plant


    nutrients
    Sediments in ri...
HOW SERIOUS IS GLOBAL
SOIL EROSION?
Global Statistics
    38% of the world’s croplands have serious topsoil


    erosion
    Food production has been reduce...
Global Soil Erosion
WHAT IS DESERTIFICATION,
AND HOW SERIOUS IS IT?
Desertification Vulnerability
Causes and Consequences of Desertification
Global Statistics
    70% of the world’s dry lands are suffering


    Loss of topsoil is affecting the lives of 250 mill...
TO LEARN MORE ABOUT
SOILS:
NRCS Soil Website
http://soils.usda.gov/
GIS Soil Data View
http://soildataviewer.nrcs.usda.gov/
ESTAR Soil Moisture Data
http://daac.gsfc.nasa.gov/fieldexp/SGP97/estar.html
Soil
Soil
Soil
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Soil

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Covers information on soil formation, soil characteristics, soil food webs, globals soil maps, and ESTAR satellite data and a link to NCRS GIS soil database

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Soil

  1. 1. WHAT IS THE IMPORTANCE OF SOIL?
  2. 2. The Big Three Anchorage  Essential Minerals for  Plants Pore Space for Water  and Air
  3. 3. WHAT IS THE COMPOSITION OF SOIL?
  4. 4. Composition of Soil Mineral Particles  Organic Matter  Water  Air 
  5. 5. Organic Composition of Soil Leaf Litter  Remains of Plants  Droppings and Animal  Remains Fungi  Microorganisms 
  6. 6. WHAT TYPES OF SOILS EXIST AROUND THE GLOBE?
  7. 7. 12 Soil Types http://soils.ag.uidaho.edu/soilorders/orders.htm
  8. 8. World Soils
  9. 9. U.S. Soil Orders
  10. 10. HOW ARE SOILS FORMED?
  11. 11. From Parent Material to Soil Decomposition  Erosion  Weathering  Infiltration 
  12. 12. Soil Production Through Decomposition
  13. 13. Soil Production through Wind Erosion
  14. 14. Soil Production Through Weathering
  15. 15. Soil Production through Infiltration
  16. 16. Soil Formation Facts To form 2.5 centimeters (1 inch) of topsoil, may  require between 200 and 1000 years. The thickness of the soil varies from a thin film on  very young lands, near the poles and on the tops of mountains, to more than 3 meters (10 feet) on very old lands, such as certain forests.
  17. 17. WHAT ROLE DO ORGANISMS PLAY IN SOIL FORMATION?
  18. 18. Life Processes in Soil Formation Millions of soil organism may inhabit just one teaspoon of  fertile agricultural soil. The roots, insects, earthworms and microorganisms, interact  with the geological materials to form soil with a loose texture. Respiration of the organisms releases carbon dioxide, which  makes the upper soil acidic and helps dissolve rocks. These organisms help to cycle nitrogen and phosphorus. 
  19. 19. WHAT IS A SOIL PROFILE?
  20. 20. Layers
  21. 21. WHAT ROLE DOES SOIL TEXTURE PLAY IN PLANT GROWTH?
  22. 22. Soil Textures
  23. 23. ESTAR Satellite Detection of Soil Types
  24. 24. Soil Particle Size Sand 0.05 to 2 mm  Silt 0.002 mm to 0.05 mm  Clay <0.002 mm 
  25. 25. Provides Area for Chemical Reactions Oxygen - required by soil organisms for respiration  Nitrogen - used by nitrogen-fixing soil organisms  Carbon Dioxide - involved in soil weathering 
  26. 26. WHAT CAUSES SOIL EROSION?
  27. 27. Types of Erosion Gully  Rill  Sheet 
  28. 28. Agents of Soil Erosion Flowing Water  Wind  Human Activity 
  29. 29. Soil Compaction from Deforestation
  30. 30. Soil Erosion from Overgrazing in Kenya
  31. 31. Water-borne Coastal Soil Erosion
  32. 32. Severe Soil Erosion in a Wheat Field
  33. 33. Soil Erosion in Rice Terracing
  34. 34. Harmful Affects of Soil Erosion Loss of soil fertility through depletion of plant  nutrients Sediments in rivers can pollute water, kill fish and  shell fish, and clog irrigation ditches, boat channels, reservoirs and lakes
  35. 35. HOW SERIOUS IS GLOBAL SOIL EROSION?
  36. 36. Global Statistics 38% of the world’s croplands have serious topsoil  erosion Food production has been reduced by 16% 
  37. 37. Global Soil Erosion
  38. 38. WHAT IS DESERTIFICATION, AND HOW SERIOUS IS IT?
  39. 39. Desertification Vulnerability
  40. 40. Causes and Consequences of Desertification
  41. 41. Global Statistics 70% of the world’s dry lands are suffering  Loss of topsoil is affecting the lives of 250 million  people in 110 countries (70 in Africa)
  42. 42. TO LEARN MORE ABOUT SOILS:
  43. 43. NRCS Soil Website http://soils.usda.gov/
  44. 44. GIS Soil Data View http://soildataviewer.nrcs.usda.gov/
  45. 45. ESTAR Soil Moisture Data http://daac.gsfc.nasa.gov/fieldexp/SGP97/estar.html
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