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Soil
Soil
Soil
Soil
Soil
Soil
Soil
Soil
Soil
Soil
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Soil
Soil
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Soil
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Soil

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Covers information on soil formation, soil characteristics, soil food webs, globals soil maps, and ESTAR satellite data and a link to NCRS GIS soil database

Covers information on soil formation, soil characteristics, soil food webs, globals soil maps, and ESTAR satellite data and a link to NCRS GIS soil database

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  • 1. WHAT IS THE IMPORTANCE OF SOIL?
  • 2. The Big Three Anchorage  Essential Minerals for  Plants Pore Space for Water  and Air
  • 3. WHAT IS THE COMPOSITION OF SOIL?
  • 4. Composition of Soil Mineral Particles  Organic Matter  Water  Air 
  • 5. Organic Composition of Soil Leaf Litter  Remains of Plants  Droppings and Animal  Remains Fungi  Microorganisms 
  • 6. WHAT TYPES OF SOILS EXIST AROUND THE GLOBE?
  • 7. 12 Soil Types http://soils.ag.uidaho.edu/soilorders/orders.htm
  • 8. World Soils
  • 9. U.S. Soil Orders
  • 10. HOW ARE SOILS FORMED?
  • 11. From Parent Material to Soil Decomposition  Erosion  Weathering  Infiltration 
  • 12. Soil Production Through Decomposition
  • 13. Soil Production through Wind Erosion
  • 14. Soil Production Through Weathering
  • 15. Soil Production through Infiltration
  • 16. Soil Formation Facts To form 2.5 centimeters (1 inch) of topsoil, may  require between 200 and 1000 years. The thickness of the soil varies from a thin film on  very young lands, near the poles and on the tops of mountains, to more than 3 meters (10 feet) on very old lands, such as certain forests.
  • 17. WHAT ROLE DO ORGANISMS PLAY IN SOIL FORMATION?
  • 18. Life Processes in Soil Formation Millions of soil organism may inhabit just one teaspoon of  fertile agricultural soil. The roots, insects, earthworms and microorganisms, interact  with the geological materials to form soil with a loose texture. Respiration of the organisms releases carbon dioxide, which  makes the upper soil acidic and helps dissolve rocks. These organisms help to cycle nitrogen and phosphorus. 
  • 19. WHAT IS A SOIL PROFILE?
  • 20. Layers
  • 21. WHAT ROLE DOES SOIL TEXTURE PLAY IN PLANT GROWTH?
  • 22. Soil Textures
  • 23. ESTAR Satellite Detection of Soil Types
  • 24. Soil Particle Size Sand 0.05 to 2 mm  Silt 0.002 mm to 0.05 mm  Clay <0.002 mm 
  • 25. Provides Area for Chemical Reactions Oxygen - required by soil organisms for respiration  Nitrogen - used by nitrogen-fixing soil organisms  Carbon Dioxide - involved in soil weathering 
  • 26. WHAT CAUSES SOIL EROSION?
  • 27. Types of Erosion Gully  Rill  Sheet 
  • 28. Agents of Soil Erosion Flowing Water  Wind  Human Activity 
  • 29. Soil Compaction from Deforestation
  • 30. Soil Erosion from Overgrazing in Kenya
  • 31. Water-borne Coastal Soil Erosion
  • 32. Severe Soil Erosion in a Wheat Field
  • 33. Soil Erosion in Rice Terracing
  • 34. Harmful Affects of Soil Erosion Loss of soil fertility through depletion of plant  nutrients Sediments in rivers can pollute water, kill fish and  shell fish, and clog irrigation ditches, boat channels, reservoirs and lakes
  • 35. HOW SERIOUS IS GLOBAL SOIL EROSION?
  • 36. Global Statistics 38% of the world’s croplands have serious topsoil  erosion Food production has been reduced by 16% 
  • 37. Global Soil Erosion
  • 38. WHAT IS DESERTIFICATION, AND HOW SERIOUS IS IT?
  • 39. Desertification Vulnerability
  • 40. Causes and Consequences of Desertification
  • 41. Global Statistics 70% of the world’s dry lands are suffering  Loss of topsoil is affecting the lives of 250 million  people in 110 countries (70 in Africa)
  • 42. TO LEARN MORE ABOUT SOILS:
  • 43. NRCS Soil Website http://soils.usda.gov/
  • 44. GIS Soil Data View http://soildataviewer.nrcs.usda.gov/
  • 45. ESTAR Soil Moisture Data http://daac.gsfc.nasa.gov/fieldexp/SGP97/estar.html

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