Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Soil properties and

21,102 views

Published on

  • If you’re struggling with your assignments like me, check out ⇒ www.WritePaper.info ⇐. My friend sent me a link to to tis site. This awesome company. After I was continuously complaining to my family and friends about the ordeals of student life. They wrote my entire research paper for me, and it turned out brilliantly. I highly recommend this service to anyone in my shoes. ⇒ www.WritePaper.info ⇐.
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • My personal experience with research paper writing services was highly positive. I sent a request to HelpWriting.net and found a writer within a few minutes. Because I had to move house and I literally didn’t have any time to sit on a computer for many hours every evening. Thankfully, the writer I chose followed my instructions to the letter. I know we can all write essays ourselves. For those in the same situation I was in, I recommend HelpWriting.net.
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • DOWNLOAD THE BOOK INTO AVAILABLE FORMAT (New Update) ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... Download Full PDF EBOOK here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download Full EPUB Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download Full doc Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download PDF EBOOK here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download EPUB Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download doc Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................... eBook is an electronic version of a traditional print book THE can be read by using a personal computer or by using an eBook reader. (An eBook reader can be a software application for use on a computer such as Microsoft's free Reader application, or a book-sized computer THE is used solely as a reading device such as Nuvomedia's Rocket eBook.) Users can purchase an eBook on diskette or CD, but the most popular method of getting an eBook is to purchase a downloadable file of the eBook (or other reading material) from a Web site (such as Barnes and Noble) to be read from the user's computer or reading device. Generally, an eBook can be downloaded in five minutes or less ......................................................................................................................... .............. Browse by Genre Available eBOOK .............................................................................................................................. Art, Biography, Business, Chick Lit, Children's, Christian, Classics, Comics, Contemporary, CookBOOK, Manga, Memoir, Music, Mystery, Non Fiction, Paranormal, Philosophy, Poetry, Psychology, Religion, Romance, Science, Science Fiction, Self Help, Suspense, Spirituality, Sports, Thriller, Travel, Young Adult, Crime, EBOOK, Fantasy, Fiction, Graphic Novels, Historical Fiction, History, Horror, Humor And Comedy, ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... .....BEST SELLER FOR EBOOK RECOMMEND............................................................. ......................................................................................................................... Blowout: Corrupted Democracy, Rogue State Russia, and the Richest, Most Destructive Industry on Earth,-- The Ride of a Lifetime: Lessons Learned from 15 Years as CEO of the Walt Disney Company,-- Call Sign Chaos: Learning to Lead,-- StrengthsFinder 2.0,-- Stillness Is the Key,-- She Said: Breaking the Sexual Harassment Story THE Helped Ignite a Movement,-- Atomic Habits: An Easy & Proven Way to Build Good Habits & Break Bad Ones,-- Everything Is Figureoutable,-- What It Takes: Lessons in the Pursuit of Excellence,-- Rich Dad Poor Dad: What the Rich Teach Their Kids About Money THE the Poor and Middle Class Do Not!,-- The Total Money Makeover: Classic Edition: A Proven Plan for Financial Fitness,-- Shut Up and Listen!: Hard Business Truths THE Will Help You Succeed, ......................................................................................................................... .........................................................................................................................
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • Sex in your area is here: ❶❶❶ http://bit.ly/2F90ZZC ❶❶❶
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • Dating direct: ❶❶❶ http://bit.ly/2F90ZZC ❶❶❶
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here

Soil properties and

  1. 1. SOIL PROPERTIESANDCLASSIFICATION
  2. 2. SOIL PROPERTIES The various properties of soil include-1. Color2. Texture3. Humus4. Soil structures
  3. 3. COLOUR Colour is the foremost physical property that can be seen with naked eye and is useful in interpretation of valuable insight into the soil environment, thus it can be very important in assessment and classification of soil.
  4. 4. DIFFERENT SOIL COLOURS The most influential colours in a well drained soil are white, red, brown and black. White indicates the predominance of silica (quartz), or the presence of salts. Red indicates the accumulation of iron oxides. Brown and black indicate the level and type of organic matter. A colour triangle can be used to show the names and relationships between the influential colours.
  5. 5. FACTORS DETERMININGSOILCOLOUR Four main factors influence the colour of a soil:1. Mineral matter derived from the constituents of the parent material2. Organic matter3. The nature and abundance of iron4. Moisture content
  6. 6. INTERPRETATION USINGSOIL COLOUR If we understand what determines soil colour, then we can use colour to make some inferences about, history, chemistry and hydrology. For example, an obvious change in colour between horizons is a real indication of changes in soil properties which are the result of biological activity, water movement and weathering.
  7. 7. DETERMINING SOILCOLOUR Soil colour should be determined on moist surfaces of freshly broken (not sliced) soil samples. Like any other soil property, colour must always be observed throughout soil profile, paying special attention to the differences between soil horizons. Colour characteristics such as mottle size, percentage and contrast should be observed and recorded. A system that uses specially printed colour charts (Munsell Soil Colour Charts) gives an international standard. It divides colour into wavelength, lightness, and colour saturation. Where a Munsell Chart is not available, simple names as listed in the triangle can be used.
  8. 8. Munsell Color ChartsHue = dominant spectral or “rainbow” color Red, Yellow, Blue, Green Number increases and the color is more brilliant as grayness decreases 8
  9. 9. Color Determination in the field ALWAYS USE MOIST SOIL Munsell’s color charts values:-1. Absolute black = 02. Absolute white = 103. Light soils hue value = 7 or more4. Medium soils hue value = 5 – 65. Dark soils hue value = 4 or less 9
  10. 10. MOTTLES Spots of different colors in the soil Generally indicate that the soil has periods of inadequate aeration each year Usually rust colored Bluish, grayish, & greenish subsoils – with or w/o mottles = indicate longer periods each year of waterlogged conditions & inadequate aeration.
  11. 11. HUMUS The term was coined in1790–1800; (< Latin: earth, ground) Dark brown or black organic substance made up of decayed plant or animal organic matter, that provides nutrients for plants and increases ability of soil to retain water
  12. 12. •In soil science, humus refers to any organic matter that hasreached a point of stability, where it will break down nofurther and might, if conditions do not change, remain as it isfor centuries. Humus significantly improves the structure ofsoil and contributes to moisture and nutrient retention.•In agriculture, humus is sometimes also used to describemature compost, or natural compost extracted from a forestor other spontaneous source for use to amend soil. It is alsoused to describe a topsoil horizon that contains organicmatter
  13. 13. Humus also controlsthe colour of soilhigher the humuscontent darker is thesoil colour.
  14. 14. TEXTURE Refers to the size of particles. Three types are….  Sand (Large)  Silt (Medium)  Clay (Small) TEXTURE = % of sand , silt and clay.
  15. 15. SOIL STRUCTURE The soil structures commonly seen are-1. Blocky2. Platy3. Massive4. Prismatic5. Granular
  16. 16. 1. BLOCKY Particles cling together in angular aggregates. Typical of soils with high clay content. Typical of B horizons. beds are large about 5 to 50 millimeters.
  17. 17. 2. PLATY Large, thin beds. Plate-like & arranged in overlapping horizontal layers.
  18. 18. 3. MASSIVE Soil has no visible structure. Hard to break apart & appears in very large clods.
  19. 19. 4. PRISMATIC Prismatic structure are bounded by flat to rounded vertical faces. Units are longer vertically and top of the prisms are normally flat. It is commonly found in B horizons.
  20. 20. 5. GRANULAR Is the best for most plants. Particles cling together to form rounded aggregates. It is commonly found in A horizons. Beds are small usually between 1 to 10 millimeters.
  21. 21. SOILCLASSIFICATION Soil can be classified according to the grain size as-1. Fine grained- Clay2. Medium grained- Silt3. Coarse grained- Sand
  22. 22. CLAY < 0.002 mm Flat plates or tiny flakes Small clay particles are colloids If suspended in water will not settle
  23. 23.  Wet clay is very sticky and is plastic or it can be molded readily into a shape or rod. Easily formed into long ribbons
  24. 24.  Pores spaces are very small and convoluted  Movement of water and air very slow Water holding capacity  Tremendous capacity to adsorb water- not all available for plants. Chemical adsorption is large
  25. 25. SILT < 0.05 mm to > 0.002 mm Not visible without microscope Quartz often dominant mineral in silt since other minerals have weathered away.
  26. 26. Does not feel grittyFloury feel –smooth like silly putty
  27. 27.  Smaller particles – retains more water for plants and have slower drainage than sand. Easilywashed away by flowing water – highly erosive. Holds more plant nutrients than sand.
  28. 28. SAND Feels gritty Considered non-cohesive – does not stick together in a mass unless it is very wet.
  29. 29.  Sand has less nutrients for plants than smaller particles Voids between sand particles promote free drainage and entry of air Holds little water and prone to drought
  30. 30. On the basis oftexture soil can beclassified as :-1. Sandy soil2. Loamy soil3. Clayey soil
  31. 31. Sandy Soils Coarse texture  Sands  Loamy sands
  32. 32. Loamy Soils- Coarse Medium texture  Very fine sandy loam  Loam  Silt loam  Silt
  33. 33. Loamy Soils - Fine Moderatel y fine texture  Sandy clay loam  Clay loam  Silty clay loam
  34. 34. Clayey Soils Fine texture  Silty clay  Clay  Sandy clay
  35. 35. tHANK YOU

×