WG2: SOIL WATER, IRRIGATION AND CLIMATE CHANGE
Eulampius Frederick  Saint Lucia Vardhui Surmalyan Armenia Eranga Sampath  Sri Lanka Samuel Karongo  Kenya Group Members C...
 
Introduction Climate Change is defined as statistically significant variation in either mean state of the climate or in it...
Introduction The average predicted temperature increase over the next 100 years is around 3 degrees centigrade. This compa...
Introduction change in rainfall patterns rise in temperatures and sea level potential droughts habitat loss heat stress fl...
Introduction <ul><li>Rising temperatures and changing rainfall patterns may increase or decrease agriculture’s water deman...
Irrigation <ul><li>Irrigation water requirements  strongly depend on factors such as biophysical conditions, crop type and...
Sprinkler systems (efficiency 70-80%)  Drip systems (efficiency 90-95% )  Furrow irrigation  (efficiency  30- 50 %)  Irrig...
Predictions
UNDP study - national scenarios forecast over next century Increase of climate aridity and intensification of desertificat...
<ul><li>Average temperatures are likely to rise in the range of 0 to 4.5 degrees centigrade by 2090  </li></ul><ul><li>Rai...
<ul><li>An overall warming of between 1 and 5 degrees Celsius or greater is expected </li></ul><ul><li>Increased number of...
<ul><li>By 2100, temperature during the southwest monsoon season (May - Sept) is anticipated to be 2.5 ºC, whilst the nort...
<ul><li>The temperature is predicted to increase from 1 - 4 °C (IPCC). </li></ul><ul><li>The precipitation will not change...
Problems
<ul><li>Droughts </li></ul><ul><li>Floods in the Coast region (wet season) </li></ul><ul><li>Distribution of the water for...
<ul><li>Sea water intrusion to agricultural lands </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce the quality of irrigation water in coastal regi...
<ul><li>In clay type soils, increasing temperatures coupled with prolonged dry spells will lead to desiccation cracking th...
<ul><li>High evapotranspiration rates, need for more irrigation water. </li></ul><ul><li>Extreme droughts will lead to soi...
Reduced soil moisture  Reduced availability of  water for agriculture  Loss of arable land  Armenia
Adaptation Strategies How to overcome these problems?  Examples and the solutions done in each country
Planning efficient use of water resources Improving water infrastructure for irrigation  Integrating climate adaptation fo...
<ul><li>Information sharing on impacts of climate change </li></ul><ul><li>Water harvesting and conservation </li></ul><ul...
<ul><li>Drip irrigation </li></ul><ul><li>Greywater re-use </li></ul><ul><li>Desalination of sea water? </li></ul><ul><li>...
<ul><li>crop recommendation based on the agro-ecological suitability; </li></ul><ul><li>promote on-farm soil and moisture ...
<ul><li>breeding for short age varieties; </li></ul><ul><li>strengthen the breeding program for; </li></ul><ul><li>a) drou...
<ul><li>Building water infrastructure for irrigation </li></ul><ul><li>Efficient irrigation methods e.g. drip, sprinklers ...
Challenges in Implementing Adaptation Strategies <ul><li>Financial constraints </li></ul><ul><li>Insufficient baseline dat...
Conclusions text Water scarcity remains one of the main problems arising from climate change. Rainfall patterns are expect...
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Soil water, irrigation and climate change

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  • Considering the needs and vulnerabilities of rural and low income households.
  • Soil water, irrigation and climate change

    1. 1. WG2: SOIL WATER, IRRIGATION AND CLIMATE CHANGE
    2. 2. Eulampius Frederick Saint Lucia Vardhui Surmalyan Armenia Eranga Sampath Sri Lanka Samuel Karongo Kenya Group Members Cristina Sosa Sosa Ecuador
    3. 4. Introduction Climate Change is defined as statistically significant variation in either mean state of the climate or in its variability, persisting for an extended period (typically decades or longer). Climate change may be due to natural internal processes or external forcing or to persistent anthropogenic changes in the composition of the atmosphere or in land use (IPCC, 2001).
    4. 5. Introduction The average predicted temperature increase over the next 100 years is around 3 degrees centigrade. This compares to an increase of about 1 degree centigrade due to previous man-made greenhouse gas emissions (Source: IPCC) If the predicted increases in greenhouse gas concentrations are then translated into temperature changes, a global temperature increase of between 1 and 5.5 degrees centigrade is predicted for 2100 (Source: IPCC)
    5. 6. Introduction change in rainfall patterns rise in temperatures and sea level potential droughts habitat loss heat stress floods Effects of Climate Change include
    6. 7. Introduction <ul><li>Rising temperatures and changing rainfall patterns may increase or decrease agriculture’s water demand. </li></ul>
    7. 8. Irrigation <ul><li>Irrigation water requirements strongly depend on factors such as biophysical conditions, crop type and water use efficiencies. </li></ul><ul><li>We will face a general trend of increasing area of land under irrigation but decreasing water use intensity </li></ul><ul><li>Meeting rising food demand necessitates increased crop land </li></ul>Water efficient irrigation methods <ul><li>Population increase </li></ul>
    8. 9. Sprinkler systems (efficiency 70-80%) Drip systems (efficiency 90-95% ) Furrow irrigation (efficiency 30- 50 %) Irrigation
    9. 10. Predictions
    10. 11. UNDP study - national scenarios forecast over next century Increase of climate aridity and intensification of desertification processes Plant cultivation reduction efficiency 8-14% Decrease in precipitation of about 9 % and annual river flow 15 % Armenia
    11. 12. <ul><li>Average temperatures are likely to rise in the range of 0 to 4.5 degrees centigrade by 2090 </li></ul><ul><li>Rainfall seasonality and amounts is expected to remain the same but intensity is projected to increase by 2100. </li></ul><ul><li>Increased number of wet seasons leading to severe flooding. </li></ul><ul><li>Frequent and severe droughts </li></ul>Kenya
    12. 13. <ul><li>An overall warming of between 1 and 5 degrees Celsius or greater is expected </li></ul><ul><li>Increased number of hot/dry days and nights, dry spells will become more pronounced </li></ul><ul><li>Fewer but more intense rainfall events. </li></ul><ul><li>Amount of precipitation received annually is, however, not expected to change significantly </li></ul><ul><li>Increased flooding as well as hillside erosion and sediment transport. </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing temperature is expected to increase evapotranspiration rates thereby reducing soil moisture </li></ul>Saint Lucia
    13. 14. <ul><li>By 2100, temperature during the southwest monsoon season (May - Sept) is anticipated to be 2.5 ºC, whilst the northeast monsoon season (Dec - Feb) is expected to yield a temperature increase of 2.9 ºC </li></ul><ul><li>Tropical cyclone intensity is expected to rise by 10 - 20% </li></ul><ul><li>Rise in sea level A 30-50 cm sea-level rise (projected by 2050) will threaten low islands and coastal zones </li></ul>Sri Lanka
    14. 15. <ul><li>The temperature is predicted to increase from 1 - 4 °C (IPCC). </li></ul><ul><li>The precipitation will not change much in the year, but the rainfall patterns will change </li></ul><ul><li>Melting of the glaciers </li></ul>Ecuador
    15. 16. Problems
    16. 17. <ul><li>Droughts </li></ul><ul><li>Floods in the Coast region (wet season) </li></ul><ul><li>Distribution of the water for agriculture, industry, domestic use, hydropower plants </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of crops lands </li></ul><ul><li>Decreasing of the flows in the rivers: our energy depends directly from the hydropower plants, that is why this last time we have faced energy problems. </li></ul>Ecuador
    17. 18. <ul><li>Sea water intrusion to agricultural lands </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce the quality of irrigation water in coastal regions. </li></ul><ul><li>High temperature regime will also increase the evapotranspiration losses leading to frequent soil moisture stress conditions. </li></ul><ul><li>High intensive rains (>25 mm/hr). Such rains will wash off the fertile top soil of arable lands. </li></ul><ul><li>Salinization of agricultural lands in semi-arid parts of the country. </li></ul><ul><li>Increased cloud cover and rainfall could decrease yields of many crops (rice, sugar cane etc). </li></ul>Sri Lanka
    18. 19. <ul><li>In clay type soils, increasing temperatures coupled with prolonged dry spells will lead to desiccation cracking that will further enhance soil moisture loss. Soil becomes unmanageable. </li></ul><ul><li>It is anticipated that surface water systems will experience increasingly variable stream flows and reduced water levels. </li></ul><ul><li>Decreased water available for irrigation. </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of fertile topsoil due to erosion and sediment transport during floods. </li></ul><ul><li>Salinisation of topsoil from fertilizer use </li></ul>Saint Lucia
    19. 20. <ul><li>High evapotranspiration rates, need for more irrigation water. </li></ul><ul><li>Extreme droughts will lead to soil moisture being drastically reduced. </li></ul><ul><li>Flooding will cause loss of fertile top soil and damage to irrigation infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of crop lands from sediment deposition </li></ul><ul><li>Increased conflicts over water resources </li></ul>Kenya
    20. 21. Reduced soil moisture Reduced availability of water for agriculture Loss of arable land Armenia
    21. 22. Adaptation Strategies How to overcome these problems? Examples and the solutions done in each country
    22. 23. Planning efficient use of water resources Improving water infrastructure for irrigation Integrating climate adaptation for agricultural sector development Armenia
    23. 24. <ul><li>Information sharing on impacts of climate change </li></ul><ul><li>Water harvesting and conservation </li></ul><ul><li>Flood protection measures e.g. levees, dikes. </li></ul><ul><li>Use of water efficient irrigation systems </li></ul>Kenya
    24. 25. <ul><li>Drip irrigation </li></ul><ul><li>Greywater re-use </li></ul><ul><li>Desalination of sea water? </li></ul><ul><li>Use groundwater (this may lead to saltwater intrusion) </li></ul><ul><li>Growing of cover crops </li></ul><ul><li>Mulching </li></ul>Saint Lucia
    25. 26. <ul><li>crop recommendation based on the agro-ecological suitability; </li></ul><ul><li>promote on-farm soil and moisture conservation; </li></ul><ul><li>rain water harvesting (domestic and on-farm) </li></ul><ul><li>rehabilitation of irrigation canal network and minor tanks to operate at their design capacity ; </li></ul><ul><li>re-use of drainage water </li></ul><ul><li>program to improve the water use and conveyance efficiency; </li></ul>Sri Lanka
    26. 27. <ul><li>breeding for short age varieties; </li></ul><ul><li>strengthen the breeding program for; </li></ul><ul><li>a) drought resistance </li></ul><ul><li>b) high temperature resistance </li></ul><ul><li>c) pest and disease resistance </li></ul><ul><li>d) salt resistance </li></ul><ul><li>effective use of long range weather forecasting for agricultural planning </li></ul>Sri Lanka
    27. 28. <ul><li>Building water infrastructure for irrigation </li></ul><ul><li>Efficient irrigation methods e.g. drip, sprinklers </li></ul><ul><li>Modeling possible effects in regional and local environments. </li></ul><ul><li>Implement flood mitigation measures e.g. dikes, dams and artificial reservoirs. </li></ul><ul><li>Integrate conservation and crop plague management. </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment of river water to make it suitable for irrigation. </li></ul><ul><li>Afforestation using adaptive tree species </li></ul><ul><li>Strengthen the breeding for drought resistance crops. </li></ul>Ecuador
    28. 29. Challenges in Implementing Adaptation Strategies <ul><li>Financial constraints </li></ul><ul><li>Insufficient baseline data and research. </li></ul><ul><li>Limited awareness of climate change impacts and adaptation strategies. </li></ul><ul><li>Insufficient stakeholder co-operation </li></ul><ul><li>Inadequate or non-supportive legislative and institutional frameworks. </li></ul>
    29. 30. Conclusions text Water scarcity remains one of the main problems arising from climate change. Rainfall patterns are expected to change The economic development of emerging countries will depend on how they empower their small farmers to adapt to climate change, i.e. training them on the use of efficient irrigation systems Need for more research and financial and technical support to cope with climate change
    30. 31. Danke

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