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Dna technology

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  • 1. DNA Technology
  • 2. DNA Extraction
    • Chemical treatments cause cells and nuclei to burst
    • The DNA is inherently sticky , and can be pulled out of the mixture
    • This is called “spooling” DNA
  • 3. “ Spooled” DNA
  • 4. Cutting DNA
    • Restriction enzymes cut DNA at specific sequences
    • Useful to divide DNA into manageable fragments
  • 5. Electrophoresis
    • DNA can be separated based on size and charge
    • The phosphate groups are negatively charged
    • DNA is placed in a gel and electricity is run through
  • 6. Electrophoresis
    • Negative DNA moves toward the positive end
    • Smaller fragments move farther and faster
  • 7. Electrophoresis
  • 8. Steps in DNA Sequencing
    • Many copies of a single strand of DNA are placed in a test tube
    • DNA polymerase is added
    • A mixture of nucleotides is added some of which have dye molecules attached
    • Each base (A,T,C,G) has a different color dye
  • 9. Steps in DNA Sequencing
    • By chance, some dyed nucleotides & some regular ones are added
    • Dye molecules are large and stop the chain from growing
  • 10. DNA Sequencing
    • The result is DNA fragments of multiple sizes with colors that can be identified
  • 11. DNA Sequencing
    • After the gel separates the resulting fragments by size, we 'read' the sequence from bottom to top .
  • 12. Copying DNA
    • Polymerase Chain Reaction
    • Also called PCR
    • A method of making many copies of a piece of DNA
  • 13. Steps in Copying DNA
      • A DNA molecule is placed in a small test tube
      • DNA polymerase that can work at high temps is added
  • 14. Steps in Copying DNA
    • The DNA is heated to separate the two strands
    • Primers , short pieces of DNA complementary to the ends of the molecule to be copied, are added
  • 15. Copying DNA
      • The tube is cooled, and DNA polymerase adds new bases to the separated strands
  • 16. PCR Large amounts of DNA can be made from a small starting sample
  • 17. Cloning
    • Clone - a member of a group of genetically identical cells
    • May be produced by asexual reproduction (mitosis)
  • 18. Cloning organisms
    • A body cell from one organism and an egg cell from another are fused
    • The resulting cell divides like a normal embryo
  • 19. Cloning “Dolly”
  • 20. Human Genome Project
  • 21. Human Genome Project
    • Started in 1990
    • Research effort to sequence all of our DNA (46 chromosomes)
    • Over 3.3 billion nucleotides
    • Mapping every gene location (loci)
    • Conducted by scientists around the world
  • 22. HGP Insights
    • Only 2% of human genome codes for proteins (exons)
    • Other 98% (introns ) are non-coding
    • Only about 20,000 to 25,000 genes (expected 100,000)
    • Proteome – organism’s complete set of proteins
    • About 8 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) – places where humans differ by a single nucleotide
    • About ½ of genome comes from transposons (pieces of DNA that move to different locations on chromosomes)
  • 23. Benefits of Human Genome Project
    • Improvements in medical prevention of disease, gene therapies, diagnosis techniques …
    • Production of useful protein products for use in medicine, agriculture, bioremediation and pharmaceutical industries.
    • Improved bioinformatics – using computers to help in DNA sequencing …
  • 24. Benefits of Genetic Engineering
  • 25. Biotechnology -
    • The use of gene science to create new products from plants and animals
  • 26. Biotechnology Provides:
    • Improved food products
    • Medica l advances
    • An enhanced environment
  • 27. Herbicide Resistant Crops
    • Soybeans: Roundup Ready
    • Corn: Roundup Ready, Liberty Link
    • Cotton: BXN, Roundup Ready
    • Canola: Liberty Link, Roundup Ready
    + CP4 EPSPS = Roundup gene Ready
  • 28. Biotechnology Breakthroughs
    • Insulin (1982)
      • First commercial biotech product
      • Reliable, inexpensive source of insulin
    • Rice
      • Enriched with beta-carotene and iron
    • Bananas
      • Containing edible hepatitis vaccine
  • 29. Biotechnology Breakthroughs
    • Potatoes with higher solid content
    • Garli c that lowers cholesterol
    • Fruits and vegetables that reduce risks of cancer and heart disease
  • 30. Environmental Benefits
    • Reduced pesticide use
    • Lower energy requirements
    • Cleaner water
    • Less soil erosion
  • 31.