The process of Genetic Engineering in Detail Andrea Reina Gutiérrez Esperanza Ródenas Perea
Genetic Engineering is a branch of Molecular Biology that allows us to manipulate the genome of a living being. 1. To eliminate harmful genes Purposes 2. To introduce healthy genes 3. Modifying genes. Most used: Recombinant DNA (rDNA) To clone an specific gene. Plasmid Concepts Occurs in bacteria. Piece of circular, double stranded DNA. Easy to extract them. Useful in genetics. Restricion enzymes Palindrome (endonuclease or EnRes) Found in proteins. A sequence of double helix DNA if Found in bacteria. it They destroy the DNA of is equal to its complementarythe virus that try to parasitise them sequenceby cutting the DNA following some read backwards. palindromic sequences. 6-12 Sticky ends pairs of bases.
There are four main steps through which genetic engineering is accomplished:1. Location and isolation of the genes of interest: Gene-splicing techniques Cuts the DNA into small fragments. (Use of restriction enzymes. ) The human genome is formed by 46 chromosomes. We use EnRes. In one of the small pieces we will find the gene we want to clone.2. Insertion of the genes into a cloning vector: Bacteria plasmid EnRes cuts it. Plasmid enters in contact with the pieces of our genomes.Circle of recombinant DNA is formed.Human genome fills the space created where the plasmid bacteria ring wasopened.Recombinant plasmid Bacteria. Colony One bacteria thathave received the plasmid containing the insulin gene.Gene cloning. (The host cell with the cloning vector is made to
3. Localizing the descendants of the host cell that contain thegenes of interest and detection of the colony that contains thegene of interest:Biochemical tests Detects the presence of insulin andthe corresponding bacteria. ORHybridization of nucleic acids Manufacturing a complementaryradioactive nucleic acid to the genes of insulin. (It will hybridize with the genelocating the bacteria.)4. Cloning:We collect these bacteria and grow them in a culture medium.In 24 hours we will have thousands of millions of bacteria.