Primary Energy Demand of Renewable Energy Carriers - Part II

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  • Peat: Torf
  • 3 and 4: Split up into non-renewable and renewable primary energy.
  • Here accounting principles and methods are combined
    Accounting Principles 2 and 4 may apply different methods
  • 3 and 4: Split up into non-renewable and renewable primary energy.
  • 3 and 4: Split up into non-renewable and renewable primary energy.
  • Difference to RED and EED!
  • Today fuels dominate
  • Big differences within different option 2 methods!
    Statistics inform about achieving energy policy targets!
  • Compare share of renewables! 50% line
    See differences for geothermal!
    (2b) solar thermal and geothermal: switch off first!)
  • Which plants would we switch of first?
  • This is the story behind what we‘ve just seen
  • 2a: UN, IPCC
    2b: Eurostat
    2c: US
  • i.e. altogether 200 units of final energy
  • 3 and 4: Split up into non-renewable and renewable primary energy.
  • 3 and 4: Split up into non-renewable and renewable primary energy.
  • 2.5 explicitly suggested in EED and Eco-design
  • Primary Energy Demand of Renewable Energy Carriers - Part II

    1. 1. Dr. Andreas Hermelink, Dr. Nesen Sürmeli-Anac 12/06/2014 Primary Energy Demand of Renewable Energy Carriers - Part II Webinar
    2. 2. © ECOFYS | | Content > Introduction > Definitions > Review of Directives on Primary Energy Factors > Review on Primary Energy Targets > Policy Implications of different Primary Energy Factor Definitions > Conclusions 12/06/2014 Dr. Andreas Hermelink2
    3. 3. © ECOFYS | | Content > Introduction > Definitions > Review of Directives on Primary Energy Factors > Review on Primary Energy Targets > Policy Implications of different Primary Energy Factor Definitions > Conclusions 12/06/2014 Dr. Andreas Hermelink3
    4. 4. © ECOFYS | | Introduction – Renewable and non-renewable energy sources used for electricity generation Dr. Andreas Hermelink4 12/06/2014 Non-renewable energy sources Renewable energy sources Combustibles Non- combustibles Combustibles Non- combustibles • Hard Coal • Coal gases • Lignite • Peat • Oil based fuels • Natural gas • Waste (fossil part) • Nuclear • Biomass (solid, liquid, gaseous) • Waste (biogenic part) • Hydro (storage, run-of-river, tide, wave and ocean) • Wind • Solar (photovoltaic, solar thermal) • Geothermal
    5. 5. © ECOFYS | | Content > Introduction > Definitions > Review of Directives on Primary Energy Factors > Review on Primary Energy Targets > Policy Implications of different Primary Energy Factor Definitions 12/06/2014 Dr. Andreas Hermelink5
    6. 6. © ECOFYS | | Dr. Andreas Hermelink6 12/06/2014 Nakicenovic (1996) defines primary energy as:  The energy that is embodied in resources as they exist in nature: the chemical energy embodied in fossil fuels or biomass, the potential energy of a water reservoir, the electromagnetic energy of solar radiation and the energy released in nuclear reactions. Definitions – Primary Energy > This will be differentiated in the following.
    7. 7. © ECOFYS | | Dr. Andreas Hermelink7 12/06/2014 Calculation of primary energy factor (PEF) 𝑃𝐸𝐹 = 𝐶𝐹 𝑓 𝑥 𝐼𝑛𝑝𝑢𝑡𝑓, 𝑡 𝑂𝑢𝑡𝑝𝑢𝑡𝑡 CF f = calorific value of a fuel Input f, t = Input of fuel per operation time Output t = Output of electricity and/or heat per operation time > Primary Energy Factors are the quotient of primary energy input to energy (electricity/heat) output, i.e. the reciprocal value of the conversion efficiency This formula works very well for combustibles. Eq. 1
    8. 8. © ECOFYS | | Dr. Andreas Hermelink8 12/06/2014 Accounting Principles Primary Energy for electricity and heat generation from non-combustibles No. Option Type of primary energy 1 The PEF for electricity or heat from non-combustible renewables (hydro, wind, solar, geothermal) is accounted as zero by definition. Not applicable 2 Primary energy equivalents are used to calculate the primary energy of non-combustible energies (renewable energies excl. biomass) and the special case of nuclear energy. Accounting for (total) primary energy 3 The PEF for electricity or heat from renewables only accounts the fossil primary energy that was necessary to produce construction materials for the infrastructure including fuels for transport and auxiliary materials during operation. For electricity from nuclear energy, the consumed fuel is also accounted as nonrenewable primary energy using a technical conversion efficiency or a primary energy equivalent. Accounting for non-renewable primary energy ONLY 4 The PEF is split up into fossil primary energy (e.g. infrastructure, conversion of nuclear energy) and renewable primary energy using primary energy equivalents or efficiencies for the conversion of renewable energy sources into electricity or heat. Accounting for non-renewable AND renewable primary energy.
    9. 9. © ECOFYS | | Dr. Andreas Hermelink9 12/06/2014 Methods to calculate primary energy equivalents or conversion efficiencies > Zero equivalent method > Direct equivalent method > Physical energy content method > Substitution method > Technical conversion efficiencies
    10. 10. © ECOFYS | | Dr. Andreas Hermelink10 12/06/2014 Methods to determine the primary energy factors for electricity generation from different energy sources - 1
    11. 11. © ECOFYS | | Dr. Andreas Hermelink11 12/06/2014 Methods to determine the primary energy factors for electricity generation from different energy sources - 2
    12. 12. © ECOFYS | | Dr. Andreas Hermelink12 12/06/2014 Impact of different methods on countries PEF for grid mix - 1
    13. 13. © ECOFYS | | Dr. Andreas Hermelink13 12/06/2014 Impact of different methods on countries PEF for grid mix - 2
    14. 14. © ECOFYS | | Content > Introduction > Definitions > Review of Directives on Primary Energy Factors > Review on Primary Energy Targets > Policy Implications of different Primary Energy Factor Definitions > Conclusions 12/06/2014 Dr. Andreas Hermelink14
    15. 15. © ECOFYS | | Dr. Andreas Hermelink15 12/06/2014 Review of Directives on Primary Energy Factors Energy Efficiency Directive Energy Performance of Buildings Directive Renewable Energy Directive
    16. 16. © ECOFYS | | Dr. Andreas Hermelink16 12/06/2014 Review of Directives on Primary Energy Factors Energy Efficiency Directive Energy Performance of Buildings Directive Renewable Energy Directive
    17. 17. © ECOFYS | | Dr. Andreas Hermelink17 12/06/2014 PEF in the Energy Efficiency Directive Energy Efficiency Directive > Minus 20% between 2005-2020 > Article 7 of the EED states: – “the amount of energy savings required or to be achieved by the policy measure are expressed in either final or primary energy consumption, using the conversion factors set out in Annex IV;” > Annex IV, footnote 3 to the conversion table, states: – “For savings in kWh electricity Member States may apply a default coefficient of 2.5. Member States may apply a different coefficient provided they can justify it.” > No differentiation between PEF for renewables and non-renewables
    18. 18. © ECOFYS | | Dr. Andreas Hermelink18 12/06/2014 Review of Directives on Primary Energy Factors Energy Efficiency Directive Energy Performance of Buildings Directive Renewable Energy Directive
    19. 19. © ECOFYS | | Dr. Andreas Hermelink19 12/06/2014 PEF in the Renewable Energy Directive > Mandatory requirements on EU member states: – EU shall obtain 20% of total final energy consumption from renewable sources by 2020 (Targets of member states vary) > The RED states: – „It is necessary to set transparent and unabiguous rules for calculating the share of energy from renewable sources and for defining those sources“ > Proposed approach: – Calculation of Primary Energy Factors based on EUROSTAT > No differentiation between PEF for renewables and non-renewables Renewable Energy Directive
    20. 20. © ECOFYS | | Dr. Andreas Hermelink20 12/06/2014 Review of Directives on Primary Energy Factors Energy Efficiency Directive Energy Performance of Buildings Directive Renewable Energy Directive
    21. 21. © ECOFYS | | Dr. Andreas Hermelink21 12/06/2014 PEF in the Energy Performance Buildings Directive > Annex 1 of EPBD - Common general framework for the calculation of energy performance of buildings, states: – “The energy performance of a building shall be expressed in a transparent manner and shall include an energy performance indicator and a numeric indicator of primary energy use, based on primary energy factors per energy carrier, which may be based on national or regional annual weighted averages or a specific value for on- site production. The methodology for calculating the energy performance of buildings should take into account European standards and shall be consistent with relevant Union legislation, including Directive 2009/28/EC.” Energy Performance of Buildings Directive
    22. 22. © ECOFYS | | Dr. Andreas Hermelink22 12/06/2014 PEF in EN 15603 European standard EN 15603 Energy Performance of Buildings – Overall energy use and definition of energy ratings > “National annexes may be added to this standard, giving tables of values representing local conditions for electricity generation and fuel supply. Such tables shall give values for primary energy factors or non-renewable primary energy factors, depending on which are to be used at national level.” Two Conventions Total PEF Non-renewable PEF
    23. 23. © ECOFYS | | Dr. Andreas Hermelink23 12/06/2014 Calculation of total primary energy demand in EN15603 Where Ep = the primary energy demand Edel, i= final energy demand of energy carrier (i) fP,del,i = primary energy factor for demand energy carrier (i) Eexp,I = exported final energy of energy carrier (i) fP,exp,i = primary energy factor for export energy carrier (i) 𝐸 𝑝= 𝐸 𝑑𝑒𝑙,𝑖 𝑓𝑃,𝑑𝑒𝑙,𝑖) − 𝐸𝑒𝑥𝑝,𝑖 𝑓𝑃,𝑒𝑥𝑝,𝑖) > Primary energy factors for demand and export can be the same > Currently EN 15603 is under revision Eq. 2
    24. 24. © ECOFYS | | Content > Introduction > Definitions > Review of Directives on Primary Energy Factors > Review on Primary Energy Targets > Policy Implications of different Primary Energy Factor Definitions > Conclusions 12/06/2014 Dr. Andreas Hermelink24
    25. 25. © ECOFYS | | Dr. Andreas Hermelink25 12/06/2014 PE targets in EU communications 1 > “Energy Efficiency: delivering 20% target” (COM(2008) 772 final) > 20% energy saving target relative to a fixed base line projection mainly by increased end-use energy efficiency and also by improved conversion efficiency > 20% target should lead to 400 Mtoe less total primary energy demand (2012 update: 368 Mtoe through EED) : Action plan for Energy Efficiency (COM(2006) 545final) 2011 Energy Efficiency Plan EU is not on track for reaching 20% saving targets  only half of 20% target will be achieved
    26. 26. © ECOFYS | | Dr. Andreas Hermelink26 12/06/2014 PE targets in EU communications 2 > Electricity will have an increased importance and a high share in final energy demand – 36-39% in 2050 Energy Roadmap 2050 (COM(2011) 885 final) Very sigificant Final energy savings Decrease of primary energy use: 16 – 20% in 20301 1Compared to 2005
    27. 27. © ECOFYS | | Dr. Andreas Hermelink27 12/06/2014 PE statistics: Methods for estimating primary energy Options defined under this method Calculation method Comments Organizations Option 1 Zero equivalency method very limited use in practice Sub-Option 2a Direct equivalent method A fixed standard value with no distinction between heat and electricity UN statistics and IPCC reports Sub-Option 2b Physical energy content method Based on technical conversion efficiency International Energy Agency (IEA), Eurostat, OECD Sub-Option 2c Substitution method Compared to primary energy requirement of reference technology US Energy Information Administration (EIA) Option 3, Option 4 LCA method Standardised method that also takes into consideration the complete supply chain and clearly makes a difference between renewable and non- renewable shares Not used in energy statistics so far
    28. 28. © ECOFYS | | Dr. Andreas Hermelink28 12/06/2014 Methods to determine the primary energy factors for electricity generation from different energy sources - 1
    29. 29. © ECOFYS | | Dr. Andreas Hermelink29 12/06/2014 Methods to determine the primary energy factors for electricity generation from different energy sources - 2
    30. 30. © ECOFYS | | Content > Introduction > Definitions > Review of Directives on Primary Energy Factors > Review on Primary Energy Targets > Policy Implications of different Primary Energy Factor Definitions > Conclusions 12/06/2014 Dr. Andreas Hermelink30
    31. 31. © ECOFYS | | Dr. Andreas Hermelink31 12/06/2014 Policy implications of different Primary Energy Factor definitions Energy Efficiency Directive Energy Performance of Buildings Directive Renewable Energy Directive Impact on…
    32. 32. © ECOFYS | | Dr. Andreas Hermelink32 12/06/2014 Policy implications of different Primary Energy Factor definitions Energy Efficiency Directive Energy Performance of Buildings Directive Renewable Energy Directive Impact on…
    33. 33. © ECOFYS | | Dr. Andreas Hermelink33 12/06/2014 Policy implications of different Primary Energy Factor definitions Energy Efficiency DirectiveImpact on… Example: > Country without nuclear energy:  10% final electricity savings – 50% fossil, 50% renewable (equal share amongst different renewables) Note: > Calculation methods apply PEF of 2.5 for electricity from fossils but different PEF for each renewable source > Aggregate of non-renewable and renewable in 4a & 4b is intentional
    34. 34. © ECOFYS | | Dr. Andreas Hermelink34 12/06/2014 Share of different energy sources in total primary energy 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Option 2a-Direct equivalent Option 2b-Physical Energy Content Option 2c- Substitution method Option 3-Only non- renewable primary energy Option 4a-LCA- Technical Conversion Efficiencies Option 4b-LCA- Physical Energy Content RelativeShareofSourcesin TotalPrimaryEnergy Hydro (storage power station) Hydro (run-of-river power station) Wind Solar photovoltaic Solar thermal Geothermal Biomass (solid biomass fired power plant) Biomass (biogas fired gas turbine) Conventional electricity Figure 1
    35. 35. © ECOFYS | | Dr. Andreas Hermelink35 12/06/2014 Insights 1 > As long as reduction of electricity consumption is evenly distributed to all energy sources: 10% reduction For each energy source 10% reduction of electricity use 10% reduction of total primary energy > “From which source should we reduce supply most for maximum relative primary energy savings?” – In all options that feature a relative share of renewables in the total PEF of more than 50% – It seems to be more attractive – only aiming at maximum primary energy reduction – to switch off renewable power plants rather than fossil power plants  switching off renewable power plants would lead to primary energy savings of more than 10% – Applies to options 2b & 2c but especially for options 4a & 4b
    36. 36. © ECOFYS | | Dr. Andreas Hermelink36 12/06/2014 Insights 2 > If hypothetically all fossil power stations are switched off in option 4a: 100% reduction Greenhouse gas emissions 50% reduction of electricity supply only 33% reduction of total primary energy use > Therefore in 4a it may seem to be more attractive to switch off all renewable power stations: – This seems to lead to approx.: 0% reduction Greenhouse gas emissions 50% reduction of electricity supply 67% reduction of total primary energy use
    37. 37. © ECOFYS | | Dr. Andreas Hermelink37 12/06/2014 Insights 3 > Reflect on the adequate application of the different methods to avoid unintended and misleading results > “Primary energy only” focus may lead to conclusions or decisions that clearly contradict climate targets, which aim at maximum reduction of greenhouse gas emissions rather than of primary energy use
    38. 38. © ECOFYS | | Dr. Andreas Hermelink38 12/06/2014 The role of renewable energy in energy statistics > Energy Statistics – typically a PEF of 2.5 is used – If a smaller primary energy factor is used in energy statistics for renewable energy sources (e.g. option 2b uses 1 for hydro, solar PV and wind)  increased relative share of renewable energy sources will lead to primary energy savings without any final energy savings  INDIRECT savings – “replacing 1 unit of fossil electricity (=2.5 units of primary energy) by 1 unit of wind, hydro and solar electricity (=1 unit primary energy) leads to 1.5 units of primary energy savings” (Harmsen et al. (2011))
    39. 39. © ECOFYS | | Dr. Andreas Hermelink39 12/06/2014 Impact on Indirect total primary energy use > Changes in total primary energy use that don’t directly follow from actual reduction of electricity use but only from replacing fossil fuel by another energy carrier: -20 -15 -10 -05 00 05 10 15 20 25 30 Option 2a-Direct equivalent Option 2b-Physical Energy Content Option 2c- Substitution method Option 3-Only non- renewable primary energy Option 4a-LCA- Technical Conversion Efficiencies Option 4b-LCA- Physical Energy Content IndirectChangeofTotalPrimaryEnergy bySubstitutingFossilGeneration byAnotherSource Hydro (storage power station) Hydro (run-of-river power station) Wind Solar photovoltaic Solar thermal Geothermal Biomass (solid biomass fired power plant) Biomass (biogas fired gas turbine) Waste Nuclear Figure 2
    40. 40. © ECOFYS | | Dr. Andreas Hermelink40 12/06/2014 Interpretation > Ten different energy carriers: – If 10 units of electricity from fossil power plants would be replaced by one unit of electricity from each of those 10 alternative power plants the net change in the total primary energy balance would be the positive part in each option minus the corresponding negative part – Option 2a: Total primary energy would decrease by approx. 5 units – Option 4a: Total primary energy would increase by approx. 15 units – RE sources that remain competitive against fossil electricity (seem to) vary within each calculation method – Larger PEFs for renewable energy (especially values > 2.5) will risk to hamper RE development  Especially for biomass, geothermal and solar thermal and waste energy options
    41. 41. © ECOFYS | | Dr. Andreas Hermelink41 12/06/2014 Policy implications of different Primary Energy Factor definitions Energy Efficiency Directive Energy Performance of Buildings Directive Renewable Energy Directive Impact on…
    42. 42. © ECOFYS | | Dr. Andreas Hermelink42 12/06/2014 Impact on the Renewable Energy Directive > Directive sets binding targets for percentage of renewable energy in 2020 > Method of calculation and choice of PEFs have potentially large impact on calculation of share of renewable energy and consequently on energy Example: > Hypothetical situation: – Total gross inland consumption of 100 units of final energy from fossil fuels – 10 units of renewable energy from each renewable energy source – Excluding waste and nuclear – Option 3 was left out: only shows non-renewable primary energy Impact on… Renewable Energy Directive
    43. 43. © ECOFYS | | Dr. Andreas Hermelink43 12/06/2014 Calculation of renewable share in RED Where %RES(i) =Share of Renewable energy source (i) PEFRES(i) = Primary energy factor for renewable energy source (i) ERES(i) = Final energy demand from renewable energy source (i) PEFFF = Primary energy factor for fossil fuel (2.5) EFF = Final energy demand from fossil fuel %𝑅𝐸𝑆 𝑖 = (𝑃𝐸𝐹 𝑅𝐸𝑆 𝑖 𝐸 𝑅𝐸𝑆 𝑖 )/ 𝑃𝐸𝐹𝑅𝐸𝑆 𝐸 𝑅𝐸𝑆 + 𝑃𝐸𝐹𝐹𝐹 𝐸 𝐹𝐹 Eq. 3
    44. 44. © ECOFYS | | Dr. Andreas Hermelink44 12/06/2014 Percentage of total renewable energy demonstrated for hypothetical case > Different methods can create the illusion of very different achievement levels of renewable energy targets Option 2a- Direct equivalent method Option 2b- Physical Energy Content Option 2c- Substitution method Option 4a- LCA-Technical Conversion Efficiencies Option 4b- LCA-Physical Energy Content 30% 42% 40% 55% 49% Table 6
    45. 45. © ECOFYS | | Dr. Andreas Hermelink45 12/06/2014 Contribution of energy sources to renewable energy share for the hypothetical power system 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% 45% 50% 55% 60% Option 2a-Direct equivalent Option 2b-Physical energy content Option 2c-Substitution method Option 4a-LCA-Technical Conversion Efficiencies Option 4b-LCA-Physical Energy Content PercentageofRenewableEnergy Hydro (storage power station) Hydro (run-of-river power station) Wind Solar photovoltaic Solar thermal Geothermal Biomass (solid biomass fired power plant) Biomass (biogas fired gas turbine) Figure 3
    46. 46. © ECOFYS | | Dr. Andreas Hermelink46 12/06/2014 Policy implications of different Primary Energy Factor definitions Energy Efficiency Directive Energy Performance of Buildings Directive Renewable Energy Directive Impact on…
    47. 47. © ECOFYS | | Dr. Andreas Hermelink47 12/06/2014 Impact on the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive 1 > The EPBD defines a nearly Zero-Energy Building as follows: – [A nearly Zero-Energy Building is a] “building that has a very high energy performance… [ ]. The nearly zero or very low amount of energy required should to a very significant extent be covered by energy from renewable sources, including renewable energy produced on-site or nearby.” > Imported AND exported energy need to be considered! > Extremely important: Renewable energy applications need to be considered accurately in the national calculation methods or requirements! Impact on… Energy Performance of Buildings Directive
    48. 48. © ECOFYS | | Dr. Andreas Hermelink48 12/06/2014 Calculation of total primary energy demand in EN15603 Where Ep = the primary energy demand Edel, i= final energy demand of energy carrier (i) fP,del,i = primary energy factor for demand energy carrier (i) Eexp,I = exported final energy of energy carrier (i) fP,exp,i = primary energy factor for export energy carrier (i) 𝐸 𝑝= 𝐸 𝑑𝑒𝑙,𝑖 𝑓𝑃,𝑑𝑒𝑙,𝑖) − 𝐸𝑒𝑥𝑝,𝑖 𝑓𝑃,𝑒𝑥𝑝,𝑖) > Primary energy factors for demand and export can be the same > Currently EN 15603 is under revision Eq. 2
    49. 49. © ECOFYS | | Dr. Andreas Hermelink49 12/06/2014 Impact on the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive – Imported electricity > Electricity consumption will contribute less primary energy to overall energy performance indicator of a building resulting in increasing competitive advantage for electric heating over oil and gas > Plausible in case of PEF accounting options 2a, 2b, and 4b. > Option 2c will not work towards lowering the total PEF for electricity as it assigns equal PEFs to renewables and conventional resources > For countries with high RE share, the total decrease of PEF for electricity may not be reached due to high PEFs provided in option 4a for renewable energy sources > High PEFs may hamper the development of grid-coupled renewable energy in the long run > Depending on the PEF calculation method used people may use different fuel mixes for minimising their building’s primary energy balance
    50. 50. © ECOFYS | | Dr. Andreas Hermelink50 12/06/2014 Impact on the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive – Exported electricity (on-site/nearby) > PEFs assigned to renewable energy will have a direct influence on calculating the total primary energy > For low-energy buildings and nZEBs the aim is to maximise this amount to lower the total primary energy consumption.  option 2c and option 4a will be most beneficial, due to high PEFs for electricity produced on-site or nearby, especially if it comes from PV or wind energy > Dual effect on electricity delivered to the building and electricity produced on-site or nearby simultaneously
    51. 51. © ECOFYS | | Dr. Andreas Hermelink51 12/06/2014 Summary on Directives Energy Efficiency Directive > Total primary energy use as indicator for the end-use energy efficiency problematic > Apparent improvements of energy efficiency without reduction of the final energy use Improvement of the end–use energy efficiency
    52. 52. © ECOFYS | | Dr. Andreas Hermelink52 12/06/2014 Summary on Directives Renewable Energy Directive > Total primary energy use as indicator for the end-use energy efficiency problematic > Apparent improvements of energy efficiency without reduction of the finale energy use > Depending on the accounting method very different shares of renewable energy will be demonstrated > “virtual” improvements could be achieved Improvement of the end–use energy efficiency Improvement of the share of renewable energy Energy Efficiency Directive
    53. 53. © ECOFYS | | Dr. Andreas Hermelink53 12/06/2014 Summary on Directives Energy Performance of Buildings Directive > Total primary energy use as indicator for the end-use energy efficiency problematic > Apparent improvements of energy efficiency without reduction of the finale energy use > Depending on the accounting method very different shares of renewable energy will be demonstrated > “virtual” improvements could be achieved > primary energy use as main indicator > Methodology effects the calculated energy performance and the chosen fuel mix and share of renewables in buildings Improvement of the end–use energy efficiency Improvement of the share of renewable energy Improvement of the energy efficiency of buildings Renewable Energy Directive Energy Efficiency Directive
    54. 54. © ECOFYS | | Content > Introduction > Definitions > Review of Directives on Primary Energy Factors > Review on Primary Energy Targets > Policy Implications of different Primary Energy Factor Definitions > Conclusions 12/06/2014 Dr. Andreas Hermelink54
    55. 55. © ECOFYS | | Dr. Andreas Hermelink55 12/06/2014 Issues with PEF of 2.5 > Lack of unambiguous scientific values – Conversion factor of 2.5 introduced December 2003 – Based on Eurostat figures from 2001 or older – Strong need for an update > Lack of consistency – Member States are free to choose PEFs – Considerable space for Member States to deviate from the suggested values > Lack of transparency – PEFs are not commonly based entirely on scientific arguments and clear algorithms – PEF for electricity should be regularly revised – Method of calculation clearly documented and eventually harmonized
    56. 56. © ECOFYS | | Dr. Andreas Hermelink56 12/06/2014 Final conclusions - 1 > Member States should use the same or a very similar methodology for determining PEFs > Prevent abuse of methods to promote energy sources > Methodology needs to be transparent and should be based on available data > Solid, scientifically based determination of primary energy factors for all types of power supply must be available and commonly applied > Methods used for determining PEFs for energy from renewable sources must be in line with climate policy targets
    57. 57. © ECOFYS | | Dr. Andreas Hermelink57 12/06/2014 Final conclusions - 2 > Changes in the power system which lead to reductions in greenhouse gas emissions generally should always lead to reductions in primary energy use (=> problematic, when total PEF is used) > PEFs should be determined and applied in a way that enables to clearly differentiate between – direct primary energy savings (actual final energy savings) – indirect primary energy savings (changes in the energy mix) > Renewable energy sources should be treated equally relative to their effect on reducing greenhouse gas emissions and the calculated share of renewables in an energy mix > It does not seem helpful for achieving a well-balanced mix of different renewable sources when one zero-emission source is outpaced by another zero-emission source by assigning very different PEFs
    58. 58. © ECOFYS | | Please contact us for more information Dr. Andreas Hermelink Ecofys Germany GmbH Am Karlsbad 11 10785 Berlin Germany T: +49 30 297 735 79-50 E: a.hermelink@ecofys.com I: www.ecofys.com 23/01/2014 Dr. Andreas Hermelink58

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