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European countries are currently facing complex energy challenges including major external energy dependence or an increasing concern about climate change. The Conclusions of the European Council in 2007 and 2011 established a need for reaching at least a total 20% of savings in the European primary energy consumption by 2020 (2007 baseline).
In order to meet this challenge, the European Union published in 2012 the Energy Efficiency Directive 2012/27/EU (EED), which has established a common framework to promote concrete actions related to energy efficiency in the European market.
Within the EED, the Article 14 stands out for promoting the energy efficiency through the use of CHP (combined heat and power), district heating and cooling and by recovering industrial waste heat.