There is no unified approach in European regulation of how to calculate primary energy when assessing energy performance of buildings. Instead, member states can decide on their own method of calculation of primary energy. As the share of renewables will progress towards 2050, the primary energy factors for electricity in Europe will also be subject to changes over time.
Related to the energy performance of buildings, the question is in what way different (due to national electricity mix or methodology) and changing (due to increased share of renewable electricity) primary energy factors for electricity influence decisions on a political level and on a level of individual building designs, especially with regard to space heating options (gas vs. electricity). From a point of view of making the electricity supply more flexible, it could be desirable to increase the share of electricity for heating. The objective of this work was to assess to what extent this is stimulated (or hampered) by changing primary energy factors in building regulation of a number of countries.
Introductory comments on primary energy factors and the EPBD
Primary energy factors of seven countries in the EU: • France • Germany • The Netherlands • Poland • Spain • Sweden • UK
Primary energy factors estimated evolution at 2020 and 2050 horizons, using the same calculation methods for all countries, based on the energy sources that can be expected to be in the national mix of these countries in 2020 and 2050, according to different scenario’s.
Implications of changing primary energy factors for technologies used in the building sector and recommendations on how to deal with primary energy factors in the EPBD in the short term and the longer term.