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Introduction to the Energy Efficiency Directive


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The Energy Efficiency Directive (EED) was adopted in 2012 and is one of the EU’s four key Directives addressing energy efficiency in stationary (i.e. non transport) end-uses (the others being the Energy Performance in Buildings Directive, The Ecodesign Directive and the Energy Labelling Directive). Given that the other Directives cover the energy performance of buildings and equipment the EED is designed to address energy savings opportunities that are not readily addressed by the other Directives. It has its origin in the preceding Energy Services Directive, which was repealed when the EED was adopted. The Energy Efficiency Directive establishes a set of binding measures intended to help the EU reach its 20% energy efficiency target by 2020. Under the Directive, all EU countries are required to use energy more efficiently at all stages of the energy chain from its production to its final consumption. EU countries were required to transpose the Directive's provisions into their national laws by 5 June 2014.

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Introduction to the Energy Efficiency Directive

  2. 2. Summary of talkSummary of talk - Context - EU energy profile and macro policy - Context - energy flows and barriers to EE - EU energy efficiency policy instruments - Background to the EED - The principal articles - Progress in implementation and savings - Gaps and Next steps 2
  3. 3. Context – energy in the EUContext – energy in the EU - EU imports 53% of its energy, which makes it the largest energy importer in the world, at a cost of 400 billion euro a year - Collectively, EU MS spend almost €110 bn per year – directly or indirectly – on energy subsidies - Buildings (households and services) consumed almost 40% of final energy consumption (of which 26% for households), transport 32% (+6 points compared to 1990) followed by industry with 26% (-8 points compared to 1990) and agriculture with 2% - 66% of EU gas and 90% of oil consumption is imported - Many MS – especially those dependent on a single supplier or a single supply route - remain vulnerable to supply shocks - 90% of EU housing stock is deemed to be energy inefficient Yet the EU is one of the world’s most energy-efficient regions 3
  4. 4. Overarching policy goals – EU energy/GHG targets Overarching policy goals – EU energy/GHG targets - The three E’s - Energy security, Economic Efficiency and the Environment - Energy Union paper talks of “A more integrated, secure, competitive and sustainable European energy system” - The EU has set itself a 20% energy savings target by 2020 when compared to the projected use of energy in 2020 – roughly equivalent to turning off 400 power stations - Targets of a 20% reduction in GHG emissions and 20% of energy supply to come from RE are legally binding – the EE target is not! - At an EU summit in October 2014, EU countries agreed on a new, non –binding, energy efficiency target of 27% or greater by 2030 4
  5. 5. Energy efficiency is the “Biggest Fuel”: historical impact for IEA-11 Energy efficiency is the “Biggest Fuel”: historical impact for IEA-11 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 1973 1980 1990 2000 2004 EJ Actual energy use Hypothetical energy use without efficiency improvements Savings Actual energy use Energy savings due to energy efficiency improvements ~5.5 Gt CO2
  6. 6. Generic barriers to energy savingsGeneric barriers to energy savings Barrier Effect Remedial policy tools VISIBILITY EE is not measured EE is invisible and ignored Test procedures/measurement protocols/efficiency metrics EE is not visible to end users & service procurers EE is invisible and ignored Ratings/labels/disclosure/benchmarking/audits/real- time measurement and reporting PRIORITY Low awareness of the value proposition among service procurers EE is undervalued Awareness-raising and communication efforts Energy expenditure is a low priority EE is bundled-in with more important capital decision factors Regulation, mechanisms to decouple EE actions from other concerns ECONOMY Split incentives EE is undervalued Regulation, mechanisms to create EE financing incentives for those not paying all or any of the energy bill Scarce investment capital or competing capital needs Underinvestment in EE Stimulation of capital supply for EE investments, incubation and support of new EE business and financing models, incentives Energy consumption and supply subsidies Unfavourable market conditions for EE Removal of subsidies Unfavourable perception and treatment of risk EE project financing cost is inflated, energy price risk under- estimated Mechanisms to underwrite EE project risk, raise awareness of energy volatility risk, inform/train financial profession CAPACITY Limited know-how on implementing energy-saving measures EE implementation is constrained Capacity-building programmes Limited government resources to support implementation Barriers addressed more slowly FRAGMENTATION EE is more difficult to implement collectively Energy consumption is split among many diverse end uses and users Targeted regulations and other EE enhancement policies and measures Separation of energy supply and demand business models Energy supply favoured over energy service Favourable regulatory frameworks that reward energy service provision over supply Fragmented and under-developed supply chains Availability of EE is limited and it is more difficult to implement Market transformation programmes Abbreviation: EE = energy efficiency. 6
  7. 7. Context - The four principal EE DirectivesContext - The four principal EE Directives 7 Ecodesign Directive Energy Labelling Directive Energy Performance in Buildings Directive Energy Efficiency Directive EU directives on energy efficiency
  8. 8. Transport, Industry, Power Sector DirectivesTransport, Industry, Power Sector Directives Industrial sector: - EUETS, Industrial Emissions Directive + EED Power sector: - EUETS Transport sector: - White Paper on Transport (2011) -Aims a.o. at cutting carbon emissions in transport by 60% by 2050 - CO2 emissions from cars and vans - Regulation (EC) 443/2009 + Regulation (EC) 510/2011; implementation completed - CO2 emissions from heavy duty vehicles fuel consumption - On-going discussion on basis of strategy adopted in May 2014 - CO2 emissions from maritime transport - Communication (2013) 479; political agreement in December 2014 - 1st step: report emissions - Tyre labelling directive 8
  9. 9. 9 ED, EPBD, ELD ETS IED Regs 443/ 2009, 510/ 2011 TLD EED 2012/27/EU
  10. 10. Energy flows in the EUEnergy flows in the EU 10
  11. 11. EED Background – ECCPEED Background – ECCP - In June 2000 the Commission launched the first European Climate Change Programme (ECCP) with a goal of identifying and developing all the necessary elements of an EU strategy to implement the Kyoto Protocol - The development of the first ECCP (2000-2004) involved all the relevant groups of stakeholders working together, including representatives from the Commission’s different departments (DGs), the Member States, industry and environmental groups - The second European Climate Change Programme (ECCP II) was launched in October 2005 - It included a proposal to develop an Energy Services Directive that would promote demand side efficiency by removing barriers that prevent the satisfactory functioning of the market for goods and services related to the efficient end-use of energy 11
  12. 12. Energy Services DirectiveEnergy Services Directive Energy Services Directive 2006/32/EC of April 2006 specified: - Establishment of non-binding MS savings targets in terms of annual reductions in energy intensity of final demand (9% savings over 9 years) – derivation of a methodology - MS to draw up programmes and measures to improve energy efficiency and appoint an agency to oversee delivery - MS to ensure that energy efficiency improvement measures are taken by the public sector - MS to ensure energy distributers/DSOs/retailers offer energy services/audits or EE funding mechanisms and either abide by voluntary agreements or schemes such as white certificates are set up 12
  13. 13. Energy Services DirectiveEnergy Services Directive Energy Services Directive 2006/32/EC of April 2006 specified: - Article 7 - Availability of information - Article 8 - Availability of qualification, accreditation and certification schemes - Article 9 - Financial instruments for energy savings - Article 10 - Energy efficient tariffs and other regulations for net- bound energy - Article 11 - Funds and funding mechanisms - Article 12 - Energy audits - Article 13 - Metering and informative billing of energy consumption - Article 14 – MS to submit Energy efficiency action plans every 3 years (Jan 2008, Jan 2012, Jan 2015) 13
  14. 14. Energy Efficiency Directive - 2012/27/EUEnergy Efficiency Directive - 2012/27/EU - merges and replaces the ESD and CHP Directives (Directive 2004/8/EC) Addresses: - NEEAPS - Energy efficiency obligations - Building renovations and public sector buildings - SMEs and energy audits - Public procurement - Metering/Billing and information - Heating and cooling (DHC, CHP/cogeneration, microgeneration) - Energy services - Transformation, transmission and distribution - Training, accreditation, certification - Funding and financing 14
  15. 15. Article 4 - Building renovation strategyArticle 4 - Building renovation strategy Provisions: - MS shall establish a long-term strategy for mobilising investment in the renovation of the national building stock - This strategy shall encompass: - (a) an overview of the national building stock based, as appropriate, on statistical sampling; - (b) identification of cost-effective approaches to renovations relevant to the building type and climatic zone; - (c) policies and measures to stimulate cost-effective deep renovations of buildings, including staged deep renovations; - (d) a forward-looking perspective to guide investment decisions of individuals, the construction industry and financial institutions; - (e) an evidence-based estimate of expected energy savings and wider benefits - To be published by end April 2014 15
  16. 16. Article 5 - Exemplary role of public bodies’ buildings Article 5 - Exemplary role of public bodies’ buildings Provisions: - MS shall ensure from 1 January 2014, 3 % of the total floor area of heated and/or cooled buildings owned and occupied by its central government is renovated each year to meet at least EPBD minimum code levels - The 3 % rate shall be calculated on the total floor area of occupied buildings with a total useful floor area over 500 m2 (250 m2 from 2015) and not meeting the EPBD levels - MS may opt for an alternative approach whereby they take other measures, including deep renovations and measures for behavioural change of occupants, to achieve equivalent savings in central government buildings by 2020 - MS shall encourage public bodies, inc. at regional and local level, and social housing bodies governed by public law to: adopt energy efficiency plans; implement energy management; use ESCOs/EPCs to finance renovations and implement EE plans 16
  17. 17. Article 6 - Purchasing by public bodiesArticle 6 - Purchasing by public bodies MS shall: - ensure that central governments purchase only products, services and buildings with high energy-efficiency performance, insofar as that is consistent with cost-effectiveness, economical feasibility, wider sustainability, technical suitability, as well as sufficient competition, as referred to in Annex III - encourage public bodies, including at regional and local levels, to follow the exemplary role of their central governments to purchase only products, services and buildings with high energy-efficiency performance - encourage public bodies, when tendering service contracts with significant energy content, to assess the possibility of concluding long- term energy performance contracts that provide long-term energy savings 17
  18. 18. Article 7 – Energy efficiency obligation schemesArticle 7 – Energy efficiency obligation schemes Member states: - shall set up an energy efficiency obligation scheme to ensure that energy distributors and/or retail energy sales companies achieve a cumulative end-use energy savings target by 31 December 2020, at least equivalent to achieving new savings each year from 1 January 2014 to 31 December 2020 of 1.5 % of the annual energy sales to final customers of all energy distributors or all retail energy sales companies by volume, averaged over the most recent three-year period prior to 1 January 2013 - may exclude from the calculation all or part of the sales, by volume, of energy used in industrial activities listed in Annex I to Directive 2003/87/EC; and transport fuels - may allow savings achieved in the energy transformation, distribution and transmission sectors, including efficient DH/C infrastructure, or due to individual actions implemented since 31 December 2008 to count towards the target’s attainment - shall publish the energy savings achieved by each obligated party annually 18
  19. 19. Article 7 – EEOs continuedArticle 7 – EEOs continued - The amount of energy savings to fulfil the obligation shall be achieved by the obligated parties among final customers, either designated by the MS or through certified savings stemming from other parties - MS shall put in place measurement, control and verification systems under which at least a statistically significant proportion and representative sample of the energy efficiency improvement measures put in place by the obligated parties is verified. To be conducted independently of the obligated parties. - As an alternative to EEOs MS may opt to take other policy measures to achieve energy savings among final customers providing the overall savings target is met or use a hybrid EEO/alternative savings route - These could include: energy or CO2 taxes; financing schemes, fiscal incentives, regulations or voluntary agreements that lead to the application of energy-efficient technology or techniques; standards and norms that aim at improving the energy efficiency of products and services; labelling; training and education – providing these are additional to obligations under EU law – double counting is prohibited 19
  20. 20. Growing no. of utility energy efficiency obligation (EEO) schemes in the EU Growing no. of utility energy efficiency obligation (EEO) schemes in the EU 20 Driven through Article 7 of EED Member States must report a 1.5% annual energy savings target to be achieved by their EEO and/or alternative measures to 2020
  21. 21. Article 8 – Energy audits and energy management systems Article 8 – Energy audits and energy management systems MS shall: - promote the availability to all final customers of high quality energy audits which are cost-effective and either carried out in an independent manner by qualified and/or accredited experts according to qualification criteria; or implemented and supervised by independent authorities under national legislation - establish transparent and non-discriminatory minimum criteria for energy audits (to guarantee their quality) - develop programmes to encourage SMEs to undergo energy audits and the subsequent implementation of the recommendations from these audits - may set up support schemes for SMEs, including if they have concluded voluntary agreements, to cover costs of an energy audit and of the implementation of highly cost-effective recommendations from the energy audits, if the proposed measures are implemented - develop programmes to raise awareness among households about the benefits of such audits through appropriate advice services 21
  22. 22. Article 8 – Energy audits and energy management systems continued Article 8 – Energy audits and energy management systems continued - MS shall ensure that enterprises that are not SMEs are subject to an energy audit by 5 December 2015 and at least every four years from the date of the previous energy audit - This can be part of a general environmental audit - Enterprises that are not SMEs and that are implementing an energy or environmental management system - certified by an independent body according to the relevant European or International Standards - shall be exempted 22
  23. 23. Article 9 – MeteringArticle 9 – Metering - MS shall ensure that, in so far as it is technically possible, financially reasonable and proportionate in relation to the potential energy savings, final customers for electricity, natural gas, district heating, district cooling and domestic hot water are provided with competitively priced individual meters that accurately reflect the final customer’s actual energy consumption and that provide information on actual time of use - This is to be done whenever: a meter is replaced or newly installed, new connections are made, major renovations are done - MS implement intelligent metering systems and roll out smart meters for natural gas and/or electricity in accordance with Directives 2009/72/EC and 2009/73/EC: shall ensure that the metering systems provide to final customers information on actual time of use and that the objectives of energy efficiency and benefits for final customers are fully taken into account when establishing the minimum functionalities of the meters and the obligations imposed on market participants - ensure that the meter or meters can account for electricity put into the grid from the final customer’s premises 23
  24. 24. Article 10+11 – Billing informationArticle 10+11 – Billing information MS shall ensure that, - by 31 December 2014, that billing information is accurate and based on actual consumption. This is to be done whenever: a meter is replaced or newly installed, new connections are made, major renovations are done - final customers have the possibility of easy access to complementary information on historical consumption - information and estimates for energy costs are provided to consumers on demand in a timely manner and in an easily understandable format enabling consumers to compare deals on a like-for-like basis - customers have free access to this billing information 24
  25. 25. Article 12 Consumer information and empowering programme Article 12 Consumer information and empowering programme MS shall: - take appropriate measures to promote and facilitate an efficient use of energy by small energy customers, including domestic customers. These measures may be part of a national strategy. These may include:  (a) a range of instruments and policies to promote behavioural change which may include: (i) fiscal incentives; (ii) access to finance, grants or subsidies; (iii) information provision; (iv) exemplary projects; (v) workplace activities  (b) ways and means to engage consumers and consumer organisations during the possible roll-out of smart meters through communication of: (i) cost-effective and easy-to-achieve changes in energy use; (ii) information on energy efficiency measures 25
  26. 26. Article 14 Promotion of efficiency in heating and cooling Article 14 Promotion of efficiency in heating and cooling MS shall: - By 31 December 2015, Member States shall carry out and notify to the Commission a comprehensive assessment of the potential for the application of high-efficiency cogeneration and efficient district heating and cooling. This shall take full account of the analysis of the national potentials for high-efficiency cogeneration carried out under Directive 2004/8/EC - adopt policies which encourage the due taking into account at local and regional levels of the potential of using efficient heating and cooling systems, in particular those using high-efficiency cogeneration. Account shall be taken of the potential for developing local and regional heat markets. - carry out a cost-benefit analysis covering their territory based on climate conditions, economic feasibility and technical suitability - take adequate measures for efficient district heating and cooling infrastructure to be developed and/or to accommodate the development of high-efficiency cogeneration and the use of heating and cooling from waste heat and renewable energy sources – when cost effective/viable 26
  27. 27. Article 20 - Energy Efficiency National Fund, Financing and Technical Support Article 20 - Energy Efficiency National Fund, Financing and Technical Support - MS shall facilitate the establishment of financing facilities, or use of existing ones, for energy efficiency improvement measures to maximise the benefits of multiple streams of financing. - The Commission shall, where appropriate, directly or via the European financial institutions, assist Member States in setting up financing facilities and technical support schemes with the aim of increasing energy efficiency in different sectors - The Commission shall facilitate the exchange of best practice between the competent national or regional authorities or bodies - MSs may set up an Energy Efficiency National Fund. The purpose of this fund shall be to support national energy efficiency initiatives - Obligated parties under EEOs may donate to these funds by way of meeting their obligations - MS may use their revenues from annual emission allocations under Decision No 406/2009/EC for the development of innovative financing mechanisms to give practical effect to the objective in Article 5 of improving the energy performance of buildings 27
  28. 28. Article 24 – Reporting (NEEAPS)Article 24 – Reporting (NEEAPS) - By 30 April 2014, and every three years thereafter, Member States shall submit National Energy Efficiency Action Plans - These shall cover significant energy efficiency improvement measures and expected and/ or achieved energy savings, including those in the supply, transmission and distribution of energy as well as energy end- use, in view of achieving the national energy efficiency targets referred to in Article 3 - NEEAPs shall be complemented with updated estimates of expected overall primary energy consumption in 2020, as well as estimated levels of primary energy consumption in the sectors indicated - Commission shall evaluate the annual reports and the National Energy Efficiency Action Plans; assess the extent to which Member States have made progress towards the achievement of the national energy efficiency targets and towards implementation of the Directive; shall send its assessment to the European Parliament and the Council. It may issue recommendations to Member States 28
  29. 29. Progress – implementation of measuresProgress – implementation of measures - A report on the implementation of the ESD was issued in January 2014 – it was late due to the late issuance of EEAPS - 2nd EEAPs included:  extensive building renovation programmes reported by 17 MS  use of EU funds as well as revenues from the sale of Assigned Amount Units (AAUs) under the Kyoto Protocol have been reported by a number of MS  Some MS included (and hence double-counted) impacts from ELD/ED  EEOs now form a key part of efforts to encourage accelerated rates of energy savings. Established white certificate schemes were reported as being already operational in five Member States and 2 were pending (currently 16 MS with EEOs, 10 with alternative routes)  several MSs indicate the provision of model contracts for energy services and introduction of legislation to open energy services in the public sector to ESCOs 29
  30. 30. Progress – implementation of measuresProgress – implementation of measures  Intermediate savings figures for various Member States show that economic growth has a significant influence on energy efficiency progress in the industry sector. A prolonged period of recession experienced by several Member States since submitting their first EEAPs has resulted in lower than expected rates of energy savings in the sector  In terms of the CHP Directive, the overall evolution of electricity production from high-efficiency cogeneration shows a moderate increase primarily due to the increase in district heating in the residential, commercial and services sectors  there has been steady growth in heat production from cogeneration been since 2004 30
  31. 31. EED Progress – implementation of measuresEED Progress – implementation of measures - 27 NEEAPS have now been submitted - 19 annual energy reports submitted pursuant to NEEAPS - 28 responses to Article 7 (EEOs) submitted 31
  32. 32. How much energy is being saved due to ESD/EED? How much energy is being saved due to ESD/EED? - The 2014 ESD evaluation showed total final energy savings for 2010 as declared by the MS were approximately 59 Mtoe i.e. 35% higher than the sum of the intermediate energy savings targets that had been set by the 27 MS in their first EEAPs of 2008 - Declared intermediate savings levels ranged from 1.8% of reference consumption in Lithuania to nearly 9% in Germany and Sweden where the ESD indicative target for 2016 had effectively been reached at the end of the intermediate period - Total final energy savings of around 132 Mtoe were forecast for 2016, well in excess of the 9% indicative target of approximately 89 Mtoe - However, some of these savings may be due to other policy measures 32
  33. 33. Overall EE trends in the EUOverall EE trends in the EU - From 1990-2012, final energy efficiency increased by 25% in EU28 countries at an annual average rate of 1.3%/year - This was driven by improvements in the industrial sector (1.7%/year) and households (1.5%/year) - Half of the energy gains achieved through high efficiency in the household sector have been offset by an increasing number of electrical appliances and larger homes - One third of total savings in space heating in the residential sector is due to new building codes, since a building built in 2012 consumed approximately 40% less energy than one built in 1990 33
  34. 34. Energy efficiency trends by sectorEnergy efficiency trends by sector
  35. 35. EE trends in the EU from 2000 - 2012EE trends in the EU from 2000 - 2012 35Source:
  36. 36. Progress – how much energy is being saved?Progress – how much energy is being saved? - According to the Energy Efficiency Communication of July 2014, the EU is expected to achieve energy savings of 18%-19% by 2020 – missing the 20% target by 1%-2%. However, if EU countries implement all of the existing legislation on energy efficiency, the 20% target can be reached without additional measures. - The EU's drive towards a more energy efficient future has already produced substantial benefits for Europeans. For instance:  new buildings consume half the energy they did in the 1980s  energy intensity in EU industry decreased by almost 19% between 2001 and 2011  more efficient appliances are expected to save consumers €100 billion annually – about €465 per household – on their energy bills by 2020  EU countries have committed themselves to rolling out close to 200 million smart meters for electricity and 45 million for gas by 2020, facilitating greater savings for consumers 36
  37. 37. Progress – co-benefitsProgress – co-benefits Additional co-benefits are expected in the future. They include:  for every 1% improvement in energy efficiency, EU gas imports fall by 2.6%  lower energy costs for people who live and work in energy efficient buildings, as well as additional benefits such as improved air quality and protection from external noise provided by energy efficient windows  business opportunities for European companies such as construction firms and manufacturers of energy-using equipment  new jobs in construction, manufacturing, research, and other industries investing in energy efficiency 37
  38. 38. Gaps – what is still not covered in the EED?Gaps – what is still not covered in the EED? - EE improvements are still voluntary not mandatory - Many EED measures are rather qualitative and open - Doubts remain about the integrity/validity of the MV&E process and EE indicators tracking progress - Building refurbishment may be too slow and too shallow to keep pace with post 2020 EE objectives - Energy using equipment systems e.g. lighting, HVAC, motors, cables and controls are not sufficiently addressed under existing Directives - The measures that stimulate energy audits fall short of full energy management and information alone is likely to be insufficient - Smart meters are insufficient to empower savings – improvements in building automation and control have greater promise 38
  39. 39. Next stepsNext steps - The new Commission’s Energy Union paper asserts that improving energy efficiency is the highest priority - The EED will be reviewed in 2016 (Ecodesign/ELD in 2015, EPBD in 2016) – an opportunity to strengthen its provisions - In February the European Commission held a major conference on heating and cooling and the Commission is preparing a heating and cooling strategy to be issued later this year 39
  40. 40. Links and Contacts Paul Waide – Director Waide Strategic Efficiency Ltd 4 Winster Avenue Manchester M202YG UK Tel: +44 161 883 0508 Mb: +44 7794 141 848 Em:
  41. 41. Article 15 Energy transformation, transmission and distribution Article 15 Energy transformation, transmission and distribution MS shall ensure: - that national energy regulatory authorities, through the development of network tariffs and regulations, within the framework of Directive 2009/72/EC and taking into account the costs and benefits of each measure, provide incentives for grid operators to make available system services to network users permitting them to implement energy efficiency improvement measures in the context of the continuing deployment of smart grids - the removal of those incentives in transmission and distribution tariffs that are detrimental to the overall efficiency (including energy efficiency) of the generation, transmission, distribution and supply of electricity or those that might hamper participation of demand response, in balancing markets and ancillary services procurement - network operators are incentivised to improve efficiency in infrastructure design and operation, and that tariffs allow suppliers to improve consumer participation in system efficiency, including demand response, depending on national circumstances 41
  42. 42. Article 15 Energy transformation, transmission and distribution continued Article 15 Energy transformation, transmission and distribution continued MS shall: - (a) guarantee the transmission and distribution of electricity from high-efficiency cogeneration; - (b) provide priority or guaranteed access to the grid of electricity from high-efficiency cogeneration; - (c) when dispatching electricity generating installations, provide priority dispatch of electricity from high-efficiency cogeneration in so far as the secure operation of the national electricity system permits. 42
  43. 43. Article 16 Availability of qualification, accreditation and certification schemes Article 16 Availability of qualification, accreditation and certification schemes Where a Member State considers that the national level of technical competence, objectivity and reliability is insufficient, it shall ensure that: - by 31 December 2014, certification and/or accreditation schemes and/or equivalent qualification schemes, including, where necessary, suitable training programmes, become or are available for providers of energy services, energy audits, energy managers and installers of energy-related building elements - it shall make publicly available the certification and/or accreditation schemes or equivalent qualification schemes and shall cooperate among themselves and with the Commission on comparisons between, and recognition of, the schemes - it takes appropriate measures to make consumers aware of the availability of qualification and/or certification schemes 43
  44. 44. Article 17 - Information and trainingArticle 17 - Information and training Member States shall: - ensure that information on available energy efficiency mechanisms and financial and legal frameworks is transparent and widely disseminated to all relevant market actors, such as consumers, builders, architects, engineers, environmental and energy auditors, and installers of building elements - encourage the provision of information to banks and other financial institutions on possibilities of participating, including through the creation of public/private partnerships, in the financing of energy efficiency improvement measures - establish appropriate conditions for market operators to provide adequate and targeted information and advice to energy consumers on energy efficiency 44
  45. 45. Article 18 - Energy servicesArticle 18 - Energy services Member States shall promote the energy services market and access for SMEs to this market by: - (a) disseminating clear and easily accessible information on: (i) available energy service contracts; (ii) financial instruments, incentives, grants and loans to support energy efficiency service projects; - (b) encouraging the development of quality labels; - (c) making publicly available and regularly updating a list of available energy service providers who are qualified and/or certified, or providing an interface where energy service providers can provide information; - (d) supporting the public sector in taking up energy service offers, in particular for building refurbishment, by: (i) providing model contracts for energy performance contracting; (ii) providing information on best practices for energy performance contracting, including, if available, cost- benefit analysis using a life-cycle approach 45
  46. 46. Article 19 - Other measures to promote energy efficiency Article 19 - Other measures to promote energy efficiency Member States shall evaluate and if necessary take appropriate measures to remove regulatory and non-regulatory barriers to energy efficiency; in particular for: - (a) the split of incentives between the owner and the tenant of a building or among owners, with a view to ensuring that these parties are not deterred from making efficiency- improving investments - (b) legal and regulatory provisions, and administrative practices, regarding public purchasing and annual budgeting and accounting, with a view to ensuring that individual public bodies are not deterred from making investments in improving energy efficiency and minimising expected life-cycle costs and from using energy performance contracting and other third-party financing mechanisms on a long-term contractual basis Notify the findings to the Commission in the NEEAPs 46
  47. 47. Energy flows in the EUEnergy flows in the EU 47