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  • 1. Table of Contents LIST OF TABLES ....................................................................................................... 4 LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS......................................................................................... 4 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS........................................................................................... 5 DECLARATION .......................................................................................................... 7 ABSTRACT................................................................................................................. 8 CHAPTERS 1. Introduction .......................................................................................................... 9 1.1 State of the Field .............................................................................................. 9 1.2 Hypothesis...................................................................................................... 10 1.3 Intentions........................................................................................................ 10 1.4 Definitions....................................................................................................... 11 Social Justice Education................................................................................ 11 Community Cultural Development................................................................. 11 Community Artist ........................................................................................... 11 Activist ........................................................................................................... 12 Transforming Society..................................................................................... 12 1.5 Literature Review ........................................................................................... 12 Research Methods ........................................................................................ 12 Social Justice Education................................................................................ 13 Community Cultural Development................................................................. 14 Conclusion..................................................................................................... 17 2. Theoretical Framework ....................................................................................... 18 2.1 SJE and CCD Theory Relationships .............................................................. 18 Ownership ..................................................................................................... 18 Community Collaboration .............................................................................. 20 Investigation .................................................................................................. 20 Imagination .................................................................................................... 21 Action............................................................................................................. 21 Conclusion..................................................................................................... 22 2.2 SJE Challenges.............................................................................................. 23 2.3 SJE and CCD Integration ............................................................................... 24 Connecting Ownership .................................................................................. 25   1
  • 2. Organic Community Collaboration................................................................. 25 Meaningful Investigation................................................................................ 26 Imagination Cultivation .................................................................................. 26 Creative Action .............................................................................................. 26 3. Methodology ....................................................................................................... 28 3.1 Methods ......................................................................................................... 28 Participants.................................................................................................... 28 Materials ........................................................................................................ 29 Study Procedure............................................................................................ 29 Data Collection and Manipulation.................................................................. 30 3.2 Limitations ...................................................................................................... 32 3.3 Conclusion...................................................................................................... 33 4. Results ................................................................................................................ 34 4.1 Student Surveys ............................................................................................. 34 Relevancy...................................................................................................... 34 Engagement .................................................................................................. 35 Activism ......................................................................................................... 35 4.2 Collaborator Interviews................................................................................... 36 Collaboration ................................................................................................. 36 Relevancy...................................................................................................... 37 Engagement .................................................................................................. 38 Activism ......................................................................................................... 38 4.3 Researcher Observations................................................................................ 39 Phase One..................................................................................................... 39 The Collaboration Process ............................................................................ 40 Phase Two..................................................................................................... 40 5. Discussion of the Results ................................................................................. 43 5.1 Addressing Challenges .................................................................................. 43 5.2 Impacts of CCD Integration into SJE.............................................................. 50 Connecting Ownership .................................................................................. 50 Organic Community Collaboration................................................................. 51 Meaningful Investigation................................................................................ 51 Imagination Cultivation .................................................................................. 52 Creative Action .............................................................................................. 52   2
  • 3. Conclusion..................................................................................................... 53 5.3 Model for CCD Integration into SJE ............................................................... 54 Start with the Students .................................................................................. 54 Collaborate .................................................................................................... 54 Lead the Learning.......................................................................................... 56 Create a Cultural Component........................................................................ 57 Take Action.................................................................................................... 58 Evaluate Results............................................................................................ 59 Repeat ........................................................................................................... 59 6. Conclusions........................................................................................................ 61 6.1 Main Findings ................................................................................................. 61 6.2 Implications for the Arts.................................................................................. 62 6.3 Recommendations for Further Research ....................................................... 63 Art Forms....................................................................................................... 63 Extending the Work ....................................................................................... 64 6.4 Conclusion...................................................................................................... 64 BIBLIOGRAPHY....................................................................................................... 66 APPENDICES A. Student Survey Results and Responses......................................................... 68 B. Collaborator Interview Results and Responses ............................................. 84 C. Protest Poster Project ....................................................................................... 93 C.1 Project Description......................................................................................... 93 C.2 Project Images............................................................................................... 94 D. Collage and String Project................................................................................ 96 D.1 Project Description......................................................................................... 96 D.2 Project Images............................................................................................... 97 E. Connecting Quilt Project................................................................................... 99 E.1 Project Description......................................................................................... 99 E.2 Project Images ............................................................................................. 100   3
  • 4. List of Tables Number and Title Page Number 1. Survey Question 1 Results................................................................................... 68 2. Survey Question 2 Results.................................................................................... 68 3. Survey Question 3.1 Results................................................................................ 68 4. Survey Question 3.2 Results................................................................................ 69 5. Survey Question 3.3 Results................................................................................ 69 6. Survey Question 3.4 Results................................................................................ 69 7. Survey Question 4.1 Results................................................................................ 70  8. Survey Question 4.2 Results................................................................................ 71 9. Survey Question 5 Results................................................................................... 73 10. Survey Question 6.1 Results.............................................................................. 75 11. Survey Question 6.2 Results............................................................................... 76 12. Survey Question 6.3 Results............................................................................... 76 13. Survey Question 8 Results.................................................................................. 78 14. Survey Question 10 Results............................................................................... 81 15. Survey Question 11 Results................................................................................ 81 16. Survey Question 12 Results................................................................................ 82 17. Survey Question 13 Results............................................................................... 82 18. Survey Question 14 Results............................................................................... 82 19. Interview Question 7 Results.............................................................................. 88 20. Interview Question 8 Results............................................................................... 89 21. Interview Question 9 Results.............................................................................. 90 List of Illustrations Number and Title Page Number 1. Shared Values and Methods Leading to Shared Goal ......................................... 23 2. SJE Challenges and CCD Enhanced Components ............................................. 27   4
  • 5. Acknowledgements An accomplishment is never made alone. Thank you to… Philip Light for your encouragement, support, and unending love without which I would not be where I am today Mom (Laura Page) for the hours and energy you put into the editing and for the confidence and love you have always put into me Dad (Jeff Fuell) for always being the one to call during this process to ask about my work, support me every step of the way, and remind me of your love Shannon Fuell for our sisterhood and for always making it through your challenges, inspiring me to keep pushing through mine Jill Doub for enthusiastically partnering with me in the study, listening to me talk about it for the last year and a half, reading my thesis, and for applying the learning to program work at AFSC Carla Paynter for volunteering your time, energy, and talents to this study and for teaching me new things about teaching art Abbey Fox for enthusiastically reading every sentence, providing valuable feedback, and introducing me to Loose Leaf Lounge Dr. Kelly Cahill Roberts, Ph.D. for your deep friendship, mailing me a copy of your thesis, idea sharing, and taking time to help me even while writing your Ph.D. dissertation   5
  • 6. Ana Gonzalez-Cosman for connecting me to Perspectives Charter Schools, listening to me talk endlessly about this study during our half marathon trainings, and proving to be an amazing friend in the process Rhiannon Borgia, David Doll, and Matthew Kayser for offering your classrooms, preparing your students, sharing your teaching ideas, and being excited, engaged collaborators in this study Kate Cichon and Perspectives Charter Schools – Joslin Campus Staff for welcoming me into your school and providing resources, expertise, and supportive smiles along the way Alison Meyric-Hughes for connecting me to Pan Intercultural Arts, encouraging me to write this dissertation, and getting me most of the way through it Vicky Woollard for jumping in at the last minute, offering invaluable feedback, and carrying me through the rest of the way Alex Page and Lynda Barckert for reminding me to take a break and always providing a wonderful place with great conversation to do so Susie Gorgeous for mentoring me at Pan Intercultural Arts where I fell in love with arts-for-social- change and for being a close friend despite the ocean between us Bill and Nancy Light for sending me care packages filled with art supplies, tea, and words of encouragement The American Friends Service Committee for providing the opportunity, all of my family and friends who saw me less, but supported me more, and to all of the young people who inspire me to work for a better tomorrow   6
  • 7. Declaration I grant powers of discretion to the University Librarian to allow this dissertation to be copied in whole or in part without further reference to me. This permission covers only single copies made for study purposes, subject to normal conditions of acknowledgement.   7
  • 8. Abstract The Art of Engaging Young People in Social Transformation By Karen Beth Light Empowering young people to transform society requires exploring vast, complex, and intertwining issues that are best addressed collaboratively. When these partnerships include cultural activities for social transformation through personal liberation, they are a part of the emerging field of Community Cultural Development (CCD). Social Justice Education (SJE) is simultaneously emerging and shares these goals. It investigates the intersection of activism and education, seeking to relate curriculum to the larger society. However, because SJE does not necessarily incorporate an arts component, research is invited that documents the impacts of including cultural activities. Can integrating CCD practices into high school SJE increase the participation of young people in transforming society? This question was explored by comparing workshops on the Iraqi Refugee Crisis—one without an arts component versus one that utilizes CCD methods. The study included three urban high school classes and required the partnership of three SJE teachers, an activist, and a community artist. Incorporating art-making was an accessible means of convincing students to dwell on the Crisis at a deeper level, which increased empathy. The process produced new levels of interaction, contributing to students beginning to take ownership in the project’s development. This, in turn, made them feel proud of their work and compelled them to implement creative actions. The data gathered from student surveys and collaborator interviews reveal tangible, long-term impacts. Integrating CCD methods into SJE resulted in a greater number of students believing that their ideas and opinions were valuable, feeling empowered to be part of a cause, and defining themselves as activists. Most collaborators believed that such impacts will increase the participation of these young people in future social transformation. [273] Dissertation Word Count: 16,841   8
  • 9. 1. Introduction 1.1 State of the Field When working with young people, community artists, activists, and progressive high school educators share a common goal: To empower those of the next generation to participate in transforming society (Adams and Goldbard 2005; Adejumo 2008; Burnham 2003; Carter and Yenawine 2008; Cleveland 2005; Cohen-Cruz 2002; Duncan-Andrade 2007; Golden 2008; Greene 1995). Community artists achieve this through self-investigation and imagination (Adams and Goldbard 2005; Adejumo 2008; Schwarzman 1999; Greene 1995). Activists educate students on issues and solicit their involvement in taking action (Pers. Obs.). Progressive high school educators develop relevant curriculum and build a safe classroom where students can freely take risks (Ayers, Quinn, and Stovall 2009; Duncan-Andrade 2007; Golden 2008). The issues being explored are vast, complex, and intertwining and, therefore, may include representatives from various social contexts. This work is largely undocumented in the United States and difficult to define, but there is a movement to establish it as Community Cultural Development (CCD). A project is part of CCD if cultural activities are “undertaken in aid of the larger goals of social transformation and personal liberation” (Adams and Goldbard 2005). Potential CCD practitioners, community artists, activists, and high school educators face challenges that can be met through collaboration. For example, whereas artists make issues more accessible and engaging through creative activities, activists and educators provide ways for sustaining the learning and action beyond the life of the project. While activists supply action plans and statistics, artists and educators connect the issue to the students’ reality. Finally, as educators expose their students to topics that directly affect their lives, activists and artists offer in-depth information and methods for exploring personal opinions (Adams and Goldbard 2005; Adejumo 2008; Ayers, Quinn, and Stovall 2009; Burnham 2003; Carter and Yenawine 2008; Cleveland 2005; Cohen-Cruz 2002; Duncan-Andrade 2007; Golden 2008; Greene 1995). Indeed, studies measuring the impact of partnerships between arts and education and arts and activism have revealed many ways that they can complement one another   9
  • 10. and produce exciting results. Research is also surfacing around the intersection of activism and education, contributing to a new movement in progressive education called Social Justice Education (SJE). SJE seeks to relate curriculum to the larger society. It encourages students to question and expand what they learned, to partner with teachers in the learning process, and to engage with issues (Adejumo 2008; Ayers, Quinn, and Stovall 2009; Golden 2008). Because these values resonate with CCD practitioners, SJE invites research that documents the strategies and impacts of integrating cultural activities into its processes. How can SJE teachers collaborate with CCD practitioners to create projects that teach students traditional curriculum while providing them with useful tools for initiating positive change? Can integrating CCD practices into high school SJE increase the participation of young people in transforming society? 1.2 Hypothesis The hypothesis of this study is: By integrating CCD practices into high school SJE, the participation of young people in transforming society will increase. Alternatively, by integrating CCD practices into high school SJE, the participation of young people in transforming society will not increase. 1.3 Intentions The hypothesis will be explored by comparing workshops on the Iraqi Refugee Crisis— one without an arts component versus one that integrates CCD methods. The researcher hopes that integrating these methods will help more students better understand the Crisis, have empathy for the refugees, and feel empowered to take action. The researcher intends to demonstrate the common values of CCD and SJE, leading to a model that can be replicated, expanded, and utilized for SJE and CCD collaborations. Lastly, the researcher aims to raise awareness of CCD in order to encourage conscious participation by progressive change seekers and promote its establishment as a recognized profession. This can contribute to building a greater support system   10
  • 11. for the field upon which policy can be collaboratively developed and funding can be expanded. 1.4 Definitions Social Justice Education SJE demands that students take a close look at their schools, communities, and world to identify existing problems and their solutions. SJE educators are concerned with their students engaging in relevant lessons that are not inherently racist, classist, sexist, etc. and that compel them to become active in changing the world (Ayers, Quinn, and Stovall 2009). Community Cultural Development CCD work involves community artists, activists, educators, social service providers, and diverse community members uniting specifically for social transformation and personal liberation. “Community” signifies the collaboration of a group of people. “Cultural” indicates cultural activities as being the backbone of the work. “Development” represents the evolution that takes place within the community (Adams and Goldbard 2005). Community Artist Community artists “want to teach meaning as much as method, and…want to understand their work in a much larger context” (Cocke 2007). They collaboratively address today’s issues with the belief that creative activities are an effective way of establishing meaning and lasting social change (deNobriga and Schwarzman 1999).   11
  • 12. Activist Students were told that activists take action for a cause they believe in. The definition was intentionally broad as expanding the meaning of an activist beyond its traditional notion was integral to the project. Transforming Society Transforming society is defined by the Seasons Fund for Social Transformation (2009) as “acts…that address the root causes of economic and environmental injustice and aspire to fundamentally shift social structures, institutions, patterns of behavior, cultures and/or relations of power.” It explains personal liberation as being integral to the process of changing “conditions at the individual, organizational, and societal level.” 1.5 Literature Review Research Methods The literature review explored theories explaining how SJE and CCD attempt to transform young people into empowered, participating members of society. It noted similar struggles and values, focusing on those relative to how CCD practices, especially the arts-making, can address challenges faced by educators and activists. As CCD and SJE are struggling to define themselves, research is scarce. SJE was investigated through reading recommended by SJE teachers. Current CCD developments were sought through the Community Arts Network, a central Internet resource for community arts related work, and review of a book of essays recommended by active practitioners.   12
  • 13. Social Justice Education Jeff Duncan-Andrade’s article, “Gangstas, Wankstas, and Ridas: Defining, Developing, and Supporting Effective Teachers in Urban Schools” (2007) identifies five indicators of effective SJE teaching. These teachers believe that their students will change the world. They are always learning and, thus, create relevant curriculum. They stress education as part of the path to freedom and justice, possess a sense of responsibility for each student to succeed, and are committed to building trust by focusing on the humanity of each student and demonstrating vulnerability. The author also finds that successful teachers provide hopeful curriculum. Linda Christensen, SJE teacher, agrees. In “A Conversation with Linda Christensen on Social Justice Education” (Golden 2008), she stresses the importance of explaining how people overcame past injustices so that students can learn ways to battle contemporary injustices. Additionally, Christensen states that students must participate in developing relevant curriculum, question practices, and listen with empathy so that the classroom is a safe place for investigation. K. Wayne Yang, in “For and Against: The School-Education Dialectic in Social Justice” (Ayers, Quinn, and Stovall 2009), finds humanizing students to be a common thread. He argues that today’s school systems are deteriorated and questions why teachers enforce these broken policies on students. Instead, students should be consulted on how they need to be taught. This can lead to the emancipation process, which is a necessary first step in participating in society. “The goal of SJE is freedom,” states the authors of “Teacher Education for Social Justice: Critiquing the Critiques” (Ayers, Quinn, and Stovall 2009). Freedom is spoken in the sense that curriculum is being aligned with larger educational goals that address the needs of the common good. Therefore, lessons must be on the pulse of what society and the students need. Gustavo E. Fischman and Eric Haas point out that the inherent oppression in schools is often challenging. In “Critical Pedagogy and Hope in the Context of Neo-Liberal Education” (Ayers, Quinn, and Stovall 2009), they find that teachers and students must question such structures and understand the sources of oppression. They should focus on how these injustices can be transformed by emphasizing educating students about the issues as well as the system they will need to navigate to effect change.   13
  • 14. Community Cultural Development In Making Exact Change, William Cleveland (2005) presents a case study of ten arts- based programs. Representatives from each were asked the same questions to identify best practices. The answers revealed theories behind why CCD practices are particularly successful in motivating people to participate in change. The Grassroots Arts and Community Effort’s artists focus on creating a safe environment for participants to ask questions and experiment. This gives them space to develop their creativity with the intention of participants eventually being able to develop and implement their own projects. In every project, community artists teach arts techniques, providing tools for expression and expanding possibilities. The Northern Lakes Center for the Arts believes that culture is a crucial component because art itself is action that requires participants’ active involvement as opposed to passive observation. Furthermore, the Manchester Craftsmen’s Guild has found that art is what reconnects people with their repressed and oppressed spirits. This brings meaning back into their lives and, when life has meaning, their actions become more important. All organizations in the report spend a significant amount of time building community relationships in order to offer a wide range of expertise to their participants. They work together by focusing on long-term goals and developing creative ways to enhance one another. Don Adams and Arlene Goldbard, in Creative Community: The Art of Cultural Development (2005), explain the importance of students being partners in CCD projects. Traditional power structures need to be re-evaluated by practitioners. They should learn from participants in order to ensure relevance and instill ownership. These authors argue that art is critical to effecting social transformation since many of today’s issues are cultural. Artists empower participants with a cultural vocabulary and artistic process to give voice to their desires. If the work, in its approach and aims, is aligned with participants’ wishes, CCD projects are successful in motivating people to contribute to society.   14
  • 15. Adams and Goldbard introduced the term CCD in Community, Culture, and Globalization (2002). They discuss how the cultural component is key to breaking down stereotypes. As participants process their feelings and find their identities, they can express the truth about their lives, refuting messages portrayed in mainstream media. This can enable them to take control instead of being victims. The authors see this as part of changing one’s operating system. As one thinks more imaginatively, creative solutions and actions can be developed, breaking old habits. Maxine Greene agrees with this in her essays, “Imagination, Breakthroughs, and the Unexpected” and “Imagination, Community, and the School” (1995). She states that imagination leads people to conceive of a better future instead of being resigned to the way things are. Therefore, it is a necessary precursor to taking action, for one must first envision the world as they wish it to be. Greene’s second referenced essay concentrates on how today’s education system lacks the ability to see students as individuals. To reverse this oppressive trend, she argues that teachers and students must be able to imagine what it is like to be someone else so that they can empathize and enhance their humanity. When people feel genuinely seen and valued, they can begin to feel that they are worthy of a better future. In “Seeking Contexts” (1995), Greene suggests teachers find empathy with their students by taking into account their entire background. The reality is that students bring their personal issues with them to school and, so, these issues should be a part of their education. Combine them with art and students become actively engaged in working on their challenges. Tom Borrup is particularly interested in this concept of active versus passive participation. In his essay, “Higher Ground: Informal Arts, Cultural Policy, and the Evolving Role of Nonprofits” (2007), he argues that the arts are a natural part of activism because making art requires students to actively and fully think about the topic as they shape their work to best express the message they want to share. Actively engaging participants builds their capacity to continue taking action—their agency. Touching participants’ hearts is also a component of inspiring action, for change is a personal endeavor, as stated in “An Introduction to Community Art and Activism” by   15
  • 16. Jan Cohen-Cruz (2002). Imagination can hone empathy that can expand humanity as one connects the issues to one’s heart. The heart is the pathway to passion. In this same essay, CCD practitioners discuss the role of artist and activist. They conclude that all collaborators should navigate wide networks to ascertain a project’s success and should contribute to every stage of its development to best ensure cohesiveness and relevance to participants’ lives. While activists can provide expertise and action plans, artists can safeguard against activists’ tendency to impose an opinion through projects that invite participants to explore their own opinions. Matt Schwarzman wrote in “It’s About Transformation: Thoughts on Arts as Social Action” (1999) that these collaborations are a result of artists and activists recognizing that, together, they can address challenges. With the rise of social injustices and accompanying apathy, activists are pursuing new methods of engagement and artists aspire to use art to change people’s perceptions about themselves and the world. In “Conversations at the Intersection of Art and Activism” by Linda Frye Burnham (2003) CCD practitioners also find great benefits to working with activists, adding that they are especially skilled at ensuring measurable outcomes. Because today’s issues are closely connected, these practitioners integrate diverse partnerships throughout the life of the project. The idea that participants should be equal partners in CCD projects is again discussed in “Art Action for Social Change: Kids on the Hill” by Mark Carter and Rebecca Yenawine (2008). The authors also recommend that their education be experiential, inspiring them to shape their own art project that will best express their viewpoints. Lastly, the young people should decide how they will take creative action. This process ensures that the project is about them, for them, and from them. As they learn and experience new things, they discover innovative answers to old recurring questions. Christopher O. Adejumo suggests that one way to create a community in which this process can thrive is by questioning the competitive atmosphere present in most educational settings. In “Promoting Self and Community Empowerment” (2008), he finds that it is more effective to emphasize cooperative learning—learning from one another and using the skills and talents of each person for the good of the whole.   16
  • 17. Conclusion Although all sources discussed had pertinent theories, several were particularly influential. They include “Gangstas, Wankstas, and Ridas” (Duncan-Andrade 2007) and “An Interview with Linda Christensen” (Golden 2008), as they depict the authentic voices and concerns, successes and failures of SJE teachers. In the field of CCD, Making Exact Change, Creative Community (Cleveland 2005) and “Community, Culture, and Globalization” (Adams and Goldbard 2002) are noteworthy because of the extensive research into a wide variety of organizations and projects. This made the identified common threads valid and the theories behind successful results convincing.   17
  • 18. 2. Theoretical Framework 2.1 SJE and CCD Theory Relationships SJE is struggling to take shape. Its work consists of aligning educational goals with what is needed for the common good for “there is an intrinsic relationship between educational and social transformations” (Ayers, Quinn, and Stovall 2009, pg. 569). Linda Christensen explains that teachers and students should always ask questions such as, “Who benefits? Who is being marginalized? Why are these practices fair or unfair?” (Golden 2008, pg. 61). Doing so, students realize that their education is not only intended to be academically rigorous, but also intended to provide them with the thinking and skills necessary to respond to social issues. Teachers emphasize that their ability to act critically for the betterment of their life and society as a whole is the path to freedom (Duncan-Andrade 2007). Simultaneously, CCD is seeking to define itself. In CCD projects, artists join with communities to make art that transforms people’s perceptions so they might imagine how they could effect change (Schwarzman 1999). As this type of creation can lead to self-actualization, it is emphasized that the process is as important as the product (Adams and Goldbard 2002; Adams and Goldbard 2005; Schwartzman 1999). Ultimately, CCD projects, like SJE, are completed in the search for freedom—freedom to define one’s own being, freedom to imagine the world as it could be, and freedom to act for social transformation (Adams and Goldbard 2005). SJE and CCD practitioners work towards accomplishing similar goals by utilizing many similar methods. Both fields involve five crucial components: Ownership, Community Collaboration, Investigation, Imagination, and Action. Ownership SJE Development of a relevant curriculum that is not inherently racist, classist, sexist, etc. is integral to motivating high school students to become active participants. SJE teachers can accomplish this through lessons that relate directly to students’ lives and that encourage them to critique schools and society. This process includes dissolving   18
  • 19. the power structures that typically exist between teachers and students by collaborating as partners to develop lessons that reflect the culture of the students while extracting educational materials that further oppressive stereotypes (Ayers, Quinn, and Stovall 2009). Demonstrating vulnerability can establish such partnerships. This can show students that the teachers are beside them in the struggle for a better world and can build trust between them (Duncan-Andrade 2007; Golden 2008). Focusing on the humanity of their students is another method. To instill a sense of “positive self-identity, purpose, and hope” as pre-requisites for achievement (Duncan-Andrade 2007, pg. 635), each young person needs to be viewed as capable of forming opinions instead of being constantly imposed on by a broken system (Ayers, Quinn, and Stovall 2009). CCD Similarly, CCD theory deems that in order to achieve ownership, it is imperative that participants be seen as equal partners in determining the project and its desired outcomes (Adams and Goldbard 2005; Adejumo 2008; Cohen-Cruz 2002). Ownership is needed if one is to direct one’s course and participate effectively in the life of a community (Adams and Goldbard 2002). CCD practitioner, Alice Lovelace, notes “by taking the pieces of vision, ideas, thoughts, dreams, etc. of a group of people and putting them together, you are demonstrating that they are a community” (Burnham 2003). This idea of community can be furthered by emphasizing the cooperative over the traditional competitive approach found in most educational institutions (Adejumo 2008). CCD practitioners also instill confidence in the participants’ inherent capabilities knowing that “what moves people beyond themselves to change their lives is regard, responsibility, imagination, and a love for them as worthy human beings” (Greene 1995, pg. 40). Indeed, at the core of CCD work is the notion that to be fully present in life one must realize one’s identity, strengths, and abilities (Adams and Goldbard 2005). This is often enforced through Participatory Action Research, which involves participants gathering their own information on the topic in order to self-direct their learning (Carter and Yenawine 2008).   19
  • 20. Community Collaboration SJE Oftentimes, SJE is actually the process by which subjects are taught rather than the subject matter itself (Duncan-Andrade 2007). Therefore, SJE teachers occasionally seek partnerships with local activists and invite them into the classroom to share their expertise. These activists present ways that students can become part of real action by leading them in using methods that history-makers have utilized to transform lives (Golden 2008). Educators hope that more young people will feel empowered to participate in social transformation by teaching not only the issues, but also the system that must be navigated to find solutions (Ayers, Quinn, and Stovall 2009). CCD Likewise, CCD practitioners often find collaborations with activists to be vital to their work. Activists can ensure that projects lead to measurable outcomes and can influence government bodies on behalf of the greater good (Burnham 2003). Community artists particularly covet their ability to cultivate a network to channel voices and give participants options for turning their opinions and agency into action that effects real social change (Cohen-Cruz 2002). Investigation SJE As students build skills, realize how they can be part of change, and become real partners in shaping their learning experience, a new sense of empowerment often emerges. Practicing it, though, requires an environment where they feel safe to experiment (Adejumo 2008). SJE teachers accomplish this by establishing that, in cultural matters, there are no wrong answers, just different perspectives. Students are encouraged to question everything with a sensitivity to beliefs and ideas of others, leading to new perspectives, wider understanding, and deeper empathy—critical ingredients in motivating them to transform society (Golden 2008). CCD Engaging in art-making on a specific issue can inspire such critical questions as, “Says who? Why? Is that what I think? What does that say about me? How do I feel about it?” Participants are encouraged to use their imaginations to put themselves in other’s   20
  • 21. people’s shoes—to empathize (Greene 1995). Therefore, CCD practitioners strive to create safe, supportive environments for individuals and communities to explore these inquiries (Cleveland 2005). As answers are sought and participants feel free to form and express their developing opinions and ideas, freedom to choose their own identity is accomplished (Adams and Goldbard 2002). Imagination SJE The classroom is used as a microcosm and as a place for students to begin breaking down the barriers that keep them and those they know from living the life they deserve. Students are encouraged to imagine, “What kind of society would I like to live in? How can I get there?” and are, then, challenged to create solutions to those questions (Golden 2008). CCD CCD processes entail visualizing how things could be different as a first step towards action. Participants address the same questions listed above as they believe that tapping into the imagination can rouse abandonment of old, habitual ways of thinking. They can “break what is supposedly fixed…see beyond what the imaginer has called normal…and carve out new orders in experience…to glimpse what might be” (Greene 1995, pg. 19). Each generation faces the same difficult challenges, but by integrating cultural activities, CCD practitioners seek to break the cycle and “find new solutions to old problems” (Carter and Yenawine 2008). Action SJE SJE teachers strive to compel students to be active in changing the world (Ayers, Quinn, and Stovall 2009). They illustrate how people have historically worked together to overcome injustices. This helps to keep students from feeling hopeless and from accepting the world and their lives as they are. Instead, SJE teachers intend for students to feel outrage at injustices and to feel hopeful about being able to effect change (Duncan-Andrade 2007; Golden 2008).   21
  • 22. CCD CCD practitioners also seek to engage participants to take action for a better world. The art-making process, itself, requires active participation, which stirs a sense of agency (Borrup 2007). “Art is action” (Cleveland 2005, pg. 57) and society becomes more equitable as more people participate (Adams and Goldbard 2005). As individuals begin to express their identities, the divide between what they hold to be true and how society views them is slowly closed (Adams and Goldbard 2002), shortening the distance between those who have and those who have not (Shifferd and Lagerroos 2006). “The root of CCD is the imperative to fully inhabit our lives, bringing to consciousness the values and choices that animate our communities and, thus, equipping us to act as subjects—not objects—in history” (Adams and Goldbard 2002). Conclusion SJE and CCD share similar values and employ similar methods to accomplish their common goal of increasing participation in social transformation through personal liberation (Adams and Goldbard 2005; Ayers, Quinn, and Stovall 2009). CCD practitioner, Tony Stanley, explains it well by saying, “For me it’s all about the connectedness—us as individuals helping other people connect with their own imaginative lives…the connectivity between people and, through that, the building of cultures and the sustainability of cultures” (Adams and Goldbard 2002).   22
  • 23. SJE and CCD Shared SJE and CCD Shared SJE and CCD Shared Values Methods Goal Freedom Creating Relevant Curriculum Self-Empowerment Experimenting Increasing Participation Developing a Safe Active Participation in Environment for Questioning Breaking Down Stereotypes Collaborating Social Transformation Providing/Creating Paths to Empathy through Action Hope Partnering with Participants Personal Liberation Cultivating Strategic Ownership Community Partnerships Creative Thinking Exploring Power Structures Participants' Inherent Eradicating Inherent Creativity and Capabilities Oppression Illustration 1. Shared Values and Methods Leading to Shared Goal 2.2 SJE Challenges SJE teachers have experienced many positive results, explaining the trend to develop the field. However, there are key challenges that prevent it from realizing its full potential. Solely bringing activists into classrooms rarely motivates students to become part of transforming society. Their expertise can be critical, but they typically present traditional methods of activism, such as attending a protest, signing a petition, calling a representative, etc. Students will not likely participate in these activities without feeling genuinely connected to the issue. They may participate for the duration of an individual project, but an element of passion inspires a lifelong practice of activism (Cohen-Cruz 2002). Activists also bear a formed, fervent opinion on a topic that can create a judgmental atmosphere. Thus, students who think differently may not engage for fear of looking unintelligent to their peers and students who have not yet formed an opinion may not feel free to explore the issue (Cohen-Cruz 2002). Even if they share the same opinion, students may not place much emphasis on the issue if they cannot relate to it.   23
  • 24. Generally teachers and activists do not collaborate in the lesson’s development. Instead, activists provide information and, perhaps, action plans while SJE teachers plan activities to connect it to the current lesson. Playing separate roles is not the most effective way to address issues nor fill the divide between those issues and students’ lives (Burnham 2003; Cohen-Cruz 2002). Even if SJE teachers can relate the issue to students’ lives, the information is usually conveyed through traditional methods: lectures and presentations. These methods require only passive student participation. When they have not fully engaged in the experience, the transition from learning to taking action is particularly challenging (Borrup 2007; Cleveland 2005; Greene 1995). Likewise, instituting agency is difficult without developing innovative, inspiring ideas. Even though students are asked to envision creative answers, their ideas will likely be based on traditional thinking, resulting in traditional action choices that they often view as intimidating and unexciting. It could be compared to asking students to use a tool without demonstrating how to use it. Before they can employ creativity, methods to develop that creativity need to be established (Adams and Goldbard 2002; Greene 1995). 2.3 SJE and CCD Integration “In our era, many pressing social problems–racism, homophobia, conflicts over the nature of public education and conflicts over immigration, etc.–are understood to be essentially cultural. Cultural responses are required to address them” (Adams and Goldbard 2005, pg. 65). CCD practitioners argue that placing an art-making experience at the center of learning is vital to moving participants to take an active role in society (Adams and Goldbard 2002; Adams and Goldbard 2005; Cleveland 2005; Cohen-Cruz 2002). By adding this element to the five critical components shared by SJE and CCD, the potential of the arts to increase participation in social transformation through personal liberation is explored as a solution to challenges faced by SJE.   24
  • 25. Connecting Ownership For students to feel ownership, a real connection between their lives and the issue must be established (Adams and Goldbard 2005; Cohen-Cruz 2002). Both SJE teachers and CCD practitioners strive for this, but the arts tell stories through which connections can be made between the learning and the young people’s personal struggles (Greene 1995). Artists shape these connections by blending symbolic imagery, creative techniques, and cultural vocabulary to create an artistic expression that records the participants’ engagement in processing their feelings on the issue (Adams and Goldbard 2005). To create the environment needed for non-judgmental reflection, the arts ask, “Imagine if,” rather than state, “This is.” Cultural activities naturally provide a shield against activists’ tendency to convince others to believe just as they do (Cohen-Cruz 2002). Organic Community Collaboration SJE teachers can become static when the activist’s role is independently developed. CCD involves more organic and integrated collaborations with all partners contributing to all stages of the planning, implementation, and follow through. This intertwines the goals so that learning is focused, methods are effective, and desired results are achieved (Burnham 2003; Cohen-Cruz 2002). CCD practitioners customarily involve as many collaborators from varying sectors as the project requires. Community artist, A.B. Spellman, observes this is because “problems and issues are not segregated—they are complicatedly connected” (Burnham 2003). Navigating complex partnerships without succumbing to rigid roles is difficult; however, past CCD experiences reveal that a project is only as good as these relationships. Therefore, collaborators must approach it creatively and openly—an ability that is nurtured through developing and implementing cultural activities, which require out-of-the-box thinking (Cleveland 2005).   25
  • 26. Meaningful Investigation The quest for answers to questions posed by those involved in SJE and CCD is about discovering creative solutions and about finding a deeper meaning that inspires action. It asks, “How does this make me feel? Why does this matter? Is it important to me to be part of changing something?” These are questions of the heart, the place where real change takes place (Cohen-Cruz 2002). Cultural activities can potentially bring “deeper meanings of experience to the surface so they can be explored and acted upon” (Adams and Goldbard 2005, pg. 64). When participants create while thinking about the questions surrounding the issue, they unearth their own feelings and eventually connect to their spirits (Cleveland 2005). Once their hearts and spirits are engaged, passion can follow. Imagination Cultivation Because CCD practitioners have high expectations for the product, they teach an array of artistic techniques they can use to yield satisfying results (Cleveland 2005). They do not simply ask participants to be creative; they show them how. Through the art-making process, participants learn a repertoire of tools and possibilities. Eventually, they can progress beyond what they have been taught to imagining new ways of combining those tools and possibilities. This can lead to innovative answers to the questions—answers for which participants can feel ownership and which help them imagine a better world and how they can be a part of effecting change (Greene 1995; Schwarzman 1999). Creative Action “CCD aims to change our ‘operating systems’ by providing new and fundamental tools of comprehension, analysis, and creative action” (Adams and Goldbard 2002). Indeed, imagination cultivates new ways of acting, providing more accessible paths for people to become history-makers rather than passive subjects of the human story. The idea of activism is expanded beyond the traditional methods of petitions and   26
  • 27. protests to more inclusive, approachable activities such as exhibitions, performances, or educating fellow classmates (Cleveland 2005). Additionally, by taking part in a cultural activity, participants are already taking action. As opposed to being passive students, they are physically forming a work of art and their lesson. Practicing action has a greater potential to lead to further action as participants become familiar with the process (Borrup 2007). CCD Enhanced SJE Challenges Components The issue needs to be thoroughly connected to students' lives in order for them Connecting Ownership to feel motivated to tackle the problem. The project's meaning must reach beyond a school assignment to students' Meaningful Investigation hearts to ignite a passion that is more likely to inspire life-long activism. Imagination Cultivation / Students need more accessible, approachable ways to take action. Creative Action Students need freedom to formulate their own thinking on an issue - not simply Connecting Ownership inherit an activist's formed opinion. In collaborations, completely separate roles make it difficult for SJE teachers to Organic Community ensure the issues remain relevant to students' lives. Collaboration It is a big leap for students to transition from passive participation in learning Creative Action about an issue to taking action on its behalf. Methods to develop creativity need to be part of the work in order for students to Imagination Cultivation imagine creative solutions in which they can and want to participate. Illustration 2. SJE Challenges and CCD Enhanced Components   27
  • 28. 3. Methodology 3.1 Methods To determine if integrating CCD practices into high school SJE can increase the participation of young people in transforming society, this study analyzed two different workshops with one common topic: the Iraqi Refugee Crisis. The first workshop, Phase One, utilized the traditional lecture method, and the second workshop, Phase Two, used CCD practices to develop an arts-centered experience. Results from both were collected through student surveys, collaborator interview questions, and the researcher’s observations. These results were analyzed to create a model for utilizing CCD to teach social justice issues in a way that could increase the potential of students becoming life-long activists. Participants Facilitated by the researcher, the study included an activist, a community artist, three high school SJE teachers, and as many as 59 high school students. The activist, Jill Doub, works at the Chicago office of the American Friends Service Committee (AFSC), an international organization dedicated to peace and social justice. The community artist, Carla Paynter, teaches art in conjunction with several non-profit organizations. The three SJE high school teachers, Rhiannon Borgia, David Doll, and Matthew Kayser, teach at Perspectives Charter School–Joslin Campus, a high school in Chicago. Students attending this charter school come from a variety of neighborhoods and most are African-American or Latino. Both phases were carried out in one class of each teacher, including a ninth grade A Disciplined Life class, tenth grade Humanities class, and eleventh grade History class. During a recent project, AFSC established a good working relationship with teachers and administrators at this school. It was selected because the school was founded and driven by SJE values.   28
  • 29. Materials A PowerPoint presentation created by AFSC staff was used as the starting point for Phase One (AFSC 2009). It included background on events leading up to the Iraqi Refugee Crisis, images from refugee life, statistics, and ideas on how the U.S. can move forward in addressing the issue. Phase Two utilized images from Iraqi life and statistics on the Crisis, poems from Battlefield Without Borders (Smith-Ferri 2008), and three articles, “The Militias in Middle East Classrooms” (Moskowitz 2008), “Children of Iraq Make an ‘Appeal’ to Government Leaders” (Dahyi 2008), and “Teenage Iraqi Refugees Focus on Career in Damascus Exercise” (Van Gendersen Short 2008). Students created artwork with markers, colored pencils, oil pastels, photocopies of images of Iraqi people, various types of paper, fabric, string, glue, and scissors. Study Procedure Phase One Phase One consisted of an introduction to the project followed by the Iraqi Refugee Crisis PowerPoint presentation given by the activist. Afterwards, students briefly discussed the Crisis and, then, they completed a short survey that gauged their activist tendencies, what they found impactful and relevant about the workshop, and their perceptions about their own ability to effect change. The researcher, community artist, and teachers noted students’ reactions and what needed improvement and all collaborators were asked interview questions. The following week, the researcher and collaborators met to share their goals, provide feedback on the presentation, and to discuss the student survey results. Based on this information, a new workshop was developed using CCD practices as a mode of transferring the information and engaging students in the issue. Phase Two Two class periods were needed for students to learn more information, create art, and develop an action plan in Phase Two. During the first class, the activist and community artist focused on Iraqi refugee youth as the surveys showed that students   29
  • 30. identified with this part of the Crisis. The class began with an Imagining Story in which the activist asked students to put themselves in the shoes of the young Iraqi in the story, making parallels between his life and theirs. Students were, then, each given one of three different articles to read. Each article was about one of the top three facts students previously identified as particularly impactful. Students were broken into groups according to their article where they answered discussion questions with their group members. When finished, the community artist recited a poem about one of those three facts as the activist showed images. The group with the article on that fact shared the message of their article and what they thought about it. This process repeated itself for the other two facts. Lastly, students were presented with a variety of ideas for producing art projects on the new information. Students voted for their favorite idea, each class choosing a different project. Before creating the art project next class, students engaged in a discussion on what they could do to make it activist art. Each class displayed their project in a different part of the school to educate fellow schoolmates. One class decided to write postcards to their government representatives. Two classes wanted to hang graffiti walls by their artwork, showing statistics about the Crisis and leaving space for others to write comments. All three classes crafted a morning announcement, informing the school about the project. It was determined that the comments on the graffiti walls and postcards could be sent to government representatives in one package. Finally, the community artist guided students in creating visual artwork. There was not enough time during this second class to finish, so teachers facilitated the completion of their students’ projects. The researcher returned to conclude the study and assist in installing the final product. Once again, students were given the same survey as in Phase One and collaborators were interviewed. Data Collection and Manipulation To determine a research posture, the researcher answered questions presented in “Navigating the ‘Seven C’s’: Curiosity, Confirmation, Comparison, Changing, Collaborating, Critiquing, and Combinations” (Chenail 2000). Because this study can   30
  • 31. be characterized by a desire to build “collaborative systems with the purpose of joint problem-solving and positive social change” the author recommended Collaborative Action Research Methods. This method is most commonly used in classrooms. It requires little interference in teachers’ primary role of teaching and is centered around the development of methods pertinent to the classroom dynamic. The Center for Collaborative Action Research (2006) further explains that “because practices involve other people, action research is participatory, often highly collaborative, and employs both qualitative and quantitative methods.” Quantitative Data The researcher compiled answers from student surveys completed after Phase One and Phase Two (Appendix A). The first section of the survey asked students to rate their responses on a scale of 1-5. It was determined how many times each number was circled and multiplied by the circled number. Those totals were divided by the total number of students who completed the question to arrive at the average number for each question. Students also had to answer “yes,” “no,” or “maybe” and “true,” “false,” or “maybe” on some questions. How many times each was answered on each question was counted and the totals were divided by the total number of students who completed those questions to ascertain percentages. Lastly, students were asked to define certain relevant terms to which they either answered it correctly, partially correctly, incorrectly, or they did not answer it. An answer was partially correct if it included only parts of the entire definition. How many times it was answered each of those ways was totaled and divided by the total number of students completing the question to compute percentages. The researcher compared the averages and percentages of the first and second surveys to see if they increased, decreased, or remained the same after Phase Two in order to determine whether or not integrating CCD practices increased the participation of these young people in transforming society. The Interview Questions (Appendix B) given to the activist, community artist, and SJE teachers after Phase One and Phase Two included three questions requiring a   31
  • 32. response on a scale of 1-5. Responses were totaled for each question and, then, divided by 5 (the number of adult collaborators) to reach an average. The averages of each phase were compared to see if they increased, decreased, or remained the same. Qualitative Data In addition to answering quantitatively, students were invited to write their thoughts on many questions. Those thoughts were compiled under the question being asked to gauge an overall perception and to sense the differences in opinions, attitudes, and ideas (Appendix A). Many of the interview questions asked collaborators to share observations on how students engaged within the workshops and why, as well as their ideas on what should be changed. Their responses helped to portray the atmosphere of the experience and students’ reactions, which can be difficult to capture in measurable ways (Appendix B). The students’ art projects also provided insightful information. One class designed protest posters around a fact of their choosing on the Iraqi Refugee Crisis. They drew images and came up with actions for viewers to take. Another class created collages with images and words that described their emotions on some of the same facts. The last project involved students drawing themselves, transferring images, and writing one wish that they had for Iraqi refugees. (See Appendices C–H.) Finally, the researcher was present for all of the components of the study, directly participating in both phases as well as the collaboration procedure. Observations were noted during the process and used in addressing the hypothesis. 3.2 Limitations A lack of funding for this project meant that the community artist was not paid for her time. Therefore, the researcher developed art project lessons and helped install the artwork while the community artist taught the lessons, helping students with techniques. This also meant that the art materials were limited to what the researcher already possessed, contributing to students not being able to completely develop the concept of the art project themselves.   32
  • 33. Lack of time was also a limiting factor. Class periods were only 50 minutes and the teachers only had four days that they could devote to the project. Therefore, the researcher and artists could not spend the time necessary to enable students to imagine and create a project of their own invention. Instead, various options were made available and projects were adjusted if suggestions for improvement were made. Additionally, the creative actions were squeezed into the end of the school year and, therefore, were a bit rushed. What students were moved by and what they felt was relevant was the basis for Phase Two. However, to gauge this, a wide range of issues on the topic of Iraqi refugees needed to be presented. As a result, some aspects of Phase Two relied on Phase One, and this must be taken into consideration. Lastly, the same students were not necessarily present for all sessions of the project and not all students who returned surveys completed all of the questions. 3.3 Conclusion Despite the limitations, the study produced a plethora of data worthy of examination. Time constraints and funding issues are typical challenges that CCD practitioners and SJE teachers face and need to effectively resolve. The most crucial concept is that Phase One was completely devoid of an arts component and that Phase Two integrated the arts using CCD practices. As a result, it appears that conclusions can be drawn as to whether or not the methods applied in Phase Two increase the participation of young people in transforming society.   33
  • 34. 4. Results 4.1 Student Surveys This section summarizes the pertinent results of the student survey as measured by the quantitative and qualitative data collected after Phase One and Phase Two. Please refer to Appendix A for all results in table and written form. Relevancy It is imperative that the issue’s relevance be established to create the Connecting Ownership and Meaningful Investigation that inspires agency (Adams and Goldbard 2005; Cochran-Smith et al. 2009; Cohen-Cruz 2002; Duncan-Andrade 2007). One way to achieve this was to involve students in exploring commonalities between themselves and Iraqi refugees. Table 9 reflects that 11.94% less students saw these similarities after Phase Two than after Phase One. Phase One responses demonstrated that this is because they do not share the exact same experience, whereas following Phase Two, many students seemed to say “no” because they did not experience things at the same level. This was apparent in comments like, “not really because they have everything worse.” Likewise, Table 13 demonstrates a decrease of 14.17% from one phase to the next in the number of students who found the workshop to be relevant to their lives. Some students who did find it relevant, especially after Phase One, explained that they have new knowledge that can be used as a resource. This subtly shifted in Phase Two, which revealed that learning about the plight of the Iraqi refugees made students feel grateful for what they have. There were also several more action-oriented responses after Phase Two: it alerted them to the problem so they could help, it showed them how to help, and it changed their way of thinking. It is also interesting to note that a significantly greater number of students who found relevance included a written response in comparison to those who did not see its pertinence.   34
  • 35. Engagement Along with Imagination Cultivation, engagement is another crucial factor in establishing Connecting Ownership and Meaningful Investigation. These are all pre-requisites for taking action (Borrup 2007; Cleveland 2005). When asked why students participated, the most common response after both phases was, “My teacher told me to.” After Phase One, some students participated because they thought that it was interesting or because they learned something new. Only one student made an action-oriented statement. There were slightly more responses after Phase Two and many were increasingly thoughtful, such as “making the happiness of others” or “the safety of the world.” The cultural component was noted several times as students commented that they enjoyed making drawings and exploring their creativity. Table 14 shows that 89.80% of students already found creative activities to be enjoyable and this number slightly increased to 90.57% after Phase Two. Activism Table 1 and Table 2 demonstrate that, after Phase Two, students were slightly more likely to take action if they believe in a cause than they were after Phase One. In terms of relevant issues, Tables 2 through 6 depict that the students’ interest in discrimination and refugee rights increased by a small amount, while they felt slightly less strongly about immigration and terrorism following Phase Two. Table 7 shows that 5.11% more students considered themselves activists after Phase Two. Students offered reasons as to why they might become an activist, many indicating that they want to fight for what is right. Some are written in the present tense, implying that they already possess an activist attitude. A few provided insight into why they are not activists: they feel too young, they want to have money to support the cause, and they feel too shy or not smart enough. A handful of students might become activists if a cause they really believe in presents itself, while others were worried about more practical issues like having the courage to participate in a traditional mode of activism or knowing how they can help.   35
  • 36. Most students who do not consider themselves activists and do not think they will ever become one, reply that they simply do not care or that they do not like to get involved. Twenty-six of those students wrote responses, but 15 of those responses seemed like their answers should have been “maybe” as their reasons included not liking protests or speaking up, not having a cause, and only being able to change little things. Table 15 depicts that those who think it is important to care about the world decreased by 8.45% from one phase to the next. The same number of students circled “yes,” but five more students answered the question and they circled “no.” This is then contrasted by a 10.20% increase, following Phase Two, in the number of students who believe that their ideas, opinions, and beliefs are valuable, as well as a 13.30% increase in the number of students who found that they have the ability to be a part of making change happen. (See Tables 16 and 17.) 4.2 Collaborator Interviews The three SJE teachers, community artist, and activist were asked the same series of interview questions for each phase. Following Phase Two, there was one additional question asking them to compare the effectiveness of the two phases. Refer to Appendix B for all results in table and written form. Collaboration Organic Community Collaboration establishes relevancy while aiding partners in achieving their goals (Burnham 2003; Cohen-Cruz 2002). Therefore, the first interview question asked collaborators to list their goals for the project. The responses revealed common reasons for them to be involved, such as expanding students’ minds to other cultures and inspiring empathy and activism. Each collaborator also had unique reasons for participating. Teachers were interested in enhancing their lessons, the community artist wanted to create an engaging artistic experience for high school students, and the activist sought to develop a replicable model for her organization. All collaborators saw some validity in Phase One’s ability to help them achieve their goals, but the SJE teachers clearly demonstrated that it was not the most effective   36
  • 37. means. They noted that students “tuned out,” did not have “any overwhelming sense of urgency,” and that they did not fully make the connection between themselves and the issue. Four out of five collaborators responded to the question following Phase Two of which all were positive. Phase Two involved students in “the art of doing something,” it “was essential in breaking down stereotypes,” “students were much more engaged,” and they were “enthusiastic about the art activity.” SJE teachers were asked if they found each phase to be helpful to their teaching. One did not find Phase One to be very helpful, although she appreciated the information. Another liked that it provided an opportunity to discuss current events, and the last teacher found it useful to observe others teaching his students for insight into what does and does not engage them. All were in agreement that Phase Two was helpful. They reported that it assisted in opening students’ minds, engaging them, and evoking empathy. It also presented an opportunity to discuss current events, connected students to things happening outside of their lives, and taught the teachers techniques in leading an art project. Relevancy Following Phase One, the relevance of the project was averaged at 2.80. This increased to 4.00 after Phase Two, as indicated in Table 19. After Phase One, there were three comments. One SJE teacher offered that it was less relevant to those students who suppported the Iraq war. The other two comments reflected that the topic was “too far from home” and that students cannot grasp the concept of war and its ensuing suffering. Following Phase Two, only one comment was made. The community artist said it would be difficult for any student to find the topic relevant unless they were told it was relevant and made a personal connection.   37
  • 38. Engagement Several collaborators replied that they did not observe any students being particularly impacted during Phase One. During Phase Two, it was noticed that the thoughts students wrote in their artwork confirmed that they were being affected. Two collaborators observed students getting “wrapped up” in the art-making, approaching it with excitement and concentration. The activist witnessed a debate on whether the students shared similarities with Iraqi refugees. Table 20 shows that the level of student engagement was determined to be 2.50 after Phase One and 4.20 after Phase Two. Four collaborators commented and all agreed that, during Phase One, the level of engagement was not high enough. Reasons given included that more time was needed to clarify misunderstood information and that the presentation was too long and beyond the students’ comprehension level. Following Phase Two, the community artist commented that she observed students being “very engaged during the art project workshop.” Activism On average, the collaborators found the effectiveness of Phase One to be 2.90 and Phase Two to be 4.11. Table 21 depicts this increase. Two SJE teachers did not find Phase One to be very effective, saying students were not engaged enough and did not talk about the experience after the visiting collaborators left. However, it was noted that “the kids did get something out of it and their interest was peaked.” The community artist thought that good information was presented “clearly and effectively.” One SJE teacher replied, “I believe you accomplished exactly what you intended to” in Phase Two. The community artist thought that Phase Two was “most effective in terms of absorbing the students’ attention and allowing for their self-expression,” but Phase One was more effective in informing students about the Iraqi Refugee Crisis. Four out of five collaborators agreed that Phase Two was more effective. Their reasons include the level of engagement, the ability for students to choose how to   38
  • 39. display their activism, the hands-on approach, the art project itself, the opportunity for self-expression, and the chance to explore what was learned by doing something. The focus on the pictures and real life stories, the open format, and the fact that it resulted in a tangible object were also noted. The community artist, though, observed that the phases would be most effective combined because there would be an “information gap” without the PowerPoint presentation. Because they knew the students best, the SJE teachers were asked if they thought this effectiveness would translate into activism. Two of them said “yes” after Phase One, guessing that 8% to 10% would become more active. One teacher did not find it likely, but “wouldn’t rule it out.” He explained that this is because the lesson was more about Iraqi refugees rather than activism. After Phase Two, two of the teachers responded “yes,” guessing 10% and 5-10%. The same teacher who responded “no” previously had the same answer, explaining that the connection to activism was not strong enough. 4.3 Researcher Observations Phase One Relevancy Phase One did not include any components that sought to establish relevancy. Engagement During Phase One, the researcher noticed that most students were paying attention at the beginning of the PowerPoint presentation. Some began loosing interest after 15 to 20 minutes and, by the end, one-third to one-half of each class appeared to no longer be listening. Evidence included stretching, fidgeting, shifting in seats, yawning, and several students had their heads down on their desks. A few discussions were took place around several issues in which four to five students in each class participated. Overall, students seemed interested in certain aspects, but were mostly passive in their engagement.   39
  • 40. Action When presented with a list of actions to take, not one student expressed interest in doing something on behalf of the Iraqi refugees. There were a few clarifying questions asked, demonstrating that they did not yet fully understand the topic, much less their relation to it. The Collaboration Process The researcher facilitated the collaboration process between the SJE teachers, community artist, and activist. After Phase One, collaborators responded to interview questions thoughtfully and in a timely manner. Everyone arrived at the collaboration meeting prepared to give feedback and participate in the process of creating an effective workshop. The researcher noted that co-teaching could be challenging. A variety of teaching styles had to be navigated and it seemed that some SJE teachers were extra conscious of their students “behaving” for visiting collaborators. It was observed that, at times, the discipline being administered by an SJE teacher was a bit overbearing resulting in the students’ dampened spirits. Upon completion of the project, all SJE teachers expressed interest in working with the activist and facilitator in future projects. They were interested in seeing the results of the survey and the conclusion of this study. Phase Two Relevancy With the exception of one or two in each class, students took the time to carefully read the articles, but when collaborators circled the room to see how they were answering the comprehension questions, it was obvious that many found it difficult to fully understand what they were reading. Therefore, each collaborator concentrated on a group and, with a bit more understanding, students were engaged in conversations and debates on the topic.   40
  • 41. Engagement In general, students were more enthusiastic when the collaborators were enthusiastic. If they energetically asked the students to do something and read with emotion, students listened more attentively and responded. Overall, the variety of activities worked well as different students shined during different parts of the workshop. It seemed to address the numerous ways that young people learn and feel comfortable expressing themselves. When presented with a choice of art projects, students listened attentively to the descriptions of each. They were very excited to have a chance to vote on which project their class would complete. There were many students trying to convince their friends to vote the same way. When engaged in making the artwork, it was not necessary for the SJE teachers to discipline anyone. Students asked visiting collaborators many questions that helped make everyone feel more comfortable with one another. They also had interesting relative questions that, in one case, dispelled a common misconception. Action Initially, students were unsure about how to use art to take action. After being presented with examples, though, they began to offer ideas. Again, they were excited to be a part of determining what their class would do. Overwhelmingly, their favorite idea was the graffiti walls, which was a new concept to most. Because time ran short on the scheduled workshop days, the researcher returned once more to help students hang their work and bring closure to the project. It was obvious that the Protest Poster project was the weakest (Appendix C). The finished pieces demonstrated students were moved and wanted Iraqi refugees to get help, but the visual result was not impressive. Approximately three-fourths of the class was enthusiastic about hanging their work in the middle school hallways to teach those students about the Iraqi Refugee Crisis and the posters were very informative in nature. The researcher also assisted another class in installing their work. This was the Collage and String project and the results were visually impressive (Appendix D). The project required students to record their thoughts on certain Iraqi refugee statistics for   41
  • 42. integration into the artwork. Their responses were very emotional. Students seemed to hang their work with pride, conscious of them being straight and evenly spaced. Many were asked if they liked their finished project and all said, “yes.” The last class had already hung their work, but the researcher stopped in the classroom to thank students for their participation and to see what they thought about the project. Students, in turn, emphatically thanked the researcher for taking the time to do the project with them. Several students described which piece was theirs and all were happily surprised with how they were able to capture their own likeness in this self-portrait Connecting Quilt project (Appendix E). They wanted to know if they would get to do another project like it. The SJE teacher commented that his other classes were jealous. In this project, each student wrote poignant wishes that they had for the Iraqi refugees on their artwork. Their pieces hung near the collage pieces and several teachers were in the hallway looking at them. These teachers, as well as a school administrator, complimented the researcher on the work. With the exception of installing the work, the actions in the action plan seemed to be rushed. This plan entailed creating an announcement to be read over the school PA system in order to entice fellow schoolmates to write responses on the graffiti walls by their artwork and compiling their comments to include in a mailing with postcards asking government representatives to take appropriate action. The community artist and the activist left these activities with the SJE teachers, who indicated that they would follow through. However, the researcher observed them feeling stressed and overwhelmed as the end of the school year drew near.   42
  • 43. 5. Discussion of the Results The SJE challenges identified in Chapter Two are indeed true for Phase One. This chapter discusses whether or not Phase Two, which incorporated CCD methods into the workshops on the Iraqi Refugee Crisis, addressed those challenges by enhancing the components that they share. Furthermore, the resulting short-term and long-term impact of Phase Two is presented in order to determine if integrating CCD practices into high school SJE increases the participation of young people in transforming society. The compilation of this information results in a model for CCD collaborations focused on SJE. It is a summary of the best practices learned from this study that can produce results in accordance with the hypothesis. 5.1 Addressing Challenges Challenge: The issue needs to be thoroughly connected to the students’ lives in order for them to feel motivated to tackle the problem (Adams and Goldbard 2005; Cochran-Smith et al. 2009; Cohen-Cruz 2002; Duncan-Andrade 2007). Following Phase One, students, overall, felt like the Iraqi Refugee Crisis was irrelevant and that they did not share similarities with the Iraqi people because they were not refugees themselves. Only a few realized that they shared some of the same experiences and desires. The collaborators agreed. When asked to rank the relevance of the first phase to students’ lives, their responses averaged 2.8 on a scale of 1–5 (Appendix B, Table 19). To increase this average, Connecting Ownership was needed (Adams and Goldbard 2005; Cohen-Cruz 2002; Greene 1995A). Phase Two involved students in envisioning themselves as Iraqi refugees through story-telling and exploring their own thoughts through discussion and art-making. It was also based on what they found most impactful during Phase One. Several student survey and collaborator interview questions gauged the effectiveness of these particular practices. The numeric results of the student surveys alone would indicate that Phase Two was not successful in establishing Connecting Ownership as   43
  • 44. the percentages of those who found similarities with Iraqi refugees and of those who found the workshop relevant decreased from one phase to the next. When asked how strongly they felt about the related issues of Discrimination, Immigration, Refugee Rights, and Terrorism, students’ responses changed by miniscule amounts. However, the averages in both phases signified that students already felt strongly about these issues. Upon evaluation, it is apparent that a real opportunity was overlooked. Students identified with discrimination and immigration issues that could have been used as relevant entry points into discussing the Crisis. Additionally, students were highly concerned about terrorism and a connection between that, war, and how refugees are treated could have made the information more pertinent. Despite the quantitative results after Phase Two, the creation process did cause students to grow more empathetic. As shown in written survey statements, classroom comments, and messages in their artwork, it seems that, as they empathized, they felt less like Iraqi refugees due to the number of problems refugees face at a such a severe level. It was not that students could not relate to their issues, it was that they just could not relate to the depth of despair. As they struggled with this, it was apparent that their concern for the refugees grew. The collaborators, on the other hand, rated Phase Two much higher in relevance to students’ lives. Perhaps it was because they noticed the way students were being affected or because they are more able to see the big picture. It is a difficult topic to make significant to students, but it is the students who need to understand that relevance (Adams and Goldbard 2005; Cochran-Smith et al. 2009; Cohen-Cruz 2002; Duncan-Andrade 2007). Therefore, it appears that while these CCD practices did take steps towards Connecting Ownership, they could have been done more effectively.   44
  • 45. Challenge: The project’s meaning must reach beyond a school assignment to students’ hearts to ignite a passion that is more likely to inspire life-long activism (Adams and Goldbard 2005; Cleveland 2005; Cohen- Cruz 2002). When asked why students were motivated to participate in Phase One, most stated that they had no choice – it was part of their grade. This workshop was like a typical class in that it was taught using the traditional lecture method with the activist in the front of the room presenting and asking comprehensive questions. As a result, only a handful of students in each class interacted. CCD practices demand a more interactive approach in order to challenge students to see beyond a school project to an issue that needs their attention. This necessitates students taking part in Meaningful Investigation (Adams and Goldbard 2005; Cleveland 2005; Cohen-Cruz 2002). Therefore, in Phase Two, students read things for themselves, moved around the room for group discussions, closed their eyes to picture themselves somewhere else, and created art in order to find deeper meaning. These techniques were integral to students achieving a better understanding of the Crisis and becoming moved by the refugees’ plight. As students investigated the issue during Phase Two, their level of engagement was reported as significantly higher. Although many still replied “my teacher made me,” there were more comments reflecting that students now genuinely cared about what happened to the Iraqi refugees. Challenge: Students need more accessible, approachable ways to take action (Cleveland 2005). The final slide of the PowerPoint presentation in Phase One included traditional methods of how students can take action. The same list was given to teachers to share with their students. Not one student expressed interest nor asked any questions about the actions. Students were asked if they considered themselves activists and 43.10% of them did after Phase One, which is a surprisingly high amount. However, the majority still did   45
  • 46. not and many did not envision becoming one. A few, though, thought there might be a possibility. Several of the written responses of those who answered “no” or “maybe” indicated they are simply not interested in the common activities associated with taking social action. Perhaps the most important component, then, of the Phase Two CCD integration, was the implementation of an art project that could be used in taking Creative Action, demonstrating non-conventional ways of being an activist (Adams and Goldbard 2002; Cleveland 2005). Collaborators detected that students were highly engaged in the art- making. Furthermore, the researcher did not observe anyone resisting participation in the project. Students only expressed that they enjoyed it. It follows, then, that Phase Two was found to be approachable and fun for the students as a whole. The data reflects this as well. Student survey results show an increase of 5.11% in the number of students that defined themselves as activists after Phase Two. The fact that the increase was not even greater could be attributed to not explicitly informing the students that this kind of art-making, which is used to educate others and convince them take action, is indeed a method of activism. Nonetheless, even if all students were not able to broaden their definition of activism, the percentage of students who believed they could be a part of making change happen increased 13.30% after Phase Two. The CCD practices helped them gain new perspectives on what it means to take action, thereby increasing their individual capacity to act. Challenge: Students need freedom to formulate their own thinking on an issue – not simply inherit an activist’s formed opinion (Cohen-Cruz 2002). Phase One was primarily a PowerPoint presentation produced by an activist organization. Consequently, it conveyed their opinion that students should empathize with the Iraqi refugees and feel compelled to take action. Their questions were mostly comprehensive and, therefore, did not explore the students’ feelings on the Crisis. This is one convincing argument as to why discussions were difficult to instigate and maintain.   46
  • 47. The format of Phase Two gave students space to process their thoughts so they could begin experiencing Connecting Ownership. Discussions ensued around similarities they may or may not share with Iraqi refugees. Students were also keen to discuss why they should care about the Crisis at all. Student survey results reveal a decrease of 8.93% in the number of students who could see common threads between themselves and Iraqi refugees. Although the activist would have preferred an increase, it shows that students were able to engage in the non-judgmental reflection needed before Connecting Ownership can emerge. Another supportive piece of numeric data is that 10.20% more students felt that their ideas, opinions, and beliefs were valuable after the second phase. Challenge: In collaborations, completely separate roles make it difficult for SJE teachers to ensure the issues remain relevant to students’ lives (Burnham 2003; Cohen-Cruz 2002). The PowerPoint presentation was developed without teacher input. As a result, the SJE teachers found it too long, boring, and difficult for students to understand. Students also commented that it was uninteresting, dry, and that it did not apply to them, as further demonstrated by their lack of participation. Establishing Organic Community Collaboration began with meeting prior to Phase Two, where SJE teachers provided tips to the activist and community artist on how to effectively reach young people. The community artist offered imaginative ways for relaying information and expressing thoughts so students would be active participants. Furthermore, each collaborator shared their goals for the workshops, which helped to keep the focus on the desired achievements and the students at the center of the project’s development. During Phase Two, collaborators observed students being more participatory and developing empathy for the refugees. Therefore, they rated it as more relevant, but as the students still had a difficult time with this, it seems that creating a connection between the issue and students’ lives should have been a main discussion topic during the collaboration meeting.   47
  • 48. Another improvement would be to have the community artist and activist follow through with all the creative actions students chose to implement. This was the responsibility of the SJE teachers who were already overwhelmed with end-of-the-school-year obligations. Perhaps if all would have remained involved to the very end, the actions would have been carried out more thoroughly and students would have been better equipped to make the connection between the Iraqi refugees and what they could do about their plight, resulting in a longer lasting impact. The organic collaboration did ensure better understanding, as observed by the researcher. There was always an adult present to answer the students’ questions and collaborators appeared comfortable intervening if they had something to add to the conversation. This enriched the experience, contributing to students becoming more active in the process, being moved by what they learned, and enjoying the creative activities. Challenge: It is a big leap for students to transition from passive participation in learning about an issue to taking action on its behalf (Borrup 2007). Because no action was taken after Phase One, Phase Two sought to transition students from passively participating to actively engaging in the process. Furthermore, student survey results showed that a greater percentage of students were willing to do something for a cause they believe in than were willing to take part in a traditional form of activism. Therefore, Creative Action was needed to encourage participation and provide untraditional options (Cleveland 2005). The creative thinking process was inspired through the Imagining Story, involving students in teaching one another, an art-making experience, and brainstorming around what to do with the final product. As a result, much action took place in the classroom through means not usually associated with activism. After Phase Two, more student survey comments were action-oriented, expressing emotion and a desire to help. More students felt that they could effect change. One SJE teacher noted that Phase Two was more effective because “the act of doing   48
  • 49. something engages the learner, therefore motivating the learner to actively participate and expand his/her knowledge.” The act of making artwork about an issue is, in itself, actively participating in the cause (Borrup 2007; Cleveland 2005). Moreover, using it as a way for students to reflect on the issue and share it with others deepens the activism. Unless they refuse to participate, which no one did, students are no longer given the option of being passive. Challenge: Methods to develop creativity need to be part of the work in order for students to imagine creative solutions in which they can and want to participate (Cleveland 2005; Greene 1995A; Schwarzman 1999). Phase One did not cultivate the students’ imagination. Information was simply presented in a straightforward manner and discussed very little. In contrast, Phase Two started with the imagination. An Imagining Story was recited and students were asked to originate titles for articles they read and to listen to poetry that creatively portrayed the story of Iraqi life. The core of Imagination Cultivation was the artistic creation. Students were presented with a variety of art projects from which to choose, each providing a different way their thoughts could be expressed, and enthusiastically voted for their favorites. Upon selection, the community artist taught techniques they could use to create a satisfying end product. Each class completed a different art project. One did not include much technical artistic instruction. Consequently, the final products were less attractive and those students were less excited about the project as a whole. The other two projects included more artistic instruction and the participating students were vocal in telling the researcher that they wanted to do more projects like it. Their enthusiasm showed that they felt more confident in participating. The difference in satisfaction demonstrates how necessary these artistic techniques and their proper instruction are to CCD projects. Being able to imagine new things and bring them to fruition encourages young people to keep exploring this road. The more they explore it, the more ideas and techniques they will gather, eventually leading   49
  • 50. them to develop their own ideas. As their ideas are listened to and acted on, they feel more confident. In fact, once these students were given some examples, they were happy to propose creative action ideas and one student from each class volunteered to develop and present an announcement about the project over the school’s PA system. This project is just one step in cultivating the imagination, though. Students were only exposed to one new set of techniques and a handful of creative action ideas. A variety of projects over time would seem to cultivate the imagination most effectively. 5.2 Impacts of CCD Integration into SJE The integrated CCD practices in Phase Two took the critical components shared with SJE to a deeper level for Connecting Ownership, Organic Community Collaboration, Meaningful Investigation, Imagination Cultivation, and Creative Action. To determine if these enhanced critical components are an effective means of increasing the participation of young people in transforming society, the components are listed below with their subsequent short-term and long-term impacts. Connecting Ownership Short-term Impact • Students had the opportunity to provide feedback to the collaborators and experienced it being used to form a workshop centered on what they found impactful and enjoyable. • Students were moved by the workshops as evidenced by written messages in their artwork and the care that went into their creations. • Students felt empathy and wanted Iraqi refugees, especially the children, to receive help. Long-term Impact The CCD workshops enabled students to gain new perspectives about people who live completely different lives and, as one SJE teacher said, “it was essential in breaking   50
  • 51. down stereotypes.” This can contribute to a more tolerant and empathetic society— key factors in achieving social transformation (Golden 2008; Greene 1995B). Organic Community Collaboration Short-term Impact • Collaborators learned new ideas for reaching young people as they developed a student-centered, engaging workshop. • Collaborators learned how a SJE teacher, activist, and community artist can make a SJE lesson more effective during each stage of its implementation. Long-term Impact The beginning of a long-term relationship was established between some of the collaborators as demonstrated by the SJE teachers expressing interest in partnerships with AFSC and in continuing to integrate arts into their teaching. The more these CCD practices are integrated on a regular basis, it would seem to follow that the greater the results. As collaborators work together longer, they would learn how to enhance one another more effectively and the creative ideas that follow would serve as an ever- strengthening foundation from which to inspire and motivate students. Meaningful Investigation Short-term Impact • Students had the opportunity to provide feedback to the collaborators and experienced it being used to form a workshop centered on what they found impactful and enjoyable. • Students felt more appreciative of their own opportunities and of the things they have. • Students eagerly participated in every step of the art-making process in which they channeled their learning and thoughts. • Students expanded their consciousness of world issues and their relationship to them.   51
  • 52. Long-term Impact As students made artwork, they engaged in an investigative process on their own opinions and feelings on the topic. They connected to their spirits on this road of self- discovery, which can build confidence and a sense of purpose (Adams and Goldbard 2005; Cleveland 2005). Perhaps this was a factor in the increased percentage of students who felt they could effect change and who thought that their ideas, opinions, and beliefs are valuable. Imagination Cultivation Short-term Impact • Students’ concept of activism was expanded as they were exposed to examples of creative action, added their own ideas, and implemented several actions. • Students eagerly participated in every step of the art-making process in which they channeled their learning and thoughts. • The students’ artwork peaked the interest of other classes. Long-term Impact As students were exposed to a variety of ways to express an issue’s message and as they discussed creative paths for taking action with their work, they added to their toolbox of imaginative ideas and creative techniques. Creative Action Short-term Impact • More students thought of themselves as activists, would do something if they believed in the cause, felt strongly about discrimination and refugee rights, and believed they have the ability to effect change. • Students practiced exercising democratic rights by voting for the art project and directing the course of action they would take. • Students played a role in transforming society by using their finished pieces to educate other students. • Students’ concept of activism was expanded as they were exposed to examples of creative action, added their own ideas, and implemented several actions.   52
  • 53. • Students created something that they were proud of, as evidenced by their careful display and the comments they made to the researcher. • Students’ artwork peaked the interest of other classes. • Several non-participating teachers stopped, looked, and read the students’ artwork installed in the hallways, expressing how moved they were to the researcher. Long-term Impact New modes of constructive expression were introduced to students. This could help them add to a positive cycle and avoid deconstructive means that contribute to the negative cycle of issues that affect the world today (Greene 1995). Indeed, several SJE teachers thought that up to 10% of their students might become more active. It is difficult to gauge how many will become regular activists, but students learned new, creative ways to participate, which are especially beneficial to those who were previously intimidated by traditional methods. Creating something tangible can increase students’ retention of the information they learned. Their artworks contain the most important elements: how they felt about the Iraqi Refugee Crisis and their motivation to take action. Additionally, if they are proud of their work, they will show it to other people who will ask about its meaning. As they repeat what they learned, not only do they educate others, but they commit it to their long-term memory. Conclusion The short- and long-term impacts portray that incorporating CCD practices did improve SJE methods and, thus, increased the participation of young people in transforming society. These students engaged in social action as a part of the project and thought about global issues and how they relate to their lives. They were involved in developing creative solutions and making them happen—important skills to build if one is going to make activism a regular practice. The long-term impacts are challenging to measure, but are also the most indicative of whether young people will be inspired to continue transforming society after one such project. There are hopeful signs that many will be motivated by the things they   53
  • 54. learned, felt, and experienced and become more involved. No doubt they are now equipped with more tools to do so. However, it seems that only so much can be accomplished with one project. Instilling long-term activism would seem to require that CCD practices be integrated on a long- term basis, with a constant evaluation process to continually increase the effectiveness of critical community collaborations, to ensure the topic’s relevance to students’ lives, and to measure resulting action. 5.3 Model for CCD Integration into SJE Analyzing the results sheds light on what was effective, what needed improvement, and what was omitted. This section incorporates these results into a model that can be used when implementing CCD projects into SJE. It is believed that these methods will enhance the critical components and create stronger, more numerous short- and long-term impacts. By doing so, it would follow that the participation of young people in transforming society would increase by even greater numbers. Start with the Students. Be on the pulse of the issues students tackle. The activist and community artist should look to SJE teachers for this insight, but it may be most effective to ask the students themselves. This could be done via a short survey developed in consultation with all collaborators. Be certain that the surveys include questions that help each collaborator do his/her job effectively. Also, include both quantitative and qualitative questions, as one is more likely to show trends while the other provides a glimpse of the thought processes behind the trends. Collaborate. Work with a variety of people. Ideally, collaborate with at least three separate people for such projects: a SJE teacher, an activist with expertise on the topic, and a community artist. SJE teachers   54
  • 55. are a great source of knowledge about the students and can make sure the lesson is relevant. Visiting collaborators show students that people regularly work on these issues and get results, as well as ascertain that students are stretching their imaginations and learning new techniques. There is no limit, though. Invite others who can help the project achieve its goals, such as a gallery director or local politician. Although one person’s talents may overlap several categories, collaborating instigates productive and creative brainstorming that can strengthen the impact. Select one person to be a lead facilitator. The facilitator should ensure that there is a minimum of one in-depth meeting prior to beginning the project. It is difficult to juggle schedules, but it signifies the importance of the project and establishes the commitment needed for substantial results. Vocalize the goals. Begin the meeting with defining the goals of the project. Each collaborator should share their goals as a means of introducing themselves and expressing what they can contribute. This educates everyone on what is bringing them together and keeps the focus on the common aims while being conscious of the other agendas at play. Be prepared. SJE teachers should be prepared to relay information about the students and/or provide a compilation of the feedback from the survey. They may even select a student or two to be a part of the collaboration meeting to ensure that what is developed is relevant and fun for young people. Activists should be ready to talk about the key pieces of information they intend to impart to the students. Lastly, community artists should present creative ideas for projects in order to initiate the brainstorming process. Next, the facilitator can lead the group in developing ideas and documenting those that everyone finds particularly exciting or effective. Then, a consensus must be reached on which activities will be carried out and delegation of responsibilities. Jumpstart the creative thinking. It is recommended that the community artist provides a simple, short, creative activity in which all collaborators can participate. It may only take ten minutes, but it helps to fully inspire everyone in the process of inventive thinking and effective lesson planning.   55
  • 56. Discuss discipline. Community artists should prepare the activist and the SJE teachers for the higher level of energy that often accompanies the art-making process. This energy needs to be honed, not dampened, for best results. The teacher should discuss what discipline methods are typically used and how the activist or community artist can indicate during a workshop that they need the teacher to interject for disciplinary reasons. Make sure everyone is comfortable with the discipline methods and ready to use them. Be present and follow through. All collaborators should be present for the entire project. In an open format, there is always space for those not leading the section to insert useful information or lend a helping hand. The more minds involved in carrying out each segment, the more comprehensive its effect can be. It also exhibits the importance of every step to the students and provides them the most support as they explore new thoughts and try new things. Furthermore, the collective engagement of the collaborators serves as an example of how the students should behave, participate, and work together. Lead the Learning. Build strong connections between students and the issue. The learning must establish and strengthen connections as the project progresses. Start the learning with feedback gathered from students and SJE teachers. Ask what is going on with their lives around certain relatable issues. Let them speak while gradually guiding their thoughts to the central topic of the workshop. Include a Participatory Action Research project that entails students finding pertinent information and teaching it to one another. Associate it to their lives to make the connection come full circle. Use a variety of creative methods to teach. The ideas are endless: creative writing, showing images, telling stories, listening to songs, viewing documentaries, role playing, reading passages in books or poetry, etc. Bring appropriate guests to the classroom to share their stories. Make it interactive. Employ several techniques throughout the workshop to addresses different learning styles and provide all students with an opportunity to effectively participate. Some of   56
  • 57. these activities should make students move around the classroom to keep them energized. Encourage students to ask questions throughout the process so that they understand one concept before it is built upon by another and so they can add any new information or perspective they may possess. Value their responses. Students will feel more compelled to reveal their thoughts and ask questions if they have been given the message that what they have to express is important. Additionally, rearrange the room and sit amongst the students to make the classroom feel less formal. This creates more intimate surroundings though which students can feel safer to experiment. Make the project with them. If adults are making art beside young people, it helps break down the typical power structure that exists between students and teachers. It provides greater chances for enhancing trust and building personal connections. Create a Cultural Component. Schedule ample time. Schedule enough time for the art-making experience. There are usually some parameters—the topic being studied, the type of community artist, the supply budget— but try to leave it as flexible as possible. This allows for students to cultivate a project that they find truly exciting and, therefore, engaging. Present creative examples. Examples can help students understand what is expected of them and grasp the variety of options that exist. Provide an array of concepts to get students thinking creatively, but ask them what they like about it, what they would change or keep the same, what materials they are interested in using, if they want to complete it as a group project or as individual projects, etc.   57
  • 58. Implement brainstorming activities. Sometimes students are less likely to speak up in a large group. Ask them to write ideas down and assemble students into small groups to discuss their thoughts. Have the small groups present their favorite ideas to the class and have the class vote on what they will implement. Ensure that the art project introduces artistic techniques. Students should be taught skills by artists that use them. It is important that they begin mastering techniques that successfully translate their messages in an appealing way. As a result, students will be proud of their work, remember it, and share it with others. It will also give them ideas for the future. Connect the art with activism. When they make the art project, be explicit in explaining how it can be a form of activism. Tell them how self-discovery leads to purpose, confidence, and constructive ways of contributing to society and how expanding their minds and learning new things builds tolerance, acceptance, and empathy—all of which are necessary ingredients for transforming society. This will help them to see a greater purpose in what they are doing, which can produce more exciting results. Take Action. Imagine the change. The first step is to ask students if they think they should care about making change and why. Do they want a transformed society? What would this look like in the context of the issue at hand? Guide them in imagining a mental picture of this changed world that they can retain and work towards. Brainstorm creative action. Provide examples of action: turn paintings into advocacy postcards, put on a performance for the school, create poems to post on Facebook, etc. Think out-of-the- box and about elements of youth culture that can be incorporated. It is imperative that they take ownership over deciding what to do. The same process used in developing the art project may be effective here. Ask everyone to write down their ideas, break into small groups to discuss, compile ideas, and, then, vote as a class.   58
  • 59. Help them achieve the action plan. Lead students in organizing the actions. They should assign leaders and everyone should have a role to play. The work culminates in this process and, therefore, it needs to be implemented carefully and comprehensively. It requires the full attention of all collaborators to ensure that the students follow through with the actions and see results. This is how they become empowered and how they can experience the benefits of working for the greater good. Evaluate Results. Obtain student feedback. Give the students a summary of what they were supposed to learn. Include key concepts of issues, artistic techniques, and how to implement creative actions. Ask them if they learned this, what parts they found challenging, what they liked, what they did not like, if they have any ideas on how it could be better, etc. This could be carried out as a class discussion or as a survey. Obtain collaborator feedback. Collaborators should record observations they made about student engagement, including what sparked their interest, what fell flat, the results of the project, and the actions that took place. The lead facilitator should be responsible for compiling these responses, along with the student feedback, in a way that paints a picture of the workshop’s effectiveness. Even if these particular collaborators do not work with one another again, they will each have crucial pieces of knowledge to take forward with them as they continue their work. Repeat. Make it a practice. Although each project can produce a measurable impact, integrating CCD practices into SJE on a regular basis is bound to produce greater long-term results. SJE teachers should make this a regular part of the curriculum and activists and community artists who truly want to reach the next generation should make working with such teachers a part of their strategy.   59
  • 60. Cultivate diverse partnerships. There are many activist organizations looking for an opportunity to relay information they are passionate about. It is recommended that teachers include an activist in one aspect of every unit that they teach. Likewise, there are many community artists desiring chances to use their skills to enhance curriculum. Bring in different artists each time for a wide variety of ideas and expressions. Explore the visual arts, music, literary techniques, performance, etc. as different students have different preferences and talents. Use the school’s resources. If SJE teachers find it difficult to find or afford partnerships, they should explore all the resources that their own schools, or even school districts, have to offer. Include an art or music teacher and his/her class for a collaborative project. Other teachers and school administrators have hidden talents and areas of expertise. They also have built community relationships and may know someone who would be an effective addition to the project. Expand the web. The most important thing is to continue reaching out and finding ways to implement these practices in the classroom. This is how students create and add to a toolbox of ideas and methods that they can use to be a part of transforming society. Everyone should at least possess one action/topic/art process that resonates and empowers them to effect change.   60
  • 61. 6. Conclusions 6.1 Main Findings Using creative activities to relay information and grounding it in understandable terms, followed by making art that encouraged students to express their feelings on the Iraqi Refugee Crisis, unquestionably evoked their empathy and action. Yet, the equal exchange process between the students and collaborators was just beginning. A greater time period would allow for additional conversation between the participants to prove the relevance of this topic to students’ lives and would likely result in increased long-term impacts and action. However, the project yielded convincing results despite its relatively short life. The act of implementing creative activities inherently produced a new level of interaction that contributed to students beginning to take an equal partnership role in the development of their project. The art-making itself transformed the classroom into a more informal space. Students discussed their ideas with one another and questioned the visiting collaborators. As collaborators wandered the classroom and complimented students on their ideas, the students became more immersed in their art. Most were proud of their visual result and because of this, were motivated to perform creative actions that included exhibiting their work and explaining its meaning. A key learning point experienced by the collaborators is that discussions on global issues really need to be taught through the issues that students grapple with locally. The strength of the connection between these types of issues can determine the strength of the impact of the CCD project. Even though this connection was not as strong as it could have been during this study, it was apparent that the arts were an approachable and accessible means of forging the bridge by convincing students to dwell on the Crisis at a deeper level. Once they were engaged, the process of art- making naturally invited students to explore the issue and completing it required them to discover and articulate what it meant to them. The results show tangible, long-term impacts. During Phase Two, more students felt their ideas and opinions were valuable and felt more empowered to be part of a cause. This resulted in more of them stating activism as being part of their identity. These impacts contributed to the drastic increase in participation during Phase Two. Most   61
  • 62. collaborators also believed that the impacts will increase student participation in future social transformation as well. 6.2 Implications for the Arts The CCD field lacks stable infrastructure and remains largely unknown even to many of those who practice its methods. Funding the work requires competing against traditional arts establishments, activist organizations, or educational facilities, to name a few. This means emphasizing one part of the work while forcing other aspects to fit within the framework of these narrow funding guidelines. The consequences of fracturing the goals and methods of CCD are a lack of clear identity and the absence of a steady system by which cohesive policies can be created and research can be completed to establish it as a recognizable field (Adams and Goldbard 2005). Studies such as this help to make an argument to change these circumstances. Demonstrating the effectiveness of CCD methods, especially the arts component, to elicit active participation in young people and increase their long-term involvement in transforming society, cultivates its legitimacy. Sharing such methods and results can convince change-makers to consciously participate in the work and, by extension, those who collaborate will also become aware of its existence. Many traditional arts establishments, such as museums, have programs with a social transformation aim and teach programs that address the needs of the common good. Using art, they often teach the history of the human struggle and seek to arm young people with the valuable tool of artistic creation to serve as a constructive outlet for their struggles. Understanding that all of this work, and more, is part of a larger practice involving a plethora of people and resources can assist these establishments in achieving their aims and painting a picture of its broader goals, while solidifying the CCD field and contributing to the development of best practices. This study can reveal to non-arts CCD practitioners and activists who regularly work in the realm of SJE how the arts move participants to step out of the traditional mode of learning, leading to active results that create new ways of moving forward. Furthermore, they can witness how the arts are a less polarizing method of activism, which invites more people into the conversation. An outcome of this would be more   62
  • 63. activists reaching out to community artists and the arts organizations they work for to foster collaborative, increasingly comprehensive solutions to contemporary issues. Together they can create methods of evaluation that continue to display hard proof of the benefits that, in turn, attract funding. SJE teachers can experience how the artistic components of CCD produce positive impacts on their students, bringing them closer to the goal of social transformation through personal liberation. As teachers become aware of these methods and see the results, it would follow that they would be more likely to fight for arts in education. Whether this means bringing in outside arts organizations with a mission of social justice or bringing job security to the schools’ art teachers, it would be beneficial to the arts as a whole. Finally establishing the validity of arts in schools would be an indicator that the role of the arts in society is more widely embraced and supported. With awareness, community arts practitioners should identify the work as CCD and non-arts collaborators should acknowledge the significance of art-making to the process. CCD work is carried out under a number of names, including arts-for-social change, community arts, and animating democracy, but it encompasses all of this and offers practitioners a platform for the flow of ideas, cultivation of best practices, and development of policies necessary to transform their work into a credible, supported field. 6.3 Recommendations for Further Research Art Forms To continue in the process of developing an effective model for integrating CCD methods into SJE, it would be valuable to research which art forms are the most effective for the desired results. This study primarily uses the visual arts. Its benefits include that the end product is a tangible object recording important elements of the workshop and that the product can be exhibited, possibly exposing the issue to a large number of people. It is something interesting to look at, which draws in passersby and entices them to investigate further. Visual art gives students another way to articulate their thoughts and, lastly, it lends itself well to educational and advocacy literature.   63
  • 64. Augusto Boal was convinced that theater was the key to initiating participation in social transformation. By providing a space for participants to practice taking action and experiencing what works for them, he argues that they gain confidence and are more likely to continue that practice in their communities. He also theorized that the practice of creating a dialogue on issues between the audience and the performers aids in breaking down the real life monologue that exists amongst the privileged, perpetuating the oppression of the marginalized (Paterson and Weinberg 2002). Additionally, rap music has largely become the language of urban youth, who are often at the epicenter of today’s issues. Creative writing can express a person’s voice and message in a way that is immediate and authentic. Indeed, the unique contributions of every art form could be argued, but what are each of their benefits? What happens when they are combined? How would this work within the often tight time and budget constraints? Extending the Work Lasting social change requires that more people participate and that they continue to participate throughout their lives. In a world driven by instant gratification and demands for one-off projects due to an overall lack of support for the arts in education and society, how can CCD work be successfully extended into a long-term, integrated practice? What does it look like when students have been involved in CCD projects for an entire semester versus a couple of days? What if they participated in projects over the course of a school year or over the course of their high school career? At what point does real ownership and initiative take over? What creative activities and actions lead to that point and what creative activities and actions follow from that point? 6.4 Conclusion The study reveals that integrating CCD practices into high school SJE does increase the participation of young people in transforming society. Its methods pave the way for the personal change and discovery that precedes social change and leads them down the path of taking action. As the work involves collaborators from many fields, their awareness of CCD work and acknowledgement of the integral role of arts-making can   64
  • 65. have positive implications for the arts. It could demonstrate their social validity as well as contribute to the establishment of a CCD field upon which further study, policy setting, and funding cultivation can be implemented. What art forms are most effective under which circumstances and the measurement of how much the methods increase student participation over a longer period of time are areas of research that would contribute to the analysis of this particular application of CCD practices.   65
  • 66. Bibliography Adams, D. and Goldbard, A. (2002) “Community, Culture, and Globalization,” http://www.communityarts.net/readingroom/archivefiles/2002/01/community_cultu_1.p hp, Accessed 18/11/07 Adams, D. and Goldbard A. (2005) Creative Community: The Art of Cultural Development. The Rockefeller Foundation Adejumo, C. (2008) “Promoting Self and Community Empowerment Through Critical Pedagogy in a Community Art Program,” http://www.communityarts.net/readingroom/archivefiles/2008/10/promoting_self.php, Accessed 15/2/2009 AFSC (2009) “Iraqi Refugee Crisis,” http://www.afsc.org/Iraq/ht/display/ContentDetails/i/19320, Accessed 19/6/2009 Ayers, W.C., Quinn, T., and Stovall, D. (ed) Handbook of Social Justice in Education, New York and London, Routledge Borgia, R. (2009) Personal Communication Burnham, L.F. (2003) “Conversations at the Intersection of Art and Activism,” http://www.communityarts.net/readingroom/archivefiles/2003/04/conversations_a.php, Accessed 18/11/2007 Borrup, T. (2007) “Higher Ground: Informal Arts, Cultural Policy and the Evolving Role of Nonprofits, ”http://www.communityarts.net/readingroom/archivefiles/2007/07/higher_ground_i.php, Accessed 18/11/2007 Carter, M. and Yenawine, R. (2008) “Art Action for Social Change: Kids on the Hill,” http://www.communityarts.net/readingroom/archivefiles/2008/08/art_action_for.php, Accessed 15/2/2009 Chenail, R. J. (2000) “Navigating the ‘Seven C’s’: Curiosity, Confirmation, Comparison, Changing, Collaborating, Critiquing, and Combinations,” http://www.nova.edu/ssss/QR/QR4-3/sevencs.html, Accessed 12/3/2009 Cleveland, W. (2005) Making Exact Change: How U.S. arts-based programs have made a significant and sustained impact on their communities. Community Arts Network, Art in the Public Interest Cocke, D. (2007) “The Art of Social Imagination: A Discussion of New Creative Community with Nick Rabkin, Jennifer Williams, and Arlene Goldbard,” Grantmakers In The Arts Reader, 18 (1) Spring Cohen-Cruz, J. (2002) “An Introduction to Community Art and Activism,” http://www.communityarts.net/readingroom/archivefiles/2002/02/an_introduction.php, Accessed 18/11/2007 Dahyi, B. (2008) “Children of Iraq Make an ‘Appeal’ to Government Leaders,” http://www.unicef.org/infobycountry/iraq_46825.html, Accessed 9/5/2009   66
  • 67. deNobriga, K. and Schwarzman, M. (1999) “Community-based Art for Social Change,” http://www.communityarts.net/readingroom/archivefiles/1999/10/communitybased.php, Accessed 12/7/2009 Doll, D. (2009) Personal Communication Doub, J. (2009) Personal Communication Duncan-Andrade, J. (2007). Gangstas, Wankstas, and Ridas: Defining, Developing, and Supporting Effective Teachers in Urban Schools. International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education, 20 (6) November-December, pp. 617-638 Golden, J. (2008). A Conversation with Linda Christensen on Social Justice Education. English Journal, 97 (6) July, pp.59-64 Greene, M. (1995) Releasing the Imagination: Essays on Education, the Arts, and Social Change, San Francisco, Jossey-Bass Kayser, M. (2009) Personal Communication Moskowitz, G. (2008) “The Militias in Middle East Classrooms,” http://www.motherjones.com/politics/2008/03/militias-middle-east-classrooms, Accessed 9/5/2009 Patterson, D.L. and Weinberg, M. (2002) “We Are All Theater: An Interview with Augusto Boal,” http://www.communityarts.net/readingroom/archivefiles/2002/09/we_all_are_thea.php, Accessed 15/2/2009 Paynter, C. (2009) Personal Communication Schwarzman, M. (1999) “It’s About Transformation: Thoughts on Arts as Social Action,” http://www.communityarts.net/readingroom/archivefiles/1999/12/it_about_trans.php,” Accessed 18/11/2007 Seasons Fund for Social Transformation (2009) http://seasonsfund.org/?page_id=148, Accessed 12/7/2009 Smith-Ferri, D. (2008) Battlefield Without Borders: Iraq Poems, Athol, Massachusetts, Haley’s The Free Dictionary (2009) www.thefreedictionary.com/activist, Accessed 12/7/2009 Van Gendersen Short, A. (2008) “Teenage Iraqi Refugees Focus on Career in Damascus Exercise,” http://www.unhcr.org/cgi- bin/texis/vtx/search?page=search&docid=48beaab54&query=damascus%20exercise, Accessed 9/5/2009   67
  • 68. Appendix A: Student Survey Results and Responses 1. How likely are you to do something if you believe in the cause? 1 2 3 4 5 (not at all likely) (very likely) Phase P1 P2 P1 P2 P1 P2 P1 P2 P1 P2 Number Circled x 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 Times Circled = 0 3 3 0 26 16 17 19 11 20 Total (Number Circled x Times Circled) 0 3 6 0 78 48 68 76 55 100 Totals (Adding bottom totals from each Phase) 207 227 Number of Responses 57 58 Totals/Number of Responses 3.63 3.91 Difference 0.28 Table 1. Survey Question 1 Results 2. How likely are you to participate in a protest, march or rally for a cause you believe in? 1 2 3 4 5 (not at all likely) (very likely) Phase P1 P2 P1 P2 P1 P2 P1 P2 P1 P2 Number Circled x 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 Times Circled = 5 5 13 8 12 22 17 18 11 9 Total (Number Circled x Times Circled) 5 5 26 16 36 66 68 72 55 45 Totals (Adding bottom totals from each Phase) 190 204 Number of Responses 58 62 Totals/Number of Responses 3.28 3.29 Difference 0.01 Table 2. Survey Question 2 Results 3. How strongly do you feel about the following issues, 1 being “I don’t care” and 5 being “I care very much”? • Discrimination 1 2 3 4 5 Phase P1 P2 P1 P2 P1 P2 P1 P2 P1 P2 Number Circled x 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 Times Circled = 1 0 0 2 17 14 17 17 23 26 Total (Number Circled x Times Circled) 1 0 0 4 51 42 68 68 115 130 Totals (Adding bottom totals from each Phase) 235 244 Number of Responses 58 59 Totals/Number of Responses 4.05 4.14 Difference 0.08 Table 3. Survey Question 3.1 Results   68
  • 69. • Immigration 1 2 3 4 5 Phase P1 P2 P1 P2 P1 P2 P1 P2 P1 P2 Number Circled x 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 Times Circled = 6 2 5 8 17 19 19 23 9 7 Total (Number Circled x Times Circled) 6 2 10 16 51 57 76 92 45 35 Totals (Adding bottom totals from each Phase) 188 202 Number of Responses 56 59 Totals/Number of Responses 3.36 3.42 Difference 0.07 Table 4. Survey Question 3.2 Results • Refugee Rights 1 2 3 4 5 Phase P1 P2 P1 P2 P1 P2 P1 P2 P1 P2 Number Circled x 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 Times Circled = 5 4 3 5 15 18 16 20 19 12 Total (Number Circled x Times Circled) 5 4 6 10 45 54 64 80 95 60 Totals (Adding bottom totals from each Phase) 215 208 Number of Responses 58 59 Totals/Number of Responses 3.71 3.53 Difference -0.18 Table 5. Survey Question 3.3 Results • Terrorism 1 2 3 4 5 Phase P1 P2 P1 P2 P1 P2 P1 P2 P1 P2 Number Circled x 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 Times Circled = 1 0 4 6 11 13 14 20 28 20 Total (Number Circled x Times Circled) 1 0 8 12 33 39 56 80 140 100 Totals (Adding bottom totals from each Phase) 238 231 Number of Responses 58 59 Totals/Number of Responses 4.10 3.92 Difference -0.19 Table 6. Survey Question 3.4 Results   69
  • 70. 4. Do you consider yourself an activist? (Circle one.) Yes No Phase P1 P2 Yes - Times Circled 25 27 No - Times Circled 31 28 Maybe - Times Circled 2 1 Total Responses 58 56 Difference Yes's / Total Responses 43.10% 48.21% 5.11% No's / Total Responses 53.45% 50.00% -3.45% Maybe's / Total Responses 3.45% 1.79% -1.66% Table 7. Survey Question 4.1 Results YES – PHASE ONE - I think I do because I am against things that are wrong and I like to help make change. - Yes, because if I want something to change or I just want to voice my opinion, I can easily write a letter or participate in a protest. - I am an activist only in something I feel like doing and believe in the cause and care. - I see myself as an activist because there are many things that are happening in the world that I don’t agree with and I hope in the future that things change. - I know I’m an activist because I sign petitions in school when I want a change or believe in something. - It depends on the situation. - Because I enjoy helping. - Because I like to be right and I like to do the right thing. - Yes, because I go to the pride parades and protest for things I believe in. - I would see myself being an activist not only in the future but now. - I consider myself an activist because I always attend a protest when there is one. - I consider myself an activist because when I see wrong being done, I speak up and I am unafraid. No matter what the consequences may be, right is right. YES – PHASE TWO - I want to make change. - I am an activist because I believe rights are an important thing for a citizen no matter if they are not legal. - I consider myself an activist because when I strongly believe in an issue, I will stop at nothing to find the solution. - Yes because I love to stand up for what I believe in when I feel that it is important. - If I strongly believe in something, I would do whatever it takes to support it. - Yes, I believe gays should have the same rights as others. - Yes because if I see something or someone that needs help, I will help. - Yes because when I see something that I don’t like, I will inform someone. - I believe in helping people out. - I see myself as an activist because I would get involved with issues that I feel strongly about. - Because there are a lot of things in this world that I would really like to change. - Yes because if I believe in something, if it’s right, I would become an activist.   70
  • 71. • If “no”, do you see yourself becoming one in the future? (Circle one.) Yes No Phase P1 P2 Yes - Times Circled 9 10 No - Times Circled 11 15 Maybe - Times Circled 8 7 Total Responses 28 32 Difference Yes's / Total Responses 32.14% 31.25% -0.89% No's / Total Responses 39.29% 46.88% 7.59% Maybe's / Total Responses 28.57% 21.88% -6.70% Table 8. Survey Question 4.2 Results • Why or why not? YES – PHASE ONE - I just think I could do things to help a good cause. - Yes because I have gone to marches for immigration rights. - I want change and I believe when I am older and smarter and stronger I can do it. - I say yes because an activist has to be a leader and that is what I am. - I do want some things to get through to people. - It all depends on what I believe is right or wrong. - Because if I learn more about the situation then I will try to make things right. - Yes, because I fight for what’s fair. - It’s always good to fight for something that is right. - If there is a cause I believe in, then I will do it. YES – PHASE TWO -I could see myself being an activist in the future to make change. - Yes because I will be older doing things I want and will have the money to support it. - Yes because by the time I am an adult, I’ll be able to be or participate on any protest, march or rally. - Because I will stand up for what I believe in, but sometimes I stay quiet. - Because I would really like to make a difference in the world, but by me being so young I can’t do that much right now. - I’ll be too busy and forget. - I want to make change. - I am an activist because I believe rights are an important thing for a citizen no matter if they are not legal. - I consider myself an activist because when I strongly believe in an issue, I will stop at nothing to find the solution. - Yes because I love to stand up for what I believe in when I feel that it is important. - If I strongly believe in something, I would do whatever it takes to support it. - Yes, I believe gays should have the same rights as others. - Yes because if I see something or someone that needs help, I will help. - Yes because when I see something that I don’t like, I will inform someone. - I believe in helping people out. - I see myself as an activist because I would get involved with issues that I feel strongly about. - Because there are a lot of things in this world that I would really like to change. - Yes because if I believe in something, if it’s right, I would become an activist.   71
  • 72. NO – PHASE ONE - I’m not into that type of stuff. - I don’t attend many protests. - Because I don’t like to speak up. - I mean I’m not saying I can’t but most likely I won’t be the one because that’s not something I’m interested in. - Because I don’t like protesting. - Because I don’t like to get that involved. - Because I am not very active in causes. - No because I really don’t care about that stuff. - Because I’m not really let’s change the world. I change little things. - No, I don’t think so because I have a busy schedule and don’t know if I would have time. - I’m not really into the whole activist thing. NO – PHASE TWO - I’m too lazy. I’m not dedicated enough. - No because I have never done a protest. - No because I have not been active against or in support of my strong beliefs. - Because I don’t care about activism. - Because I don’t have the initiative. - I don’t do anything to help outside of school. - Because I just don’t want to. I want to party all day and all night. - Because I don’t like getting involved all that much. - No because I don’t like getting involved. - Because my mind is not set on being an activist. - Because I don’t have a cause. - I’m not really into standing up for other people’s problems unless they are my friends. - I don’t like getting involved when I can’t financially help. - I am not an active person. - Because I don’t want to. MAYBE – PHASE ONE - I’m not sure. - I’m not really sure. I guess it depends on the cause. - Maybe because I might participate in something for my community. - I put maybe because I want to help, but I don’t have a way to help. - I mean if I think that if a teacher graded my paper wrong I’ll stand up and try to get a better grade. But I haven’t really participated or think that I will have the courage to participate in a march or a rally. - I’m not because I have done nothing. - I don’t know. It will have to depend on the issue. - I’m just not really the type of person who is an activist. MAYBE – PHASE TWO - Maybe if it’s something I believe in. - Maybe but I’m just not the protesting type. - Maybe, you never know – only because I don’t feel the need to take action. - Because some of the issues that protestors protest aren’t as important as others, but maybe I might become an activist. - Maybe, you never know – only because I don’t feel the need to take action. - I’m not sure. It depends on the situation. - Maybe if I care strongly about an issue.   72
  • 73. 5. Do you see any similarities between you and an Iraqi Refugee? (Circle one.) Yes No Phase P1 P2 Yes - Times Circled 9 13 No - Times Circled 11 43 Maybe - Times Circled 8 0 Total Responses 28 56 Difference Yes's / Total Responses 32.14% 23.21% -8.93% No's / Total Responses 39.29% 76.79% 37.50% Maybe's / Total Responses 28.57% 0.00% -28.57% Table 9. Survey Question 5 Results • If “no,” why? NO – PHASE ONE - Because I’m not. - No because I have never experienced such trauma. - I have never been a refugee. - I’m legal. - Because they are going through something I might not be able to think of. - I haven’t really suffered like an Iraqi refugee. - Because I’m not a refugee. - Because there is no war going on in Chicago. - We didn’t get kicked out of our country. - Because I don’t have the same problems they do. - Because I don’t think that I will have to or will be forced to leave the country. - Because I am not being forced to do anything I truly don’t want to do. - No, I just don’t. - I have not been traumatized. - I am not a refugee so the same things don’t apply to us. - No because I can go to school and get an education. They can’t and I strongly feel that is unfair. - No because I kind of don’t care about Iraqi refugees. - My neighbor’s country doesn’t want me out of my country. - I’m not really experiencing those things. - Because I don’t go through what they go through. - Because I have never had to run away from problems. - Because I feel that I am more fortunate than them because I do have somewhere to live and things to eat and much more stuff that is not necessary. - No because I have nothing to do with Iraq. - No because I am not displaced and I have a home and food and safety. - No because I am not a refugee and I have never been around a war torn area. - An Iraqi refugee most likely doesn’t go to school and I’m not at war. - Because I haven’t been through any of those things. - We are both people, but there aren’t many similarities. - Because I don’t have to flee my country because there is no war here. - Because I don’t have anything taken from me and I normally get what I need. - I’m not displaced. - I’m not similar to a refugee. - I’m not displaced. - Iraq refugees to not do the things I do or live the same way.   73
  • 74. - I have rights. - Because I am not personally affected by the war right now. - Because I’ve never been displaced or been through that. NO – PHASE TWO - Because an Iraqi Refugee has more problems and challenges than I do. - I don’t see myself as an Iraqi Refugee because I have a house and some of them don’t. I have food. - Because I am not going through what they are going through and it makes me want to cry. - Because I’m not a refugee. - They go through more than I do. - I am completely the opposite. I feel bad for them. - It’s not happening to me. - Because I’m not a refugee. I was born here. - Because I am not nor ever have been a refugee. - Because I don’t have any problems in my life financially or physically. I live in a stable home and have somewhere to stay. - Because they are poor and I have a home to live in and they have a lot of struggles and I do not. - I go to school, I have a good shelter, and a place where I can sleep, eat, and shower/stay clean. - Because there just isn’t any. - Because I live here and have a good life. - Because I am not trapped living that bad or forced to do things I don’t like. - No because we have supplies and shelter and other types of things to keep us wealthy and alive. - Because I don’t have to flee my country. - Life is way more easier for me. - Because I normally get everything I need and want. - Because I picture myself living a better life. - Because I have money and they don’t. - Because I have a stable home to go to. - Because I think I have more opportunities than them. - Because I feel that I can make choices. - They have it worse than me. - I haven’t gone through what they have gone through. - No because I am not living in a country where they are having a war. - They have way harder struggles. - Because I am more fortunate. - Not really because they got everything worse. - Because I’m not going through anything they are. I am not struggling like them. - Because Iraqi Refugees don’t have basic human rights that I get to enjoy. • If “yes,” why? YES – PHASE ONE - I think I do because they seem to care about people too. - We are all people who need help. We are just trying to make a living. - I am not from the U.S. - I say yes because if you look at it the government is trying to help everyone. - I try to put myself in their shoes. How would it feel if someone took me away from the people I love or put me in a strange setting? -It’s like the working – I am an immigrant and don’t really work without good papers.   74
  • 75. - One similarity I see is money problems. - Everyone goes through struggles and people are different races but they are still human. - They could miss their families or have something in common like me. YES – PHASE TWO - Because there are some problems in my life that I can’t change. - My parents are deceased. - The war… - I see similarities because we both deserve the right to have homes and to feel safe. - Because we are all people and we all need school, water, food, and love. - Because we are both people. We have goals and feelings. - Because in their country we probably would be the same way. - The similarities I see are we both are human, so we both should have equal rights. - Both humans and have dreams. - I see innocent people getting hurt. - There are probably some people who are the same age as me as well as think like me. - Because the kids there don’t get to make decisions and kids here don’t get to make decisions. - Because we both have opportunities to do something in life. MAYBE – PHASE ONE - Because the street is war to me. It’s just that not a lot of people think about the other’s war. 6. Write your own definition of the following terms. If you know what something is, that’s fine. Just leave it blank. Social Change Phase P1 P2 Number Correct 26 18 Number Partially Correct 16 16 Number Incorrect 3 2 Total Responses 45 36 Difference Correct / Total Responses 57.78% 50.00% -7.78% Partially Correct / Total Responses 35.56% 44.44% 8.89% Incorrect / Total Responses 6.67% 5.56% -1.11% Table 10. Survey Question 6.1 Results   75
  • 76. Activism Phase P1 P2 Number Correct 23 30 Number Partially Correct 10 7 Number Incorrect 2 4 Total Responses 35 41 Difference Correct / Total Responses 65.71% 73.17% 7.46% Partially Correct / Total Responses 28.57% 17.07% -11.50% Incorrect / Total Responses 5.71% 9.76% 4.04% Table 11. Survey Question 6.2 Results Demonstration Phase P1 P2 Number Correct 30 35 Number Partially Correct 6 9 Number Incorrect 0 0 Total Responses 36 44 Difference Correct / Total Responses 83.33% 79.55% -3.79% Partially Correct / Total Responses 16.67% 20.45% 3.79% Incorrect / Total Responses 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% Table 12. Survey Question 6.3 Results Petition: The answers given for Demonstration were excluded because the researcher did not correctly place the word in the context of activism in the survey. Therefore, those answers are not applicable to this study. 7. Why do you think that young people are required to go to school? PHASE ONE - They are required to go to school so they would be educated. - So they could learn. - To go to college. To get a job. - To get an education. (8) - To learn and have a future ahead of them. - So the future could get better. - To learn. - Because it is a part of our culture. - To change the future. - To grow up and be successful. - To learn and grow up to help the country be better. - So that they can have a brighter future and can pass it down to the younger generation. - Elders want us to have a good education. - To be successful through life. - So that the future of our country can be bright. - They need to get somewhere in life.   76
  • 77. - Because we are the future. - So the world won’t become a downfall. - So they can know what is going on and, when the war is over, be successful. - Get good grades, learn, and expand our knowledge. - So they can learn and make their country a better one. - So they can have a say in their future and have a very successful future. - So they can get an education and continue the circle of life. - So they can learn as they grow. - To learn to be responsible and see how the world works. - To mature our minds. - To learn more about life and things in it. - To learn and contribute to their community when they grow up. - To better the future. - To get an education and grow to lead the country. - People need an education in order to succeed in life. - To have a future. - To begin the future. - To learn about these kinds of things. - To get an education because they are the future. - To learn and get an education so they can make a difference in the world. - To learn. - To get an education to accomplish things in life. - To get an education and continue to college and obtain a good career to get a good living = good economy. - I think they are required to go to school because we want them to live a good life. PHASE TWO - To gain an education and to see things they don’t see in their daily life. - So they can become better people. - To get educated and be someone in life. - So that they could be enlightened. - To get an education. (13) - To get educated to be successful. (2) - To learn. (9) - To get educated to make the world better. - Because they need the knowledge to know what’s right and what’s wrong to make it through life. - Because school helps everyone in the long run. - To prepare for life. - So they can have education and a good life. - They are the future. - To learn, be educated so we can be ready for the real world. - It’s what’s best for us. It helps us to succeed in life. - To better their life and to change and lower violence. - To have better knowledge/education for the future. - To get the education that we need to make it through life and to be able to succeed in college also. - So they can get jobs in the future. - To learn and make a future for myself. - So they can develop to their best potential. - To learn about and believe something. - To learn that they can have or be the future that America needs.   77
  • 78. 8. Do you feel that what you learned during this workshop is relevant to your life and future? (Circle one.) Yes No Why or why not? Phase P1 P2 Yes - Times Circled 31 29 No - Times Circled 14 23 Maybe - Times Circled 0 1 Total Responses 45 53 Difference Yes's / Total Responses 68.89% 54.72% -14.17% No's / Total Responses 31.11% 43.40% 12.29% Maybe's / Total Responses 0.00% 1.89% 1.89% Table 13. Survey Question 8 Results YES – PHASE ONE - I have accurate information about Iraq, Jordan, and Syria. - Because it has given me a more open mind. - People keep talking about this war. - I could really use that info. - Because people will keep talking about the war. - It was very informational. - Because some people are not as fortunate as we are. - Yes because later in life we could use it as a source. - Because I would be able to use it as a source. - Because I might try to do something about it. - I can see some things that something like that can happen to a lot of people. - It’s relevant because they’re human and they deserve to be treated with respect. - Because this issue may still be happening when I grow up. - Because we might see that change in our environment. - Because now I have prior knowledge of it. - Because Iraqi refugees are coming to the U.S. - Because I know what’s going on in a different country. - It’s important information. - Because I plan on going into the military. - Because if I want to travel, I want to know the background. - It’s important to be aware. - Because I learned what I could do to help others. - It is always useful. - I feel like I learned a lot because the lady explained everything well. - Because it can affect me. - I see it in the newspaper every now and then. - I think this helped me know that I like to help people. YES – PHASE TWO - It shows me that I should take advantage of my opportunities. - Because it’s important to know what’s going on around you. - Because I now know what’s going on in third world countries. - Because it informed me about something obviously important. - Yes because seeing what they went through motivates me to do better. - Because it alerts me that others are not doing good so I can help.   78
  • 79. - It shows you that you have it better than anywhere else. - Because I need to be nice to the war. - Because it shows you what is happening in the world and how we can help. - Because this would be a resource to me later in life. - Because it is always good to learn something new. - I feel it’s relevant because just like Martin Luther King Jr said, “Injustice anywhere is a threat to justice everywhere.” - Because we’d use it in our future. - I learned how to keep peace. - It’s important. - Because people live through this. - Because who knows if it might affect me. - No more wars. - I want to be a cop which will help people in trouble. - What if that happens to the US? (You never know.) - Yes because if something like this happens to me and my country, I would know what to expect and how to get out of the situation. - Because a problem that doesn’t affect me might some day be my problem. - I learned about the Iraq people. - It will help me with a paper or something. - Because it’s happening today. - I enjoy drawing and it’s important to me. - It changed my way of thinking and I’m more open-minded. NO – PHASE ONE - Because I’m not an activist and I’ve never been through what they’ve been through. - Because I may not come across it again. - Hopefully it won’t be a part of my future, but right now I don’t really feel affected. - I’m not ever going to Iraq. - We don’t have these problems. - I’m not Iraqi. NO – PHASE TWO - I don’t relate to this. - I’m not going through this. - Because I don’t care. - Because it took a lot of time. - Because I don’t really care about it. - Because I don’t live in Iraq. - Because it doesn’t relate to me and I don’t think it ever will. - I don’t see myself becoming an activist unless I care strongly about an issue. - No because we have nothing to do with it. - I live here. - It’s more relevant to the Bush administration’s conscious. - No even though I learned a lot. - Because it doesn’t relate to me. - I love art, but I don’t want to do it in the future. - I don’t know (4) MAYBE – PHASE ONE - Because I grow up in a war but it’s more like going to war.   79
  • 80. 9. What motivated you to participate or not to participate in the workshop? PHASE ONE - I didn’t participate because I didn’t have a question and in a way it was boring. - I had to. - My teacher. - I like to just listen. - I thought it was interesting. - It was boring. - I’m not talkative. - I was uninterested. - I just felt that it was boring. - Ms. Borgia. - The subject seemed interesting. - I just wanted to listen, not participate. - I participated because you get to see how they live. - I just like to learn about the world around me. - I don’t know. It’s just something that’s been on my mind. - Refugees are human and it is a problem. - I was made to come here. - It was required. - This class. - Because I know it’s going on and it’s not right. - I had to because it’s a grade. - It was a grade. - It was during class. I enjoyed participating. - I was tired so I really didn’t get anything. - I already have too much on my plate so I don’t have a choice. - School. - Pictures of what’s happening around the world. - Youth. - It looks interesting. - We had no choice. - I’m not a talkative person. - The idea of helping others. PHASE TWO - The idea of guilt. - What motivated me is the fact that I can help and the art involved. - My classmates and the guest speaker motivated me to participate. - It made me think about the refugees. - I thought it was really fun. - My teacher told me to. (5) - What motivated me was the drawings we did at the end. - The creativeness. - It looked fun to be creative. - My teacher made me focus. - It was done in my history class. - I wanted the people who were teaching me to get a good grade at what they were doing for us. - We get to do a workshop and actually be involved. - Because I have a passion for the little children. - My grade. (3) - We had to do this workshop. (2) - I liked the fact that we got to do art. - Being active.   80
  • 81. - School. l - The kids. - The safety of the world. - It was a part of our class. - I was required to participate in order to gain participation points for my class. - Because I was getting a grade for it and some things were interesting. - Because I don’t care about them. - My grade in ADL and I wanted to give this workshop a chance beforehand. - What motivated me was letting others know what was going on and participate in different activities so I can know. - So we can help out the people fleeing their country. - Making the happiness of others. - The people. - What motivated me was looking at the hard things they went through. - Because I just want to get on with my life. - Because it’s an important issue. - I participated because I feel sorry for those kids and wish living conditions were better for them. - Because it had art in it. - It was interesting to see people who care about stuff like this and was willing to talk to others about it. 10. I like creative activities (dance, drawing, music, etc.) even if I do not think I am particularly good at them. (Circle one.) True False Phase P1 P2 True - Times Circled 44 48 False - Times Circled 5 5 Maybe - Times Circled 0 0 Total Responses 49 53 Difference True's / Total Responses 89.80% 90.57% 0.77% False's / Total Responses 10.20% 9.43% -0.77% Maybe's / Total Responses 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% Table 14. Survey Question 10 Results 11. I think it is important to care about the world. (Circle one.) True False Maybe Phase P1 P2 True - Times Circled 43 43 False - Times Circled 4 9 Maybe - Times Circled 1 1 Total Responses 48 53 Difference True's / Total Responses 89.58% 81.13% -8.45% False's / Total Responses 8.33% 16.98% 8.65% Maybe's / Total Responses 2.08% 1.89% -0.20% Table 15. Survey Question 11 Results   81
  • 82. 12. I believe that my ideas, opinions and beliefs are valuable. (Circle one.) True False Maybe Phase P1 P2 True - Times Circled 29 34 False - Times Circled 0 0 Maybe - Times Circled 20 15 Total Responses 49 49 Difference True's / Total Responses 59.18% 69.39% 10.20% False's / Total Responses 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% Maybe's / Total Responses 40.82% 30.61% -10.20% Table 16. Survey Question 12 Results 13. I believe that I have the ability to be a part of making change happen. (Circle one.) True False Maybe Phase P1 P2 True - Times Circled 25 34 False - Times Circled 1 1 Maybe - Times Circled 22 17 Total Responses 48 52 Difference True's / Total Responses 52.08% 65.38% 13.30% False's / Total Responses 2.08% 1.92% -0.16% Maybe's / Total Responses 45.83% 32.69% -13.14% Table 17. Survey Question 13 Results 14. Circle those in your life that you feel listen to what you have to say: Guardians Teachers Employers Other Family Members Friends Church Leaders Mentors Other_______________________________ Phase P1 P2 Total Times Circled Guardians 32 37 69 Teachers 32 23 55 Employers 32 6 38 Other Family Members 34 35 69 Friends 45 43 88 Church Leaders 8 8 16 Mentors 12 13 25 Other 2 3 5 Table 18. Survey Question 14 Results 15. Any other comments you would like to make? PHASE ONE - You should make the presentation more fun and the speaker, I think her name was Jill, well she has to talk with enthusiasm. - It could have been a little less dry. - This was a really monumental and great demonstration. Continue to spread the word!   82
  • 83. - I learned a lot. - Thank you and you guys did great! PHASE TWO - I thought that the activity was eye-opening and it changed me for the better. - Thank you! - Just keep doing what you are doing and never give up on trying to change the world for the better! - I had fun in this workshop. - Thank you.   83
  • 84. Appendix B: Collaborator Interview Results and Responses 1. What is your role in the project? Rhiannon Borgia – SJE Teacher P1: I am a teacher of the Freshman class at PCD – Joslin Campus who will be partaking in the Iraqi Refugee Project - provide students with a little background information and motivate them to start the project. P2: Same. Matthew Kayser – SJE Teacher P1: I am a humanities teacher at PCS (Joslin) who is participating in the project. My class is 10th grade. P2: Same David Doll – SJE Teacher P1: I was an observer. I also prepared the students with two brief lectures on Islamic Governments. I teach 11th grade history. P2: Same Jill Doub – AFSC Activist P1: Presenter from AFSC P2: While I was previously the main presenter, this time I shared the floor with the artist collaborators. We worked together to run the interactive presentation. Carla Paynter – Community Artist P1: I am the artist teacher who will help develop a more creative, interactive refugee presentation. P2: My role was to observe the initial Iraqi Refugee presentation given to high schooler's. Then, help Karen come up with and teach an artistic activity about Iraqi Refugees that would be more enjoyable and captivating for the high schooler's. 2 (Phase 1). What are your goals for the project? Rhiannon Borgia – SJE Teacher 1. To broaden students’ thinking about cultures different than their own. 2. To build students’ empathy towards humanity. 3. To increase students’ global knowledge without distractions of mass media. 4. To inform students of current U.S. military occupation and reflecting upon it… 5. My students will develop more open minds and have better understanding of life overseas where Americans need to be pulled out to achieve peace. 6. Students will begin to conceptualize the suffering Iraqis face. 7. *My Personal Goal* Keeping lesson/workshop student centered and not letting my personal viewpoints influence or alter student perspectives. Matthew Kayser – SJE Teacher 1. I want to instil a genuine curiosity about current events within my students. 2. I would like my students to develop a general interest in activism. 3. I hope that my students are moved to some sense of empathy towards the refugees from Iraq.   84
  • 85. David Doll – SJE Teacher 1. Grow appreciation for Islamic peoples culture and diversity. 2. Deconstruct their own perception of people they consider different or unworthy of our civility. 3. Plan an action for change. Jill Doub – AFSC Activist 1. Develop a relevant and interesting learning tool on Iraqi refugees to use in high school settings across the country as a part of AFSC’s work to educate the public on the refugee crisis. 2. Improve AFSC’s capacity to interact with and involve youth in our work. 3. Move beyond traditional “old, white” audience. 4. Teach accurate information about Iraqi refugees. 5. Motivate the kids to investigate further and tell others what they’ve learned. Carla Paynter – Community Artist 1. Try to understand what the kids are interested in – creative stuff they like to do – take this information and engage them. 2. Help to come up with an exciting way to present this material – to truly create a more engaging presentation. 3. To be creative, think like a middle/high schooler. 3. Do you feel that this phase helped you to achieve those goals? Why or why not? Rhiannon Borgia – SJE Teacher P1: Yes, as an intense introduction. However, I found some students to have been bored and they fell asleep or “tuned out.” P2: Yes, because of the collaboration factor; the act of “doing” something engages the learner, therefore motivating the learner to actively participate and expand his/her knowledge. Matthew Kayser – SJE Teacher P1: Yes. I was encouraged to see kids discussing possible issues for which they might become activists. Unfortunately, though, I didn’t pick up on any overwhelming sense of urgency from my students. P2: Not answered. David Doll – SJE Teacher P1: Yes and no. Yes because by focusing on refugees it placed a human face on a complicated issue. No because I don’t believe the students fully made that connection. P2: Definitely, the second phase was essential in terms of breaking down stereotypes and developing an understanding of the people of the Middle East. Jill Doub – AFSC Activist P1: Yes. At the very least, giving this presentation for the first time to high school students gave me valuable practice. I was able to determine the level of prior knowledge students had about the Iraqi refugee crisis – hardly any – which reinforced the notion that this type of educational experience is needed. P2: Yes, the second phase was very helpful in achieving the goals listed above. It gave me an opportunity to see the difference in kids’ participation and interest level from Phase 1 to Phase 2 – students were much more engaged when they were able to   85
  • 86. participate and ask questions throughout the presentation, which happened in Phase 2. Phase 2 gave me great ideas on how to move forward with this presentation and how to enrich it before sending it out to other activists around the country. Carla Paynter – Community Artist P1: Yes, I was able to observe the original presentation. P2: Yes, the kids were much more enthusiastic about the art activity. 4. What, if anything, was particularly effective about this phase? Rhiannon Borgia – SJE Teacher P1: The images and statistics. P2: the engagement of students, self-expression, and the ability to choose how to display their activism Matthew Kayser – SJE Teacher P1: I believe the images were effective because they were so vivid. They made a powerful impression. P2: I definitely believe that the hands on approach was more effective than traditional lecture style. David Doll – SJE Teacher P1: The information about the grave digger, the monetary cost of the war, and the part at the end where you spoke about what specifically we could do. P2: The art project was effective. I thought that doing a self portrait and including Refugee images and messages was a great way of building a human connection between the student and the plight of the refugees. I think that self expression is essential to learning and this was a great way at getting the students to express themselves. Jill Doub – AFSC Activist P1: The information in the presentation was interesting to students, for the most part. I could tell that most students had not heard the information before, and many seemed surprised at some of the facts I presented. P2: The focus on pictures and real-life stories of individual Iraqis was very effective. The open conversation format allowed students to ask more questions and made me realize a lot of things that I had mistakenly assumed they knew. For example, one question that came up when students were making their posters was “What about when the Iraqis bombed us on September 11?” This reflects a deep misunderstanding of the issues and necessitates better background information in the presentation of the refugee crisis. Carla Paynter – Community Artist P1: The information presented and the level of engagement I observed from the students. P2: I think that because they were previously informed (through the pp lecture) about the Iraqi refugees, through the art projects they were able to explore what they learning by doing. I can be told something, and it remains in my brain for a while just because I was told, but eventually it fades away. However, if I am told something and then in response to what I was told I then go and do something (i.e.: art making), that information will last longer because it was turned into a tangible object.   86
  • 87. 5. What could be improved? Rhiannon Borgia – SJE Teacher P1: The voice of the guest speaker…should be a bit louder and use more tone to emphasize certain points. P2: It would have been better if we had more time to work on phase II. Matthew Kayser – SJE Teacher P1: I’d love to get the kids more tangibly involved. I also think that a more dynamic presentation would be helpful. P2: It might be a good idea to tell kids at the beginning where the project is going. This would give them a sense of direction and focus. David Doll – SJE Teacher P1: More interactive with students. The students didn’t have anything to do while you spoke. A better opening. Talk about a specific person with a name and story. Relate your statistics more. More wait time. More high order thinking questions. Less big words. (Students did not know: Rogue, Surge, UN council, signatories, etc.) Talk about the photos on the slides. P2: If given more time, the students could select their own images of middle east. That way the connection would be even stronger. Jill Doub – AFSC Activist P1: Students are so used to being “talked at” rather than having a conversation with educators. This presentation, as it stands in Phase 1, continues that same method. We need to find a way to include students in the discussion and have them share information and ideas that they have throughout the learning process. P2: The poems that we read to the classes, though they were beautiful and powerful, were not as effective as I had hoped. The vocabulary did not appeal to students, and I saw their eyes glaze over. Perhaps we could read shorter segments of the poems or just read one instead of three. Carla Paynter – Community Artist P1: How this topic is relevant to the students – besides the pure act of being informed. P2: The segment where we read articles and poetry. I just don’t think that had much of an effect on the kids. 6. Did you observe any student(s) being particularly impacted by the workshop? If so, could you describe what you saw? Rhiannon Borgia – SJE Teacher P1: No. P2: Not answered. Matthew Kayser – SJE Teacher: P1: Not really. P2: My kids are tough to figure out. I think that if they were being impacted, they’d put effort into concealing it. With that said, though, their written thoughts on their collages cause me to think that they were definitely impacted. David Doll – SJE Teacher P1: Andre was answering questions. The kids did not have their heads down. They took interest when you mentioned money.   87
  • 88. P2: A couple of the students really got wrapped up in the art project. Javier included Mexican elements into his portrait. I think he connected to the idea of a freedom fighter. Jill Doub – AFSC Activist P1: It was interesting to me that students latched onto the fact that the United States spends $720 million per day on the Iraq War. I could tell that this information sparked quite a thought process in many students. P2: I witnessed a great conversation between students in a group when they were reading the article we passed out. They were attempting to answer the question of whether the lives of Iraqi refugees bear any resemblance to the lives of kids in Chicago. One girl in the group immediately said no, while another girl looked unsure. I watched as she struggled to be the lone dissenter in the group and to articulate why she saw similarities in the struggles of Iraqi and Chicago youth. After a somewhat heated debate, the group decided to change its answer to reflect the similar patterns of violence among youth in Chicago and youth in Iraq. They spoke about the incidence of gang violence and even kidnappings here in Chicago and seemed to empathize with Iraqis. Carla Paynter – Community Artist P1: I remember one students in particular was asking very interesting questions during and after the presentation – he was taking the information that was presented and being critical. You could tell by his questions that he listened well. P2: I observed students being impacted by the art-making. They showed such excitement and concentration while making their projects, I believe just the act of making something had an impact on them. 7. Rate how relevant you think the information presented was to the lives of the students on a scale of 1-5, 1 being “not relevant at all” and 5 being “very relevant.” 1 2 3 4 5 Phase P1 P2 P1 P2 P1 P2 P1 P2 P1 P2 Number Circled x 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 Times Circled = 1 0 1 0 2 0.5 0 4 1 0.5 Total (Number Circled x Times Circled) 1 0 2 0 6 1.5 0 16 5 2.5 Totals (Adding bottom totals from each Phase) 14 20 Number of Responses 5 5 Totals/Number of Responses 2.80 4.00 Difference 1.20 Table 19. Interview Question 7 Results > Comments? Rhiannon Borgia – SJE Teacher P1: Students are split whether troops should be in Iraq…those in favor of troops in Iraq tuned out. P2: None. Matthew Kayser – SJE Teacher P1: None P2: None   88
  • 89. David Doll – SJE Teacher P1: The students are coming from a place where they feel safe. They don’t understand the war. They think in terms of us vs. them and they don’t want to know about pain and suffering. None of this was addressed. What does Chicago have to do with Syria or Jordan or any other place that students couldn’t locate on a map? P2: None Jill Doub – AFSC Activist P1: None P2: None Carla Paynter – Community Artist P1: Not relevant because it is an issue that is “far from home” both physically and emotionally. However, I think it could be made more relevant. P2: This information could be very relevant to the students depending on how they looked at it. Without anyone telling them that the information was relevant to their lives, I don't think the students see much relevance at all- without creating a personal connection to a situation- how can anyone see the relevance? 8. Rate how engaged the students were in the workshop from your observations on a scale of 1-5, 1 being “not engaged at all” and 5 being “very engaged.” 1 2 3 4 5 Phase P1 P2 P1 P2 P1 P2 P1 P2 P1 P2 Number Circled x 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 Times Circled = 0 0 2.5 0 2.5 1 0 2 0 2 Total (Number Circled x Times Circled) 0 0 5 0 7.5 3 0 8 0 10 Totals (Adding bottom totals from each Phase) 12.5 21 Number of Responses 5 5 Totals/Number of Responses 2.50 4.20 Difference 1.70 Table 20. Interview Question 8 Results > Comments? Rhiannon Borgia – SJE Teacher P1: The questions throughout and the allotment of time for clarification of misunderstood information. P2: None. Matthew Kayser – SJE Teacher P1: None P2: It took some nudging, but they soon became very engaged. David Doll – SJE Teacher P1: It is hard for students to be engaged for a 35 minute lecture no matter what the topic. I thought the information was relevant, but over the heads of our student population. P2: None   89
  • 90. Jill Doub – AFSC Activist P1: A few students were very engaged, while most students were only somewhat engaged. The questions and comments from those who were very engaged were encouraging to me and shows that this presentation has the potential to become a valuable learning tool for students. P2: None Carla Paynter – Community Artist P1: I couldn’t tell. Some kids it was obvious that they were not engaged (i.e. sleeping) and others were more ambiguous. P2: The students seemed VERY engaged during the art project workshop. 9. Rate how effective you thought the workshop was on a scale of 1-5, 1 being “not effective at all” and 5 being “very effective.” 1 2 3 4 5 Phase P1 P2 P1 P2 P1 P2 P1 P2 P1 P2 Number Circled x 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 Times Circled = 0 0 1 0 3.5 1.5 0.5 1 0 2 Total (Number Circled x Times Circled) 0 0 2 0 10.5 4.5 2 4 0 10 Totals (Adding bottom totals from each Phase) 14.5 18.5 Number of Responses 5 4.5 Totals/Number of Responses 2.90 4.11 Difference 1.21 Table 21. Interview Question 9 Results > Comments? Rhiannon Borgia – SJE Teacher P1: Students need to be more engaged. Class is after lunch so kids were snoozing. P2: None. Matthew Kayser – SJE Teacher P1: None P2: I believe you accomplished exactly what you intended to. David Doll – SJE Teacher P1: None of the students followed up with me asking when you guys were coming back or why you were there. This isn’t a good sign of an effective lesson. That being said, I think that during the lesson itself, the kids did get something out of it and their interest was peeked. P2: None Jill Doub – AFSC Activist P1: None P2: None Carla Paynter – Community Artist P1: Good information – Jill presented it clearly and effectively. P2: It depends what you want the kids to be "effected" by. I think the last part- the art project- was the most effective in terms of absorbing the students attention and allowing for their self-expression. But in terms of informing the students of the Iraqi crisis, I think the PowerPoint lecture was the most effective. Either way, overall if   90
  • 91. effectiveness means students walking away from the workshops wanting to know more about Iraqi Refugees, I say 3. 10 (Phase 2). Did you find Phase One or Phase Two to be more effective? Why? Rhiannon Borgia – SJE Teacher: Phase I was informative with impacting images, however, the students were bored. Throughout Phase II, students were engaged and created impacting images. They enjoyed Phase II more. Matthew Kayser – SJE Teacher: Phase Two because it was much more student- centered and it allowed kids to creatively express themselves. David Doll – SJE Teacher: Phase two was definitely more engaging for the students. Jill Doub – AFSC Activist: Phase 2 was much more effective because it allowed students to ask more questions throughout. Carla Paynter – Community Artist: I am not sure what phase one is. Is it the initial PowerPoint presentation? If it is, I think that phase one and phase two in conjunction with one another are effective. One without the other would create a huge information gap. **Classroom Teachers Only** 11. Do you think any students will become more active because of this workshop? If so, what percentage would you guess? Rhiannon Borgia – SJE Teacher P1: I would guess 8% (3-4 students) P2: I think so. Probably 10% of the class. Matthew Kayser – SJE Teacher P1: Yes, by the time we are finished. Perhaps 10% (2-3 kids)? P2: Yes. Perhaps 5-10% will be more likely to engage in some form of activism. David Doll – SJE Teacher P1: I don’t think that will be the case, although I wouldn’t rule it out. The reason is because students will only remember basically one main idea from a lecture if you are lucky. The main idea was not activism, rather refugees. I think that, to the student, if asked what the lesson was about, they would answer either the Iraq War or refugees. P2: I don’t think so. I don’t think that connection was made strong enough. I am not sure they fully understand that they can be an agent of change for the students. 12. Did you find this workshop to be helpful to your teaching? Why or why not? Rhiannon Borgia – SJE Teacher P1: Not necessarily, but I liked the information presented. P2: Yes, it helps students to open their minds and think “globally.” It they don’t know about something, they don’t necessarily care as much about it. Students learned to be empathetic by engaging themselves and doing something that they cared about; the Iraqi Refugee Project accomplished this and benefited all.   91
  • 92. Matthew Kayser – SJE Teacher P1: Yes, as a humanities teacher, the workshop gave us yet another connection to both history and current events. P2: As a social studies teacher, I love the opportunity to discuss current events. Making that connection to the world outside of my students’ lives is great. It was timely, relevant, and though-provoking. David Doll – SJE Teacher P1: I think it’s valuable anytime you get to watch some one else teach your students. You get to see sort of the ebb and flow of their attention span and what parts of the presentation they found interesting and what parts fell flat. P2: Yes, I learned a lot about how to make an effective art project, I loved the washable marker water trick!   92
  • 93. Appendix C: Protest Poster Project C.1 Project Description   1. The community artist discusses examples of protest posters. What are the students’ reactions? Explain that protest posters should capture the attention of the viewer and show them an action to take. 2. Students will select a fact from a list and quickly write down their thoughts on it— how they feel about it, what they might want to convey to the viewer in their poster, etc. 3. Once they have chosen their fact and determined an action for the viewer to take, they begin sketching their posters. They can simply make the fact artistic and/or they can draw images to accompany the fact. They can also collage in images of Iraqis. 4. The protest posters should include the fact, the action for the viewer to take, and any other information they want to add. 5. Students will use a variety of coloring materials to complete their poster.   93
  • 94. C.2 Project Images                                                                                   94
  • 95.                                                             95
  • 96. Appendix D: Collage and String Project D.1 Project Description 1. The community artist reads a statistic/fact and asks students to put themselves in the place of an Iraqi refugee. 2. Students use a piece of scrap paper and marker from the center of their table to write their thoughts on it for a minute or two. 3. Repeat steps 2 and 3 for each of the following statistics: - 5.4 million Iraqis are displaced from their homes. - In 2005 alone, some 122,000 Iraqi children died before reaching age 5. - In 2003-2007, nationwide attendance in Iraq was only 30%. - Youth are joining militias and becoming child soldiers in exchange for necessities and protection. - Over 35,000 Iraqis are in prison with no due process. 69 words 4. Students collage in their thoughts with other scraps of paper and copies of Iraqi photographs on a piece of cardboard. 5. They can color their work with a variety of materials. 6. Lastly, students wrap their pieces with as much or as little string as they desire.   96
  • 97. D.2 Project Images   97
  • 98.                                         98
  • 99. Appendix E: Connecting Quilt Project E.1 Project Description   1. Students are lead in drawing a quick self-portrait on a piece of fabric (12in x 12in). Start with one eye. (The length of one eye is the same length as the distance between the eyes. The distance to the bottom of your nose is one and a half times the length of one eye. The edges of your nostrils line up with the inside corners of your eyes. The edges of your mouth line up with the pupils of your eyes. The distance from the top of your top lip to the bottom of your chin is the same distance as the length of your mouth from side to side. Your eyes are towards the center of your head. Draw in the outline of your face. The top of the ears often line up with the eyes and the bottom of the ears often line up with your nose or mouth. Everyone’s ears are different. Draw in your hair.) 2. Students trace their self-portrait with a PERMANENT marker and, with that marker, they write one thing that they have in common with a young Iraqi refugee. They also sign their name. 3. Next, they each choose one photocopy of an Iraqi to transfer onto the fabric. Turn over the photocopy so it is face down on your piece of fabric. Dip the sponge brush intoacetone and paint the back side of the photocopy thoroughly with it. Use the other side of the brush to scrape the backside of the photocopy and, then, remove it to see the picture transferred onto the fabric. 4. While they are transferring the image, demonstrate to each group how to “paint” with the washable markers by coloring in the shadows, dipping a paintbrush in water, and spreading what was just colored with the water. 5. Students work on “painting” in their self-portraits. 6. As students finish, glue the squares together using strips of scrap fabric pieces to make the quilt. (You could also sew them together.)   99
  • 100. E.2 Project Images                                                                                                 100
  • 101.                 101