Survival Stroke• Crawl Stroke• Side Stroke• Elementary Back Stroke• Modified Breast Stroke• Tireman’s Carry
Crawl StrokeCommonly regarded as the fastest swimmingstyleAlso known as freestyleThe initial position for the front crawl is on thebreast, with both arms stretched out in front andboth legs extended to the back. Then while onearm is pulling/pushing, the other arm isrecovering. The arm strokes provide most of theforward movement, while the leg kicking in aflutter movement only provides some.
Crawl StrokeHow To Execute:Step 1 – Initial Position: From the initial position, the hand is held flatand the palm is turned away from the swimmer. The hand is thenlowered into the water thumb first, this is called “catching thewater”.
Crawl StrokeStep 2 – Pulling:The pull is a semicircle movement from the waterlevel to the chest. The arm is kept straight and the hand pointstowards the body center and downward.
Crawl StrokeStep 3 – Pushing: The push is the completion of the pull, theswimmers arm is pulled back up to the waters level. The palm ismoved backward through the water underneath the body at thebeginning and at the side of the body at the end of the push.Step 4 – Recovery: The recovery moves the elbow in a semicircle inthe swimming direction. The lower arm and the hand are completelyrelaxed and hang down from the elbow. The recovering hand movesforward, just above the surface of the water. During the recovery theshoulder is moved into the air by twisting the torso. It is important torelax the arm during the recovery as having your hand higher thanyour elbow will result in drag and loss of balance.
Crawl StrokeStep 5 – Kicking: The legs move alternately, with one leg kickingdownward while the other leg moves upward. Ideally, there are 6kicks per cycle. The leg movement is important for stabilizing thebody position. The leg in the initial position bends slightly at theknees, and then kicks the lower leg and foot downwards. After thekick the straight leg moves back up. Try not to kick too much out ofthe water.Step 6 – Breathing: The face is kept down in the water during frontcrawl. Breathing is done through the mouth by turning the head tothe side of a recovering arm at the beginning of the recovery. Thehead is rotated back at the end of the recovery and points down inthe water again. The swimmer breathes out through mouth andnose until the next breath. Most swimmers take one breath everythird arm recovery, alternating the sides for breathing. Otherswimmers instead take a breath every cycle so they can alwaysbreathe from the same side.
Crawl StrokeStep 6 – Turn and Finish: A tumble turn can be used to reversedirections in minimal time. The swimmer swims close to the wall asquickly as possible. In the swimming position with one arm forwardand one arm to the back, the swimmer does not recover one arm,but rather uses the pull/push of the other arm to start the tumble. Atthe end of the tumble the feet are at the wall, and the swimmer is ontheir back with their hands over the head. The swimmer thenpushes off the wall while turning sideways to lie on the breast. Aftera brief gliding phase, the swimmer starts with a flutter kick beforesurfacing, usually around 15 m from the wall.Step 7 – Finish: For the finish the swimmer has to touch the wall withany body part, usually the hand. All competitive swimmers sprint tothe finish, usually taking fewer breaths than normal.
SIDESTROKE• So named because the swimmer lies on onesside with asymmetric arm and leg motionand itis helpful as a lifesaving technique and is oftenused for long-distance swimming• Allows the swimmer increased endurancebecause, instead of workingboth arms and legs simultaneously in the sameway, the side stroke uses them simultaneouslybut differently
SIDESTROKEHOW TO EXECUTE• Stand in the water, and then turn your body to the side with one armunder the water, and the other on top. Your top arm should be downby your thigh, while your lead arm extends out in front of your bodyin the water.• Push off with your legs, keeping them close together. Your legmotion will be like scissors, with one leg going forward while theother goes back, and then switching. While your legs are kicking,your lead arm should push down into the water, drawing toward thebody and then back out. Keep the hand of your lead arm turned withthe palm facing out in front of your body and a little downward.
SIDESTROKE• While the lead arm pulls your body forward, the power ofthe sidestroke really comes from the legs. The morepowerful they are, the faster you will swim.
ELEMENTARY BACKSTROKE• A basic swimming technique that is easy tolearn and therefore useful for improving yourwater confidence as a beginner.• As its name indicates, it is swum on the backand uses a simple arm stroke in conjunction withthe breaststroke kick for propulsion.
ELEMENTARY BACKSTROKEHOW TO EXECUTE• To begin, you’ll have to face upwards. While bending your elbows,draw your hands from the side of your body. Extend your hands tofull length at armpit height. Push your hands downwards via thewater; this will in effect propel your body through the water. You willbe able to move on the water using this movement and incorporateit with leg movement.
ELEMENTARY BACKSTROKE• The elementary back stroke involves you drawing your knees upand out while the heels are touching, then you should stretch outyour legs to the sides thus pushing you through the water. Lastlyyou should bring your legs straight together in order to start the nextmovement. This movement allows you to avoid wetting your face,breathing freely and being able to freely move in the water.
MODIFIED BREASTSTROKE• One of the four competitive racing strokescharacterized by the distinctive frog-like kickand undulating motion.• The oldest of the four competitive strokes, it isperformed in a front prone position withsimultaneous and symmetrical leg kick andpull.
MODIFIED BREASTSTROKEHOW TO EXECUTEBODY POSITIONYou must keep your body face down in the water. You cannot rollonto either side or onto your back.HeadYou must lift your head above the surface of the water during eachcycle of arm and leg movement. During the rest of the cycle, yourhead can remain submerged.Order of MovementsYou must maintain the same cycle of arm and leg movementthroughout the race. A leg kick must follow each arm stroke. Youcannot complete two arm strokes before completing a leg kick ortwo leg kicks before completing an arm stroke.
MODIFIED BREASTSTROKEARMSYou must move your arms at the same time. You cannot pull onehand through the water ahead of the other. You must keep yourelbows under the water except during turns. Your hands can onlybreak the surface of the water at the point of the stroke closest toyour chest. Your hands cannot pass behind your hips except on thefirst stroke at the beginning of each length.LEGSYou must move your legs at the same time. You cannot move oneleg in advance of the other or at a different angle. Your feet mustpoint outward as you push your legs away from you. You can onlyuse a butterfly kick at the start of each length. Otherwise, youcannot move your legs in a scissor or butterfly motion.