Drivers of Project Management (PM) Education in India - A Research Study

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This study is an initial attempt, to investigate the factors that are responsible in driving the growth of Project Management Education in India. For more info visits http://www.pmi.org.in/reports.asp …

This study is an initial attempt, to investigate the factors that are responsible in driving the growth of Project Management Education in India. For more info visits http://www.pmi.org.in/reports.asp

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  • 1. Drivers of Project Management (PM) Education in IndiaA Research StudyFor More info visit www.pmi.org.inAuthorsDr. M.G. KorgaonkerDr. Mona N. ShahDr. J. K. KonerProf. M.V. MadurwarProf. Smruti SanjeevaniSponsored byProject Management Institute®, IndiaOctober 2010NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT ANDRESEARCH, PUNE, INDIA1
  • 2. Balewadi, Pune – 411 045ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSWe wish to express our sincere thanks and gratitude to the Project Management Institute®(PMI®) India for their sponsorship of the pioneering study at the National Institute ofConstruction Management and Research, Pune, India. We would like to specificallyacknowledge the overwhelming support and encouragement received from Mr. Raj Kalady,Country Director, Project Management Institute®(PMI®) India, throughout the duration of thestudy. We thank him for his unlimited patience, in accepting the somewhat inevitable timeoverrun in the completion of the study and finalization of the report.The study team deeply acknowledges the valuable guidance provided by Dr. M.G.Korgaonker, Director General and Project Director, whose extensive experience in the area ofproject management as a researcher and pioneer of the 2 years fulltime course on ProjectEngineering and Management in India at NICMAR, helped the team gain appropriateperspectives about the field of Project Management. His keen interest and leadershipthroughout the study enabled us to remain on track.We remain indebted to all the respondents to our survey who gave us huge amounts of timeunselfishly, helped us to patiently complete the in-depth questionnaires, and hosted ourresearch team with warmth and concern. If the study has seen a successful completion, it is inno small measure due to the vital inputs provided by each one of our institutionalrespondents.We wish to place on record the valuable assistance provided by Dr. Jonardan Koner,Prof. Mangesh Madurwar and Prof. Smruti Sanjeevani who as members of the investigatingteam worked with enthusiasm and dedication to complete the survey of institutions,executives and human resource managers and collate it for analysis. We thank Mr. A.R.Jadhav, Sr. Librarian at NICMAR, whose unstinted and cheerful support was alwaysforthcoming throughout the study. We thank Mr. Rajanikant Sagwekar who helped in thepage-setting and layout.Dr. Mona N. ShahPrincipal InvestigatorOctober, 20102
  • 3. EXECUTIVE SUMMARYThis study is an initial attempt, to investigate the factors that are responsible in driving thegrowth of Project Management Education in India. The study throws light on specific factorsthat emerge after studying the available literature on the subject as well as the responsescompiled from a cross-section of the primary stakeholders namely the Government,Academic Institutions, Practising Executives and Human Resource Managers connected withproject management education and training.We begin with a discussion on the need for PM education to take root and grow in India inthe interest of its major stakeholders and users like the government, and industry – both ofwhom have enormous investments tied up in a range of mega, major and medium sizedprojects. As per Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation (MOSPI), in the year2009 alone, a total outlay of 607,188 crores ( 6072 billion) was tied up in 941 CentralGovernment projects alone. In the private sector, the investment value tied up in projectsstood at over 100 trillion. As per CMIE data, the aggregate employment in projects sectorstood at over 160 million persons.In chapter 2, we review the literature using journals and reports that assess the current statusof project management education at a global level as well as in India. The European, NorthAmerican countries, and Australia show tremendous progress in establishing PM in almost allrealms of activity –governmental, industrial, academic, research and societal, through myriadinitiatives. In case of China, India’s closest comparable country, PM appears to have takenfirm roots since the 1990s decade, using a systematic ‘top down’ approach. In India, efforts topromote PM education in a structured mode appear to have only just begun.Chapter 3 of the study explains the design of the research study, the hypotheses formulated,the scope and methodology. The study has made use of primary and secondary data and wascarried out within India. It covered a cross section of faculty/heads of departments of leadingtechnical and management academic institutions from eighty one institutes from all overIndia. Data was collected using the Personal Interview Technique. The next set ofrespondents was the practising executives from project based organisations. Eighty eightexecutives responded to a comprehensive survey questionnaire that had questions ranging3
  • 4. from work experience and value of projects previously engaged in or currently working, totheir perception on the inclusion of subjects that enabled them to perform better on projectsand in the careers, as well as other gains that accrued to them after undergoing PM training.The study raised questions about the factors that they perceived were important in influencingthe growth of PM in India.The third set of respondents was drawn from a pool of select and leading project basedcompanies from a cross section of construction, power, engineering and IT industries. Therespondents were twenty human resource managers with considerable experience indesigning training programmes for their companies. Care was taken to ensure that therespondents were geographically distributed, over India. Statistical tools used in compilingand analysing the results were Pie charts, Bar and Column Diagrams, Correlation andRegression Analysis, Factor Analysis and Multiple Regression Analysis.Chapter 4 presents findings of the survey emerging from responses received from AcademicInstitutions. Significant results were obtained in this analysis. There is a clear case for strongpromotion of PM education in technical and business schools, with faculty emphaticallyadmitting that the employability of the students who undergo the PM courses is significantlyimproved. Overall the faculty has advocated a broad based project management subjectcurricula to be taught in technical, business, architectural, planning and infrastructureinstitutes. However their clear preference was for the core PM subjects of i) OperationsManagement, ii) Project Planning, Execution, Monitoring and Control iii) Statistical Methodsfor Project Analysis, iv) Health, Safety and Environment, v) Operations Research and vi)Accounting and Control Systems. The faculty suggest that subjects like Macro EconomicPolicy, Project Strategy, Risk Management, Project Financing, Legal, Commercial andTaxation Aspects in projects should be considered important for curriculum at the postgraduate level. The subject in the Behavioural Sciences Area, deemed most important wasManagerial Skills. All subjects in the Information Technology Area like Prima Vera,Microsoft Projects (MSP), engineering software, SPSS etc were considered to be uniformlyimportant in PM education. The faculty respondents considered the coverage of sectorspecific issues in the curriculum to be very important, but appeared unsure about the relativeimportance of the sectors of economic activity where PM teaching should be directly focused.The correlation analysis provides very good basis for structuring courses in all the subjectareas considered in the study. In the Technology and Management area, the results indicate4
  • 5. that the subjects Project Site and Equipment Management, Project Procurement and MaterialsManagement, Contract Management, Facilities Engineering and Management and ProcessDesign / Engineering / Testing / Commissioning are correlated. This is expected since theseissues arise during project execution and have to be dealt with in a coordinated manner.Similarly correlation among the subject areas Logistics and Supply Chain Management,Transportation Management, Facilities Engineering and Management are also quite expectedand in most projects, these would be dealt with together. The correlation between subjectareas Operations Management and Operations Research, and also between ProjectFormulation and Appraisal and Project Engineering are also along expected lines. There isalso good correlation between Quality Management and HSE subjects and thereforecombining these into a single course would be quite appropriate. It is not surprising that inthe project management fraternity, the precise differences among these subject areas are notvery clear.While most of the subjects grouped in these subject areas are found to be very important,there is a case for combining some of these together, in order to emphasize the importance ofmanaging projects in a coordinated and integrated manner. A direct outcome of thecorrelation analysis is that in institutions and curricula where it is difficult to introduceseveral execution oriented courses, it will be quite adequate if a single course emphasizingproject execution is included.In the Economics and Strategy area, the subject Social Cost benefit Analysis is most heavilycorrelated with other subjects including Macroeconomic Policy, Project Strategy, ProjectFinancing, Legal, Commercial and Taxation Aspects. Thus if this course is included as aseparate course, care must be taken to ensure that the content is not duplicated in othercourses. Alternately the course need not be included, if other courses reflect the content.There is a case for combining the courses Project Financial Management and ProjectFinancing, courses Project Strategy and Macroeconomic Policy, and courses Legal,Commercial & Taxation Aspects and Project Joint Ventures, Strategic Alliances & SpecialPurpose Vehicles. The correlation analysis provides very good guidelines on the way coursesin this subject area could be grouped and introduced in the PM curriculum.In the Behavioural Sciences area, three subjects are correlated to each other, namelyIndustrial/ Labour Relations, Conflict Management and Diversity Management. So from thepoint of view of the respondents, these subjects reflect some common issues and concerns5
  • 6. and there is a case for combining these together to achieve an integrated approach to dealwith these issues and concerns. The other courses may be taught independently.The correlation analysis results provide a useful way of structuring courses in IT area in thePM curriculum. For instance, ERP and e – Business Applications courses could be combinedinto a single course. Similarly Specialized Engineering Software and Common Software suchas Excel, SPSS, DBMS could also be structured as a single course, in case there is difficultyin offering these as separate courses. Only Project Management Software needs to be taughtas a separate course.Majority of the sample felt that resources were generally easily available in the institutes interms of library, course materials, classrooms, laboratories, computer labs, qualified facultyand availability of research facilities. The respondents also strongly endorsed the existence ofmanagement vision to support PM endeavours. It takes on average about a year to build thenecessary physical resources. On average, the faculty recruitment and training process takes14.7 months. The research involvement of the institutions is found to be quite low and onlyabout 20% institutions reported funded research.Chapter 5 presents findings of the survey of practicing executives from leading project basedorganisations in India. The respondents offered their responses on a variety of issues such astheir first systematic exposure to PM training, the ideal PM curricula, from their perspective,the gains from PM training and the factors that they consider important to improve PMtraining at graduate level. Majority of the practising executives responding to thequestionnaire were from the middle management cadre, from technical institutions with noprior exposure to PM training. Most of these were working on projects with value between200–300 crores using very elementary PM techniques such as PERT/CPM.It is interesting to note that ratings assigned to practically all the subjects in the Managementand Technology area by executives are higher than the corresponding ratings assigned by theinstitutions. The courses rated as ‘extremely important’ include Planning, Scheduling,Monitoring and Control Techniques; Project Quality Management; Health, Safety andEnvironment Management; Cost Estimation and Budgeting; Quantity Surveying andEstimation; Project Site and Equipment Management; Project Procurement and MaterialsManagement; Contract Management. Furthermore, some courses are considered far moreimportant by executives compared to the institutions. These are : Contract Management;Project Procurement and Materials Management; Quantity Surveying and Estimation; Cost6
  • 7. Estimation and Budgeting; Health, Safety and Environment Management. One possibleexplanation is that these courses have a strong ‘execution’ and ‘practical’ bias. Naturallyexecutives seem to realize their importance far more than the institutions.In the Behavioural Sciences area, the overall ratings for all subjects in the area averaged‘Very Important’, except for Managerial Skills subject rated ‘extremely important’. Thissubject is rated much higher by the executives, while the other subject ratings in this area arecomparable to those assigned by the institutions. In the IT area, PM Software, ERP andExcel/DBMS/SPSS are rated ‘extremely important’ and the other subjects are rated ‘veryimportant’. The ratings assigned to these subjects are very comparable to those assigned byinstitutions, although executives have assigned slightly lower ratings to Engg Software.The coverage of all the specific sectors is considered ‘very important’ by the executives.Sectors like Roadways, Railways, Urban Infrastructure, Civil Aviation and Mega PropertyDevelopments are considered relatively more important than others. Chemical Engineeringand Defence sectors have received relatively lower ratings. The executives’ ratings aregenerally similar to the institutions’ ratings. However the executives have assigned somewhathigher ratings to the Technology, Roadways, Railways, Civil Aviation, Urban Infrastructuresectors.In terms of gains derived in developing a better strategic overview of projects, PM training‘helped immensely’ in the area of Work Breakdown Structure and Responsibility Mapping.At the direct project level, training ‘helped immensely’ in Project Planning, Scheduling,Monitoring and Control. Training ‘helped substantially’ in other areas including ContractManagement, Costing, HSE, Quality Management and Communication Skills. The gainsderived in Project Planning, Scheduling, Monitoring and Control are particularly noteworthy.Thus the executives affirmed that training has helped them to acquire an integrated view ofthe project, role clarity, understand work breakdown structures and responsibility mapping onprojects, and envision the exact fit of a project in the overall corporate strategy.In individual career enhancement, executives saw improvement on two factors, namelyimproved decision making ability and improved understanding of human related factors i.e.interpersonal relations and conflict resolution. Some experienced higher responsibilitycoming their way after completion of PM training. On the whole there appear to besignificant gains in terms of the enrichment and enlargement aspects of the job. Theexecutives shed light on their perception of the factors they consider important for the growth7
  • 8. of PM education in India. According to them, the most important factors inhibiting growth ofPM education, in order of priority are i) the lack of awareness amongst the students andeducators about PM, ii) lack of trained instructors at the undergraduate and post graduatelevel and iii) being a practical field PM cannot be taught in the classroom, iv) mastery comesonly from practical experience and v) prior knowledge is not a prerequisite for working inthis field.Chapter 6 presents findings of the in depth survey of twenty Human Resource (HR) managersof leading project based organisations on issues such as; the training design, types of PMtraining, costs of training, factors affecting PM training, cadres to whom PM training is to beimparted, and training efficacy. The HR managers chosen had substantial exposure andexpertise in conceiving, designing and organising PM related training for executives withintheir organisations. On the average, most of the companies have taken steps to initiate PMtraining in the past five years. The companies generally prefer to deploy employees in themanagerial cadre for training. Within this section of employees, the most frequently chosenare the middle and senior managers for receiving PM training. The important objective inorganising PM training is to prepare the executives with key skills in planning, controlling,execution, contracts and such other areas that would enable them to contribute directly toproject success.For deputing executives for training, the companies are found to particularly emphasize thefollowing factors: perceived gains from PM training, employee retention, careerdevelopment, ability to execute complex projects, ability to monitor and control projects,ability to plan projects, ability to manage contracts in projects, ability to deliver projects inright time, costs and quality. Thus project planning, monitoring & control; execution ofcomplex projects and employee retention & career development emerge as the key areas forseeking training inputs.‘In house Training’, ‘On the Job Training’ and ‘On the Job with Classroom Training’ are themost preferred methods of training. Given that both skills and knowledge are key componentsof competencies, training must clearly aim at improving skills and knowledge base ofexecutives. The training levels most preferred for various grades of executives are:elementary for Operatives, basic for Supervisory, Advanced for Middle level managers,Strategic for Senior Level executives. These findings highlight a planned approach for PMtraining. Overall the perception amongst the HR managers is that PM training is quite8
  • 9. expensive on various counts such as trainees’ salaries and time, materials for training,expenses for trainers, expenses for trainees, facilities and equipment, lost productivity.However HR managers do not mind the loss of productivity of executives during theirabsence, which they feel will be more than compensated by the large scale benefits expectedfrom training.HR managers view training to be ‘quite benefitial’ on all the factors considered including :increase in production/ performance, reduction in errors and improvement of safetystandards, employee retention, lesser supervision, ability to use new skills and capabilities,improved delivery performance, attitude changes, and growth of business oportunities. HRmanagers strongly endorse the benefits derived from Attitude changes. One factor - Increasein production / performance, is not viewed as benefitial as other factors. One interpreation isthat they look for direct benefits from training in ‘process improvement’ rather than ‘outputimprovement’.Certified franchisee trainers are considered most efficacious training providers, followed byinternationally certified trainers, independent trainers and academic institutions. This may beattributed to the flexibility and highly focussed approach of these trainers. However HRmanagers highly value the highly qualified faculty, specialised competence, researchexperience, reasonable cost of academic institutions, which they believe are a great advantagefor developing good training content, even though they may not be able to deliver highlycustom designed training.. The most frequent academic institutions for PM related trainingappear to be the management institutions together as group, followed by in house trainers andNICMAR. Considering that NICMAR is a single entity, its share of 11.43% in PM training ismost enviable by comparable industry standards. It is reassuring to know that the HRmanagers consider international accreditation to be of value. But the managers may not befully aware of the benefits of international accreditation with respect to their organisation.Chapter 7 presents the results of the factor analysis. The analysis reveals that only 6 subjects(factors) included in the Management and Technology Area namely (i) OperationsManagement for Projects, (ii) Planning/ Scheduling/ Monitoring and Control Techniques, (iii)Statistical Methods for Project Analysis, (iv) Operations Research for Projects, (v) ProjectQuality Management, (vi) Health Safety and Environment in Projects account for the highestproportion of the subjects (factors) that are absolutely essential to be included in PM curricula(i.e. 74%). The correlation analysis carried out earlier helped establish that Operation9
  • 10. management and Operations Research, Quality Management and HSE are stronglycorrelated. Therefore in effect, only four subject areas, suitably combined account for thecourses that are ‘absolutely essential’.Alternatively this means that the balance 25 subjects account for only a small fraction of thetotal PM curricula (26%). Therefore for the sake of simplification, this can be interpreted tomean that the top six subjects (four combined) that emerge from the analysis of academicinstitutions, are considered most crucial for inclusion in PM curriculum by the academics.Similar results are found in other subject areas also.An intriguing fact is that only a limited number of subjects (factors) continue to describe thewhole scope of PM curricula amongst academics in institutions. This could be attributed toIndian institutions being in the early development stages of PM. It may also imply that exceptin the well recognized Management and Technology Area, in which the above subjects havebeen grouped, other subject Areas (and individual subjects contained therein) such asBehavioural Sciences and IT, are not yet considered pivotal to PM education in the Indiantechnical and management education system. Viewed with the actual ratings awarded by therespondents to the Strategy, Economics and Finance Area, it shows that almost the wholesample has rated subjects in this Area as ‘Extremely Important’ and ‘Very Important’.Multiple regression analysis suggests that the three types of institutions wherein PMeducation is essential are Technical, Management, and Planning & Design. The remainingtwo namely architectural institutions and infrastructure management institutions were notexplained by the available data and may require some other data. Generally Architecturalinstitutions, barring a few exceptions, are not known to emphasize PM in their curriculum.Similarly there is probably lack of critical mass of institutions in infrastructure managementcapable of providing full fledged, comprehensive curriculum with enough emphasis on PM.The infrastructure related to library, availability of course material, classrooms and qualifiedfaculty are found to be important variables in imparting PM education although these factorsalone are not enough. This means that some other factors are required to explain therelationship of PM education and the institutes’ infrastructure. Majority of the institutionswere AICTE, university affiliated and accredited institutions. They are bound by thestructured processes of approval which may take protracted periods of time from governmentagencies in the form of receiving sanctions to introduce courses. Therefore the type of the10
  • 11. infrastructure currently prevailing is more dictated by the regulatory requirements rather thanthe targeted requirements of PM education.Further multiple regression analysis suggests that two other factors namely introduction ofPM courses and effect on employability are also having some impact on the rating of PMeducation in India. Thus the type of institutions, the availability of infrastructure,management support in introduction of PM courses and employability of graduates emerge assignificant factors impacting the PM education in India.In summary, we find that there is a supply gap in capacity for PM training in the country. Thecauses can be attributed to the disinclination of technical and business academic institutionsto introduce and attract students exclusively in the area of PM. Only a handful of eliteinstitutions in India appear to have taken concerted steps in this direction. Executivesworking in project based companies enter with little or no prior orientation of projectrequirements that are special to project environments. Thus training them to be ‘projectready’ is an imperative for project based organisations. HR managers are charged with theresponsibility of designing training modules that would bring direct gains to the project andcompanies. Currently the options to choose experts are relatively less and therefore thetraining costs are high. Only limited cohorts of ‘project ready’ personnel available adverselyaffect the ability of the organisations to deliver consistently on projects. This affects theprojects industry as a whole and ultimately the national economy.Chapter 8 concludes the study by identifying the barriers to the growth of PM education. Themain barriers are; i) the lack of awareness amongst managements of technical and businessmanagement institutions about the importance and relevance of teaching PM, ii) lack ofsystematic curriculum development with a focussed view to develop PM competencies, iii)low interest in researching PM related subjects amongst faculty, iv) lack of trainedinstructors, v) long winding procedures for regulatory approvals for introducing approvingPM courses, vi) provision of qualified faculty and infrastructure and vii) the costs of trainingthat have to be borne by organisations.Finally we make some recommendations to ensure a more sustained growth of PM educationin India. Concerted efforts in the area of curriculum development, research, creation ofawareness regarding the application of PM techniques to the project business arerecommended, even resorting to mass media support. Sustained advocacy at all levels ofgovernment is also strongly recommended. In conclusion we propose some Model Curricula11
  • 12. for PM education and training in technical and business management institutions as well asfor executives in project based organisations.CONTENTSSr. No. TOPIC Page No.A Acknowledgements 2B Executive Summary 3Chapter 1 - Introduction1.1 The Government Imperative 161.2 Key Questions raised in the Study 191.3 The Private Sector Imperative in PM 201.4 Key India Level Statistics Of Project Announcements By IndianCorporations211.5 Initiatives of Indian Government and Industry, in thePromulgation of PM Education2312
  • 13. Chapter 2 - Literature Review of Project Management education on a global scale2.1 Introduction 252.2 PM Education in America and Europe 272.3 PM In Academia – A Global Snapshot 282.3.1 PM in other European Countries 282.4 Indian PM Growth 292.4.1 Specific Cases in India 31a) Indian Institutes of Management, MBA Institutions,Engineering Colleges31b) National Institute of Construction Management and Research 32c) Symbiosis Institute of Operations Management 32d) National Institute of Technology and Industrial Engineering 322.5 PM in Research 332.5.1 PM Research in India 352.6 PM in Industry 362.6.1 Training and Development Expenditure in Indian ProjectsIndustry – A Bird’s Eye View372.7 India and China: Comparison of PM Education 40Chapter 3 - Research Design3.1 Basic Approach to the Study 423.2 Objectives of the Study 423.3 Scope of the Study 433.4 Hypotheses 433.5 Methodology 443.6 Academic Institutions 45a) Sources of Data 45b) Data Collection Instrument - Schedules (Questionnaires) 45c) Data Collection Method - Direct Interview Method 45d) Sampling Procedure 46d.1) Sampling Area 46d.2) Sample Size 46d.3) Sample Unit 46d.4) Sampling Technique 46e) Statistical Tools and Techniques 46f) Analytical Software 46g) Multiple Regression Model 473.7 Practicing Executives of Project Based Companies 48a) Sources of Data 48b) Data Collection Method – Indirect Method 48c) Data Collection Instrument 48d) Sampling Procedure 48d.1) Sampling Area 49d.2) Sample Size 49d.3) Sample Unit 49e) Statistical Tools and Techniques 49f) Analytical Software 493.8 Human Resource Managers of Project- Based Companies 49a) Sources of Data 4913
  • 14. b) Data Collection Method 49c) Data Collection Instrument 50d) Sampling Procedure 50d.1) Sampling Area 50d.2) Sample Size 50d.3) Sample Unit 50e) Statistical Tools and Techniques 50f) Analytical Software 50Chapter 4 - Data Analysis of Survey of Technical and Business Institutions in India4.1 Introduction 524.2 PART I : Respondent’s Particulars And Details 534.3 PART II: General Opinion On Existing State Of PM EducationIn India554.4 Part III: Curriculum Development 614.5 PART IV – Infrastructure, Management Support, RegulatoryFactors And Current Status Of PM Research In Institute74Chapter 5 - Data Analysis Of Survey Of Working Executives Employed In ProjectBased Companies In India5.1 Introduction 915.2 PART I – A & B : Respondents’ Particulars And Project Details 935.2.1 PART I – A 935.2.2 PART I – B 955.3 Part II: Project Management Curricula 96A Management and Technology Area 96B Behavioural Sciences Area 98C Information Technology Area 98D Sector Specific Area 995.4 PART III: Changes And Work Performance After CompletionOf PM Programme1005.5 PART IV: Current Position Of Project Management In India 103Chapter 6 - Data Analysis of Survey of Human Resource Managers employed inProject-based Companies in India6.1 Introduction 1086.2 PART I : Respondents’ Particulars 1096.3 PART II: Dimensions Of Project Management Training Design 111Chapter 7 – Interpretations Of Data Analysis And Findings Of PMI Survey7.1 Introduction 1227.1.2 Commentary on the Extent and Depth of PM Education andResearch in India1237.2 Institutional Data Analysis and Inferences 1257.2.1 Results and Interpretation of Factor Analysis for Subjects ratedby Faculty from Academic Institutions1287.3 Multiple Regression Analyses of the Factors AffectingIntroduction of PM course1327.3.1 Findings from Multiple Regression Analysis of Significance ofPM Education in Technical/ Business/ Specialised AcademicInstitutions1327.4 The Practising Executives Data Analysis and Inferences 13814
  • 15. 7.5 Human Resource Managers’ Data Analysis And Interpretation 1447.6 Synthesis of Stakeholders of PM Education – AcademicInstitutions, Practising Executives and Industry1477.7 Limitations Of the Research 1487.8 Scope For Future Research 148Chapter 8 - Conclusions and Recommendations8.1 Conclusions 1508.1.1 Barriers 1518.2 Recommendations 152BIBLIOGRAPHY 154ANNEXURES 159Annexure 1A List Of Respondents Participating In Institutional Survey 159B List Of Respondents Participating In Working ExecutivesSurvey164Annexure 2a (DEC - 2005) 168b (DEC - 2006) 169c (DEC - 2007) 170d (DEC - 2008) 171Annexure 3Questionnaire For Institutions 172Annexure 4Correlation Matrix Of Factors (Subjects) Contained InQuestionnaire For Academic Institutions (Part III A)187Annexure 5Questionnaire For Executives 190Annexure 6Questionnaire For Human Resource Managers 203Annexure 7Model Course Curriculum Designs In UndergraduateProgrammes Of Technical And Business Management Schools210Annexure 8Master Database File Of Primary Data 215CHAPTER 1INTRODUCTION1.1 The Government ImperativeThe promulgation of Project Management education in India has assumed great significanceconsidering the position in which India finds herself in this millennium. From the pursuit ofeconomic liberalization, aligning with the global economy, and embarking on ambitiousprojects with the help of privatisation, India is committed to fulfil the economic growth15
  • 16. targets, fast and furiously. This is seen in the launch of mega and major projects by theCentral Government departments to cover the historical gap between what is available andwhat is required. In addition, the State Governments and Local Government agencies too,have been given project targets in order to improve infrastructure and aid development undervarious programmes such as Bharat Nirman Scheme. The estimated investment plan forinfrastructure development stands at $ 514 billion during the Eleventh Plan. This is more thantwice that of $ 217.86 billion allocated during the Tenth Plan. In the Twelfth Five Year Plan(2012- 2017), it is slated to rise to $ One Trillion (www. planningcommission.nic.in/plans).The country faces a challenge in bridging the existing infrastructure gaps, imperative tomaintain the economic growth rate of around 9%. India plans to increase the gross capitalformation in infrastructure from 5% of its Gross Domestic Product (GDP) to 9% by 2012, inorder to be on par with, more advanced economies in Asia1According to the reports of McKinsey Consulting Group (Reports 2001, 2010), it is theconsistent lack of responsiveness of Indian government, industry as well as the people tosolve the infrastructure bottlenecks that are retarding India’s momentum. According to the2010 report, due to the global financial crisis, and the funds that could have entered thecountry, being withdrawn, India currently faces a deficit of between $150 billion and $190billion in infrastructure funding. The government is looking at 25% of the infrastructureinvestment to be funded through Public Private Partnerships (PPPs). Out of the total targetthat has been set for investment in infrastructure ($514 billion), $430 billion is earmarkedonly for the transport and utilities sector. In the Twelfth Five Year Plan, the investmentthrough Public Private Participation (PPP) route is sought to be raised to the extent of up to50% of the Plan outlay (ET, 2010).Sustained pursuit of the twin objectives of the government, namely, (i) ensuring a steadyGDP growth rate of around 9% and (ii) elevating the major section of India’s populace frompoverty, malnutrition, illiteracy and unemployment, remains the greatest challenge foradministrators and stakeholders alike. In any country, the government itself is a huge sponsorand initiator of projects, initiating mega and major development projects in various sectors.Because of this, the government too assumes the role of a key stakeholder (owner) andtherefore is affected by any project related problems and issues. Table 1 indicates the numberof mega and major projects under the aegis of the Central Government in the year 20091(www. planningcommission.nic.in/plans)16
  • 17. alone. There were 941 such projects and involved a total outlay of Rs. 6,07,188 crores(MOSPI, 2009). The table indicates that majority of the projects (466) are in the delayedmode with 195 projects not having any clear indicated Date of Completion (DOC).Table 1 Sector –Wise Implementation Status of Central GovernmentProjects 2009 (Status as on 30.06.2009)(Number of Projects)SectorAhead On Schedule Delaved Without DOCOriginalLatestOriginalLatestOriginalLatestOriginal LatestATOMIC ENERGY 0 0 2 2 3 3 0 0CIVIL AVIATION 1 1 4 4 22 22 0 4COAL 7 8 49 52 55 51 5 18I & B 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1MINES 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0STEEL 0 0 11 11 37 37 0 6PETROLEUM 2 2 24 24 33 33 0 1POWER 0 0 50 51 33 32 3 2HEALTH & FW 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1RAILWAYS 1 1 6 24 67 65 131 122ROAD TRANSPORT &HIGHWAYS 2 2 26 26 159 159 0 9SHIPPING & PORTS 3 3 10 11 24 23 3 15TELECOMMUNICATIONS 0 0 6 6 27 27 0 11URBAN DEVELOPMENT 0 1 10 9 12 12 3 5WATER RESOURCES 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY 0 0 2 2 0 0 0 0Total 16 18 200 222 474 466 146 195Source: Quarterly Project Implementation Status, MOSPI, Government of IndiaThe Table 2 shows the most important causes for delay of projects as listed by MOSPI.Table 2 Causes of Delay of ProjectsSr.No. Factors No. of Projects1 Fund Constraints 31 (28 projects are of Railways, 1 Coal and 2 projects in Power sectors)2 Land AcquisitionProblems20 (12 Railways, 6 Coal, 1 Petroleum and 1 in Power sectors)3Slow Progress inWorks other thanCivil Works78 (63 in Railways, 6 Petroleum, 5 Power, 3 Coal and 1 in Powersectors)4 Law and Order 11 (5 in Railways, 4 Power and 2 in Coal sector)5 Delay in Supplyof Equipment5 (2 Petroleum, 2 Power and 1 in Railway sectors)17
  • 18. 6 Environmentalclearance1 (Railways sector)7 Others47 (these include the problems of technology selection, award ofcontract, delay in civil work, geo mining, court cases, inadequateinfrastructure, bad weather and Govt. clearance)Source: Quarterly Project Implementation Status, MOSPI, Government of IndiaIn addition, the same report attributes the causes of delay to the following1. Lack of supporting infrastructure facilities2. Delay in finalisation of detailed engineering plans, release of drawings and delay inavailability of fronts3. Changes in scope/delay in finalisation of the scope4. Industrial relations and law and order problems5. Delay and uncertainty in feedstock supply6. Pre commissioning teething troubles7. Technology problems8. Geological surprisesThe severity of the lack of project management expertise is now being felt at the highest levelof governance in India. The Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation ( MOSPI )has felt a strong need to introduce a full time MBA type programme in Project Management.The National Institute of Construction Management and Research (NICMAR), has had thelongest running pioneering Post Graduate Programme in Advanced ConstructionManagement (focussing on construction project management) in the country. This wasfollowed by another pioneering two year full time Post Graduate Programme in ProjectEngineering and Management for all types of mega and major projects and theirmanagement. The Institute has further innovated and introduced another two year PostGraduate Programme, the first of its kind in the country, in the field of Real Estate and UrbanInfrastructure Management. Another programme, the two year full time Post GraduateProgramme in Infrastructure Finance, Development and Management is due to be launchedfrom the next academic session in 2011. This programme too devotes substantial attention tomanaging projects in these sectors.1.2 Key Questions Raised In The Study18
  • 19. In view of the burning intensity of this problem, the key questions that are sought to beinvestigated and reported in this study relate to the factors that are affecting the growth of PMeducation and training in our country. The study specifically aims to explore issues from theperspectives of academic institutions, industry users and industry sponsors of executivetraining and development. For instance, we would like to know :• At present what is the role that educational institutions are playing in the technical andbusiness education domains to create capacity?• How is the industry overcoming the problem of skills and competency deficiency in PM?• To what extent the recipients of PM training and education find it useful and are able toapply their skills and knowledge in the real world of managing and executing projects?• Further, do we have adequate human resources to undertake and see a series of megaprojects through? Is the PM human resource base expanding?• Is research in PM adequate and of the kind that would help the industry? Is it solutionsdriven? Is it helping the creation of theoretical precepts and is it integrative in its nature?Globally the demand for Project Management professionals is increasing and as a result thereis a growing interest as well as availability of PM education at all levels i.e. undergraduate,postgraduate, advanced / doctoral level programmes with developed regions like NorthAmerica, Europe, Australia and some advanced nations in Asia leading the race (Turner &Heumann, 2001). The maximum growth in project management education in the near futureis foreseen in the world’s two most significant countries, namely India and China, with theobjectives of both countries being the same, i.e. to alleviate poverty through economicdevelopment. More discussion on China’s efforts in spreading PM education is contained inthe next chapter of the report.1.3 The Private Sector Imperative In PMA hypothesis may be offered, that the Private Sector has a better track record in building PMcompetency as against Public Sector enterprises, as the former are often contractors to manygovernmental projects, face intense competitive pressure arising out of tight biddingframeworks like ‘lowest bid’ acceptance criteria, etc. and therefore would require use oflatest and best techniques of managing and completing projects on time and within the19
  • 20. stipulated costs and quality parameters, to ensure better project returns. Also of importance isthe industry’s desire to be awarded projects that would fetch them high value and highvisibility while conceptualising and executing complex projects. Inevitably this would beachieved only under conditions wherein the companies have developed prior capabilities inbidding and executing such complex projects. Therefore it was felt relevant to study theextent of the effort taken by these industries in preparing the personnel and staff throughtraining to meet the above challenges and narrow the existing competency gaps.The economic growth model adopted by the Indian government involves greater use ofPublic Private Participation in infrastructure and other development projects, which hasresulted in Build, Operate and Transfer (BOT) model and other variants such as Build, Own,Operate, Transfer, (BOOT); Build, Own, Lease, Transfer (BOLT); or Build, Own, Operateand Maintain (BOOM) being increasingly adopted to award projects to companies. Suchcompanies or ‘concessionaires’ therefore find that adoption of superior project managementtechniques is fundamental to their success. Any delays in project completion could result indelayed revenue realisation for the companies, resulting in future losses and hamper theirbusiness opportunities. According to the Planning Commission’s targets, public privateinfrastructure projects are being made monitorable and achievement oriented, especially forsectors like roads, power and ports. Thus the private sector views project management skillsas a necessity.1.4 Key India Level Statistics Of Project Announcements By Indian CorporationsTraditional industries credited with PM practices include: construction, manufacturing, powerand heavy engineering. Added to these are the IT/ITES/ Telecom companies and servicesector companies. Besides a significant number of large social development oriented schemesof Government such as in health, nutrition, family welfare, rural employment, etc. areimplemented through Project / Programme mode. In order to find out the overall “projects”activity of Indian companies in the public and private sector, the CMIE database was used.The Centre for Monitoring of Indian Economy – Capex Data, (CMIE- Capex) is an authenticinformation database which catalogues industry information of Indian companies obtainedlargely through companies’ financial reporting. In the basic search conducted to list the totalnumber of projects announced by Indian companies in the year 2010, it was revealed that atotal of 16,145, projects had been listed in different stages of development, viz. 1)20
  • 21. announcement stage, 2) under implementation, or 3) stalled for some reason. Data for 385projects was ‘Not Available’, though the project name and company were listed. ReferExhibit 1.Exhibit 1Project Announcements/Under Implementation/EmploymentYear 2010Category ProjectAnnouncementsProjects UnderImplementationProjectsImplementationStalledTotalProjectsEmploymentConstruction 472 1372 29 1873 7,695,272Power 1050 827 43 1920 37,390Manufacturing 1844 1561 121 3526 1,077,380Mining 222 350 16 588 53,691Services 3612 4112 129 7853 7,306,096Total 7200 8222 338 15760* 1,61, 69,829CMIE Capex Database, 2010* Data for 385 projects appeared ‘Not Available’ in the databaseExhibit 1 offers a quick view of the magnitude of the project industry in India as whole. Morethan one hundred and sixty million persons are currently employed in this sector. Though thedata is by no means complete, due to the limitations faced in capturing the full data, it servesas a good indicator of the current potential of the projects industry.Project Announcements were to the tune of 7200 in the year 2010 alone, with the mostprojects being announced in the Services sector. This sector consists of Business ProcessOutsourcing (BPO) projects, shipyard expansion, hotel and tourism, outlets, IT parks, SEZ,malls, etc. Project Announcements in manufacturing sector, comprising electrical machinery,iron products, plants installation, exploration, diesel engines etc. were to the tune of 1844. Incase of services, 3612 projects have been announced in the year 2010. The total projects inServices sector account for more than 50% of the projects announced. The second highestemployment is seen in this sector with 73, 06, 096 persons being employed in Service sector21
  • 22. projects. Power projects consist of activities in the area of thermal power projects,transmission lines, hydro electric, gas based, coal based, and renewable power projects.Announcements in the year 2010 were as high as 1050. Construction projects includedtownships, residential, industrial parks, SEZs construction, processing and logistics;commercial, etc. Very few projects in construction were in the ‘stalled’ category. Theemployment generated in this sector is the highest with almost 76, 95,272 persons employed.The majority of the projects by value were in the range of less than Rupees 1000 crores,numbering 9454, followed by project value in the range of Rs. 1001- 2000 crores. ReferExhibit Nos. 2 a and 2 b, in which the number of projects and their sector wise value (at cost)are shown in the select sectors of Construction, Power, Manufacturing, Mining and Services.The figures provide an idea of the enormous importance of these sectors to the nationaleconomy.The data in both the Exhibits 2a and 2b suggests that over one hundred trillion rupeesremains invested in 11,187 of the 16145 projects for the year 2010, mentioned in the CMIECapex Database. Though the data is only indicative in nature, it is presented with a view todraw attention to the significance of this sector and its sensitivity to the investment andeconomic growth of the country. Any delays, due to time or cost would only result in directlosses to the national exchequer as well as retard planned economic growth.Exhibit 2 ANumber Of Projects Sector-Wise By CostYear 2010, ( Crore)Project Cost inCroresConstruction Power Manufacturing Mining Services TotalLess than 1000 713 805 2363 291 5282 94541001 to 2000 74 91 133 27 272 5972001 to 3000 28 97 60 9 87 2813001 to 4000 14 84 27 8 39 1724001 to 5000 8 84 16 5 38 151above 5001 45 251 125 15 96 532NA* 992 523 1059 237 2147 4958Total 1874 1935 3783 592 7961 16145G.T. 16, 145CMIE Capex Database, 2010*Data for 4958 projects appeared as ‘Not Available’22
  • 23. 1.5 Initiatives Of Indian Government And Industry, In The Promotion Of PMEducationA series of initiatives to promote PM education have been undertaken by the government aswell as industry, in the form of individual company led initiatives, and/or industryassociations such as Project Management Institute®, (PMI®), International ProjectManagement Association®(IPMA®) and the Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerceand Industry (FICCI). All the entities mentioned are actively involved with key governmentdepartments such as the Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Governmentof India (MOSPI, GoI), the Planning Commission of India, etc. to expedite the efforts intraining and education of PM practices. Recent initiatives by the government include theexpressed need by MOSPI to organise certification level programmes for persons working atlower and middle levels within the project industry, as well as full time advanced projectmanagement courses in leading institutions. The Planning Commission has made projecttargets ‘monitorable’ to various ministries and departments of the government, which arelinked to the performance and future fund disbursements to the latter. Chapter 2, covers thisis greater detail.In order to accurately gauge the current and future efforts made by stakeholders in theprojects industry, a need was felt to support the secondary data sources with primary studiescovering academic institutions, industry and the recipients of PM education. In this chapter,the government’s desire and seriousness to play an active role in ensuring the contribution ofthe project sector in expediting national development goals was sought to be described. The23Exhibit 2 bSector – wise Project by Value (at cost)Year 2010,Rs ‘000 crsCategory Construction Power Manufacturing Mining Services Total< Rs.1000crs1,91,915 1,63,251 3,93,963 61,643 7,53,092 15,63,863Rs.1001 toRs. 2000 crs1,19,111 1,33,556 2,03,261 38,907 4,03,785 8,98,620Rs.2001 toRs3000 crs71,163 2,65,437.30 1,52,872 22,514 2,20,427 7,32,413Rs.3001 toRs. 4000 crs50,916 2,74,151.74 98,531 27,611 1,38,370 5,89,581Rs.4001 toRs.5000 crs38,100 3,88,757.60 73,399 21,708 1,78,508 7,00,472> Rs. 5001crs6,93,172 26,26,671 18,47,308 1,93,014 12,28,236 65,88,402Total 11,64,378 38,51,825 27,69,334 3,65,397 29,22,418 1,10,73,351GrandTotal2,21,46,703
  • 24. next chapter takes a closer view of the efforts made by Indian stakeholders and similarinitiatives in other countries as well.CHAPTER 2LITERATURE REVIEW OF PROJECT MANAGEMENT EDUCATIONON A GLOBAL SCALE2.1 IntroductionAn indicator of the maturity of any profession is the availability of quality academicprogrammes that provide the advantages of research backed teaching and learning. Thegreater the research, the better the replication and standardisation of the process of learningso that Knowledge, Skills and Attitude – the trinity of any learning are easily transferred tothe student in a systematic manner. This helps the recipient of training to perform and delivermuch faster on the job.With the rapid growth of ‘projectised’ and project led companies, organizations are found tobe replacing their traditional management structures, like the corporate divisional ordepartmental structures with those that are leaner and more objective oriented (Bergrenn and24
  • 25. Soderlund, 2008). Earlier works based on a survey, documented the widespread growth ofproject management and its rising interest amongst the top managements of companies(Soderlund, 2004). From being a mere ‘add-on’ to a system engineer’s or civil engineer’srole, project management has grown as a deliberate choice of career, in many countries. Thisis reflected in the growth of the leading professional association of project management –Project Management Institute (PMI®), USA which had less than 15,000 members in 1993 haswell over 500,000 members in 2010 (AMA Handbook 2005, PMI, 2010). The AMA quotesthat this membership is growing at the rate of approximately 5000 per month indicating the‘mainstreaming’ of the project manager’s role in the industry. In formal bidding processesrelated to contractual services, client organizations call for certified project professionals,thus reaffirming project management’s growing importance as a discipline.Globally, apart from academic institutions, four major bodies are engaged in the provision ofstandardised instruction in project management namely PMI®in North America and othercountries, the Project Management Association in England (PMA), with over 9000 certifiedproject managers), the International Project Management Association (IPMA) representingover 24 countries in Europe and over 5000 certified project managers and lastly theAustralian Institute of Project Management with over 1000 certified project managers (AMAHandbook, 2005). In 2010, according to the PMI®, there were over 500,000 qualified ProjectManagement Professionals®(PMPs®), (PMI, 2010) worldwide. In 2004, a large scale surveyof around 1000 Registered Education Providers (REPs) of PMI®worldwide revealed that in2004 alone, over 500,000 individuals participated in some form of PM training or educationoffered by the REPs and other educational institutions. The same report asserted that this wasslated to increase in the coming years.The Figure 1 below depicts the share of Registered Education Providers of PMI®worldwidein the year 2005. As is seen, the Asia/Pacific region accounts for the second highest share ofRegistered Education Providers of PMI®next only to North America,. Also seen is the hugegap in the proportion of REPs®between the two regions.Figure 1: Worldwide R.E.P. Distribution (2005)25
  • 26. Source: Price et al, 2006However there has been huge growth in degree programmes being offered in this area, from amere 10 in 1994 to over 185 in 2006 in the USA and Europe. Most of these programmes aretailored to suit the IT industry (73.1%) as compared to sectors like Financial, BusinessManagement, Construction, etc (Michael Price et al, 2004). There are over 65 degreeprogrammes in more than 25 academic institutions currently accredited by the GlobalAccreditation Centre for Project Management Programmes of the PMI®in North America.Several other programmes are at various stages of the accreditation process (PMI®, 2010).In contrast in India, one finds a huge demand for training in PM primarily for InformationTechnology as well as in Construction Industry. However the number of listed REP®s inIndia is merely 70 in all2. In China, PM education is more widespread in sectors likeconstruction, oil and gas, power and so on. The financial services sector in both countries isyet to fully utilise the importance of PM training. The status of PM education and skillbuilding in these countries is further discussed later in this section.The growth of PM education and training in Asia and Pacific regions suggests that it isspreading in newer geographies; it has also been spreading into newer areas of application. Infact PMI®’s own publication titled Project Management Circa 2025, looks at newerapplications of PM in such emerging and diversified fields like nanotechnology and futureenergy, new frontiers like earth sciences, monitoring of planet, extreme weather response andclimate control. It also gives an insight into the emerging countries where PM will take rootssuch as in India, Spain, China, Asia Pacific and Arabian regions3.2.2 PM Education In America And Europe2(https://ccrs.pmi.org/Search.aspx)3(www.pmi.org/PM2025)26
  • 27. Scientific PM education has its earliest origins in the well known discipline of OperationsManagement. Therefore one can say that the bases of early development can be found in theworks of Frederick Taylor and Henry Gantt, (1915 - 40). Since the 1950s, the advances inPM as an organised discipline within management took root in these regions. PM as adiscipline has grown from these roots and is now well entrenched in the business andresearch realms worldwide. The extent and depth of PM education is witnessed more in thesecontinents than in other parts of the world. In these regions, PM education has attained suchrecognition, as to be made mandatory, and a prerequisite in the procurement and managementof large scale and complex projects either within the country or internationally. Most of theliterature records the systematic development of this discipline as experienced in theseadvanced regions.In case of developing countries and emerging economies, especially in India and China, useof formal PM techniques to acquire and execute projects in an organised manner, appears tohave taken roots only over the last one and a half decade. A survey of the relevant literaturein international journals focussing on PM reveals relatively less work emanating fromcountries like India and efforts to initiate PM programmes in academics and research.2.3 PM In Academia – A Global SnapshotThe introduction of project management courses in the universities and business schools inNorth America, Europe and leading Asian countries is on the rise. In 1993, it is documentedthat there were only 5 universities that offered degree programmes in Project Management inNorth America. Ten years later, there were 33 such programmes in USA and Canada alone.In their research, Professors Thomas Mengel, Janice Thomas (2008), Bill Zwerman (2004),Kent Crawford (2006), Dinsmore and Cabanis – Brewin (2006) have tried to find answers tothe question of systematizing the study of project management to offer it as a preferred careeroption. The ultimate aim of the Project Management Programmes is to induce three majorcompetencies in the student – project management skills, leadership and technical skills.According to Turner and Huemann (2001), a study of mature project management societies,such as UK, Australia, New Zealand and Ireland, revealed that around 10% of the universitiesoffered Masters’ degrees in Project Management. PM education began ‘top down’ in case ofUnited Kingdom, through existing Masters’ degree or Doctoral programmes in concerneddisciplines. For instance, it is observed that in the United Kingdom, the Master’s Programme27
  • 28. in Science or Business Administration exists with PM as a speciality. It also exists as aspecialist degree like in Construction Project Management. Also it was observed that in thecase of degree courses in Information Technology, no course by the name ‘InformationSystems Project Management’ existed, even though PM subjects are covered within coursessuch as Information Systems Management. Later educational programmes emerged focusingon Project Management. Further, these ‘percolated’ down from higher level education intothe secondary and even the primary level education.2.3.1 PM In Other European CountriesIn case of other countries in Europe, Turner and Huemann (2001) observe that in Austria,Switzerland and Germany, different ways are being adopted to reach a common goal ofmaking all these into ‘project oriented societies’. In Austria, PM education began first withtaught masters’ degrees, either as programmes specialising in project management, or withproject management as an essential component of wider programmes. From there, it spreadupwards and downwards to other levels. Austria has also embarked upon a project topopularise the use of PM in industries and then take it to the municipalities, students andfamilies under the ‘Programme 1 Austria’ to raise awareness of project management as aprofession. Austria and Germany also offer doctoral level programmes in PM. Certificatesand Diplomas are offered by professional or other bodies. Vocational qualifications such as inthe UK are not available in these countries. Switzerland has set a goal of becoming a qualitycompetence centre in PM.2.4 Indian PM GrowthIn India, there does not appear to be any clear evidence of studies covering the growth of PMeducation and research, in the public domain. Unlike its European and Americancounterparts, there appears to be less focussed attention in this area of study as compared toOperations Management wherein Indian academic programmes and research are in anadvanced state. This study attempts to find out the current state of this emerging field inIndia.The scope is limited to the technical and management education institutions. Given below isthe state wise table, listing the number of approved institutions offering businessengineering/administration/management courses in India. The list is that of the All India28
  • 29. Council of Technical Education (AICTE) which is an apex government body formed toregulate technical, professional and management education providers. A total of 3904 AICTEapproved institutions offer afore mentioned degrees in India. Apart from this, there are manyCentral, State and ‘Deemed to be Universities’ as well as autonomous ones that offer degrees,diplomas and certificates in management and technical education. (Refer Table No. 3). TableNo. 4 describes the Number of Proposals received for the establishment of New TechnicalInstitutes for the Academic year 2009-2010, upto 31.12.200The data in Tables 3 & 4, point towards a rapid growth of technical and business schools inIndia. With the increase in such institutions, PM education could be suitably emphasized tosecure a better share of coverage with a rapid rate of growth. Almost all technical schoolsinclude within their syllabi, a subject matter that covers PERT/CPM techniques under avariety of nomenclatures. In case of business schools, these techniques are included under thetypical heading of Operations Management as a compulsory base course, and also as aspecialisation in the second year under the same head with more advanced exposure to thesubject. One finds very few instances in the country wherein a course with the title “ProjectManagement” is included or is taught in full time programmes of technical/businessinstitutions. A general search on the Google search engine titled ‘project management coursesin India’ showed up 12,057 results only for India4. A more detailed description obtained fromthe website of important and specific cases covering institutes such as IIMs, NITIE andSIOM is covered in the section below.Table 3 : Statewise List Of Institutions Offering Management DegreesAs On 31/08/2008Sr. No. States/UTs Engg & Tech. MBA PGDM1 Madhya Pradesh 161 56 72 Chhatisgarh 41 7 23 Gujarat 55 51 114 Mizoram 1 0 05 Sikkim 1 1 06 Orissa 68 29 157 West Bengal 71 27 28 Tripura 3 0 09 Meghalaya 1 0 010 Arunachal Pradesh 1 0 011 Andaman & Nicobar 0 0 012 Assam 7 5 113 Manipur 1 1 04(www.emagister.in, Site accessed on Aug, 2010)29
  • 30. 14 Nagaland 1 0 015 Jharkhand 13 4 316 Bihar 15 11 117 Uttar Pradesh 241 125 8818 Uttaranchal 19 23 219 Chandigarh 5 0 120 Haryana 116 56 1021 Jammu & Kashmir 7 9 022 New Delhi 19 13 2423 Punjab 70 55 424 Rajasthan 81 49 1525 Himachal Pradesh 9 8 026 Andhra Pradesh 527 231 2427 Pondicherry 9 1 028 Tamil Nadu 352 154 429 Karnataka 157 109 1530 Kerala 94 37 731 Maharashtra 239 168 4832 Goa 3 1 133 Daman & Diu, Dadar,NH0 0 0Total 2388 1231 285Gr. Tot 3904Source: www.aicte.ernet.in/ApprovedInstitute.htmTable 4 : Number Of Proposals Received By AICTE To Establish New InstitutionsRegion State Engg. PGDM MBACentral Madhya Pradesh 50 16 63Chhattisgarh 10 2 7Gujarat 43 8 67East Orissa 53 10 24Assam 9 0 5Meghalaya 0 0 0Manipur 0 0 0Mizoram 0 0 0West Bengal 23 3 7Nagaland 0 0 0Jharkhand 2 3 1Sikkim 1 0 0Arunachal Pradesh 0 0 0Tripura 1 0 0Andaman &Nicobar1 0 0North Uttar Pradesh 83 84 130Uttranchal 13 3 14Bihar 12 2 3Chandigarh Chandigarh 0 0 1Delhi 1 3 2Haryana 38 11 36Himachal Pradesh 11 0 6J&K 0 0 0Punjab 16 1 30Rajasthan 49 12 6530
  • 31. South Tamil Nadu 144 3 38Pondicherry 4 0 0Andhra Pradesh 176 31 178South West Karnataka 32 18 26Kerala 29 1 8West Maharashtra 85 37 123Goa 0 2 0Daman & Diu 0 0 0Total 886 250 834Grand Total 1970Source: www.aicte.ernet.in/ApprovedInstitute.htm2.4.1 Specific Cases in Indiaa) Indian Institutes of Management, MBA Institutions, Engineering CollegesPractically all the IIMs offer some elective courses either directly named “ProjectManagement” or some other titles dedicated to the coverage of important themes in projectmanagement. In general management oriented, Master’s in Business Administration (MBA)programmes, PM related subjects are included in almost all curricula of managementinstitutions, but do not always appear specifically in the form of full length courses. Usuallythe Operations Management courses, cover selective subject matter from the PM domain.Only specialist courses cover a wider gamut of PM subject content and emphasis, but theseare not commonly found in MBA programmes. Similarly almost all the courses covered intechnical colleges, especially those covering construction, engineering and informationtechnology include project management, within their ambit at introductory level, usually inthe form of a module.b) National Institute Of Construction Management And ResearchThe National Institute of Construction Management and Research (NICMAR), offers the PostGraduate Programmes in Advanced Construction Management and Real Estate and UrbanInfrastructure that have a host of dedicated subjects covering the PM domain; yet the term‘Project’ does not always appear distinctly in the nomenclature of the said programmes.However, the institute’s Post Graduate Programme in Project Engineering and Management,has clear descriptions of subjects in project domain as defined in the Project ManagementBody of Knowledge®(PMBOK®)5. This two year full time programme is arguably India’sonly course of its type, and combines subject matter from all the major domain areas i.e.5The PMBOK® includes 5 Process Groups and 12 Knowledge Areas that are covered in the domain of PM, PMI, 4thEdition 2008.31
  • 32. General Management, Project Management, Behavioural Sciences, Engineering andTechnology and Information Technology.c) Symbiosis Institute of Operations ManagementIn case of Symbiosis Institute of Operations Management (SIOM), a specialist degree, theMasters in Business Administration in Operations Management (MBA OperationsManagement) is offered, which covers subjects such as Operations, Projects and ResourcePlanning6.d) National Institute of Technology and Industrial EngineeringThe National Institute of Technology and Industrial Engineering (NITIE), Mumbai, runs thePost Graduate Diploma in Industrial Engineering (PGDIE), Post Graduate Diploma inIndustrial Safety and Environmental Management (PGDISEM), Post Graduate Diploma inInformation Technology Management (PGDITM), and Post Graduate Diploma in IndustrialManagement (PGDIM)7. The PGDIE has such subjects that are of core importance toindustrial operations such as Operations Planning and Control, Project Management, WorkSystem Design, Operations Research, Systems Engineering, etc., in addition to other subjects.In India, as is observed in the United Kingdom, most of the post graduate managementcourses covering the PM domain are seen sans the ‘Project’ term included in the title of thecourse, though the curriculum adequately reflects to varying degrees the subject matterrelated to the same.The exception however, is noticed in the Post Graduate Programme in Project Engineeringand Management offered by NICMAR, wherein the entire ‘Project’ term is explicitly includedin the title of the programme, and provides the most comprehensive coverage of all therelevant knowledge domains.2.5 PM in ResearchProject Management (PM) has evolved since the sixties as an area of interest for researchersand academicians alike. Up until then, PM existed more in the realm of practice than as apursuit of systematic study and research. The early evolution of the discipline could beattributed to the works of Frederick Taylor and Henry Gantt (1900s – 1920s) which6(www.siom.in/mba_operations.aspx Site accessed as on August 2010)7(http://www.nitie.edu Site accessed as on August 2010)32
  • 33. emphasised the organisation of work in such a way that would be amenable for scientificanalysis, measurement and improvement as well as its systematic planning and scheduling.In the decades following World War II, massive reconstruction work had to be undertaken inthe hugely affected areas of Europe and Japan. Simultaneously the newly independentcountries especially in Asia, began the path of economic development. In this, businesses andorganizations saw great opportunity to undertake projects which were complex, unique andvery large in scope. The growing use of energy, fed by growing economies everywhere, wason the rise, fuelling strong demand for petroleum products, natural gas, and electric power.The need for production, processing, and transportation facilities increased dramatically. Newprojects began getting bigger and more venturesome. This was also the time for nations toprove their prowess over others by launching space flights, submarines, constructing high risebuildings, building dams and laying high altitude rail lines and roads. Obviously the mainstayof all such ventures was the proper deployment of technology, manpower and resources in away that the financial resources committed by the governments could derive optimumleverage in the face of given constraints. ‘Managing by Projects’ became a term that gainedprominence at this time. With the protracted success of PM as a useful discipline inimplementing projects, there was interest amongst researchers to study projects and theprocesses adopted that made some projects successful while others failed to add to the returnon investment (Thomas and Mullaly, 2008). From the early decades of the twentieth century,the private sector had begun the widespread use of sophisticated means of deployment ofresources to obtain high levels of productivity in their markets. Thus PM emerged and wasdeveloped as a sub discipline of industrial engineering and operations management(Crawford et al, 2006).In the 1960s, the formation of Project Management Institute®(PMI®), in USA, InternationalProject Management Association (IPMA) in Europe and Australian Institute of ProjectManagement (established in 1976), gave further impetus to the study and practice of PM.These associations collaborated with research scholars and launched publications dedicated tothe theory and practice of PM. It was in the 1960s that researchers commenced a systematicstudy of how projects are conceived and managed and an attempt began to be made toorganise the practice as a discipline. Empirical studies commenced either as research pursuitsof doctoral students or commissioned research from these associations. Journals such as the‘International Journal of Project Management’ (IPMA), the ‘Project Management Journal®’33
  • 34. (PMI®), the ‘Project Management Journal’ of Soviet Russian Project ManagementAssociation -SOVNET8, ‘Project Manager’ of Australian Institute of Project Management,are some examples of the rapid growth and dissemination of PM related literature. The fastdeveloping Asian countries have to ‘catch up’ in this area.Research in the area of PM has continued to evolve steadily over the past 30 decades. A studywas commissioned by the UK government in 2003, (UK’s Engineering and Physical SciencesResearch Council (EPSRC)) on “Rethinking Project Management”. It was a bid to extract PMresearch from mere theoretical paradigms and relate it to empirical practice. Thus the studysought to define a research agenda aimed at enriching and extending the subject of projectmanagement beyond its current conceptual foundations (Crawford et al, 2006). Theobjectives of this study were the following :1) To research Theory about practice of PM. This meant the effort towards thedevelopment of new models and theories which recognise and illuminate thecomplexity of the project and PM at all levels.2) To develop Theory for practice which meant understanding projects as a socialprocess, creation of value as the prime focus of its existence and a broaderconceptualisation of projects to include multi disciplinary approach, existing formultiple purposes instead of very narrow definitions of scope and purpose.3) To develop Theory in practice which meant the creation of training for PM in such away as not to restrict the practitioners to merely following detailed procedures andtechniques, as prescribed by PM methods and tools but to create ‘reflectivepractitioners’.Anbari and Young (2009) mention the work of Kloppenberg and Opfer whose researchidentified project management research published in articles, papers, dissertations, andgovernment research reports since 1960. They found that the emphasis has moved fromdevelopment and use of automated project management software and tools to riskmanagement, earned value management and then to human resource aspects. They alsodetermined that research focus moved from large government defence projects to commercialapplications in construction, information systems, and new product development. Theyconcluded that project management has extensive current opportunities and a bright future. In8(www.pmforum.org/library/journals.htm Site accessed as on August 2010)34
  • 35. the same paper, Anbari and Young (2009) mention Bredillet’s conclusions that PM isbecoming increasingly linked with the implementation of organizational strategy.2.5.1 PM Research In IndiaThe quantum of research generated in India in relation to PM in its present state remainsminiscule. A study of the publications appearing in one of the most acclaimed journalshowcasing PM dedicated studies and literature i.e. the International Journal of ProjectManagement (IJPM®) was carried out. A search was run of the articles contained in thisjournal to develop an idea about the number of articles that included India-centric studies inthe period ranging from 1988 – 2010. The Graph 1 shows that the search yielded a total ofonly 101 results, in which India features either in the main title of the article or at times in itscontents too. (IJPM®, 1988-2010).Graph 1: Articles In IJPM Containing India – Centric ContentAn advanced search was done to arrive at the ‘affiliations’ data i.e. how many of theseresearch papers originated from India. The search has revealed that only 26 papers in thesame period (1988-2010) have been published by academics and occasionally by industrypractitioners in the journal from India.2.6 PM In IndustryA study conducted by the Centre for Business Practices of 53 practitioners at Toronto,Canada, revealed that in 62 - 91% of organizations, project management training resulted inmoderate to extreme improvement in employee knowledge and skills, on the jobperformance, and on schedule performance (Michael Price et al, 2004). Though the number istoo small to be an indicator of the larger universe, other statistics help to prove the point.35
  • 36. The growth of PM training could be attributed to the formation of the PM associations thattook great initiative to replicate the formal learning and training of practitioners to enhance aswell as standardise project performance while ensuring favourable project outcomes(Soderlund, 2004). Through the formation of the Bodies of Knowledge along with theirassociated certification programmes, these associations have tried to propagate PM educationaround the world.However in the same paper, Soderland argues that the field of project management has anarrow focus and that though a number of teaching programmes have been developed,commensurate research in these areas is found wanting. Shenhar and Dvir (1996) continuedin the same vein maintaining that PM suffers due to a limited theoretical basis and lack ofconcepts. The duo has been credited with the ‘Diamond Framework’ for strategic projectmanagement. Other researchers have raised concerns regarding the level and quality ofresearch that has been produced in the area of PM. Bibliometric analyses of the type ofresearch articles and papers published in leading PM journals such as International Journal ofProject Management (IJPM), Project Management Journal (PMI®) and a host of conferencepresentations etc, lament the depth and variety of research in this area. A study by Crawfordet al (2006) revealed the trends in PM research and the emphasis of articles in the period1993-2003 and found that these are changing. According to her, project management isregularly facing new challenges as a field of study, as the tools, methods and approaches tomanagement that comprise the discipline are applied to different areas, for different ends, andin different cultures.Another decade wise bibliometric analysis following the one by Crawford (2006) by Turnerin 2010, revealed that in 1987, the most popular topics of research were engineering andconstruction, computer support, time, execution and control. Operation and maintenancefollowed next in importance. Topics such as life cycle cost, operation and maintenance werenot covered in the next two decades till 1997 or 2007. Interest in Construction Sector grew,with the number of papers covering the subject going up to 36% of the article contribution.The next most popular subjects in 1997 were in the area of computer support, timemanagement and risk management. Risk Management continued in importance in 2007, buta growing interest in partnerships and alliances; interest in human resource management anddeveloping individual competence gained ground by 2007. The interest in ProgramManagement appeared in 1997 and Portfolio Management in 2007. The study helps to36
  • 37. understand that the scope of PM study and research interests has become more diverse andnow encompass many more areas that cover the field of enterprise management as a whole.2.6.1 Training And Development Expenditure In Indian Projects Industry – A Bird’sEye ViewThe American Society for Training has estimated training spend to be in the range of 2-2.5per cent of company turnover on employee skill development programmes (Rao, 2009).Some companies are known to spend up to five per cent of their turnover on training. In theprevious chapter, there was an attempt to arrive at the magnitude of project industry bypresenting a cross sectional data on the employment figures and amount of capital invested inthis industry in the year 2010 alone. It is necessary to understand the industry’s efforts incapacity building and development of human resources. Once again, CMIE Database –Annual Reports 2005-08 data was used to estimate the training and development budgets ofproject companies.In order to find out the current state of affairs regarding the allocation of funds by companiesto Training and Development (T&D) of its personnel, a full search of the annual reports ofproject based companies, i.e. construction, manufacturing, power generation, mining,petrochemicals, railways etc. was made. The objective was to obtain the budgetaryallocations made by project based companies in PM related training. An advanced search wasconducted to find out whether the companies had budgets earmarked for ‘training anddevelopment’ or ‘staff training’ expenses so as to draw some meaningful conclusions aboutthe size of training budgets of project based companies in India. From among the 16, 145companies, the search showed up only a total of 1761 companies who had a category named‘staff training’ in their annual financial statements. In the period between 2005- 2008, thoughthere was a minor increase in the number of companies who had some allocation under the‘Staff Training’ or ‘Training and Development’ (T & D) category, the overall record appearstoo minor to mention. In 2008, only around 59.42 crores were spent by 42 CMIE listedproject companies on T&D, a moderate improvement over the 2005 spend of 31.59 croresby 22 CMIE listed companies (Refer Annexure 2, a, b, c and d).This data is insufficient to arrive at any meaningful conclusion regarding the training budgetsof project based companies related to PM training. However the data helps to explain some ofthe difficulties in capturing T&D figures of project companies. A closer look at the abovetables reveals the anomalies wherein the typical industry leaders known for their training37
  • 38. impetus like HCC Ltd., GMR, Simplex Ltd., Reliance Industries, Gammon, L&T, GVK, JPGroup, and so on, are consistently missing from the list. These companies have full fledgedtraining departments and are known to conduct training at almost all levels of project activity.To understand the reason behind the inadequate data, the issue was followed up with a fewhuman resources /training managers of these companies, and an industry association expertusing the personal discussion method (reference, pp 139). Most HR managers of projectcompanies corroborated the point that T & D expenses of project based companies are notreflected in annual reports but are added primarily in the following ways :1) Added to the general ‘staff welfare’ expenses and not listed separately under cleartraining and development head in the annual reports. Thus it is difficult to isolate theexact and actual budgets that are dedicated by project based companies to this activity(FICCI, HCC)2) Added to the overall project expenditure and billed within the ambit of Project relatedexpenses (Gammon, Simplex)3) Billed separately in case of in house training, as most of the resource persons used arefrom within the organisation (Gammon, Simplex, HCC)In software project companies also, the picture is similar. The most training intensivesoftware companies like Infosys and Wipro Technologies do not have ‘T&D’ or ‘StaffTraining’ as heads of expenses in their financial statements (Refer Box No.1).38
  • 39. It is a well known fact that Training and Development investment contributes to an improvedquality of human resource which in turn contributes to customer satisfaction and improvedfinancial performance. Senior management’s role in providing sufficient resources includingtraining, leads to a high degree of customer satisfaction (Feuss et al, 2004).Despite the fact that the literature related to the use of PM by the heavy engineering industryin India is very sparse, some literature is available for the Information Technology sector.This again is not surprising, as it is strongly linked to international client requirements and isbased almost entirely upon acquisition and execution of software projects. However, as foundin the former case, no dedicated training budgets appear in the financial statements of thecompanies. Barring a few exceptions, it can be concluded that there is a lack of clear statisticsin the public domain with respect to the training and development of PM competencies of thepublic and private sector. Thus the need for a primary survey of HR managers was consideredessential.2.7 India and China: Comparison of PM EducationIndia and China are considered important as the economic development plans in these twocountries require the launch and successful completion of mega, major and a host of medium39Box No.1 INFOSYS TECHNOLOGIES LTD.A case in point is that of INFOSYS Ltd., the largest software development transnationalorganisation in the country. A section in the annual report, containing ‘Human ResourcesValuation’ attempts to list out the value addition made by the company’s human resource,in the form of a ratio (Annual Report, 2009).The human resource value addition ratio was pegged at 0.19 in 2009, an increase from theearlier year (2008) of 0.15 as value addition to the company. Also the return on humanvalue as a percentage of the cost of human resources (welfare/salaries/wages etc.) grewfrom 4.7% to 5.9%. A study of Infosys annual reports from 2005-09, reveals there is noseparate category or head under which training is listed.However the company is known as the most training intensive company in the industry.The company boasts of the best corporate training infrastructure in the country, with acapacity to train 13,500 software project personnel simultaneously, under one roof atBangalore, apart from huge exclusive training facilities in every campus of the company.Source: Infosys Annual Reports 2005-09
  • 40. sized projects to cover the historical gap in Infrastructure. In case of India, the growth of PMeducation in the form of certifications is clearly rising, as very often project terms andconditions mandate certified professionals. According to PMI®, which is the most active andvigorous organisation in this arena, in the year 2006, there were around 6000 PMPs®in India .In the year 2010, this number has grown to 20,000 PMPs®in management and technicalfields (Source: PMI®, India Office).In the case of China, the effort to introduce PM was very systematic and ‘top-down’. It beganwith the World Bank giving a grant for training followed by the PMI®stepping in, in theearly 1990s. Other entities like IPMA®etc. followed suit. One such monumental instance ofthis initiative was that of the Ministry of Construction (MOC). One hundred and fortyeducational institutions or training centres had been accredited by MOC as projectmanagement training providers up to the end of 1995. During the same period, 321,983project managers took the training courses and 297,774 of them were certified by the MOC.By 2004, 500,000 project managers in total, were certified by the MOC. Other ministries inChina such as Nuclear, Defence, and Oil & Gas etc too have made mandatory, the PMcertification even to apply for a job with them (Lu et al, 2004).Another initiative was undertaken in 1998 by the State Administration of Foreign ExpertsAffairs along with the Project Management Institute®. The first REP®was established in1999, the BMMTEC International Education Group became the first subsidiary in Chinacertified by PMI providing Project Management Professionals®(PMP®) certification trainingand examination services as well as other training and education on project management. Bythe year 2004, there were 46 REPs in China, and about 70,000 people had participated inPMP®training, 4000 persons had been certified as PMPs®by the REPs®.PMI®has had a longer and stronger presence in China in promoting its project managementstandards and certifications with regional offices in both Beijing and Hong Kong. PMI®hadsigned a cooperative accord with the China National Steering Committee of ProfessionalEducation of Master of Engineering (SCME) on 7 March, 2008. The SCME oversees anational consortium of 103 higher education institutions that have been authorised by theChinese government to offer Master of Engineering degree programmes in projectmanagement. Due to the huge projects that China has launched in the construction,information technology, manufacturing and aeronautics industries, the government hascommitted significant resources to this effort. According to SCME, more than 14,00040
  • 41. students are enrolled in dedicated engineering master’s degree programmes in projectmanagement in China (Pells, 2009).In this Chapter, it is seen that the growth of PM towards being recognised as a discipline hasbeen systematically driven through the efforts of the government, academic institutions andassociations in the developed nations like UK, USA, Germany, Australia and Canada. Inother nations such as Russia and China, a lot of structured emphasis has been given topopularise PM education. In India, modest efforts have begun in this direction. The nextchapter discusses the research design, scope and methodology adopted to collect primary datafrom the stakeholder respondents of PM education.CHAPTER 3RESEARCH DESIGN3.1 Basic Approach To The StudyThe study is mostly based on primary data and the basic purpose is to find out the factorsinhibiting the wide spread initiation of Project Management Education in Indian technical andbusiness academic institutions and to suggest ways to broaden its present scope in India. Thestudy is restricted to India, and includes only leading technical/ business educationalinstitutions. It seeks to find the factors that aid, and those that inhibit the acceptance ofproject management education in such academic institutions.It simultaneously includes active executives who at graduation, had not undergone PMeducation but have subsequently done so in the course of their employment. The aim is toobtain their views on the extent of the added benefits of PM training, in fast tracking their41
  • 42. career growth. Lastly, we have covered a cross section of the select recruiters (HumanResource Managers) in our study sample and obtained their views on the efficacy of PMeducation in enhancing their executives’ ability to manage projects.3.2 Objectives Of The StudyThe main objectives of the research study are as follows:1. To find the awareness and current state of PM education in the country amongst thetechnical and business academic institutions, human resource managers and the recipientsof PM related training among active executives.2. To determine the nature and depth of PM education prevalent in technical andbusiness schools in India.3. To understand the degree of importance assigned to PM subjects for overallcompetency development and employability in PM.4. To investigate the subjects considered important by executives as essential to thepractice of PM.5. To determine the personal and professional gains obtained from undergoing formallytaught courses in PM by practicing executives.6. To find out factors considered most important in inhibiting the growth of PMeducation in India.7. To determine the extent of existing institutional support for the growth of PMteaching and research.8. To investigate the nature of training imparted to employees in PM competencies byhuman resource departments of project based companies.9. To find out which factors are the most important to companies for allocating time andbudgets for PM related training.10. To identify the type of training that is most preferred by the PM based companies.3.3 Scope Of The StudyThe study covers the whole of India except the North –East in case of academic institutions.Working executives are also from different parts of India across project based companies. Humanresource managers were drawn from construction, heavy engineering, IT and services sectors.3.4 Hypotheses42
  • 43. We formulate the following hypotheses:1) H0 = Overall the current status of PM education in India is poor.H1 = Overall the current status of PM education in India is not poor.2) H0 = The necessity of PM education in engineering/technical schools in India is veryhigh.H1 = The necessity of PM education in engineering/technical schools in India is notvery high.3) H0 = The necessity of PM education in management schools in India is very high.H1 = The necessity of PM education in management schools in India is not very high.4) H0 = The necessity of PM education in architecture/planning schools in India is veryhigh.H1 = The necessity of PM education in architecture/planning schools in India is notvery high..5) H0 = There exist regional differences in the establishment of PM education in India.H1 = There exist no regional differences in the establishment of PM education inIndia.6) H0 =There exist faculty wise differences in the establishment of PM education inIndia.H1 = There exist no faculty wise differences in the establishment of PM education inIndia.7) H0 =There exists a difference in the establishment of PM education in India at theunder graduate and post graduate levels.H1 = There exists no difference in the establishment of PM education in India at theunder graduate and post graduate levels.43
  • 44. 8) H0 = There exists a difference in the understanding of the strategic role of projects inthe overall business context, after undergoing PM related training.H1= There exists no difference in the understanding of the strategic role of projects inthe overall business context, after undergoing PM related training.9) H0 = There exists a difference in the overall understanding of the project context.H1 = There exists no difference in the overall understanding of the project context.10) H0 = There exists a difference in the level of remuneration, enhancement of workrelated responsibilities, and conflict resolution ability of individuals.H1 = There exists no difference in the level of remuneration, enhancement of workrelated responsibilities, and conflict resolution ability of individuals.11) H0 = Training in Project Management helps to build the employee’s competencies.H1 = Training in Project Management does not help to build the employee’scompetencies.12) H0 = PM training results in greater accrual of benefits as against costs incurred on thetraining.H1 = PM training results in lesser accrual of benefits as against costs incurred on thetraining.13) H0 =PM training offered by certified trainers is more efficacious than that of others.H1 = There is no difference in the efficacy of PM training offered by certified trainersand others.3.5 MethodologyThe research covers a comprehensive search of secondary literature available in the publicdomain to determine the efforts of all stakeholders in promoting PM education. This isfollowed by a primary research of academic institutions, HR managers and active executives44
  • 45. of PM based companies. The analysis is based on statistical tools and techniques. We haverelied more on primary data, a widely accepted technique of analysis for the purpose of thestudy. The study is based on cross sectional data and therefore has made use of the multipleregression analysis technique to arrive at conclusions. The main purpose of this technique insome cases, is to find out the factors necessary to promote the wide spread initiation ofProject Management (PM) Education in technical and business schools in India. Cases of sixinstitutions where PM is being taught are described separately in Chapter 4, Section Acovering Academic Institutions’ Analysis, (Refer Chp. 4). A case of an executive who hasundergone PM training while in active service is included in Chapter 5.The study is divided into three sections. In section One, we analyze and discuss the state ofPM education in academic institutions offering technical and management education. Insections Two and Three, the findings from the segments of practicing executives and humanresource managers respectively, have been discussed. The period in which the survey andprimary research work was carried out was March – May, 2010.3.6 Academic Institutionsa) Sources of Data: The study uses primary sources of data obtained from academicinstitutions.b) Data Collection Instrument - Schedules (Questionnaires) : A questionnaire wasprepared as a research instrument and was administered by two means 1) personal in depthinterviews 2) by correspondence (email/courier). A total of 120 questionnaires were printed.The bulk of the survey was conducted through the personal interviews administered to facultyemployed in engineering and management institutions in India.c) Data Collection Method - Direct Interview Method : A total of 81 units of responseswere obtained of which 5 were received by mail/courier. In the southern region, of the 29institutions approached, 19 interview responses were obtained. In the central and easternzones, a total of 25 institutions were approached and 18 responses were received. In thenorthern region, 21 institutions were approached and 16 interview responses were received.In the western region, a total of 25 institutions were approached and the responses receivedwere 21.Questionnaires were also sent via email and 2 questionnaires by courier. Of the 15questionnaires sent by email, responses for 7 were received. Thus a total of 81 responses45
  • 46. were received from a mix of government aided, autonomous and ‘deemed to be university’institutions.d) Sampling Procedure: The key features of the sampling procedure are stated below.d.1) Sampling Area: All India, as per 5 Zones within India (given below)d.2) Sample Size: 81 [Eastern India-05, Western India-21, Northern India-16, Southern-26and Central India-13.]d.3) Sample Unit: Academic Institutionsd.4) Sampling Technique: The survey was conducted based on zone wise proportionatesampling of technical schools in India. In case of management institutions, it was based onproportionate as well as convenience sampling technique. Thus in the sample, western andnorthern regions have a greater representation of the business institutions due to their densityas well as the easy access of the researchers to the same.e) Statistical Tools and Techniques: Pie Charts, Bar Diagrams, Column Diagrams,Correlation & Regression Analysis, Factor Analysis and Multiple Regression Analysis havebeen used.Using the responses in selected areas such as experience of faculty, their perceptions of thestate of PM education in India, the essentiality of teaching PM in technical and managementacademic institutions, their ratings of subjects and levels to be included in the PM curricula,impact on employability, etc. the percentage share of respondents who opted for a particularrating was derived. This was presented in the form of graphs. Thereafter the numericalaverages were calculated to arrive at the overall rating assigned by the respondents.f) Analytical Software: The software used included MS - Excel, SPSS and EVIEWSThe study uses descriptive statistics like pie charts, bar diagrams wherever a simpledescriptive data is being sought. For e.g. in case of the type of academic institutions; years ofservice of faculty respondents, their personal PM related research pursuits, the funding of PMrelated research in their institutions or whether the faculty has published papers in the same,and such type of questions, the data have been presented using the above mentioned methods.In order to find out the extent of interrelationship within the factors, the Correlation Matrix(Multi-Colinearity) was used, like in the case of subjects that are necessary to be included in46
  • 47. PM curricula. Another tool, the multiple regression analysis was used to find out (1) thefactors that are viewed by respondents from institutions as essential for introduction of PMcourses in technical, architectural and business management curricula, (2) the importance ofPM education as rated by the faculty respondents and (3) the resource availability andmanagement support within the institute. The Multiple Regression Model is discussed below.g) Multiple Regression Model: The Multiple Regression Model as described in detail belowhas been used to find out the ratings given by the individual respondents to specific questionsrelated to the subject matter of PM education. In the study, three models have been attempted.Model 1:- Multiple Regression Analysis of PM Education Ratings as DependentVariable and Essentiality of PM education in Engineering, Management, Architecture,Planning and Design, and Infrastructure Management Institutions as ExplanatoryVariable (Independent Variable)Here, the dependent variable is the Overall Rating of PM Education in India (RPME Ins) and itis on a 5-point scale, i.e., 1=Poor, 2=Fair, 3=Good, 4-Very Good and 5=Excellent. Theexplanatory variables are the same scaled ratings of the Essentiality of PM education inEngineering (REng), Management (RMgnt), Architecture (RArch), Planning and Design(RPND), and Infrastructure Management (RInfra) academic institutions.Therefore, the regression equation for this part is follows.RPME(Ins) = r1 REng + r2 RMgnt + r3 RArch + r4 RPND + r5 RInfra + C (I)Where, RPME(MNT) is the rating of PM Education and r1, r2, r3,r4, r5, are the regressioncoefficients of the corresponding ratings of the Essentiality of PM education in Engineering(REng), Management (RMgnt), Architecture (RArch), Planning and Design (RPND), andInfrastructure Management (RInfra) Institutions. C is the Constant Term.Model 2: Multiple Regression Analysis of PM Education Ratings as Dependent Variableand Institute Infrastructure Support as Explanatory Variable (Independent Variable)The dependent variable is the overall Rating of PM Education in India (RPME Infra). Theexplanatory variables are the same scaled ratings of the Institute Infrastructure Support. Theimportant infrastructure is Availability of Library and e-resources (RLib), Course Material(RCM), Classrooms (RCR) and Qualified Faculty (RQF). C is the Constant Term.Therefore, the regression equation for this part is follows.47
  • 48. RPME Infra = r1 RLib +r2 RCM + r3 RCR + r4 RQF (II)Where RPME Infra is the PM Education rating, r1, r2, r3, r4 are the regression of thecorresponding ratings of the Availability of Library and e-resources, Course Material,Classrooms, and Qualified Faculty. C is the Constant Term.Model 3: Multiple Regression Analysis of PM Education Ratings as Dependent Variableand Management Support as Explanatory Variable (Independent Variable)Here, the dependent variable is the Overall Rating of PM Education in India (RPME Mgmt) andit is on 5-point scale, i.e., 1=Poor, 2=Fair, 3=Good, 4-Very Good and 5=Excellent. Theexplanatory variables are the same scaled ratings of the Management Support for introducingCourses in PM in the Institute (RPMCourse) and Effect on Employability of PM (REPM).Therefore, the regression equation for this part is follows.RPME(Mgmt) = r1 RPMCourse + r2 REPM + C (III)Where, RPME (Mgmt) is the rating of PM Education and r1, r2, are the regression coefficients ofthe corresponding ratings of the Management Support for introducing Courses in PM in theInstitute (RPM Course) and Effect on Employability of PM (REPM). C is the Constant Term.3.7 Practising Executives Of Project Based Companiesa) Sources of Data: The study uses primary sources of datab) Data Collection Method - Indirect Method : Questionnaires were handed over to therespondents and they were asked to fill them out at their own convenience. The research teammember then went back to collect the filled out questionnaires.c) Data Collection Instrument: Schedules (Questionnaires) were used for data collection.d) Sampling Procedure: The Judgment Sampling technique was used for the executives whohave undergone the training as they were the best prospects to elicit accurate information.NICMAR is perhaps the only techno – management institute in the country in PM centrictraining with the most extensive PM training programmes being conducted through its Schoolof Executive Education (SOEE).d.1) Sampling Area: the sampling are encompassed all India48
  • 49. d.2) Sample Size: The total sample size is 88. The given sample has been drawn from theexecutives participating in NICMAR’s executive training programmes. In the year 2009-2010, NICMAR has trained a total of 721 executives from 30 different companies. Out of thetotal executives trained by SOEE, a sample of 88 executives was selected. Their distributionis as follows. Northern India – 7, Southern India – 20, Eastern India – 4 and Western Indiafifty – 6 executives. The sample size represented 12.2% of the population of executivestrained by the SOEE.d.3) Sample Unit: The sample unit comprised executives from various large project basedorganizations who have undergone training in Project Management at NICMAR.e) Statistical Tools and Techniques: Pie Charts, Bar Diagrams, Column Diagrams,Correlation & Regression Analysis, Factor Analysis and Multiple Regression Analysis.Using the responses in selected areas such as experience of executives, value of projects,ratings of subjects and levels to be included in the PM curricula, gaining perspectives relatedto project strategy, their perceptions as to why PM education is not taking roots in India, thepercentage share of respondents who opted for a particular rating was derived. This waspresented in the form of graphs. Thereafter the numerical averages were calculated to arriveat the overall rating assigned by the respondents.f) Analytical Software: Software used includes Excel, SPSS and EVIEWSThe study uses pie charts to show the experience of the executives in organization. Bardiagrams are used to show the total size of the projects, major techniques that are used duringthe projects and other similar cases.3.8 Human Resource Managers Of Project Based Companiesa) Sources of Data: The primary sources of data for the study are human resource managersworking in project based companies.b) Data Collection Method: Direct Interview Method is usedc) Data Collection Instrument: Schedules (Questionnaires) are used for data collection.d) Sampling Procedure: Judgment and Convenience sampling technique has been used.Over 32 human resource managers had been approached through personal telephonicappointments for interview. In most of the cases, they asked for a copy of the questionnaire49
  • 50. for prior viewing. A follow up via telephone and email was done. From the northern region,only one respondent, i.e., a human resource manager from DLF Ltd. responded to the survey.From the southern region, 5 managers responded, in case of eastern region, 2 managers, fromthe western region 9, and lastly from the central region, 3 managers’ responses have beentaken into consideration. The researchers felt that a slightly smaller size is adequatelyrepresentative of the whole, as this set of persons is responsible for the planning anddeployment of PM related training, company wide. Moreover the respondents chosen in thissample had considerable experience in the design of such training programmes around theyear. It was felt that as a result of their continuous planning and monitoring of PM relatedtraining programmes, they would be appropriate to offer views on the exact nature of PMtraining as “experts”. Thus the judgment and convenience method of sampling was used forthe purpose.d.1) Sampling Area: the sampling are includes all India.d.2) Sample Size: A total sample of 20 was interviewed from all over India, drawn fromproject based companies.d.3) Sample Unit: The sample unit comprises human resource managers from leading PMcompanies in India.e) Statistical Tools and Techniques: Pie Charts, Bar Diagrams, Column Diagrams.Using the responses in selected areas such as the inception of PM training in companies,factors considered essential before planning PM training programmes, training cost benefits,training efficacy, the percentage share of respondents who opted for a particular rating wasderived. This was presented in the form of graphs. Thereafter the numerical averages werecalculated to arrive at the overall rating assigned by the respondents.f) Analytical Software: The software used includes Excel, SPSS and EVIEWSThe study uses pie charts to show the various types of training imported in the organizationsand various bar diagrams and graphs to highlight the outcome of the training, and expenditureduring the training as given by the respondents. Annexures 1 – 8 give all the details ofquestionnaires designed, institutions, executives and companies responding to the survey,master database generated from the research study, etc.50
  • 51. CHAPTER 4DATA ANALYSIS OF SURVEY OF TECHNICAL AND BUSINESSINSTITUTIONS IN INDIA4.1 Introduction51
  • 52. The Questionnaire was designed for eliciting response from faculty, actively serving intechnical and business institutions on a wide range of issues surrounding PM education in therespondent’s institution as well as in his/her general opinion as an important stakeholder inthis arena. The questionnaire was divided into four parts. The first part asked for theresponding faculty’s background information. The second part aimed at discovering his/hergeneral opinion on project management (PM) curricula in India. The third part aimed atidentifying any distinguishing factors that characterize the specific PM curriculumdevelopment vis a vis the usual curriculum. The fourth part dealt with finding out about theexisting educational infrastructure available with institutions and also management supportavailable to the institutions to establish new courses. Also covered were regulatory aspectsthat affect the institute’s decision in launching new curricula. For every question, therespondent was asked to provide a tick/score as per his/her opinion. The Likert type 5 – pointscale was included in order to be able to quantify the data.In case of rating of subjects, along with the simple percentage calculations, numericalaverage rating scores have been computed and shown in brackets in front of the ratings ofsubjects and levels. The average rating score contained in the brackets is to be interpreted asfollows0 – 1 : not important1 – 2 : somewhat important2 – 3 : important3 – 4 : very important4 – 5 : extremely important.Using the responses in selected areas such as experience of faculty, their perceptions of thestate of PM education in India and the essentiality of teaching PM in technical andmanagement academic institutions, ratings of subjects and levels to be included in the PMcurricula, impact on employability etc. the percentage share of respondents who opted for aparticular rating was derived. This was presented in the form of graphs. Thereafter thenumerical average rating scores were calculated to arrive at the overall rating assigned by therespondents. In subsequent sections, we discuss the data findings for the technical andbusiness academic institutions from different zones in India.4.2 PART I : Respondent’s Particulars And Details52
  • 53. Part I of the Questionnaire was to find out the details of the respondents chosen for thesurvey. The questions in this part were included with a view to elicit the description of thesample in terms of the region (Fig 3) in which the institution was located and the averageexperience of the respondents in academics. It was also necessary to know the ‘category’ ofthe institution (Fig 2). As seen in Fig 2, the majority of respondents represent privateinstitutions vis a vis government sponsored institutions.Figure 2: Category of InstitutionsThe sample chosen reflects the proportion of technical and business institutions zone wise(Tables 3 and 4, AICTE List, 08, Chp 2). As per AICTE data, the maximum number ofTechnical institutions are located in the Southern and Western regions of the country. In caseof Management institutions, the highest number are found in the Northern and Western zone.Thus the combined sample reflects this in its coverage; South Zone followed by West, North,Central and finally the Eastern zone.In case of total academic experience, the majority of the sample falls in the range of between16-20 yrs followed by 21-25 yrs. The respondents were highly experienced academicians(avg. experience 21.27 years, Fig 4).Figure 3: Graph Showing Region Wise Distribution Of The Academic Institutions53
  • 54. Figure 4: Experience Of Responding FacultyA separate question was asked to find out the experience of the sample in designing newtypes of courses. (Fig 5). Majority of the sample had a wide experience in curricula design.Majority of the respondents fell in the category of 11 -15 years. This is a welcome finding, asthis indicates good experience in the introduction of new courses or reviewing existing ones.Figure 5: Experience In Curriculum Development54
  • 55. 4.3 PART II: General Opinion On Existing State Of PM Education In IndiaIt was important to know the perception of the academics with respect to the current state ofPM education in the country. Majority of the sample felt ( Fig 6 ) that the current state of PMeducation is only ‘fair’ (49.38%) and ‘good’ (25.93%). The average rating score of 2.05reflects this perception. This implies that the respondents consider the current status of PMeducation as Fair.The next query was to elicit a response about the respondent’s own institution’s efforts tointroduce PM curriculum. (Fig 7). A clear majority of the sample responded that there havebeen prior attempts in the past to introduce PM curricula in the courses offered by theirinstitutions.Figure 6: Perception Of The Current Status Of PM Education In India55
  • 56. Figure 7 reflects the level at which a particular institution has introduced the course in theircurricula. In the sample, in 85% of the cases, the courses related to PM were introduced at theundergraduate stage and the post graduate level. Only in around 15% cases, the courses existat other levels like in research, advanced levels such as at the doctoral level programmes andcertificate level courses.Figure 7 : Attempts At Introducing PM In The CurriculumIt was also important to know in which category, the course had been introduced, i.e. whetherthe institution preferred to include PM courses as electives or as a compulsory subject. Asseen in Figure 8, the sample is equally distributed in its choice. This indicates that bothoptions are made available. Around 5% of the sample did not respond to question.56
  • 57. Figure 8 : Level At Which PM Course Has Been IntroducedCourses in academic institutions follow a certain rigour and intensity of teaching. They aredesigned in such a way as to match the required degree of competence necessary to beinternalised by the student opting for that course. Courses are designed to achieve thisobjective. The institute may introduce these courses either as electives or compulsorysubjects. (Fig 9). Most of the respondents are teaching PM courses at Elementary and theIntermediate stages only.Figure 9: Type of PM Related CourseOn the basis of built in rigour and intensity of the course, the levels are classifed as :elementary, intermediate, advanced (Figure 10). Majority of the sample prefers PM to betaught at the Intermediate level with 47.67% of respondents opting for the same, followed by29.07% opting for inclusion of PM at the ‘Elementary’ level.57
  • 58. Figure 10: Intensity Of The CourseIn order to find out the importance the sample attaches to the inclusion of PM related coursesin professional schools, the respondents were asked to rate the inclusion of PM courses on ascale of ‘essentiality’ for various professional educational categories such as engineering,management, architecture /planning, infrastructure schools.Figures 11 A, 11B, 11Ci, 11Cii, 11Ciii describe the degree of essentiality as perceived bythe respondents of various types of academic institutions viz. Engineering/Technical andBusiness/Management. Refer Figure 11 A. 86.42% of the sample suggest that PM is VeryEssential to Absolutely Essential in Engineering/Technical institutions (avg. Rating 4.31).This indicates that in engineering institutions PM educaion is absolutely essential.. Similarlymajority of the respondents (90%) felt that PM is a must in Management/Business institutions(avg. Rating 4.47). This indicates that in management institutions PM educaion is absolutelyessential. However 17.4% of the sample is pursuing PM at the advanced stages such as at thelevel of doctoral programmes.The sample was asked to rate the essentiality of PM courses in Specialised Courses such asArchitecture, Planning, and Infrastructure. Figures 11Ci, 11Cii, 11Ciii show the level ofimportance attributed to PM education in these three areas respectively. A similar responseranging from Very Essential to Absolutely Essential (a total of 88.64%) was seen in the caseof specialised courses. Each of the categories that include Architecture (avg. Rating 4.34),Planning (avg. Rating 4.50) and Infrastructure (avg. Rating 4.50) on its own has a responsewhich is comparable to that seen in the engineering and managment courses on theessentiality factor. Thus, overall, it can be inferred that PM courses are deemed absolutely58
  • 59. essential inclusions in academic curricula of all such institutions falling in the ‘ProfessionalEducation’ category.Figure 11 A: Essentiality Of PM In Various Types Of InstitutionsA. Engineering CourseFigure 11 B: Essentiality Of PM In Various Types Of InstitutionsB. Management CourseFigure 11 C: Essentiality Of PM In Various Types Of InstitutionsC.Specialised CoursesFigure 11 C i. Architecture Course59
  • 60. Figure 11 C ii. Planning And DesignFigure 11 C iii. Infrastructure Development4.4 Part III: Curriculum DevelopmentIn this section, a detailed subject wise rating was sought to be obtained using a dual ratingscale namely ‘Importance Rating’ and ‘Level Rating’ (Refer Annexure 3 for copy ofQuestionnaire to Academic Institutions). The objective was to find out which subject areas as60
  • 61. well as individual subjects contained within the subject area, are important to be included inthe curriculum of PM. Along with this, the level of learning exposure considered necessaryby the respondents was included in the choice. Both the parameters were on a 5-point scale.The two parameters were the ‘degree of importance’ that was being assigned by therespondent to a particular subject and the second was the ‘level’ at which this subject wasfound important to be taught. So for example, if the subject was Operations Managementwithin the Management and Technology Area, the respondent had to assign a dual ratingwhich would indicate 1) How important he/she felt the subject was for inclusion in theteaching curriculum? and 2) At what level of sophistication (Certificate/undergraduate/postgraduate/advanced/applied research) was the subject required to be taught?.All subject areas included in this section were consolidated into four major areas, namely :A – Technology and Management AreaB – Strategy, Economics and Finance AreaC – Behavioural Sciences AreaD – Information Technology AreaA fifth major area was not subject, but Sector Specific. This is described as ‘E’. This areasought to determine the degree of importance of teaching PM in the specified sectors. Thefindings of PART III are discussed below.Technology And Management AreaThe Technology and Management Area comprised a total of 20 subject areas. Figures 12 Aand 12 B depict the importance ascribed by respondents to each subject area on a rating scaleranging from ‘Not Important’ to ‘Extremely Important’. The average ratings assigned tovarious subjects in this area are as follows :AR1-Operations Management for Projects (3.79); AR2-Planning, Scheduling, Monitoringand Control Techniques (3.98); AR3-Statistical Methods for Projects Analysis (3.81); AR4-Operations Research for Projects (3.87); AR5-Project Quality Management (3.93); AR6-Health/Safety/Environment in Projects (3.60); AR7-Cost Estimation and Budgeting (3.74);AR8-Accounting and Control Systems (3.26); AR9-Quality Surveying and Estimation (3.43);AR10-Projects Marketing (3.30); AR11-Project Site and Equipment (3.40); AR12-ProjectProcurement & /Materials Management (3.40); AR13-Contract Management (3.31); AR14-Process Design/Engineering/Testing/Commissioning (3.48); AR15-Facilities Engineering and61
  • 62. Management (3.12); AR16-Logistics & Supply Chain Management (3.37); AR17-Transportation Management (3.12); AR18-Technology and Engineering Management (3.46);AR19-Project Formulation and Appraisal ( 3.46); AR20-Project Engineering (3.46).On the basis of average rating scores, it can be inferred that these subjects are very importantand necessary to be included in the curricula. However importance assigned is higher forcertain subjects including Operations Management; Planning, Scheduling, Monitoring andControl Techniques; Statistical methods, Operation research techniques; Project QualityManagement; Cost Estimation and Budgeting; Health, Safety and Environment Management.It was important to know the Level at which the above mentioned subjects could be taught.Figure 12 B describes the same. Majority of the respondents want the courses to be taught atUndergraduate (47.37%) and Post Graduate (44.21%) level. Some respondents (3.16%)would like Operations Research for Projects (avg. Rating 2.72), Contract Management (avg.Rating 2.76), Project Procurement and Materials Management (avg. Rating 2.73), ProjectFormulation and Appraisal (avg. Rating 2.84) to be included in the Post Graduate andAdvanced teaching also. Some respondents are aware of the importance of research in areaslike Operations Research for Projects, Technology and Engineering Management (avg.Rating 2.83), and Project Engineering (avg. Rating 2.78) and have opted for this. Thus it canbe inferred that the academics are well aware and understand the importance of subjects andthe levels at which they should be included in PM curricula related to the area of Technologyand Management.Figure 12 A: Ratings Of Subjects In Management And Technology62
  • 63. AR1-Operations Management for Projects; AR2-Planning, Scheduling, Monitoring and Control Techniques; AR3-Statistical Methods forProjects Analysis; AR4-Operations Research for Projects; AR5-Project Quality Management; AR6-Health/Safety/Environment in Projects;AR7-Cost Estimation and budgeting; AR8-Accounting and Control Systems; AR9-Quality Surveying and Estimation; AR10-ProjectsMarketing; AR11-Project Site and Equipment; AR12-Project Procurement & /Materials Management; AR13-Contract Management; AR14-Process Design/Engineering/Testing/Commissioning; AR15-Facilities Engineering and Management; AR16-Logistics & Supply ChainManagement; AR17-Transportation Management; AR18-Technology and Engineering Management; AR19-Project Formulation andAppraisal; AR20-Project Engineering.Figure 12 B: Level Of Teaching Of Subjects In Management And TechnologyAL1-Operations management for Projects; AL2-Planning, Scheduling, Monitoring and Control Techniques; AL3-Statistical Methods forProjects Analysis; AL4-Operations Research for Projects; AL5-Project Quality Management; AL6-Health/Safety/Environment in Projects;AL7-Cost Estimation and budgeting; AL8-Accounting and Control Systems; AL9-Quality Surveying and Estimation; AL10-ProjectsMarketing; AL11-Project Site and Equipment; AL12-Project Procurement & Materials Management; AL13-Contract Management; AL14-Process Design/Engineering/Testing/Commissioning; AL15-Facilities Engineering and Management; AL16-Logistics & Supply ChainManagement; AL17-Transportation Management; AL18-Technology and Engineering Management; AL19-Project formulation andAppraisal and AL20-Project Engineering.Strategy, Economics and Finance Area63
  • 64. The next Section B, deals with the Strategy, Economics and Finance Area. Figures 13 A and13 B depict the opinions of respondents regarding the subjects to be included in PMcurriculum from this area. All subjects in this area were considered to be in the range of VeryImportant to Extremely Important. The following subjects are considered very important :BR1 – Macro Economic Policy (3.52), BR2- Project Strategy (avg. Rating 3.46), BR3 –Social Cost Benefit Analysis (avg. Rating 3.55), BR4 – Financial Management (avg. Rating3.58), BR5 – Project Financing (avg. Rating 3.62), BR6 – Risk and Insurance Management(avg. Rating 3.60). Only in the case of BR 7 -Legal, Commercial and Taxation Aspects ofProjects, close to 20% of the respondents felt it was only ‘Somewhat Important’ (avg. Rating3.30) followed by around 18% of the respondents expressing the same opinion about BR -8Project Joint Ventures, Strategic Alliances, SPVs. None of the respondents opted for the ‘NotImportant’ option in case of these subjects (avg. Rating 3.27). However going by theiraverage rating scores, these subjects also fall in the very important category.Figure 13 A: Ratings Of B Group Subject Areas In Strategy, Economics And FinanceBR1-Macro-Economic Policy; BR2-Project Strategy; BR3-Social Cost Benefit Analysis; BR4-Financial Management; BR5-ProjectFinancing; BR6-Risk and Insurance Management; BR7-Legal, Commercial and Taxation Aspects of Projects and BR8-Project JointVentures/ Strategic Alliances/ Special Purpose Vehicles.Figures 13 A and Figure 13 B depict the level at which the subject knowledge is consideredimportant by the respondents. Majority of the respondents considered that most of thesubjects included in this section should be ideally at the Post Graduate Level with anexception of BL1 - Macro Economic Policy (avg. Rating 2.51), wherein the respondents havegiven almost equal weights to the subject to be taught at UG (43.68%) and PG (44.83%) .The inference is that the subjects should be preferably taught at the Post Graduate level.64
  • 65. Figure 13 B: Levels Of B Group Subject Areas In Strategy, Economics And FinanceBL1-Macro-Economic Policy; BL2-Project Strategy; BL3-Social Cost Benefit Analysis; BL4-Financial Management; BL5-ProjectFinancing; BL6-Risk and Insurance Management; BL7-Legal, Commercial and Taxation Aspects of Projects; BL8-Project Joint Ventures,Strategic Alliances, Special Purpose VehiclesBehavioural Sciences AreaSection C attempts to find out the opinion of the respondents regarding the importance of thesubjects in the Behavioural Sciences Area as necessary to be included in the PM courses.Figures 14 A and 14 B below depict the same. The majority of the respondents rated this arearanging from ‘Important’ to ‘Very Important’. Less than 10% of the sample considered someof the subjects in this area ‘Not Important’ or ‘Extremely Important’. The average ratings forthe subjects grouped in this Area are : CR 1 – Project Organization and Structure ( 3.63 ), CR2 – Managerial Skills (3.87) , CR3 – Human Resource Management in Projects (3.80), CR4 –Industrial / Labour Relations (3.46), CR5 – Conflict Management ( 3.33 ), CR6 – DiversityManagement (3.44 ). On the average, all subjects in the category are found to be veryimportant, with slightly less importance for Conflict Management and DiversityManagement.Figure 14 A: Ratings Of Subject Areas In Group C Behavioural Sciences Area65
  • 66. CR1-Project Organization and Structure; CR2-Managerial Skills for Projects (Communication, Leadership, Team Building, Negotiation,other soft skills); CR3-Human Resource Management in Projects; CR4-Industrial / Labour Relations; CR5-Conflict Management; CR6-Diversity ManagementAs regards of the level at which these should be taught, (Refer Figure 14 B), the averageratings for levels are : CR 1 – Project Organization and Structure ( 2.73 ), CR 2 – ManagerialSkills (2.89) , CR3 – Human Resource Management in Projects (2.88), CR4 – Industrial /Labour Relations (2.73), CR5 – Conflict Management ( 2.98 ), CR6 – Diversity Management(2.86 ). Clearly most of the respondents preferred that the subjects in Behavioural SciencesArea should be included at the Post Graduate level, followed by Undergraduate. In case ofConflict Management subject, no respondents opted for the subject to be included forteaching at the Advanced level. However the same subject had a section of the respondentswanting it to be included at the level of Applied Research.66
  • 67. Figure 14 B: Levels Of Subject Areas In Group C Behavioural Sciences AreaCL1-Project Organization and Structure; CL2-Managerial Skills for Projects (Communication, Leadership, Team Building, Negotiation,other soft skills); CL3-Human Resource Management in Projects; CL4-Industrial / Labour Relations; CL5-Conflict Management; CL6-Diversity ManagementInformation Technology AreaThe next Section D deals with subjects to be included in the Information Technology area asessential to be taught to students of PM. The average importance ratings for the subjectsincluded in the area are : DR1-PM Software-Primavera, MSP, GIS / GPS for ProjectManagement (4.10); DR2-Enterprise Resource Planning (3.70); DR3- e-BusinessApplications (3.59); DR4-Engineering Software (4.18); DR5-Excel / SPSS / DBMS (4.20).Three subjects, namely PM Software, Engineering Software and Excel/SPSS/DBMS are ratedas extremely important. ERP and e – Buainess Applications are rated very important. Clearlythe respondents strongly endorse the importance of teaching IT related subjects. The averageratings for the Level at which these subjects should be covered are : DR1-PM Software-Primavera, MSP, GIS / GPS for Project Management (2.64); DR2-Enterprise ResourcePlanning (2.78); DR3- e-Business Applications (2.77); DR4-Engineering Software (2.61);DR5-Excel / SPSS / DBMS (2.70). Majority of the sample want IT Area to be included inprimarily at the Post Graduate level followed by Undergaduate level courses of academicinstitutions.67
  • 68. Figure 15 A: Ratings Of Subject Areas In Group D Information TechnologyDR1-PM Software-Primavera, MSP, GIS / GPS for Project Management; DR2-Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP); DR3-e-BusinessApplications; DR4-Engineering Software (Auto-Cad, Staadpro, Estm8, Ansys, Auto-Revit, 3D-Max, Calquan); DR5-Excel / SPSS / DBMSFigure 15 B: Level Of Subject Areas In Group D Information TechnologyDL1-PM software-Primavera, MSP, GIS / GPS for Project Management; DL2-Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP); DL3-e-BusinessApplications; DL4-Engineering Software (Auto-Cad, Staadpro, Estm8, Ansys, Auto-Revit, 3D-Max, Calquan); DL5-Excel / SPSS / DBMSSector Specific Area68
  • 69. With the rise of PM in almost all aspects of industry, it was felt necessary to find out whichsectors within the industry require and would benefit from PM education; as also, the level ofacademic input to be given to the students to improve PM proficiency. This was with a viewto know, how important and essential PM training is in particular sectors. This section dealswith the importance of PM in various sectors. Figure 16 A and B below depicts the findingsfor the same.Figure 16 A: Ratings Of Group E Sector Specific Importance Of PMER1-Information Communication Technology (ICT); ER2-Telecom; ER3-Research and Development; ER4-Space Exploration; ER5-Technology; ER6-Defense; ER7-Roadways; ER8-Railways; ER9-Civil Aviation; ER10-Ports; ER11-Shipbuilding; ER12-UrbanInfrastructure; ER13-Mega Property Developments; ER14-Petrochemicals; ER15-Chemical Engineering; ER16-Oil and Gas Exploration;ER17-Services; ER18-International Project ManagementThe specific average importance ratings for various sectors are : ER1-InformationCommunication Technology (ICT, 3.39); ER2-Telecom (3.23); ER3-Research andDevelopment (3.46); ER4-Space Exploration (3.46); ER5-Technology (3.61); ER6-Defense(3.52); ER7-Roadways (3.55); ER8-Railways (3.56); ER9-Civil Aviation (3.5); ER10-Ports(3.43); ER11-Shipbuilding (3.5); ER12-Urban Infrastructure (3.72); ER13-Mega PropertyDevelopments (3.66); ER14-Petrochemicals (3.56); ER15-Chemical Engineering (3.49);ER16-Oil and Gas Exploration (3.58); ER17-Services (3.57); ER18-International ProjectManagement (3.65). It is observed that PM is rated as very important across all the sectorscovered with slightly lesser importance assigned to ICT and Telecom sectors.The specific average Level ratings for various sectors are : ER1-Information CommunicationTechnology (ICT, 3.61); ER2-Telecom (3.68); ER3-Research and Development (3.76); ER4-Space Exploration (3.83); ER5-Technology (3.85); ER6-Defense (3.77); ER7-Roadways69
  • 70. (3.93); ER8-Railways (4.04); ER9-Civil Aviation (3.92); ER10-Ports (3.98); ER11-Shipbuilding (3.97); ER12-Urban Infrastructure (4.05); ER13-Mega Property Developments(4.06); ER14-Petrochemicals (4.09); ER15-Chemical Engineering (4.02); ER16-Oil and GasExploration (4.00); ER17-Services (3.92); ER18-International Project Management (4.14). Itis very interesting to note that across all sectors, the sample opted for Applied Researchfollowed by Advanced level teaching as the most appropriate levels for sector specificcoverage of PM in teaching curriculum. It can be inferred that as per the respondents’ viewsector specific issues in PM are intensely practice driven and therefore teaching should reflectthe study of this practice more closely.Figure 16 B: Levels of Group E Sector Specific Teaching FocusEL1-Information Communication Technology (ICT); EL2-Telecom; EL3-Research and Development; EL4-Space Exploration; EL5-Technology; EL6-Defense; EL7-Roadways; EL8-Railways; EL9-Civil Aviation; EL10-Ports; EL11-Shipbuilding; EL12-UrbanInfrastructure; EL13-Mega Property Developments; EL14-Petrochemicals; EL15-Chemical Engineering; EL16-Oil and Gas Exploration;EL17-Services; EL18-International Project ManagementFindings From Correlation AnalysisIn order to find out whether each and every subject included within the overall subjectdomain was of significance or not, a Correlation Analysis was carried out for every subject(factor) with other subjects in that Area. For e.g. in the area of A. Management andTechnology Area, there is a subject included, namely Operations Management for Projects.A correlation matrix was generated for this subject (factor) vis a vis other subjects (factors) inthat area such as Planning, Scheduling Monitoring and Control Techniques; StatisticalMethods for Project Analysis; and so on for 20 subjects in that area. Results were obtained onthe degree of correlation observed amongst the subjects.70
  • 71. In the same way, all individual subjects in the remaining areas like B. Economics, Financeand Strategy, C. Behavioural Sciences Area, D. IT Area were put through a similarcorrelation analysis. The statistical correlation analysis is used because it helps in arriving atthe strength of relationships between two factors. The idea in doing this for all the subjects,was with to understand the uniqueness of each of the subjects contained within thegeneralised Area (A. Management and Technology, B. Economics....., Annex 3) under whichit has been included. Section E has not been included for correlation analysis as it is SectorSpecific and as such has an in built uniqueness (randomness). A correlation analysis for thissection would therefore be meaningless. Refer Annexure 4 for a complete result for all areas.The salient findings using SPSS software are reproduced below9.Management and Technology Area: This subject area included in a total of 20 subjectswhich were considered to have a direct bearing on the operations and technical aspects of theproject business or project organisation. A detailed list of the subjects within this area iscontained in Figure 12 A. Based on ratings obtained from the sample, each one of thesubjects was run for correlation with each of the other subjects, to find out whether thesubjects are similar or there is considerable overlap in their content. The correlationcoefficients showed a value less than 0.90. For any factor to be closely related with anotherfactor, the Correlation Coefficient should have values tending towards 1. Most of the valuesin the Table 5, Annexure 4, Part A, indicate that the Correlation Coefficient lies in the rangeof 0.3 to 0.8, thus indicating weak to moderate positive relationships (Refer foot note10).However subjects with correlation coefficients greater than 0.7 would have significantlystrong relationship. The subjects having correlation values of 0.7 or more in this group are asfollows :Operations Management for Projects AR3 – Operations Research for Projects AR 4 (0.7),Project Quality Management AR5 – Health/Safety/Environment in Projects AR6 (0.7),Projects Marketing AR10 – Facilities Engineering and Management AR15 (0.7), Project Siteand Equipment Management AR11 – Project Procurement & /Materials Management AR 129Correlation Analysis generates the Correlation Coefficient. The Correlation Coefficient is the measure of the covariance of the actual andpredicted values of factors. The correlation coefficient is a number between 0 and 1. If there is no linear relationship between the predictedvalues and the actual values the correlation coefficient is 0 or very low (the predicted values are no better than random numbers).10As the strength of the relationship between the predicted values and actual values increases so does the correlation coefficient. A perfectfit gives a coefficient of 1.0. Thus close relationships tend towards 1 while weak relationships tend towards 0. Values between 0 and 0.3 (0and -0.3) indicate a weak positive (negative) linear relationship. Values between 0.3 and 0.7 (0.3 and -0.7) indicate a moderate positive(negative) linear relationship via a fuzzy-firm linear rule. 0.7 and 0.9 indicates highly positive linear relationship. If it is above 0.9 then thetwo factors can be treated as one and the same because they cannot be distinguished clearly.71
  • 72. (0.8), Project Site and Equipment Management AR11 – Contract Management AR13 (0.8),Project Site and Equipment Management AR11 – Facilities Engineering and ManagementAR15 (0.7), Project Procurement & /Materials Management AR12 – Contract ManagementAR13 (0.7), Contract Management AR13 – ProcessDesign/Engineering/Testing/Commissioning AR14 (0.7), Contract Management AR13 –Facilities Engineering and Management AR15 (0.7), Facilities Engineering and ManagementAR15 – Logistics & Supply Chain Management AR 16 (0.7), Facilities Engineering andManagement AR15 – Transportation Management AR17 (0.7), Logistics & Supply ChainManagement AR16 – Transportation Management AR17 (0.7), Project Formulation andAppraisal AR19 – Project Engineering AR20 (0.8).The results indicate that as a group, the subjects Project Site and Equipment Management,Project Procurement and Materials Management, Contract Management, FacilitiesEngineering and Management and Process Design / Engineering / Testing / Commissioningare correlated. This is expected since the issues dealt with in these subject areas ariseprimarily during project execution and often times have to be dealt with in a coordinatedmanner. Similarly correlation among the subject areas Logistics and Supply ChainManagement, Transportation Management, Facilities Engineering and Management are alsoquite expected and in most projects, these would be dealt with together. The correlationbetween subject areas Operations Management and Operations Research, and also betweenProject Formulation and Appraisal and Project Engineering are also along expected lines.There is also good correlation between Quality Management and HSE subjects and thereforecombining these into a single course would be quite appropriate. It is not surprising that inthe project management fraternity, the precise differences among these subject areas are notvery clear.Thus the correlation analysis results strongly validate our belief that many issues arisingduring project execution need to be addressed in an integrated coordinated away. Similarlymany techniques and methods adopted during the project formulation, appraisal andengineering need to be taken up in an integrated coordinated manner.A direct outcome of the correlation analysis is that in institutions and curricula where it isdifficult to introduce several execution oriented courses, it will be quite adequate if a singlecourse emphasizing project execution is included. Similarly Operations Management and72
  • 73. Operations Research could be combined into a single course. Project Formulation andAppraisal and Project Engineering could also be combined into a single course.The results indicate that nearly half of the subjects included in this area are fairly unique andhave their own individual importance and therefore need to be included in the curriculum.There is scope for combining course contents of other courses as suggested above, whenthere is difficulty in all of the courses contained in this subject area. Refer Table 5, Annexure4, Part A for complete results.Strategy, Economics and Finance Area: In this Area too, it was observed that all subjectshad a correlation coefficient less than 0.90. Therefore it can be concluded that subjects in thissection too are fairly unique (refer Table 5, Annex 4, Part B). Here too, subjects withcorrelation coefficient greater than 0.7 would have strong significant relationship. Thesubjects having correlation values of 0.7 or more in this group are as follows :Macro Economic Policy BL1 - Project Strategy BL2( 0.73), Macro Economic Policy BL1 -Social Cost Benefit Analysis BL3 (0.72), Project Strategy BL2 - Social Cost Benefit AnalysisBL3 (0.76), ; Project Strategy BL2 - Financial Management BL4(0.71), Social Cost BenefitAnalysis BL3 - Project Financing BL5 (0.71); Social Cost Benefit Analysis BL3 - Legal,Commercial and Taxation Aspects of Projects BL7 (0.72), Financial Management BL4 -Project Financing BL5 (0.8), Legal, Commercial and Taxation Aspects of Projects BL7 -Project Joint Ventures, Strategic Alliances, Special Purpose Vehicles BL8 (0.86).The subject Social Cost benefit Analysis is most heavily correlated with other subjectsincluding Macroeconomic Policy, Project Strategy, Project Financing, Legal, Commercialand Taxation Aspects. Thus if this course is included as a separate course, care must be takento ensure that the content is not duplicated in other courses. Alternately the course need notbe included, if other courses reflect the content. There is a case for combining the coursesProject Financial Management and Project Financing, courses Project Strategy andMacroeconomic Policy, and courses Legal, Commercial & Taxation Aspects and ProjectJoint Ventures, Strategic Alliances & Special Purpose Vehicles.The correlation analysis provides very good guidelines on the way courses in this subject areacould be grouped and introduced in the PM curriculum.Behavioural Sciences Area: In this Area too, it was observed that all subjects had acorrelation coefficient less than 0.90. Therefore it can be concluded that subjects in this73
  • 74. section too are fairly unique. Subjects with correlation coefficient greater than 0.7 havestrong significant relationship. Refer Table 5, Annexure 4, Part C. The subjects havingcorrelation values of 0.7 or more in this group are as follows :Industrial / Labour Relations CR4 - Conflict Management CR5 (0.79); Industrial / LabourRelations CR4 - Diversity Management CR6 (0.78); Conflict Management CR5 (0.79) -Diversity Management CR6 (0.81).Three subjects are correlated to each other, namely Industrial/ Labour Relations, ConflictManagement and Diversity Management. So from the point of view of the respondents, thesesubjects reflect some common issues and concerns and there is a case for combining thesetogether to achieve an integrated approach to deal with these issues and concerns. The othercourses may be taught independently.Information Technology Area: In this Area also, it was observed that all subjects had acorrelation coefficient less than 0.90. Therefore it can be concluded that subjects in thissection too are fairly unique. Subjects with correlation coefficient greater than 0.7 havestrong significant relationship. Refer Table 5, Annexure 4, and Part D. The subjects havingcorrelation values of 0.7 or more in this group are as follows : Enterprise Resource Planning(ERP) DR2 - e-Business Applications DR3 (0.72), Engineering Software DR4 - Excel /SPSS / DBMS DR5 ( 0.81).The correlation analysis results provide an useful way of structuring courses in IT area in thePM curriculum. For instance, ERP and e – Business Applications courses could combinedinto a single course. Similarly Specialized Engineering Software and Common Software suchas Excel, SPSS, DBMS could also be structured as a single course, in case there is difficultyin offering these as separate courses. Only Project Management Software needs to be taughtas a separate course.4.5 PART IV – Infrastructure, Management Support, Regulatory Factors AndCurrent Status Of PM Research In InstituteThis section of the study was dedicated to finding out the nature of curriculum developmentand research that is currently being supported by the management of institutions in the area ofPM. Along with this, it was also necessary to find out the extent of departmental andindividual interests of the faculty in this area. Also, the average time taken by institutionmanagements to introduce new curricula needs to be studied in order to assess the74
  • 75. ‘responsiveness’ factor of managements to new ideas and curriculum development. Thefollowing section analyses the same. Part IV was again divided into sub sections coveringfactors like the availability of infrastructure, management support, regulatory issues and thecurrent position of PM research in the respondent’s institute. The findings of the analysis arepresented below.The first question dealt with finding out the extent of availability of existing infrastructurethat was at the disposal of the institute (See Figure 17). The average ratings obtained from thesurvey are : IR1-Avalability of Library and e-resources (3.87); IR2-Course Material (3.74);IR3-Class Rooms (4.03); IR4-Laboratories (3.80); IR5-Computer Labs (3.90); IR6-QualifiedFaculties (3.96); IR7-Avalability of Research Facilities (3.69); IR8-Management Vision(4.03). Majority of the sample felt that resources were generally easily available in theinstitute in terms of library, course materials, classrooms, laboratories, computer labs,qualified faculty and availability of research facilities. The respondents also stronglyendorsed the existence of management vision (avg. rating 4.03) to support PM endeavours.Around 8% of the sample felt that management vision was lacking and hence PM educationwas not very popular in their institutions.Figure 17: Ratings Of Institute’s InfrastructureIR1-Avalability of Library and e-resources; IR2-Course Material; IR3-Class Rooms; IR4-Laboratories; IR5-Computer Labs; IR6-QualifiedFaculties; IR7-Avalability of Research Facilities; IR8-Management VisionThe next question centred on understanding the institute’s prior attempts to starting PMcourses with a view to knowing whether such an attempt was successful or not. Figure 18shows that majority of the institutions have made attempts earlier to start PM courses. It isnoticed that majority of the sample (64%) have made earlier attempts at introducing PMcourses in their institutes.75
  • 76. Merely knowing whether earlier attempts had been made was not considered enough. It wasimportant to find out in case of those who had made such attempts, to what degree progresshad been made in their introduction. Figure 19 shows the extent of progress made by thoseinstitutions that attempted to introduce PM courses. It may be noticed, that barring only 17%of the institutes, considerable degree of advance has been made by the majority of technicaland business schools in launching courses related to PM. 27% of the sample refrained fromanswering this question.Figure 18: Earlier Attempts Of Institutions To Introduce PM CoursesAmong those who had attempted to introduce PM courses in the past, it was necessary toknow how far they have succeeded in their efforts to launch these courses. The followinggraph (Figure 19) shows the same. For 11% of the sample, the progress was in advancedstage, for 29.63% of the sample, progress made is considerable. Combining the two, around40% of the sample suggest that there is reasonable effort in introducing PM courses, in theirrespective institutions. The avg. rating of 2.47 indicates that overall, the progress made hasbeen considerable.Figure 19: Progress Of Introduction Of PM Courses Introduction76
  • 77. In almost all professional institutions, courses are chosen and introduced with the twinobjectives of developing competencies as well improving employability of the students. Therespondents were asked to rate the effect of introducing PM courses and its effects on theemployment potential of the students. The result showed that majority of the sample(65.43%) rated the impact on employability of the students as ‘Considerably High’ and‘Immensely High’. Another 25.93% of the sample rated this as ‘Good’ (Fig 20). The avg.rating of 3.79 indicates that the employability potential of the students undergoing PMtraining is considerably high.Figure 20: Impact Of PM Courses On Employability Of StudentsThe study also sought to establish whether there exists any link between PM’s employmentpotential and the requirement of the industry as a whole. A direct and pointed question wasincluded to find out whether the companies, at the time of recruitment, specifically ask forPM competencies in the students. And if they did, what was the level of competence that theyexpected in the students? The results are given below in Figure 21. As seen in the graph,majority of the sample said that the companies did look for considerably high levels of77
  • 78. competency in PM amongst the students (avg. rating 2.68). Only 11.11% of the sample feltthat PM competency was not a criterion for selection.Figure 21: Company Specifically Looking For PM Competency In StudentsPart C of the institutional questionnaire focussed on eliciting response on whether theinstitution faced challenges with respect to regulatory issues, while introducing PM relatedcourses. This section was added with the intention of finding out whether regulatory ‘redtape’ acts as a barrier in the establishment of PM in the institution. The respondents wereasked to comment on the time frame required to sort out issues like introduction of newcourses, sanctioning of budgets, training of faculty, building library resources, etc. Thefollowing section deals with the responses generated. Figure 22 shows the category of theinstitution that the respondent belonged to, and Figure 23 shows the average time taken bythe institute to introduce new courses.Figure 22: Category Of InstitutionsMajority of the institutions (43.27%) were affiliated to the All India Council of TechnicalEducation (AICTE), the apex government accreditation body. 24.04% of the institutions78
  • 79. interviewed were university affiliated. Figure 23 throws up a very interesting statistic. Only asmall percentage (12.35%) responded that it requires only up to 6 months to get an academicapproval for a new course. Another 27.16% said that it took around 6-12 months to do so.Approx 51% of the sample took more than a year to get the approvals in starting new courses(avg. rating 3.04). This indicates that most of the institutions have to take into account aconsiderable time lag of up to 1- 2 years in introducing PM courses. The average time takenis little over 19 months. It may be noted that Academic Council approvals are internal ‘inprinciple’ sanctions at the institutional level.Figure 23: Academic Council ApprovalThe respondents were asked to rate the time taken to receive approvals from government andother external bodies for commencement of such courses. These are statutory bodies whichgive final permissions. These approvals are therefore ‘external’ in nature to the academicinstitution. These require the institution to apply and wait for the sanctions from thesestatutory agencies.As seen in Figure 24, majority of the sample ( 34.57 % ) responded that regulatory approvalstook between 6-12 months, 20.99% sample took 1- 2 years, 13.7% of the sample took 2- 3years. Around 12.35 % of the sample took more than 2-3 years to receive approvals to startnew courses from statutory bodies (avg. rating 2.75). This indicates that regulatory approvalrequires one to two years, with an average of around 16.5 months. Combining the two results,it is quite surprising that the average time taken internally to introduce a course is higher thanthe time taken for regulatory approval.Figure 24: Regulatory Approval79
  • 80. Figure 25 shows the average time taken by the institutions in building resources such aslibrary and publications, etc in the area of PM. 26.32% of the sample said that it took up to 6months to build the resources, 39.47% took 6-12 months, 19.74 % took 1 – 2 years, 14.47 %took more than 2 years (avg. time 13.9 months). This indicates that it takes on average abouta year to build the resources.Figure 25: Resource BuildingMajority of the sample i.e. around 80% said that it took anywhere up to 2 years to completethe process of recruitment and training the faculty in PM curriculum. 10.67% opted for aperiod of more than 2-3 years to complete this activity, while 8% said it took over 3 years forthe same. On average, the faculty recruitment and training process takes an average of 14.7months. See Figure 26.Figure 26: Recruitment And Training Of Faculty80
  • 81. Part D of this questionnaire was devoted to finding out the current status of research relatedto PM in these institutions. The purpose was to find out to what extent the institution wasengaged in actively encouraging and funding PM research among the institute’s facultymembers. Questions on the state of existing PM research as well as funding opportunitieswithin the institutions yielded interesting details. As seen in Figure 27, majority of the sample(65.43%) was not involved in PM research. A modest 34.57% felt that they are engaged inPM related research.Figure 27: Involvement In Project Management ResearchWhen asked whether the institution had either its own funding or undertook sponsoredresearch in PM, majority of the sample did not answer the question. Only 20.99% acceptedthat funded research was being carried out in the institute while 4.94% said that there was nofunded research happening in the area of PM in their institute.Figure 28: Funded Research81
  • 82. ConclusionThis chapter aimed at presenting the perceptions of the faculty employed in technical andmanagement academic institutions running courses at undergraduate, post graduate and insome cases even at doctoral levels. In summary, it was found that the respondent sampleperceived the current state of PM education to be ‘fair’ implying there is much further scopefor improvement. They admit that PM education definitely improves employability andtherefore academic institutions of the professional kind must make effort in teaching PM.This would enable the institutions to build strong PM skills amongst the students.All the subjects included in the Management and Technology Area were found to be veryimportant. On the basis of average rating scores, it can be inferred that these subjects are veryimportant and necessary to be included in the curricula. However importance assigned ishigher for certain subjects including Operations Management; Planning, Scheduling,Monitoring and Control Techniques; Statistical methods, Operation research techniques;Project Quality Management; Cost Estimation and Budgeting; Health, Safety andEnvironment Management. Majority of the respondents want the courses to be taught atUndergraduate and Post Graduate levels.Most of the subjects in the Strategy, Economics and Finance Area were considered to be veryimportant at the post graduate level with the exception of Macroeconomic Policy which couldbe taught at undergraduate level. In the Behavioural Sciences Area, all the subjects were ratedas very important and the subject rated most important was Managerial Skills. In the82
  • 83. Information Technology Area, three subjects, namely PM Software, Engineering Software andExcel/SPSS/DBMS are rated as extremely important. ERP and e – Buainess Applications are ratedvery important. Clearly the respondents strongly endorse the importance of teaching IT relatedsubjects. There is also strong preferrence for thse sibjects to be covered at the post graduate level.Faculty agreed that the effect of PM education on the employability of the students was verypositive and therefore PM should be strongly encouraged. Coverage of sector specific issuesin PM curriculum was considered very important across all the sectors included in the studybut the respondents strongly emphasized that such sector specific issues are best addressed atapplied research level or in advanced courses.The correlation analysis provides very good basis for structuring courses in all the subjectareas considered in the study. In the technology and Management area, the results indicatethat the subjects Project Site and Equipment Management, Project Procurement and MaterialsManagement, Contract Management, Facilities Engineering and Management and ProcessDesign / Engineering / Testing / Commissioning are correlated. This is expected since theseissues arise during project execution and have to be dealt with in a coordinated manner.Similarly correlation among the subject areas Logistics and Supply Chain Management,Transportation Management, Facilities Engineering and Management are also quite expectedand in most projects, these would be dealt with together. The correlation between subjectareas Operations Management and Operations Research, and also between ProjectFormulation and Appraisal and Project Engineering are also along expected lines. There isalso good correlation between Quality Management and HSE subjects and thereforecombining these into a single course would be quite appropriate. It is not surprising that inthe project management fraternity, the precise differences among these subject areas are notvery clear.While most of the subjects grouped in these subject areas are found to be very important,there is a case for combining some of these together, in order to emphasize the importance ofmanaging projects in a coordinated and integrated manner. A direct outcome of thecorrelation analysis is that in institutions and curricula where it is difficult to introduceseveral execution oriented courses, it will be quite adequate if a single course emphasizingproject execution is included.In the Economics and Strategy area, the subject Social Cost benefit Analysis is most heavilycorrelated with other subjects including Macroeconomic Policy, Project Strategy, Project83
  • 84. Financing, Legal, Commercial and Taxation Aspects. Thus if this course is included as aseparate course, care must be taken to ensure that the content is not duplicated in othercourses. Alternately the course need not be included, if other courses reflect the content.There is a case for combining the courses Project Financial Management and ProjectFinancing, courses Project Strategy and Macroeconomic Policy, and courses Legal,Commercial & Taxation Aspects and Project Joint Ventures, Strategic Alliances & SpecialPurpose Vehicles. The correlation analysis provides very good guidelines on the way coursesin this subject area could be grouped and introduced in the PM curriculum.In the Behavioural Sciences area, three subjects are correlated to each other, namelyIndustrial/ Labour Relations, Conflict Management and Diversity Management. So from thepoint of view of the respondents, these subjects reflect some common issues and concernsand there is a case for combining these together to achieve an integrated approach to dealwith these issues and concerns. The other courses may be taught independently.The correlation analysis results provide a useful way of structuring courses in IT area in thePM curriculum. For instance, ERP and e – Business Applications courses could be combinedinto a single course. Similarly Specialized Engineering Software and Common Software suchas Excel, SPSS, DBMS could also be structured as a single course, in case there is difficultyin offering these as separate courses. Only Project Management Software needs to be taughtas a separate course.Majority of the sample felt that resources were generally easily available in the institute interms of library, course materials, classrooms, laboratories, computer labs, qualified facultyand availability of research facilities. The respondents also strongly endorsed the existence ofmanagement vision to support PM endeavours. It takes on average about a year to build thenecessary physical resources. On average, the faculty recruitment and training process takes14.7 months. The research involvement of the institutions is found to be quite low and onlyabout 20% institutions reported funded research.The academic institutions consider the employability potential of the students undergoing PMtraining to be considerably high. They said that the companies did look for considerably highlevels of competency in PM amongst the students. At present appreciable time is required toobtain internal as well external regulatory approvals for introducing new courses. Most of theinstitutions have to take into account a considerable time lag of up to 1-2 years in introducingPM courses. The average internal lead time is little over 19 months. The regulatory approval84
  • 85. requires 1-2 years, with an average of around 16.5 months. It is quite surprising that theaverage time taken internally to introduce a course is higher than the time taken forregulatory approval.There is a general agreement that much of the PM curriculum should be preferrablyintroduced at the Post Graduate level, followed by Undergraduate level. On the question ofintroducing sector specific coursework in PM curriculum, there is a strong preference forintroducing such curriculum, but the overwhelming suggestion is that such curriculum is bestintroduced at applied research level or in advanced courses. The present emphasis on researchand publications, in particular sponsored research, is rather low and as a consequence, PMresearch and publications are few and sporadic.Box 2: Project Management Courses In Indian Institute Of Management, Ahmedabad,(IIM A)Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad was established by Government of India,Government of Gujarat and Indian industry as an autonomous institution under the Act XXIof 1860 for the Registration of literary, scientific and charitable societies. The Institutefunctions under the overall administrative control of Ministry of Human ResourcesDevelopment, Government of India. IIMA has evolved from being Indias premiermanagement institute to a notable international school of management in just five decades.85
  • 86. The Institute had initial collaboration with Harvard Business School. This collaborationgreatly influenced the Institutes approach to education and teaching methods. Gradually, itemerged as a confluence of the best of Eastern and Western values. The institute offers PostGraduate Programmes in Management in which Project Management is offered as anadvanced level elective subject.The Institute assigns high level of importance to PM related coursework. The Institute hasalready made attempts in the past, and runs elective courses in the area of ProjectManagement since the last few years. The IIMA’s faculty believes that the introduction ofProject Management courses helps improve the employability of the students to a goodextent.At an individual level, faculty have research interests in the area of PM. Many facultymembers have published research papers and addressed seminars and conferences in the areaof PM. The Institute also conducts regularly executive development programmes/workshopsin PM. The Institute has also provided consultancy services in PM to a variety oforganisations in government, public and private sectors as well as some internationalagencies. A few of the research theses have been written on issues related to PM in theInstitute’s Fellow Programme in Management (FPM).Source: NICMAR Survey Data, 201086
  • 87. Box 3: Project Management Courses In Indian Institute Of Management, Calcutta,(IIM C)The Indian Institute of Management Calcutta (IIMC) was established as the first NationalInstitute for Post Graduate Studies and Research in Management by the Government of Indiain November 1961 in collaboration with Alfred P. Sloan School of Management (MIT), theGovernment of West Bengal, The Ford Foundation and Indian industry. Over the years, IIMChas grown into a mature institution with global reputation, imparting high qualitymanagement education. It has been playing a pioneering role in professionalising Indianmanagement through its Post Graduate and Doctoral level programmes, executive trainingprogrammes, research and consulting activities. Today, the institute serves as an autonomousbody, continually evolving to meet its goals in an ever changing business environment. Thevision of the Institute is to emerge as an International Centre of Excellence in all facets ofmanagement education. Over the past four decades, IIM Calcutta has blossomed into one ofAsias finest business schools. The Institute offers various post graduate programmes inmanagement in which Project Management is offered as an intermediate level electivesubject.One of the biggest strengths of the Institute is its world renowned faculty. The facultymembers have distinguished academic achievements in different areas of management andthe related basic disciplines and are actively involved in teaching, training, and research andconsulting. According to the opinion of IIMC faculty, Project Management courses are veryessential for Engineering and B-Schools and they believe that the introduction of ProjectManagement courses improves the employability of the students to good extent. The Instituteoffers executive development programmes in PM, undertakes consulting projects in PM andof the research areas in the FPM programme.Source: NICMAR Survey Data -201087
  • 88. Box No.4 Project Management Courses In Indian Institute Of Technology, Kharagpur,The history of the IIT system dates back to 1946 when a committee was set up by Honble SirJogendra Singh, Member of the Viceroys Executive Council, Department of Education,Health and Agriculture to consider the setting up of Higher Technical Institutions for postwar industrial development in India. The 22 member committee headed by Sri N.R. Sarkar, inits report, recommended the establishment of four Higher Technical Institutions in theEastern, Western, Northern and Southern regions, possibly on the lines of the MassachusettsInstitute of Technology, USA, with a number of secondary institutions affiliated to it. OnSept. 15, 1956, the Parliament of India passed an Act known as the Indian Institute ofTechnology (Kharagpur) Act declaring this Institute as an Institute of National Importance.The Institute was also given the status of an autonomous University.IIT Kharagpur runs both Graduate and Post Graduate Programmes in which ProjectManagement related subjects are taught as compulsory as well as elective courses. The levelsof subjects vary from Intermediate to Advanced. According to the Project Managementfaculty, PM courses are very essential for the Engineering as well as Management Schoolsand they believe that introduction of Project Management courses improves the employabilityof the students to a great extent.Several faculty members have interests in the area of Project Management and PM relatedresearch. They have published research papers and presented seminars papers in PM andguided in Bachelor’s, Master’s and Ph. D level project work/thesis work in PM. The overallthrust of PM is however more at the research level than training and education.Source: NICMAR Survey Data -201088
  • 89. Box 5: Project Management Courses In National Institute Of Industrial Engineering:(NITIE), MumbaiThe National Institute of Industrial Engineering, popularly known as NITIE established bythe Government of India in the year 1963, is located in Mumbai, India. The institute, whichstarted off as an Industrial Engineering institute, now offers full time Post Graduateprogrammes in both, Industrial Engineering and Industrial Management. In addition, theinstitute also offers Fellow Programme, and Executive Education Programmes. It isconsidered by the Government of India as an apex institution on the lines of IITs, IIMs &IISc. It has been recognized as one of the 15 Centres of Excellence along with the IndianInstitutes of Technology (IITs), Indian Institutes of Management (IIMs) and Indian Instituteof Science (IISc) by the Ministry of HRD, Govt. of India. NITIE has decided to act as adriving force not only in the manufacturing sector but all sectors of the Indian economy suchas infrastructure and services.It has been offering Project Management as one of the compulsory as well as elective coursesat the post graduate as well as the research level for a very long time. The management feelsthat the introduction of the PM related courses in the academic curriculum will definitelyprovide the students better employability options and thus they continue to support PMcourses. They also rework the courses and from time to time, revise and bring changes in thecourse curriculum. Being an institution dedicated to manufacturing operations andmanagement, the management has laid emphasis on PM related courses.The respondent from NITIE feels that the ‘Management and Technology’ subjects are moreimportant in the field of Project Management when compared to the subjects of the Strategy,Economics and Finance, and the Behavioural Sciences areas. The subjects related to theInformation and Technology like the Primavera, MSP, ERP and other e business applicationswere considered of less importance in the context of Project Management. The faculty is alsoinvolved in contributing towards research and publications in this area and are encouraged toattend various training programmes and conferences related to PM.Source: NICMAR -Survey data, 201089
  • 90. Box 6: Project Management Courses In Shailesh J. Mehta School Of Management, IITBombay (SJSOM)IIT Bombay, founded in 1958, has established itself as a premier world class teaching andresearch institution in technology and interdisciplinary programmes. About twenty percent ofits alumni are entrepreneurs - many of them first generation. The pre eminence of the Instituteis evident from its varied and effective academic programmes for manpower development tomeet the rapidly changing needs of the organizations.To promote interdisciplinary learning and to keep up with the changing environment, IITBombay established its management school in 1995 with the objective of transformingprofessionals with technological background to "Renaissance Leaders" of tomorrow. In theyear 2000, the school was renamed as Shailesh J. Mehta School of Management, in honour ofDr. Shailesh J. Mehta, a distinguished alumnus of IIT Bombay. The School of Managementalready leads the way in preparing its graduates to respond to the new challenges by drawingon the varied intellectual resources of IIT Bombay.SJSOM has some PM courses included in the Managerial Development Programmes (MDP)for the executives. The introduction of such courses in the MDPs is aimed towardsdeveloping and maintaining a strong interface with industry. They also enable the School toidentify the current trends in business processes.The faculty member responding to our survey was asked to rate the subjects in the 5 areaslisted in the questionnaire. In the Management and Technology Area, he rated ‘very low’subjects like accounting and control systems, quantity surveying, project procurement &materials management, as compared to the other subjects like operations management;planning, scheduling, monitoring and control; operations research, quality, etc. Likewise hefelt that subjects like project organisation and structure, conflict management and diversitymanagement under the Behavioural Sciences area also have less importance in the PMsubject areas. Except the ones mentioned above, all other subjects were rated ‘important’ bythe faculty member.The School’s faculty members are actively contributing publications and are encouraged toattend various training programmes and conferences in the area of PM. The faculty alsoguides research work in PM related Ph. D theses. Overall it was observed, that the Schoolassigned importance to PM albeit more so in select subjects and has some coursework,training and research experience in PM.Source: NICMAR -Survey data, 201090
  • 91. CHAPTER 5DATA ANALYSIS OF SURVEY OF WORKING EXECUTIVESEMPLOYED IN PROJECT BASED COMPANIES IN INDIA5.1 IntroductionA separate questionnaire was designed to elicit the gains derived from PM education andtraining by practising executives, who are currently employed in project based organisations,and for the major part of their working life, have been working on a variety of projects (ReferAnnexure 5). The objective was to find out the efficacy of PM learning in relation toperformance on the projects. The typical sample chosen comprised graduates in engineeringand /or management who have been working with project based organisations after theirgraduation. The study sought to find out whether they had received any formal PM relatedtraining and the extent of time they were with PM in general. The idea was to determine the‘before and after’ effects of undergoing PM training.The questionnaire consisted of four parts: PART I, II, III and IV. The first part (PART I A &B) covers the executives’ professional details such as the number of years that they have beenin service, the number of projects in which they have had experience, in terms of their activeinvolvement, the value of the project, the particular role of each one of them in variousprojects, etc. PART II covered the subjects that needed to be included as learning modules inPM. Three subject areas and individual subject contained within these areas in thequestionnaire for practising executives were the same as those covered in the AcademicInstitutions’ Questionnaire. The subject Area of Economics, Finance and Strategy wasomitted. Thus the subject areas included were:A. Management and Technology AreaB. Behavioural Sciences AreaC. Information Technology AreaThe respondents were asked to rate the importance of particular subjects on a 5 point scale, inthe 3 subject areas listed above. The subjects contained herein were the same as those thatwere included in the questionnaire administered to the Academic Institutions. The specific91
  • 92. objective for this part was to find out the perception amongst the working executives aboutthe subjects that were important to them in PM careers. This was to gain an insight into whatthe respondents viewed as necessary knowledge inputs in their project related jobs. Thefindings of the study are discussed later in this chapter.Section D, was Sector Specific, wherein they were asked to rate whether teaching PM skillsthrough prior education or training were important for the variety of sectors listed such as Oil& Gas, Roads, Petrochemicals, Aerospace, Mega Property Development, etc.PART III of the questionnaire was included, to find out the extent of gains perceived by therespondents after completing the PM related training. The candidates were asked whetherthey had undergone any prior PM related training during their student graduation as part oftheir engineering curriculum. For those who had not, it was necessary to find out whether thePM related training they had received while in service, has benefitted them on parameterslike improvement of efficiency and effectiveness at work, career enhancement, monetarybenefits, changed roles and responsibilities, etc. Questions were also asked to gleaninformation about the knowledge accrued to the respondents regarding the strategicperspective of projects as well the project itself.The last part, PART IV asked the executives to rate the current state of PM education inIndia. Respondents were asked to rate on a scale of 1-5 the importance of individualparameters that were hindering the progress of PM education and training base in India. Thefive factors/parameters identified were : (i) The general lack of awareness amongst studentsand educators about PM in general, (ii) Lack of trained instructors at the undergraduate andpostgraduate level, (iii) Because PM is a practical field, it cannot be ‘taught’ in the classroom,(iv) Mastery in PM comes only from practical experience, and (v) The feeling that priorknowledge is not essential for working in this field.In rating the importance and the level of teaching the subjects, along with the simple averagepercentages of respondents opting for a particular choice, the numerical average rating scoreshave been computed and shown in brackets in front of the corresponding subjects. Theaverage rating value contained in the brackets is to be interpreted as follows0 – 1 : Not important1 – 2 : Somewhat important2 – 3 : Important3 – 4 : Very important92
  • 93. 4 – 5 : Extremely importantUsing the responses in selected areas such as experience of executives, value of projects,subject ratings and levels to be included in the PM curricula, gaining perspectives related toproject strategy, their perceptions as to why PM education is not taking roots in India, ratingsof subjects and levels to be included in the PM curricula, impact on employability etc. thepercentage share of respondents who opted for a particular rating was derived. This waspresented in the form of graphs. Thereafter the numerical average rating scores werecalculated to arrive at the overall rating assigned by the respondents. In subsequent sections,we discuss the data findings for the technical and business academic institutions fromdifferent zones in India.5.2 PART I – A & B : Respondents’ Particulars And Project Details5.2.1 PART I – AThe findings of this part, dealing with the details such as years of working experience andPM training, etc. are presented herein. Figure 29 represents the average experience of theexecutives in project environments. Most of the respondents (37.84%) had an experience ofless than five years, followed by 25.68% who had an experience between 6-10 years. 16.22%of the sample had a work experience of 11-15 years. Around 9% of the sample hadexperience of over 20 years. The average work experience of the group was 9.12 years.Figure 29: Years Of Experience Of The Working Executives93
  • 94. Figure 30 depicts whether the academic institutions from where the respondent graduated,offered PM teaching as part of the curriculum. Surprisingly 75% of the sample replied in thenegative.Figure 30: Institutes Teaching PM Related CurriculumFurther the respondents were asked whether they have at any time earlier either on their ownor by other means, undergone training in PM. Figure 31 describes the same. A huge majority(89%) of the respondents admitted to not having undergone prior training in PM.Figure 31: Executives With Prior PM Related Training94
  • 95. 5.2.2 PART I – BPART I-B elicits details from the respondents on the value of the projects in which they haveserved and the techniques employed on projects to improve project efficiency. Figures 32and 33, show the average value of the projects and the tools and techniques used to makeprojects more efficient. The single largest majority of respondents (37.29 %) had worked onprojects ranging between. 100-200 crores. However taken together, the combined majorityof the sample (39%) had worked on projects whose value ranged between 200 crs to morethan 400 crs. The average value of projects worked is 211 crores.Figure 32: Value Of Projects In RupeesThe next question was to find out the extent of the use of software and statistical techniquesby the executives during the project. The most predominant techniques used on projects werethe very basic ones such as PERT and CPM techniques, (65.31%), which are regularly taughtin technical as well as business schools. Modern techniques such as the industry wideaccepted PM software packages like Prima Vera and Microsoft Projects are hardly popularand generally not used by the executives on projects. Arrow Diagrams and FishboneDiagrams came a distant second and third respectively with 20.41% and 6.41% of the sampleindicating the use of these techniques. Refer Figure 33.95
  • 96. Figure 33: Tools And Techniques Used On Projects5.3 Part II: Project Management CurriculaThis part deals with the subject wise importance accorded by respondents on a rating scalesimilar to that of the academic institutions. The scale ranges from 1-5 with 1 being ‘NotImportant’ to 5 being ‘Extremely Important’. Findings for the same are presented below.A. Management and Technology Area: Figure 34 shows the ratings accorded by therespondents to each subject in this area. All ratings, ranged from ‘Important’ to ‘ExtremelyImportant’. The average rating scores assigned to various subjects in this area are as follows :A1: Operation Management for Projects (3.85), A2: Planning, Scheduling, Monitoring andControl Techniques (4.60), A3: Statistical Methods for Project Analysis (3.66), A4:Operation Research for Projects (3.37), A5: Project Quality Management (4.09), A6:Health/Safety/Environment in Projects (4.19), A7: Cost Estimation and Budgeting (4.46), A8:Accounting and Control Systems (4.00), A9: Quantity Surveying and Estimation (4.26), A10:Projects Marketing (3.52), A11: Project Site and Equipment Management (4.10), A12:Project Procurement and Materials Management (4.11), A13: Contract Management (4.16),A14: Process Design/Engineering/Testing/Commissioning (3.96), A15: FacilitiesEngineering and Management (3.41), A16: Logistics and Supply Chain Management (3.63),A17: Transportation Management (3.50), A18: Technology and Engineering Management(3.83), A19: Project Formulation and Appraisal (3.82) and A20: Project Engineering (3.95).It is interesting to note that ratings assigned to practically all the subjects by executives arehigher than the corresponding ratings assigned by the institutions. Several courses have on96
  • 97. the average been rated as “extremely important”. These include Planning, Scheduling,Monitoring and Control Techniques; Project Quality Management; Health, Safety andEnvironment Management; Cost Estimation and Budgeting; Quantity Surveying andEstimation; Project Site and Equipment Management; Project Procurement and MaterialsManagement; Contract Management. The rest of the subjects have been rated on average as“very important”. Furthermore, some courses are considered far more important byexecutives compared to the institutions. These are: Contract Management, Projectprocurement and Materials Management, Quantity Surveying and Estimation, Costestimation and Budgeting, Health, Safety and Environment Management. One possibleexplanation is that these courses have a strong ‘execution’ and therefore ‘practical’ bias.Naturally executives seem to realize their importance far more than the institutions.Figure 34: Subjectwise Ratings For Management And Technology AreaA1: Operation Management for Projects, A2: Planning, Scheduling, Monitoring and Control Techniques, A3: Statistical Methods for ProjectAnalysis, A4: Operation Research for Projects, A5: Project Quality Management, A6: Health/Safety/Environment in Projects, A7: CostEstimation and Budgeting, A8: Accounting and Control Systems, A9: Quantity Surveying and Estimation, A10: Projects Marketing, A11:Project Site and Equipment Management, A12: Project Procurement and Materials Management, A13: Contract Management, A14: ProcessDesign/Engineering/Testing/Commissioning, A15: Facilities Engineering and Management, A16: Logistics and Supply Chain Management,A17: Transportation Management, A18: Technology and Engineering Management, A19: Project Formulation and Appraisal and A20:Project Engineering.B. Behavioural Sciences Area: Figure 35 shows the ratings given for subjects in thisarea.97
  • 98. Figure 35: Subject-Wise Ratings For Behavioural Sciences AreaB1: Project Organisation and Structure, B2: Managerial Skills for Projects, B3: Human Resource Management in Projects, B4: Industrial/labour Relations, B5: Conflict Management and B6: Diversity Management.The overall ratings for all subjects in this area ranged from ‘Important’ to ‘Very Important’.Significant exception is the subject B2 – Managerial Skills for Projects in which majority ofthe sample (54%) rated it as ‘Extremely Important’ (avg. rating 4.42). All other subjects likeB1 - Project Organisation Structure (avg. rating 4.0), B3 - Human Resource Management(avg. rating 3.95 ), B4 - Industrial Relations (avg. rating 3.80 ), B5 - Conflict Management(avg. rating 3.60) and B6 - Diversity Management (avg. rating 3.4 ) were considered ‘VeryImportant’. Except for Managerial Skills subject which is rated much higher by theexecutives, the other subject ratings in this area are comparable to those assigned by theinstitutions.C. Information Technology Area: C1 - The average ratings for the subjects grouped inthis area are as follows: C1: PM Software – Primavera, MSP, GIS/GPS for ProjectManagement (4.18), C2: Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP, 4.07), C3: e-BusinessApplication (3.53), C4: Engineering Software (3.77) and C5: Excel/SPSS/DBMS (4.08). PMSoftware, ERP and Excel/DBMS/SPSS are viewed as ‘extremely important’ and the othertwo subjects are in the ‘very important’ category. The ratings assigned to these subjects arevery comparable to those assigned by institutions, although executives have assigned slightlylower ratings to Engg Software. Overall all the subjects in the IT area were rated in the rangeof ‘very important’ to ‘Extremely Important’. Figure 36 describes the same.Figure 36: Subjectwise Ratings For Information Technology Area98
  • 99. C1: PM Software – Primavera, MSP, GIS/GPS for Project Management, C2: Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP), C3: e-BusinessApplication, C4: Engineering Software (Auto-CAD, Staadpro, Estm8, Ansys, Auto-Revit, 3D-Max and CalQuan) and C5:Excel/SPSS/DBMS.D. Sector Specific Area: In this section, the respondents were asked to rate theimportance of PM education in specific sectors. Interestingly no particular sector was ratedwith an ‘Extremely Important’ option. All the sectors ranged from ‘Important’ to ‘VeryImportant’. The average ratings assigned to the coverage of various sectors are as follows :D1: Information Communication Technology (ICT, 3.60), D2: Telecom (3.50), D3: Researchand Development (3.52), D4: Space Exploration (3.28), D5: Technology (3.85), D6: Defence(3.29), D7: Roadways (3.98), D8: Railways (3.91), D9: Civil Aviation (3.71), D10: Ports(3.64), D11: Shipbuilding (3.41), D12: Urban Infrastructure (3.84), D13: Mega PropertyDevelopments (3.70), D14: Petrochemicals (3.56), D15: Chemical Engineering (3.26), D16:Oil and Gas Exploration (3.55), D17: Services (3.65) and D18: International ProjectManagement (3.78). On the average, coverage of all the specific sectors is considered ‘veryimportant’. Sectors like Roadways, Railways, Urban Infrastructure, Civil Aviation and MegaProperty Developments are considered relatively more important than others. ChemicalEngineering and Defence sectors have received relatively lower ratings. The executives’ratings are generally similar to the institutions’ ratings. However the executives haveassigned somewhat higher ratings to the Technology, Roadways, Railways, Civil Aviation,Urban Infrastructure sectors.Figure 37: Ratings For Importance Of PM Education In Sector Specific Areas99
  • 100. D1: Information Communication Technology (ICT), D2: Telecom, D3: Research and Development, D4: Space Exploration, D5:Technology, D6: Defence, D7: Roadways, D8: Railways, D9: Civil Aviation, D10: Ports, D11: Shipbuilding, D12: Urban Infrastructure,D13: Mega Property Developments, D14: Petrochemicals, D15: Chemical Engineering, D16: Oil and Gas Exploration, D17: Services andD18: International Project Management.5.4 PART III: Changes And Work Performance After Completion Of PMProgrammeThis part of the questionnaire was designed to find out the individual professional gains thatthe executives experienced after undergoing training in PM. The respondents were asked torate to what extent they gained in their careers in terms of the job content, promotion,enhancement in remuneration, etc. Respondents were asked to rate the various factors on ascale of 1-5 ranging from 1- Not Helped, 2- Somewhat Helped, 3- Helped, 4- HelpedSubstantially, 5- Helped Immensely, in order to differentiate the extent to which PMeducation/ training has helped in their careers. The part was divided into 2 sections A & B.The first Section A, dealt with the strategic overview gain for the executives i.e. theirimproved understanding of the project within the larger context of the organisation and itsstrategic fit. The second section, Section B, sought to identify the gains experienced at theproject level, due to the skill based training to improve project level performance. Responsesto Part III were analysed and the findings are discussed in the subsequent sections.As seen in the Figure 38, almost all the respondents have recorded their gains to be in therange of ‘Helped’ to ‘Helped Immensely’. The average ratings assigned for gains in differentareas of strategic overview included in the questionnaire are as follows :100
  • 101. A1: To get an integrated view of the project (3.59), A2: Role clarity (3.87), A3: WorkBreakdown Structure and Responsibility mapping (4.1), A4: Understanding the exactplacement of a project in the overall corporate strategy (3.75), A5: Importance of EarnedValue of a project to the company (3.74), A6: Understanding project profitability (3.92), A7:Importance of Human relations and Conflict management in project success (3.71) and A8:Management vision (3.91). Gain in the area of Work Breakdown Structure and ResponsibilityMapping is rated ‘ helped immensely. In all the remaining areas, the gains are rated ‘ helpedsubstantially’. Clearly the training in PM helped executives very substantially in gaining abetter strategic overview of the projects.Figure 38: Gaining Perspectives Related To The Strategic Context Of ProjectsA1: To get an integrated view of the project, A2: Role clarity, A3: Work Breakdown Structure and Responsibility mapping, A4:Understanding the exact placement of a project in the overall corporate strategy, A5: Importance of Earned Value of a project to thecompany, A6: Understanding project profitability, A7: Importance of Human relations and Conflict management in project success and A8:Management vision.Section B of this part aimed at finding out the direct project related gains to the respondentswith reference to the direct project management skills. Figure 39 shows the response. Heretoo, respondents were near unanimous in ascribing gains by way of direct improvement oftheir project based skills after undergoing training. A highly significant majority opted infavour of ‘Helped Substantially’ to ‘Helped Immensely’ on almost all parameters. Theaverage ratings assigned are : B1 - Importance of Project Planning and Scheduling (4.39); B2–Importance of Monitoring and Control (4.20); B3 – Project Contract Management (4.02);B4 - (4.01) B5-Costing (4.01), B6 –HSE (3.86), B7 -Quality Management (3.97) and B8 -101
  • 102. Communication Skills (3.89). The gains derived in Project Planning, Scheduling, Monitoringand Control are particularly noteworthy.Figure 39: Understanding Of Project ContextB1: Importance of Project Planning/Scheduling/Execution, B2: Importance of Monitoring & Control, B3: Importance of ContractManagement, B4: Project Risk Management, B5: Project Costing, B6: Importance of Health/Safety/Environment, B7: Quality Management,B8: Communication and Soft SkillsAfter assessing the gains that executives derived from understanding the Strategic andProjects contexts, they were asked to assess the gains that they perceive to have received intheir individual careers after undergoing PM training. Figure 40 shows the gains accrued toan individual in his/her career range in almost all areas of personal development, namelydecision making power, and interpersonal relations and conflict resolution.Very clear gains were attributed by the respondents on two factors, namely improvement indecision making ability (33%) in their project setting and an improved understanding ofhuman related factors i.e. interpersonal relations and conflict resolution (30%). Interestingly,25% of the respondents in the sample claimed that they experienced higher responsibilitycoming their way after completion of PM training. On the whole there appears to be a hugegain in terms of the enrichment and enlargement aspects of the jobFigure 40: Gains In The Individual’s Career102
  • 103. 5.5 PART IV: Current Position Of Project Management In IndiaThis Section attempts to find out the perceptions of the executives regarding the factors thatmatter the most in the systematic establishment of PM education. This was thought to benecessary since it would enable us to study the executives’ viewpoints regarding the set offactors they think, are preventing PM education from taking firm roots in India. Figure 41summarises the perceptions of these executives in the form of a bar diagram. The respondentswere asked to rate the importance of different factors on scale of 1-5 with 1 – Not Important;2 – Somewhat Important; 3 – Important; 4 – Very Important; 5 – Extremely Important. Theaverage ratings assigned to the factors considered in this analysis are :Q1- The Lack Of Awareness Amongst Students And Educators ( 3.70), Q2 -The ImportanceOf Trained Instructors At Undergraduate And Post Graduate Levels ( 3.69), Q3 - Being APractical Field It Cannot Be ‘Taught’ In The Classroom (3.43), Q4 - Mastery In PM IsAcquired Only Through Practice (3.62), Q5 – Importance Of Prior Knowledge In This Field(3.29). From the responses of the executives, lack of awareness of PM among students andeducators, lack of trained teachers, greater practice orientation of PM are the key factorsemerging as the main inhibiting factors affecting the growth of PM education.Figure 41: Factors In Order Of Importance Affecting Growth Of PM Education103
  • 104. Q1- Importance of awareness amongst students and educators, Q2- Importance of trained instructors at undergraduate and postgraduatelevels, Q3- It is more practical so practical training is required, Q4- Mastery only comes through practical experience,Q 5- Importance ofprior knowledge in the field of PM.ConclusionMajority of the practising executives responding to the questionnaire were from the middle-management cadre, from technical institutions with no prior exposure to PM training. Most ofthese were working on projects with value between 200–300 crores using very elementaryPM techniques such as PERT/CPM.It is interesting to note that ratings assigned to practically all the subjects in the Managementand Technology area by executives are higher than the corresponding ratings assigned by theinstitutions. Several courses have on the average been rated as “ extremely important”. Theseinclude Planning, Scheduling, Monitoring and Control Techniques; Project QualityManagement; Health, Safety and Environment Management; Cost Estimation and Budgeting;Quantity Surveying and Estimation; Project Site and Equipment Management; ProjectProcurement and Materials Management; Contract Management. The rest of the subjectshave been rated on average as “ very important”. Furthermore, some courses are consideredfar more important by executives compared to the institutions. These are : ContractManagement, Project procurement and Materials Management, Quantity Surveying andEstimation, Cost estimation and Budgeting, Health, Safety and Environment Management.One possible explanation is that these courses have a strong ‘execution’ and therefore104
  • 105. ‘practical’ bias. Naturally executives seem to realize their importance far more than theinstitutions.In the Behavioural Sciences area, the overall ratings for all subjects in this area averaged‘Very Important’, except for Managerial Skills subject rated ‘extremely important’. Thissubject w is rated much higher by the executives, while the other subject ratings in this areaare comparable to those assigned by the institutions.Overall all the subjects in the IT area were rated in the range of ‘very important’ to‘Extremely Important’. PM Software, ERP and Excel/DBMS/SPSS are rated ‘ extremelyimportant’ and the other subjects are rated ‘very important’. The ratings assigned to thesesubjects are very comparable to those assigned by institutions, although executives haveassigned slightly lower ratings to Engg Software.On the average, coverage of all the specific sectors is considered ‘very important’. Sectorslike Roadways, Railways, Urban Infrastructure, Civil Aviation and Mega PropertyDevelopments are considered relatively more important than others. Chemical Engineeringand Defence sectors have received relatively lower ratings. The executives’ ratings aregenerally similar to the institutions’ ratings. However the executives have assigned somewhathigher ratings to the Technology, Roadways, Railways, Civil Aviation, Urban Infrastructuresectors.In terms of gains derived in developing a better strategic overview of projects, PM training ‘helped immensely’ in the area of Work Breakdown Structure and Responsibility Mapping.Training ‘ helped substantially’ in all the remaining areas listed. Clearly the training in PMhelped executives very substantially in gaining a better strategic overview of the projects.At the direct project level, training ‘helped immensely’ in Project Planning, Scheduling,Monitoring and Control. Training ‘ helped substantially’ in other areas including ContractManagement, Costing, HSE, Quality Management and Communication Skills. The gainsderived in Project Planning, Scheduling, Monitoring and Control are particularly noteworthy.In individual career enhancement, executives saw improvement on two factors, namelyimproved decision making ability and improved understanding of human related factors i.e.interpersonal relations and conflict resolution. Some experienced higher responsibilitycoming their way after completion of PM training. On the whole there appear to be asignificant gains in terms of the enrichment and enlargement aspects of the job.105
  • 106. From the responses of the executives, lack of awareness of PM among students andeducators, lack of trained teachers and greater practice orientation of PM are the key factorsemerging as the main inhibiting factors affecting the growth of PM education.Box No.7 Mr. A.K. Asthana, Asst. General Manager, Afcons Ltd.106
  • 107. Mr. A.K. Asthana enrolled in the Executive Post Graduate Project Management (EPGPM)Programme at the National Institute of Construction Management (NICMAR), Pune in theyear 2005-06 batch for a period of one year. The EPGPM is designed for WorkingExecutives, working in the junior and middle management levels especially at the projectsites. This programme aims at enhancing the skills in project planning, execution, monitoring,contract management, quality, safety and technology. Another important component of this isthe enhancement of their communication skills and soft skills for better interpersonalrelations and leadership abilities. Approximately 270 hours of teaching is imparted to theparticipants, and regular examinations on the curriculum, conducted at intervals.Mr. Asthana recounts the positive changes that he experienced in his professional career,after undergoing the course at NICMAR. According to him, the course made a difference intwo major ways a) It changed his perceptions and attitude in looking at the issues in hisprofessional work life, in all areas such as contract management, project management,conflict resolution, better communication vertically as well as laterally and b) Thetremendous confidence that he experienced after ‘coming out of the process of training’. Headmitted that having adapted the learning in his own way at the workplace, he became moreconfident and therefore, it also helped to achieve recognition in his career.Further Mr. Asthana admits that the training exposed him to the concept of continuousimprovement and working in a systematic way. He learnt time management and cultivated asystematic working style which has overall led him to work efficiently and also achieve awork life balance. Lastly Asthana now, leads his teams in a way that all members areprovided a platform to perform to the best of their ability. He provides result orientedsupport, training system for skills development, judges the probable conflict points and stepsin to remove them, in a timely manner.After the completion of the course at NICMAR, Mr. Asthana was immediately promoted toSenior Manager and thereafter he is currently designated Assistant General Manager in aspace of approximately four years at AFCONS.Source: Email to NICMAR faculty.CHAPTER 6107
  • 108. DATA ANALYSIS OF SURVEY OF HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGERSEMPLOYED IN PROJECT-BASED COMPANIES IN INDIA6.1 IntroductionIt was considered necessary to incorporate the views of the industry on Project Management(PM) education and training. It was decided to seek responses from the Human ResourceDepartments of project based organisations, as human resource managers are directlyinvolved in the design and deployment of PM training and development activities within theirorganisations. So, in project based organisations, a cross section of human resource managerswere approached from heavy engineering industries, construction, information technologyand banking services.The questionnaire is divided into two Parts. PART I seeks details about the generalinformation and opinions of the HR executives and officers on PM training within theirorganisations. It also covers information on current and past initiatives undertaken fortraining and development of project related skills and the cadre/s of employees that thecompany trains in this area. (Refer Annex 6).Part II, deals with the set of factors that are considered important by the organisations forimparting PM training and develop PM competencies amongst their executives. Part II (B) ofthe questionnaire, also has questions on the preferred training methods and the trainingoutcomes considered by the human resource managers. Part II (C) deals with the level oftraining and the grades of the employees for whom PM related training is directed. Part II (D)deals with the perceptions of the managers on the extent of costs incurred on the training.Part II (E) focuses on the perceived benefits that accrue from the training in PM. Part II (F)deals with the set of Project Management (PM) related fields essential to develop PMcompetencies. Part II (G) is based on the opinions of the efficacy of PM training in PMimparted by the various training entities. Part II (H) attempts to find out if the companyvalues international accreditation extended to executives undergoing PM training as an addedbenefit.All questions within the various parts of this questionnaire were to be rated on a scale of 1-5with 1 indicating the least score accorded to the specific question and 5 being the highest, bythe respondent. Presented below are the findings from the survey.108
  • 109. In rating the response on various issues like the period of inception of PM training incompanies, factors considered essential before planning PM training programmes, trainingcost benefits, training efficacy, etc. along with the simple average percentages of respondentsopting for a particular choice presented graphically, the numerical average rating scores havebeen computed and shown in brackets in front of the corresponding subjects.6.2 PART I : Respondents’ ParticularsThe questions in this section dealt with issues regarding the earlier training effort of thecompanies. Respondents were asked whether their respective companies have in the pasttrained their executives in PM. An overwhelming 95% of the respondents answeredaffirmatively, while only 5% replied in the negative. This is a very encouraging finding.Refer Figure 43Figure 42: Companies With Prior PM Training RecordAs seen in Figure 43, majority of the companies have taken to specialised PM related trainingless than 5 years ago (63%), followed by companies that have begun the process between 5-10 yrs ago (27%). Only 5% each of the respondents have been organising training forexecutives for longer periods (avg. 5.13 years). This indicates that on the average, therespondents have taken steps to initiate PM training in the past five years.Figure 43: Inception Of PM Training In Companies109
  • 110. As regards the most frequently deputed cadre/s of personnel for PM related training byproject based companies, it is observed that the majority of executives sent for training weredrawn from the managerial cadre (39%), followed by the technical and non technicalcategory (30%), and operational staff (25%) Surprisingly, the employee category of purelytechnical personnel was the least frequently selected for PM based training. Refer Figure 44.Figure 44: Category Of Employees Sent For PM TrainingAs for the ‘level’ or grade of managers that were chosen for training, the level i.e. seniority ofthe executives was given the highest consideration by the company The most frequentlychosen employees were drawn from the middle level manager group (34%), closely followedby the senior level managers (32%), junior level managers ( 22%) and supervisory personnel( 12%). Clearly most training effort is directed at middle and senior levels of management.Refer Figure 45.110
  • 111. Figure 45: Level/ Grade Of Managers Chosen For PM TrainingIn summary, Part I shows that companies in the sample have embarked on PM relatedtraining fairly recently and prefer to deploy employees in the managerial cadre for training.Within this section of employees, the most frequently chosen are the middle and seniormanagers for receiving PM training.6.3 PART II: Dimensions Of Project Management Training DesignA. Essentiality Of Factors For Executives In Developing PM CompetenciesPart II of the Human Resource Managers questionnaire aimed at finding out the factors thatare considered essential by the company for developing PM competencies. These range frommandatory ones e.g. like ‘stipulation in the contract’, to project skill related, like employee’sability to plan, execute, monitor and control projects or HR considerations like employeeretention, career development of individuals in the organisation and so on. Fifteen differentfactors were listed out for consideration. The respondents were asked to rate on a scale of 1-5,how essential a particular factor was while considering PM training for the company’sexecutives. Figure 46 presents the findings.The average ratings assigned to various factors are as follows:M1-Stipulation in the contract (3.6), M2- Improving the effectiveness of project operations(3.85), M3- Understanding Global projects (3.95), M4- Percieved Gains from PM training111
  • 112. (4.10), M5- Human Resource Development for better performance (3.85), M6- Employeeretention (4.20), M 7- Career development (4.20), M8- Prerequisite for project basedorganisation (4.00), M9-Improves ability to bid for complex projects (4.00), M10- Improvesability to execute complex projects (4.20), M11- Improves ability to monitor and controlprojects (4.20), M12- Improves ability to plan projects (4.30), M13- Improves ability tomanage contracts in projects (4.20), M14- Improves ability to deliver projects in right time,costs and quality (4.40).Several factors are rated as ‘extremely high essentiality’ factors. These include : Perceivedgains from PM training, Employee retention, Career development, Ability to executecomplex projects, Ability to monitor and control projects, Ability to plan projects, Ability tomanage contracts in projects, Ability to deliver projects in right time, costs and quality. Allthe other factors are rated as ‘very high essentiality’ factors. The HR managers are seen tostrongly endorse all the factors listed in the study. They emphasize particularly factors likeproject planning, monitoring & control; execution of complex projects; employee careerdevelopment and retention; contract management and project delivery.Figure 46: Factors Considered On A Scale Of Essentiality In PM TrainingM1-Stipulation in the contract, M2- Improving the effectiveness of project operations, M3- Understanding Global projects, M4- PercievedGains from PM training, M5- Human Resource Development for better performance, M6- Employee retention, M 7- Career development, M8- Prerequisite for project based organisation, M9-Improves ability to bid for complex projects, M10- Improves ability to execute complexprojects, M 11- Improves ability to monitor and control projects, M 12- Improves ability to plan projects, M13- Improves ability to managecontracts in projects, M14- Improves ability to deliver projects in right time, costs and quality.B. This Section contained questions to elicit information regarding the most preferredtype of training method preferred by HR managers and the most significant outcomes of thetraining that were desired before designing the training. Figure 47 shows the type of trainingmost preferred in the organisation. It was found that 41% of the sample laid emphasis on the112
  • 113. ‘In house Training’ method. The next preferred options (28% each) were ‘On the Job’ and‘On the Job with Classroom Training’. Only 3% of the sample sent employees to obtain acomprehensive formal diploma/degree qualification offered by academic institutions.Figure 47: Type Of TrainingThe outcomes considered most important by the HR Managers before planning the training ofexecutives, are shown in Figure 48. The most prominent outcome was the improvement ofthe skills of the executives. The next key outcome is the building of the knowledge base ofthe executives (28%) followed by competencies (26%). Interestingly the ‘soft’ skill, such asbuilding the ‘right’ attitude has not been considered a dominant outcome (13%). In summaryHR managers look to improve skills, knowledge and competencies of executives from PMtraining. Given that both skills and knowledge are key components of competencies, trainingmust clearly aim at improving skills and knowledgebase of executives.Figure 48: Predominant Outcome Of The Training113
  • 114. C. This Section deals with the level of training (Elementary/Basic/Advanced/Strategic)imparted to a particular grade of executives (Operatives/ Supervisory/Middle level/Seniorlevel), to comprehend the ‘depth’ of PM based training offered in companies. Figure 49represents the preferences given by the HR managers for the same. The training levels mostpreferred for various grades of executives are as follows : Operatives : Elementary training(48%), Supervisory : Basic training (47%), Middle level managers : Advanced training(47%), Senior Level executives : Strategic training (61%). These findings are along expectedlines, and highlight a planned approach for PM training.Figure 49: Type Of Training And Level Of ExecutivesSent For PM Based TrainingD. This section deals with the costs of PM based training covering items like trainingcosts, course material, trainees’ salary and loss of productivity during the training period, etc.114
  • 115. considered expensive by the HR managers. Figure 50 depicts the same. On almost all factors,the HR managers’ view was that the training of trainer, materials, expenses of trainees, costsof facilities and equipment etc. are ‘Quite Expensive’. The average ratings assigned to thevarious factors considered are as follows : Trainees’ salaries and time (3.6), Materials fortraining (3.45), Expenses for trainers (3.5), Expenses for trainees (3.45), Cost of facilities andequipment (3.7), Lost productivity (3.05).Figure 50: Ratings Of Training Costs Of PM TrainingN1- Trainer’s salary and time, N2- Trainee’s salary and time, N3- Materials for training, N4-Expenses for trainers, N5- Expenses fortrainees, N6- Cost of facilities and equipment, N7- Lost productivity.Overall the perception amongst the respondents is that PM training is quite expensive.However it is very encouraging to note the lowest rating assigned to the factor N7 – LostProductivity of executives, which implies that HR managers do not regard the loss ofproductivity of executives during their absence to be as expensive as other factors, whichthey are quite willing to accept in anticipation of the large scale benefits expected fromtrainingE. This Section attempts to find out the benefits of PM based training to companies.Benefits included were: increase in production, reduction of errors, employee retention, lesssupervision, ability to use new skills, attitudinal changes and growth in business/revenue.Respondents were asked to rate on a 5 point scale, with 1 being the rating of least beneficialto 5 being highly beneficial. The findings in this section were quite satisfactory. The overall115
  • 116. ratings on all factors were in the range of ‘Beneficial’, ‘Quite Beneficial’ and ‘HighlyBeneficial’. The average ratings assigned to various factors considered are as follows :K1- Increase in production/ performance (3.15), K2- Reduction in errors and improvement ofsafety standards (3.47), K3- Employee retention (3.68), K4- Less supervision necessary(3.57), K5- Ability to use new skills and capabilities (3.52), K6- Improved deliveryperformance in terms of cost, quality and time (3.68), K7- Attitude changes (3.60), K8-Growth of business oportunities (3.68). On the average, all factors are rated ‘Quite benefitial’which is very encouraging. It is quite interesting to note that HR managers strongly endorsebenefits derived from Attitude changes. One factor - Increase in production / performance, isnot viewed as benefitial as other factors. One interpreation of the findings is that the HR viewdirect benefits from training to be more discernible in ‘process improvement’ rather than‘output improvement’. Figure 51 shows the results for this section.Figure 51: Ratings Of Benefits Of TrainingK1- Increase in production/ performance, K2- Reduction in errors and improvement of safety standards, K3- Employee retention, K4- Lesssupervision necessary,K5- Ability to use new skills and capabilities, K6- Improved delivery performance in terms of cost, quality and time,K7- Attitude changes, K8- Growth of business oportunities.F. This Section deals with the efficacy of PM based training. An HR manager hasvarious options to choose from while designing and deploying training within the company.Technical and business institutions offer training to companies in the form of open ExecutiveDevelopment Programmes, customised Company based Programmes or medium/longduration Executive Education Programmes. Also available are Independent Trainers,Certified Franchisee Trainers, and Internationally Certified Trainers who offer PM based116
  • 117. training. Companies may also exercise the option of employing its own senior andexperienced executives to impart in house training in specific PM areas. The company mayencourage the executives to undergo training at the executives’ own expense and effort.Therefore it was necessary to find out the perception of the efficacy that HR managersattribute to each of the above mentioned training providers. Figure 52 shows the ratingsaccorded by the respondents to the same.The average ratings obtained by various options are as follows :U1-Technical/ Business Institute (3.60), U2- Independent trainer (3.65), U3- Certifiedfranchisee trainer (3.80), U4- Internationally certified trainer (3.70), U5- In house trainers(3.40), U6- Self Training (2.75). The highest average rating is for Certified FranchiseeTrainers, followed by Internationally Certified Trainers, Independent Trainers and Academicinstitutions. In house trainers are not rated as high on efficacy. The high ratings for certifiedfranchisee trainers, international certified trainers and independent trainers may be attributedto the flexibility and highly focussed approach of these trainers in imparting PM basedtraining as per the requirements of the company. Self training Method had the least overallpreference, implying that even HR managers do not prefer to leave PM training to theindividuals per se. Thus most of the options are rated ‘Quite efficacious’ except the Selftraining Method which is rated just ‘efficacious’.However it is important to mention that the highest percentage preference in the ‘MostEfficacious’ category was assigned to academic institutions, with 20% of the respondentsindicating that Academic Institutions are the ‘Most Efficacious’ medium of impartingtraining in PM. It could be inferred that because such institutions have a good concentrationof highly qualified faculty, a fair degree of specialised competence available and researchbeing carried out in institutions, the training content may reflect the same. Also thereasonable cost of such institutions is an added advantage in favour of academic institutions.However the downside could be that academic institutions may not always be able toeffectively deliver purely custom designed training programmes. Figure 52 shows thedistribution of scores amongst the various Trainer Options and Efficacy ratings attributed toeach by the respondents.Figure 52: Efficacy Ratings Of Various Types Of Trainer Options117
  • 118. U1-Technical/ Business Institute, U2- Independent trainer, U3- Certified franchisee trainer, U4- Internationally certified trainer, U5- Inhouse trainers, U6- Self Training.G. In this Section, the respondents were asked to list the top five training institutionswhere they regularly sent their executives for PM training. Most of the organisations adopt inhouse training techniques and therefore were not able to respond effectively to this question.The most frequent institutions of PM related training appeared to be the IITs/IIMs/ IndianInstitute of Planning and Management together (57.14%), followed by in house trainers andNICMAR. Considering that NICMAR is a single entity, its share of 11.43% in PM training ismost enviable by comparable industry standards.Figure 53: Most Preferred Training Options Of HR ManagersH. This Section sought to find out whether an international accreditation accompanyingthe training was considered of value and had potential benefits to their organisations. Figure54 shows the preferences of the sample. It is reassuring to know that a clear 47% of the118
  • 119. respondents consider it to be of value. Of the 53% who opted for ‘Maybe’, the reason couldbe because the managers may not be fully aware of the benefits of international accreditationwith respect to their organisation.Figure 54: Value Of An International Accreditation Accompanying PMTraining By OrganisationsConclusion:On the average, most of the companies have taken steps to initiate PM training in the pastfive years. The companies generally prefer to deploy employees in the managerial cadre fortraining. Within this section of employees, the most frequently chosen are the middle andsenior managers for receiving PM training.For deputing executives for training, the companies particularly emphasize the followingfactors : Perceived gains from PM training, Employee retention, Career development, Abilityto execute complex projects, Ability to monitor and control projects, Ability to plan projects,Ability to manage contracts in projects, Ability to deliver projects in right time, costs andquality. Thus project planning, monitoring & control; execution of complex projects andemployee retention & career development emerge as the key areas for seeking training inputs.‘In house Training’, ‘On the Job Training’ and ‘On the Job with Classroom Training’ are themost preferred methods of training. Given that both skills and knowledge are key componentsof competencies, training must clearly aim at improving skills and knowledge base ofexecutives. The training levels most preferred for various grades of executives are :Operatives : Elementary training, Supervisory : Basic training, Middle level managers :119
  • 120. Advanced training, Senior Level executives : Strategic training. These findings highlight aplanned approach for PM training.Overall the perception amongst the HR managers is that PM training is quite expensive vis avis majority of the factors such as : Trainees’ salaries and time, Materials for training,Expenses for trainers, Expenses for trainees, Cost of facilities and equipment, Lostproductivity. However the lowest cost rating assigned to the factor ‘Lost Productivity ofexecutives’ implies that HR managers do not mind the loss of productivity of executivesduring their absence, which they feel will be more than compensated by the large scalebenefits expected from training.HR managers view training to be ‘quite benefitial’ on all the factors considered including :Increase in production/ performance, Reduction in errors and improvement of safetystandards, Employee retention, Lesser supervision, Ability to use new skills and capabilities,Improved delivery performance, Attitude changes, and Growth of business oportunities. HRmanagers strongly endorse the benefits derived from Attitude changes. One factor - Increasein production / performance, is not viewed as benefitial as other factors. One interpreation isthat they look for direct benefits from training in ‘process improvement’ rather than ‘outputimprovement’.Certified Franchisee Trainers are considered most efficacious training providers, followed byInternationally Certified Trainers, Independent Trainers and Academic institutions. This maybe attributed to the flexibility and highly focussed approach of these trainers. However it isimportant to mention that the highest percentage preference in the ‘Most Efficacious’category was assigned to academic institutions. Their good concentration of highly qualifiedfaculty, a fair degree of specialised competence and research experience are a great advantagefor developing good training content. The reasonable cost of such institutions is an addedadvantage. However the downside is that they may not always be able to effectively deliverpurely custom designed training programmes. The most frequent academic institutions forPM related training appear to be the management institutions together as group, followed byin house trainers and NICMAR. Considering that NICMAR is a single entity, its share of11.43% in PM training is most enviable by comparable industry standards. It is reassuring toknow that the HR managers consider international accreditation to be of value. But themanagers may not be fully aware of the benefits of international accreditation with respect totheir organisation.120
  • 121. CHAPTER 7INTERPRETATIONS OF DATA ANALYSIS AND FINDINGS OF PMISURVEY121
  • 122. 7.1 IntroductionAll the previous chapters have covered the various aspects of research study and the findingson PMI education in India. A literature review in Chapter 2, covering the field of PMprovides the overall status of PM education and research in India, when compared to theglobal levels and standards. This chapter presents the analysis and inferences drawn from thefindings of the secondary literature as well as the primary survey. Also included, is astatistical analysis of some important areas that would help highlight some key findings onPM education in India, using Multiple Regression and Factor Analysis techniques.While India’s western counterparts have established the formal growth and systematic studyof PM and created for it a formal Body of Knowledge (BoK) to stimulate applied andtheoretical research, India appears to be lagging considerably behind. Drawing a comparisonwith her closest neighbour China, the latter appears far ahead in the widespread promotion ofPM education, training and research, with the government and industry sponsoring seriousinitiatives in this area. The scenario in China appears overwhelmingly in favour of followinga systems driven approach to PM propagation among the stakeholders, with a view tofacilitate the procurement and execution of large sized projects in core, key and heavy sectorsas well as manufacturing.On a global scale, it is seen that PM as a discipline has emerged slowly and steadily fromsuch established disciplines like Operations Management, long impacting the manufacturingsector for over a century. Bibliometric studies presented in the form of research papers inleading journals, namely ‘International Journal of Project Management®’and ‘ProjectManagement Journal®’dedicated solely to PM, reveal the steady transition of PM researchfrom very limited focus areas of research interests, such as Project Planning, Scheduling,Monitoring and Control, Contract Management, Project Organisation Structure, etc into moreuniversal subject matters such as Risk Management, Partnerships and Alliances, ProgrammeManagement, Leadership, Team building in cross cultural project settings, and so on.In India, the discipline of Operations Management remains in greater focus and enjoysconsiderable popularity and familiarity with steady amount of research being published onthe application of Operations Management techniques in manufacturing and services sectors.However, issues and problems surrounding PM are very sparsely researched and publishedby the academic community of technical and business schools in India. As is well known, forany discipline, to acquire the status of a formal academic discipline, a sustained quantum of122
  • 123. original research and innovation need to be undertaken and findings disseminated throughforums such as paper publications, and/or conferences, etc. In fact in India, very few offersuch avenues, with the exceptions like the NICMAR Journal of Construction Managementwhich supports empirical and applied research in this area. The earlier search contained inChapter 2 (p. 35) points to a very low generation of international research work emanatingdirectly from India. On the backdrop of the huge investments in project works by the publicand private sectors, 26 articles in a span of over 22 years is an issue of grave concern. (p. 35)7.1.2 Commentary On The Extent And Depth Of PM Education And Research InIndiaThe general awareness of project management research is not only modest amongst theeducational institutions but also further exacerbated by the general lack of public or privatefunding to carry out research in this area. A construct to describe this phenomenon isrepresented in Figure 55, which shows the position of India compared to other countries visa vis PM education and research. The X axis shows the ‘extent of PM’ education and practiceprevalent in the country in terms of the widespread adherence of the discipline amongstacademic institutions and civil society in general (project oriented society). The Y axis showsthe ‘depth of PM’, as signified by the evolution of the discipline of PM due to sustainedresearch in the area. This construct has been arrived at based upon the secondary literatureavailable and contained in Chapter 2.As seen in Figure 55, the USA, certain West European countries, UK, Australia and NewZealand are far ahead in the penetration of PM as a taught discipline in academic institutions,in research and practice amongst industry as well as in society at large. Russia and China aremoving forward quite rapidly to catch up and close the advantage of these nations. Thesecountries are encouraged by the formal agencies in the government as well as professionalassociations that support and encourage the growth of PM education. However at the momentthey may appear slightly behind in PM research as compared to the developed nations but arecatching up very fast.In the category of Business Schools, India has a total of 1,516 institutions that offer Mastersin Business Administration and Post Graduate Diploma in Management programmes. Asizeable number of institutions, 2,388 in all, offer technical engineering education at theundergraduate and post graduate levels. Another 1,970 institutions were awaiting approvalwith the apex AICTE approving body as in 2008. (Refer AICTE data on Page Nos.16 and 17123
  • 124. and Table No. 3 & 4 respectively). This indicates a very high rate of growth in technical andmanagement education in the Indian polity. However, the number of schools offering eitherdedicated courses in PM or courses with this nomenclature within a wider discipline, appearfew and far between.India is yet to catch up in terms of widespread teaching and use of PM principles andtechniques by industry and society. Also in case of ‘depth of PM’, there is almost negligibleresearch taking place in the country as mentioned earlier in this chapter. Considering thenumber of academic institutions engaged in education in technical and business areas, the rateof publications is too low. Most of the 2611research papers contained in the IJPM®arecontributed by the Indian Institutes of Technology, (Delhi/Madras/Kharagpur) followed byscientists from the Indian defence establishments, the industry practitioners and one eachfrom NIT, IIM (Indore), NITIE and IBS respectively.Figure 55: Mapping PM Penetration In Across The WorldThe survey of all three stakeholders namely, the academic institutions imparting PM relatededucation, the working executives serving in project based companies in India and the humanresource managers who are engaged in designing and deploying training related to PMyielded data which has been presented and analysed using descriptive statistics in theprevious chapters viz. Chapters 4, 5 and 6.In this chapter we attempt to draw statistical inferences from the data obtained. Additionally,an in depth analysis of key issues that require to be treated using advanced statistical analysiswas found necessary to bring out a more precise and meaningful understanding.11Search of all IJPM issues between 1988 -2010, conducted on 18thSeptember 2010, http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleListURL&_method=list&_ArticleListID=1472440278&_sort=r&_st=13&view=c&_acct=C000072695&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=7735364&md5=398b1a5fbe7252198a37055d9198832e&searchtype=a124
  • 125. 7.2 Institutional Data Analysis And InferencesThe survey coverage was well dispersed geographically and included fair representation ofgovernment run as well as private academic technical and management institutions. Theinclusion of private institutions in the sample was because a) These are generally known fortheir flexibility and responsiveness in introduction of new courses because it is perceived asoffering a competitive advantage to them, b) These courses improve the employability of thestudents, due their immediate applicability and contemporary nature, c) PM education andtraining have wide global acceptance and mobility. In contrast, government run institutionsare perceived as more ‘rule bound’. The private institutions tend to use this as an effective‘leverage’ to attract industry users.The technical institutions are mostly found in the southern parts of India and similarly it isreflected in the proportion of the sample chosen by the researchers. Most of these institutionsare private, self funded ones. The respondents who took part in the survey were highlyexperienced, with the maximum (61.73%) falling in the category of 16-30 years experience(avg. experience 21.27 years). These individuals are most likely to have witnessed the radicalchanges that have taken place in the economy post liberalisation of 1991, as well as theburgeoning growth of infrastructure projects, IT and telecom, ports and shipping, railwaysand urban development projects. It can be inferred that the respondents possessed appropriateexperience and credibility to do justice to the questionnaire.From the findings, it appears that the respondents consider the current state of PM educationin India to be at best, ‘fair’. Almost all the institutions covered had earlier introduced coursesin PM at the undergraduate or the postgraduate levels. A very small fraction of therespondents had introduced these at advanced levels. One can infer that due to its limitedpenetration amongst academic institutions and mostly at undergraduate and graduate levels,PM in India continues to remain understated. Pursuit of PM at doctoral level programmeswas reported by only 17% of the sample, and a closer analysis reveals that these were offeredonly by India’s elite institutes of technology and management. Our survey rules in favour ofPM education to be made mandatory in engineering, management, architecture, infrastructureand planning schools as perceived by the experienced faculty.PM educational curricula must necessarily draw from established theoretical knowledge aswell as focus on generating new knowledge after researching real time practice. Thus theclassification of subject matter that could be deemed essential for inclusion in PM curricula125
  • 126. was drawn up and presented for response. The courses were grouped into four Areas namely,A) Management and Technology Area, B) Strategy, Economics and Finance Area, C)Behavioural Sciences Area and D) Information Technology Area.The subjects to be included in the Management and Technology Area are highly favoured bythe academics for inclusion in the syllabus at the undergraduate and postgraduate levels.Subjects such as: (i) Operations Management, (ii) Planning, Scheduling, Monitoring andControl (iii) Statistical Methods for Project Analysis, (iv) Operations Research for Projects,(v) Projects Quality Management and (vi)Health, Safety and Environment in Projects, (vii)Cost Estimation & Budgeting and (viii) Accounting and Control Systems are most favouredamong other subjects in this area.A Factor Analysis (FA) carried out on all the subjects to obtain the most important subjects,is described further on in this chapter. In case of Strategy, Finance and Economics Area, mostof the respondents preferred that it be taught at post graduate levels. In the BehaviouralSciences Area, the academics did not rate the subject area of as much importance as theexecutives did. Clearly the perception of the academics regarding this subject area differsgreatly from those of the practising executives. In case of the Information Technology Area,the responding faculty unanimously voiced its importance for inclusion in the curriculum.The same was true for the practicing executives in this area.Based on the data obtained in the study, all of the hypotheses have been accepted as nullhypotheses and have been proved, except Hypothesis 1 which refers to the overall status ofPM education in India ‘being poor’. Data shows that the alternative hypothesis requires to beaccepted. Thus in Hypothesis No.1, it can be said that the overall status of PM education inIndia was found to be ‘not poor’ (p. 43). It can be inferred that there is already a highpotential existing in India for PM education to grow substantially in the coming years.Continuing the discussion on the data obtained on importance of various Subject Areas,another related issue pertinent to PM education was the ‘Level’ at which the Areas and theindividual subjects should be taught. The data obtained points to interesting responses. Theacademics voted unequivocally in support of inclusion of the subjects in the Management andTechnology Area at the postgraduate level and even at the undergraduate level. In case of theStrategy, Economics and Finance Area, almost all subjects were rated very high inimportance. A small proportion of the sample (20%) gave lower importance to subjects likeLegal, Commercial & Taxation Aspects of Projects, Project Joint Ventures, Strategic126
  • 127. Alliances, and SPVs. It could be inferred that the academics were not sure whether the abovesubjects required to be assigned the status of a full course or whether they could be taught assuch within an existing discipline like Legal Aspects in Projects or International ProjectManagement.The majority of the respondents rated this area ranging from ‘Important’ to ‘Very Important’.The average ratings for the subjects grouped in this Area are : On the average, all subjects inthe category namely : Project Organization and Structure, Managerial Skills, HumanResource Management in Project, Industrial / Labour Relations, Conflict Management,Diversity Management are found to be very important, with slightly less importance forConflict Management and Diversity Management.It is well known in the industry that the following are crucial areas in projects: Conflicts (atdepartmental, project, resource allocation, or interpersonal levels) and Diversity (of cultures,backgrounds, behavioural processes & systems). They require systematic understanding andtreatment because project scenarios have distinct characteristics, contexts and compulsions ascompared to traditional organisational establishments. A section of the academics evenwanted conflict management to be taught at the Applied Research level and majority at thepost graduate level. A very small percentage opted for Conflict Management to be included atthe undergraduate level or at a certificate level. The executives assign high ratings to theseareas. The executives feel that these subjects are ‘Very Important’. From this it can beinferred that there exists a gap between the academics and the practicising managers’ viewswith respect to the importance of conflict management and diversity. Often, the practicingmanagers, at their level have to face the consequences of conflicts on projects and wouldtherefore like to learn how to deal with them.In the Information Technology Area, almost the whole of the respondent group in academicinstitutions (both technical and management oriented), accepted the huge importance of ITsoftware to enhance overall project performance. The implication is that the academicinstitutions strongly endorse the importance of learning and using sophisticated techniquesthat would help efficient performance on projects. Therefore as a consequence, they alsoendorse the teaching of software at undergraduate and postgraduate levels. A very smallsection wanted the courses to continue in the advanced and research programme levels.The next question was to find out the importance of teaching PM to select sectors in theeconomy. The academics considered the coverage of all the sectors included to be either very127
  • 128. important or extremely important. It is very interesting to note that across all sectors, thesample opted for Applied Research followed by Advanced level teaching as the mostappropriate levels for sector specific coverage of PM in teaching curriculum. It can beinferred that as per the respondents’ view, sector specific issues in PM are intensely practicedriven and therefore teaching should reflect the study of this practice more closely.Academics therfore strongly endorse the coverage of sector specific issues in PM curriculumbut would rather like these issues to be dealt with at advanced teaching level or at the level ofapplied research.In the next section we discuss some findings obtained from Factor Analysis for the Subjectsto be included in the curriculum.7.2.1 Results And Interpretation Of Factor Analysis For Subjects Rated By FacultyFrom Academic InstitutionsA Factor Analysis12was carried out on the subjects rated as most necessary to be included inthe curriculum involving PM. Out of the four subject Areas mentioned (p. 67), a list of 31subjects was chosen for analysis. Factor Analysis (FA) was carried out after determining thefactors, from individual subjects in the 4 areas and their associated Eigenvalues13, and thepercentage of variance determined, along with cumulative percentages. These results areincluded in the Table No. 5 and 6.Refer Table No. 5. It is found that the Eigenvalues of six ‘components’’ are greater than oneand after they are ‘extracted’, they can explain the variation upto 74%. This means that allfactors (subjects) that were included in the questionnaire were rated by the respondents to beimportant for inclusion in PM curriculum. For ready reference, their average ratings arereproduced below.AR1-Operations Management for Projects (3.79); AR2-Planning, Scheduling, Monitoring and ControlTechniques (3.98); AR3-Statistical Methods for Projects Analysis (3.81); AR4-Operations Research for Projects(3.87); AR5-Project Quality Management (3.93); AR6-Health/Safety/Environment in Projects (3.60); AR7-CostEstimation and Budgeting (3.74); AR8-Accounting and Control Systems (3.26); AR9-Quality Surveying andEstimation (3.43); AR10-Projects Marketing (3.30); AR11-Project Site and Equipment (3.40); AR12-ProjectProcurement & /Materials Management (3.40); AR13-Contract Management (3.31); AR14-Process12Factor analysis is used to analyze interrelationships among a large number of variables and to explain these variables in terms of theircommon underlying dimensions (factors). The statistical approach involving finding a way of condensing the information contained in anumber of original variables into a smaller set of dimensions (factors) with a minimum loss of information (hair et al., 1992).13Eigenvalues explain the Total variance accounted by each factor. The sum of all eigenvalues = total number of variables.128
  • 129. Design/Engineering/Testing/Commissioning (3.48); AR15-Facilities Engineering and Management (3.12);AR16-Logistics & Supply Chain Management (3.37); AR17-Transportation Management (3.12); AR18-Technology and Engineering ManagementHowever the analysis reveals that only 6 subjects (factors) included in the Management andTechnology Area namely (i) Operations Management for Projects, (ii) Planning/ Scheduling/Monitoring and Control Techniques, (iii) Statistical Methods for Project Analysis, (iv)Operations Research for Projects, (v) Project Quality Management, (vi) Health Safety andEnvironment in Projects account for the highest proportion of the subjects (factors) that areabsolutely essential to be included in PM curricula (i.e. 74%). The correlation analysis carriedout earlier helped establish that Operation management and Operations Research, QualityManagement and HSE are strongly correlated. Therefore in effect, only four subject areas,suitably combined account for the courses that are ‘absolutely essential’.Alternatively this means that the balance 25 subjects account for only a small fraction of thetotal PM curricula (26%). Therefore for the sake of simplification, this can be interpreted tomean that the top six subjects (four combined) that emerge from the analysis of academicinstitutions, are considered most crucial for inclusion in PM curriculum by the academics.An intriguing fact is that only a limited number of subjects (factors) continue to describe thewhole scope of PM curricula amongst academics in institutions. This could be attributed toIndian institutions being in the early development stages of PM. It may also imply that exceptin the well recognized Management and Technology Area, in which the above subjects havebeen grouped, other subject Areas (and individual subjects contained therein) such asBehavioural Sciences, and IT, are not yet considered pivotal to PM education in the Indiantechnical and management education system. Viewed with the actual ratings awarded by therespondents to the Strategy, Economics and Finance Area, it shows that almost the wholesample has rated subjects in this Area as ‘Extremely Important’ and ‘Very Important’ (p.62)individual subjects ratings). Figure 56 below represents the same in graphical format.Figure 56: Composite Importance Rating On Percentage Basis For Strategy,Economics And Finance Area By Academics129
  • 130. BR1-Macro-Economic Policy; BR2-Project Strategy; BR3-Social Cost Benefit Analysis; BR4-Financial Management; BR5-ProjectFinancing; BR6-Risk and Insurance Management; BR7-Legal, Commercial and Taxation Aspects of Projects and BR8-Project JointVentures/ Strategic Alliances/ Special Purpose Vehicles.Table No. 5 Total Variation Explained Of Factors (Subjects) Included In InstitutionalQuestionnaireComponentInitial EigenvaluesExtraction Sums of SquaredLoadingsRotation Sums of Squared LoadingsTotal % ofVarianceCumulative%Total % ofVarianceCumulative%Total % ofVarianceCumulative%1 14.3692 46.35225 46.35225 14.3692 46.35225 46.35225 5.065974 16.34185 16.341852 2.444626 7.885889 54.23814 2.444626 7.885889 54.23814 4.951679 15.97316 32.315013 1.950424 6.29169 60.52983 1.950424 6.29169 60.52983 3.906904 12.60292 44.917934 1.62253 5.233969 65.7638 1.62253 5.233969 65.7638 3.901062 12.58407 57.5025 1.418033 4.5743 70.3381 1.418033 4.5743 70.3381 2.707042 8.732392 66.234396 1.163584 3.753498 74.0916 1.163584 3.753498 74.0916 2.435735 7.857209 74.09167 0.94764 3.056904 77.14858 0.843646 2.721438 79.869949 0.719408 2.32067 82.1906110 0.631873 2.038301 84.22891130
  • 131. 11 0.580143 1.871429 86.1003412 0.495776 1.599277 87.6996113 0.435307 1.404217 89.1038314 0.416837 1.344637 90.4484715 0.374019 1.206514 91.6549816 0.324673 1.047334 92.7023217 0.294669 0.950545 93.6528618 0.283742 0.915298 94.5681619 0.237781 0.767036 95.3351920 0.218579 0.705092 96.0402921 0.183098 0.590639 96.6309322 0.172249 0.555641 97.1865723 0.156518 0.504897 97.6914624 0.130994 0.42256 98.1140225 0.124885 0.402854 98.5168826 0.109208 0.352284 98.8691627 0.098095 0.316435 99.185628 0.088039 0.283998 99.4695929 0.071055 0.229208 99.698830 0.059716 0.192631 99.8914331 0.033656 0.108566 100Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.The Scree Plot 14describes the distribution of Eigenvalues amongst the different subjects.Figure 57: Scree Plot Representing The Eigenvalues ForEach Factor (Subject) And The Predominant Factors14Scree Plot – the eigenvalues for successive factors can be displayed in a simple line plot. This scree plot can be used to graphicallydetermine the optimal number of factors to retain. No more than the number of factors to the left of this point should be retained.131
  • 132. 7.3 Multiple Regression Analysis Of The Factors Affecting Introduction Of PMCourseApart from the Factor Analysis on subjects, it was necessary to find out exactly which factorshave a bearing on the Institution’s decision to introduce courses in PM. Thus by combiningsome of the relevant data obtained from the respondents, a Multiple Regression Analysis wascarried out on variables defining significance of PM education to particular genres ofacademic institutions, using the extent of infrastructure and other relevant support ratingsgiven by the respondents. Also a Multiple Regression test was carried out to find out theextent to which PM education ratings are corroborated by their ratings for ManagementSupport to introduce or continue PM courses. Analysis and findings from these studies arepresented in the next section.7.3.1 Findings From Multiple Regression Analysis Of Significance Of PM EducationIn Technical/ Business/ Specialised Academic InstitutionsIn this analysis, ‘PM Education Ratings’ was taken as the Dependent Variable andSignificance of PM education in Engineering, Management, Architecture, Planning andDesign, and Infrastructure Management Institutions as Explanatory Variables (IndependentVariables). Some models were formulated to carry out the multiple regression analysis. Theseare discussed below.Model 1:- Multiple Regression Analysis Of PM Education Ratings As DependentVariable And Significance Of PM Education In Engineering, Management,Architecture, Planning And Design, And Infrastructure Management Institutions AsExplanatory Variable (Independent Variable)132
  • 133. The dependent variable in this model, is the Overall Rating of PM Education in India (RPMEIns). The explanatory variables are the same scaled ratings of the Significance of PMeducation in Engineering (REng), Management (RMgnt), Architecture (RArch), Planning andDesign (RPND), and Infrastructure Management (RInfra) Institutions.Therefore, the regression equation for this part is as follows :RPME(Ins) = r1 REng + r2 RMgnt + r3 RArch + r4 RPND + r5 RInfra + CEstimated Equation is :PMIOR = 0.079*REng + 0.15*RMgnt - 0.26*RArch + 0.05* RPND - 0.08* RInfra + 2.27…… (I)Dependent Variable: RPME(Ins)Method: Least SquaresIncluded observations: 81Variable Coefficient Std. Error t-Statistic Prob.REng 0.078773 0.116781 2.674533 0.0020RMgnt 0.153601 0.124024 2.238485 0.0194RArch -0.262704 0.240309 -1.093194 0.2778RPND 0.050762 0.388730 1130584 0.1965RInfra -0.074853 0.314845 -0.237744 0.8127C 2.273605 0.624008 3.643552 0.0005R-squared 0.459362 Mean dependent var 2.049383Adjusted R-squared -0.003347 S.D. dependent var 0.739953S.E. of regression 0.741191 Akaike info criterion 2.310069Sum squared resid 41.20226 Schwarz criterion 2.487436Log likelihood -87.55780 F-statistic 0.946625Durbin-Watson stat 1.926252 Prob (F-statistic) 0.456114Most of the explanatory variables are individually significant. The coefficients of threeexplanatory variables named Ratings on Engineering, Management and Planning & Designare positive, which indicates that they have positive impact on the dependent variable. Theexplanatory variable Ratings on Engineering and Management are highly significant at 1%level (Two Tailed Test), as their t-statistics are high and p values are near 0. Similarly, the133
  • 134. explanatory variable Rating on Planning & Design is also significant at 10 % level (TwoTailed Test).The R-squared value of 0.46 indicates that the explanatory variables are able to explain thevariation of dependent variable to the extent of 46 %. The Durbin-Watson statistics is 1.93,which indicates that there is no autocorrelation among explanatory variables.Explanation: The 3 types of institutions wherein PM education is essential are Technical(REng), Management (RMgnt), and Planning and Design (RPND). The remaining twonamely Architecture and Infrastructure Management were not explained by the available dataand may require some other data. Generally Architectural institutions, barring a feqwexceptions, are not known to emphasize PM in their curriculum. Similarly there is probablylack of critical mass of institutions in infrastructure management capable of providing fullfledged, comprehensive curriculum with enough emphasis on PM.Model 2: Multiple Regression Analysis Of PM Education Ratings As DependentVariable And Institute Infrastructure Support As Explanatory Variable (IndependentVariable)The dependent variable is the overall Rating of PM Education in India (RPME Infra). Theexplanatory variables are the same scaled ratings of the Institute Infrastructure Support. Theimportant infrastructure considered is Availability of Library and e-resources (RLib), CourseMaterial (RCM), Classroom (RCR) and Qualified Faculty (RQF).Therefore, the regression equation for this part is as follows :RPME(Infra) = r1 RLib + r2 RCM + r3 RCR + r4 RQF + CRPME(Infra) = 0.188618*RLib + 0.175842* RCM + 0.224866* RCR + 0.808134* RQF + 1.527748........( )Dependent Variable: RPME(Infra)Method: Least SquaresSample: 001 081Included observations: 81Variable CoefficientStd. Error t-Statistic Prob.134
  • 135. RLib 0.188618 0.127446 2.695339 0.0190RCM 0.175842 0.160170 1.997851 0.1008RCR 0.224866 0.135332 1.922669 0.0592RQF 0.808134 0.117306 2.688903 0.0130C 1.527748 0.332415 4.595901 0.0000R-squared 0.417297 Mean dependent var 2.061728Adjusted R-squared 0.388969 S.D. dependent var 0.747424S.E. of regression 0.713400 Akaike info criterion 2.244907Sum squared resid 37.66156 Schwarz criterion 2.451835Log likelihood -83.91874 F-statistic 2.302105Durbin-Watson stat 1.906860 Prob (F-statistic) 0.043055In this modified case, most of the explanatory variables are individually significant (Highlysignificant in this model). The coefficients of all explanatory variables namely Availabilityof Library and e-resources (RLib), Course Material (RCM), Classroom (RCR) and QualifiedFaculty (RQF) are positive, which indicates that they have positive impact on the dependentvariable. The explanatory variable Ratings on Availability of Library and e-resources (RLib)and Qualified Faculty (RQF) are highly significant at 1% level (Two Tailed Test), as their t-statistics are high and p values are near 0. Similarly, the explanatory variable rating onCourse Material (RCM) and Classroom (RCR) are also significant at 5 % level (Two TailedTest).The R-square value of 0.42 indicates that the explanatory variables are able to explain thevariation of dependent variable to the extent of 42 %. The Durbin-Watson statistics is 1.91,which indicates that there is no autocorrelation among explanatory variables.Explanation: The infrastructure related to library, availability of course material, classroomsand qualified faculty are important variables which explain the variation in the dependentvariable to the extent of 42 % . This means that some other factors are required to explain therelationship of PM education and the institutes’ infrastructure. These results could be seenalong with the results of the Type of Institutions (p.58) of which only 11.54% of therespondents were autonomous institutions. 87.15% were AICTE, University Affiliated andAccredited Institutions. The latter are bound by structured processes of approval which may135
  • 136. take protracted periods of time from government agencies in the form of receiving sanctionsto introduce courses. Therefore the type of the infrastructure currently prevailing is moredictated by the regulatory requirements rather than the targeted requirements of PMeducation. Such factors along with the limited data size may be the reason why the equationis explained to the extent of 42%.Model 3:- Multiple Regression Analysis Of PM Education Ratings As DependentVariable And Management Support As Explanatory Variable (Independent Variable)The dependent variable is the overall Rating of PM Education in India (RPME Mgmt). Theexplanatory variables are the same scaled ratings of the Management Support for introducingCourses in PM in the Institute (RPMCourse) and Effect on Employability of PM (REPM).Therefore, the regression equation for this part is follows.RPME(Mgmt) = r1 RPMCourse + r2 REPM + CRPME(Mgmt) = 0.26* RPMCourse + 0.07* REPM + 1.13………............................................................(III)In this case, both the explanatory variables are individually significant. The coefficients ofthe explanatory variables namely, Management Support for introducing Courses in PM in theInstitute (RPMCourse) and Effect on Employability of PM (REPM) are positive, whichindicates that they have a positive impact on the dependent variable. The explanatory variableRatings on Effect on Employability of PM (REPM) is also significant at 5 % level (TwoTailed Test).The explanatory variable Ratings on Management Support for introducing Courses in PM inthe Institute (RPMCourse) is highly significant at 1% level (Two Tailed Test), as their t-statistics are high and p values are near 0. The R-squared value of 0.26 indicates that theexplanatory variables are able to explain the variation of dependent variable only to the extentof 26 %. The Durbin-Watson statistics is 1.89, which indicates that there is noautocorrelation among explanatory variables.Dependent Variable: RPME(Mgmt)Method: Least SquaresIncluded observations: 81Variable Coefficient Std. Error t-Statistic Prob.RPM Course 0.256991 0.087833 2.925887 0.0045136
  • 137. REPM 0.068224 0.079605 1.857033 0.0941C 1.127361 0.363748 3.099288 0.0027R-squared 0.254942 Mean dependent var 2.061728Adjusted R-squared 0.092248 S.D. dependent var 0.747424S.E. of regression 0.712115 Akaike info criterion 2.195180Sum squared resid 39.55444 Schwarz criterion 2.283863Log likelihood -85.90478 F-statistic 5.064917Durbin-Watson stat 1.887506 Prob(F-statistic) 0.008549Explanation: This implies that apart from the two factors namely introduction of PM courses(RPMC) and effect of Employability (REPM), there are other factors that are obviouslyaffecting the rating of PM education in India. For example our previous results alreadyindicate that the variation in emphasis on PM education across various types of institutions,nature and extent of infrastructure support provided by the institutions have considerableimpact on the PM education ratings. Only good employability, management support andintroduction of PM courses in Technical and Management Institutes will not thereforeimprove the overall rating of PM Education. Some other variables like awareness andimportance of PM education amongst the institutes’ faculty and management, the academicand physical infrastructure of the institutions will also be equally important.7.4 The Practising Executives Data Analysis And InferencesThe next set of responses was drawn from practising executives, so as to find out their viewsand perceptions regarding project management learning. The sample consisted of executiveswho had not undergone prior training in PM before joining the course at NICMAR, but areemployed with PM based organisations and particularly deployed on projects. Majority of theexecutives had upto 10 years of experience, they are young and have very few years workingin the field. The practising executives responding to the questionnaire were from the middlemanagement cadre. Most of these were working on projects with value between 200–300crores. This assumes significance against the backdrop that India has been riding on a highgrowth path, with enormous public and private funds riding on the back of the projectsindustry. The executives claim that academic institutions have not provided them with PMcompetencies at graduation level before they entered the world of employment. This also137
  • 138. corroborates the data obtained from faculty respondents regarding their perception of overallPM education in India which was rated as only ‘Fair’. According to the respondents, theskills learnt in the technical institutions were limited to PERT/CPM techniques, with Arrowand Fishbone techniques coming in a distant second and third respectively. Dedicated projectmanagement softwares like Primavera and Microsoft Projects came last.The ratings assigned to practically all the subjects in the Management and Technology areaby executives are higher than the corresponding ratings assigned by the institutions. Severalcourses have on the average been rated as “ extremely important”. These include Planning,Scheduling, Monitoring and Control Techniques; Project Quality Management; Health,Safety and Environment Management; Cost Estimation and Budgeting; Quantity Surveyingand Estimation; Project Site and Equipment Management; Project Procurement and MaterialsManagement; Contract Management. Furthermore, some courses are considered far moreimportant by executives compared to the institutions. These are : Contract Management,Project procurement and Materials Management, Quantity Surveying and Estimation, Costestimation and Budgeting, Health, Safety and Environment Management. These courses havea strong ‘execution’ and therefore ‘practical’ bias. Naturally executives seem to realize theirimportance far more than the institutions.In the Behavioural Sciences area, the overall ratings for all subjects averaged ‘VeryImportant’, except for Managerial Skills subject rated ‘extremely important’. This subject israted much higher by the executives, while the other subject ratings in this area arecomparable to those assigned by the institutions. Overall all the subjects in the IT area wererated in the range of ‘very important’ to ‘Extremely Important’. The ratings assigned to thesesubjects are very comparable to those assigned by institutions, although executives haveassigned slightly lower ratings to Engg Software.The executives consider the coverage of all the specific sectors to be ‘very important’. Sectorslike Roadways, Railways, Urban Infrastructure, Civil Aviation and Mega PropertyDevelopments are considered relatively more important than others. The executives’ ratingsare generally similar to the institutions’ ratings. However the executives have assignedsomewhat higher ratings to the Technology, Roadways, Railways, Civil Aviation, UrbanInfrastructure sectors.In terms of gains derived in developing a better strategic overview of projects, PM training ‘helped immensely’ in the area of Work Breakdown Structure and Responsibility Mapping. At138
  • 139. the direct project level, training ‘helped immensely’ in Project Planning, Scheduling,Monitoring and Control. Training helped executives in improved decision making ability andimproved understanding of human related factors i.e. interpersonal relations and conflictresolution. Some experienced higher responsibility coming their way after completion of PMtraining. On the whole there appear to be a significant gains in terms of the enrichment andenlargement aspects of the job.From the responses of the executives, lack of awareness of PM among students andeducators, lack of trained teachers and greater practice orientation of PM are the key factorsemerging as the main inhibiting factors affecting the growth of PM education. When facultyrespondents were asked to evaluate their progress in introducing PM related courses in India,majority of the responses were in the category of Negligible, Initial and Considerable. Only11% of the sample admitted to the efforts being in the ‘Advanced’ stage. Also the multipleregression results point to factors like institute infrastructure in terms of library, coursematerials, and existence of management vision and lastly management support as crucial tothe introduction of the PM courses in the institutes. Data collected on both counts point to thefact that there appears to be a clear gap in the present curriculum of technical and businessschools and the actual skill requirements of the industry.Furthermore when viewed with the systematic efforts taken by the Chinese governmentwithin the government ministries, as well as in the educational system, the efforts of theIndian technical and business educational institutions remains far short of the ideal. Thisappears to be even more acute when the average quantum of project value that the executiveshave served in the past or are currently serving in, is considered. When so much finance andscarce resources are at stake, the performance of the operational and project human resourcedoes assume strategic importance. In fact existence of project skills and competencies canturn the fortunes in favour of the business and industry as a whole.Once again the Factor Analysis (FA) method was used to extract subjects (factors) that theyconsider important for inclusion. In order to maintain parity with the Institutional FactorAnalysis, the same factors contained in the former are selected for analysis in the case ofexecutives. After determining the factors and their associated Eigenvalues, the percentage ofvariance was determined, alongwith cumulative percentages. In Table 6, all the estimatedparameters are presented.139
  • 140. It is found that the Eigenvalues of ‘components’ are greater than one and when extracted,explain the variation up to 71%. This means that all factors (subjects) that were included inthe questionnaire are rated by the respondents to be important for inclusion in PMcurriculum. However 8 subjects included in the Management and Technology Area, namely(i) Operations Management for Projects, (ii) Planning / Scheduling / Monitoring and ControlTechniques, (iii) Statistical Methods for Project Analysis, (iv) Operations Research forProjects, (v) Project Quality Management, (vi) Health Safety and Environment in Projects,(vii) Cost Estimation and Budgeting and (viii)Accounting and Control Systems, formed thehighest proportion of the factors (i.e. 71%).Alternatively this means that the balance 23 subjects form a small component of only 29% ofthe total PM curricula. The top 8 subjects that emerge from the analysis are considered mostcrucial for inclusion in PM curriculum by the executives. Two of the top 8 subjects notfiguring among the top 6 subjects rated by the academics are : Cost Estimation and Budgetingand Accounting & Control Systems. Obviously executives consider the issues related to costmanagement and control to be of much greater importance than the academics. Table 6 showsthe Eigenvalues and Total Variance explained.A further analysis was conducted to find out in which of the sectors the executives perceivethat prior education in PM is necessary to build PM competencies. It is found that theEigenvalues of 3 ‘components’’ are greater than one when extracted, and can explain thevariation upto 69%. These three sectors are: Information & Communication Technology,Telecom and Research and Development. The Space Exploration Sector follows very closelywith 0.949 (almost 1), which implies even this sector is considered very important for PMeducation. Surprisingly, for the Sector –International Project Management, eigenvalue was aslow as 0.087, which shows the general lack of awareness among practicing executives of theimportance of building project management competencies to handle international projects atthe degree level and perhaps even after.140
  • 141. Table No. 6 Total Variation Explained Of Factors (Subjects) Included In PractisingExecutives QuestionnaireTotal Variance ExplainedComponentInitial Eigenvalues Extraction Sums of Squared Loadings Rotation Sums of Squared LoadingsTotal% ofVarianceCumulative%Total% ofVarianceCumulative%Total% ofVarianceCumulative%1 10.17328 32.81702 32.81702 10.17328 32.81702 32.81702 4.809169 15.51345 15.513452 2.756306 8.89131 41.70833 2.756306 8.89131 41.70833 3.17283 10.23493 25.748383 2.363979 7.625739 49.33407 2.363979 7.625739 49.33407 3.125478 10.08219 35.830574 1.632442 5.265942 54.60001 1.632442 5.265942 54.60001 2.765583 8.921237 44.751815 1.53672 4.95716 59.55717 1.53672 4.95716 59.55717 2.23332 7.204259 51.956076 1.372484 4.427367 63.98454 1.372484 4.427367 63.98454 2.191048 7.067898 59.023967 1.205142 3.887556 67.8721 1.205142 3.887556 67.8721 2.106039 6.793673 65.817648 1.077504 3.475819 71.34791 1.077504 3.475819 71.34791 1.714386 5.530278 71.347919 0.887366 2.862472 74.2103910 0.873485 2.817692 77.02808141
  • 142. 11 0.775828 2.502671 79.5307512 0.694898 2.241607 81.7723613 0.627206 2.023244 83.795614 0.578756 1.866956 85.6625615 0.483409 1.559382 87.2219416 0.464103 1.497106 88.7190517 0.444625 1.434273 90.1533218 0.399242 1.287877 91.441219 0.377663 1.218269 92.6594720 0.353314 1.139724 93.7991921 0.32893 1.061065 94.8602522 0.2661 0.858386 95.7186423 0.232301 0.749358 96.46824 0.226792 0.731588 97.1995925 0.186956 0.603085 97.8026726 0.166592 0.537394 98.3400727 0.137391 0.443197 98.7832628 0.135593 0.437396 99.2206629 0.10033 0.323645 99.544330 0.079777 0.257346 99.8016531 0.061489 0.198351 100Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.Figure 58: Scree Plot That Represents Graphically The Distribution OfEigenvalues And Subjects (Factors)142
  • 143. Another set of factors that merit some attention and analysis are the views of the executivesin relation to the perceptions as to why PM education has not taken adequate roots in India.Two factors emerged with Eigenvalues more than 1. These two factors explained 54% of thevariation. These 2 factors were (1) Lack of Awareness (eigenvalue 1.515) and (2) Lack ofTrained Instructors ( eigenvalue 1.161). The executives believe that PM education receivedearly would help them perform better in the project environment.Table No. 7 The Distribution Of Eigenvalues And Subject (Factors)ComponentInitial EigenvaluesExtraction Sums of SquaredLoadingsRotation Sums of SquaredLoadingsTotal % of Var Cum % Total % of Var Cum % Total % of Var Cum %1 1.514662 30.29324 30.29324 1.514662 30.29324 30.29324 1.509628 30.19256 30.192562 1.161167 23.22333 53.51658 1.161167 23.22333 53.51658 1.166201 23.32401 53.516583 0.978579 19.57159 73.088174 0.765958 15.31916 88.407325 0.579634 11.59268 100Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.Figure 59: Scree Plot That Represents Graphically The Distribution OfEigenvalues And Subjects (Factors)143
  • 144. 7.5 Human Resource Managers’ Data Analysis And InterpretationOn the average, most of the companies have taken steps to initiate PM training in the pastfive years. The companies generally prefer to deploy employees in the managerial cadre fortraining. Within this section of employees, the most frequently chosen are the middle andsenior managers for receiving PM training. The companies emphasize the following factors :Perceived gains from PM training, Employee retention, Career development, Ability toexecute complex projects, Ability to monitor and control projects, Ability to plan projects,Ability to manage contracts in projects, Ability to deliver projects in right time, costs andquality. HR managers assign the highest importance to executives’ improved ability to plan,execute and control projects better as the most important objective of planning training anddeploying personnel for PM training.When this data is matched with the data obtained from executives on whether they hadreceived instruction in PM related subjects while in college, a clear majority have answeredin the negative. Also majority of the executives interviewed have work experience rangingfrom less than 5 years up to 10 years. Therefore the HR managers have to arrange PM relatedtraining in order to make the executives ‘project ready’ and ensure a certain degree of paritywith other project personnel such as project managers, operations executives, purchasemanagers, etc. The companies believe that the direct benefits from training accrue to middleand senior managerial cadres the most, as executives in these two categories are directlyinvolved in driving projects, taking decisions and overall project responsibility. From theresponses of the executives, it is apparent that the objectives of the HR managers has been144
  • 145. fulfilled since the executives feel that their most direct gains are in their improved ability toplan, execute, monitor and control projects better.‘In house Training’, ‘On the Job Training’ and ‘On the Job with Classroom Training’ are themost preferred methods of training. ‘In house’ may be preferred as it is considered more costeffective compared to the residential training programmes. This was also confirmed by thetop training and HR managers (See Refer ref no. 48, Bib) when they stated that most of thetimes, companies preferred this method, because it formed an integral component of a verylarge ongoing project, and therefore training of the executives had to be completed withinavailable timeframes. The training levels most preferred for various grades of executives are :Elementary for Operatives, Basic for Supervisors, Advanced for Middle level managers,Strategic for Senior Level executives. The scope and complexity of training content mustmatch the grades and responsibilities at various levels in the organisational hierarchy. HRmanagers are seen to keep this in mind when importing PM training. The findings highlight aplanned approach for PM training.Overall the perception amongst the HR managers is that PM training is quite expensive vis avis majority of the factors such as : Trainees’ salaries and time, Materials for training,Expenses for trainers, Expenses for trainees, Cost of facilities and equipment, Lostproductivity. The high training costs can be attributed to the fact that PM training penetrationand availability of specialist PM trainers in India, are still very low and less ubiquitouscompared to other training themes in technical and management arena. HR managers do notmind the loss of productivity of executives during their absence, which they feel will be morethan compensated by the large scale benefits expected from training.HR managers view training to be ‘quite benefitial’ on all the factors considered including :Increase in production/ performance, Reduction in errors and improvement of safetystandards, Employee retention, Lesser supervision, Ability to use new skills and capabilities,Improved delivery performance, Attitude changes, and Growth of business oportunities. Theylook for direct benefits from training in ‘process improvement’ rather than ‘outputimprovement’.Certified Franchisee Trainers are considered most efficacious training providers, followed byInternationally Certified Trainers, Independent Trainers and Academic institutions. This maybe attributed to the flexibility and highly focussed approach of these trainers. However it isimportant to mention that the highest percentage preference in the ‘Most Efficacious’145
  • 146. category was assigned to academic institutions. Their good concentration of highly qualifiedfaculty, a fair degree of specialised competence, research experience and reasonable cost area great advantage for developing good training content. However they may not always beable to deliver purely custom designed training programmes. The most frequent academicinstitutions for PM related training are the management institutions together as group,followed by in house trainers and NICMAR. Considering that NICMAR is a single entity, itsshare of 11.43% in PM training is most enviable by comparable industry standards.It is reassuring to know that the HR managers consider international accreditation to be ofvalue. But the managers may not be fully aware of the benefits of international accreditationwith respect to their organisation. The share of Registered Education Providers®(REP®s) inthe Asia – Pacific region is very low at 16 percent compared to North America. Particularlyin India, there are only 70 PMI®accredited REP®s (PMI, 2010). Thus the relatively lowerawareness combined with very low penetration of PM training accreditation and its benefitsamong the HR community of project based organisations could be the most plausible causeswhy HR managers are not clear about the value from International accreditation.The training is predominantly designed to develop the project skill base followed by theknowledge and competency base. Building the right attitude is not a clearly defined outcome.This could be due to the fact that soft skills competence is built into the normal PM trainingdesign. This matches with the responses of the executives on their improved understanding ofhuman related factors especially, interpersonal relations and conflict resolution as the secondhighest area of gain next only to improved decision making ability. Moreover, the executiveshave assigned high importance to subjects like Project Organisation Structure, HumanResource Management, Industrial Relations, Conflict Management and DiversityManagement. Therefore it is inferred that attitude competency can be viewed as an essentialsubset of the overall ‘hard’ skills that are required on projects. Thus there remains a muchgreater and direct emphasis on the development of ‘hard’ skills.7.6 Synthesis Of Stakeholders Of PM Education – Academic Institutions, PractisingExecutives And Industry146
  • 147. Synthesizing the data obtained from all three interest groups, i.e. the academic community,the practising executives and the HR managers (representing the industry fraternity), it isapparent that there exists a supply capacity gap in PM training in country. The origins can betraced to the limited inclination of academic institutions to introduce and attract students tothe area of PM as a whole. In fact the efforts of the academic institutions to garner for PM thestatus of a ‘discipline’ with a built in academic rigour and requisite supporting research effortto provide a theoretical and applied bulwark to PM, remains understated and relatively low.Only a handful of institutions like the NICMAR, IITs, IIMs, SPJIMR, NITIE and Symbiosisappear to have taken conscious and concerted steps in this direction. This limitation carriesthrough into the real world of project based organisations.Figure 60: The Cycle Of Education, Research And Training InPM And Its Effects On National EconomyExecutives working in project based companies enter with little or no prior orientation ofproject requirements that are special and unique to their industry. With very limited toolssuch as PERT/CPM, etc. they find it difficult to comprehend holistically, the distinctrequirements of operating in project based organisations. They are therefore required to betrained to bring out their best potential while in employment. HR managers are then chargedwith the responsibility of designing dedicated PM training modules that would bring directgains to the project and company. With very few options to choose experts due to the generalpaucity of experts and recognised PM trainers, in academic institutions, and REP®s, thetraining costs increase considerably. At the same time the benefits of PM training are notfully utilised. The net loser in this is the industry and eventually the country as a whole which147
  • 148. pays for the delayed projects and higher costs to the National Exchequer. Figure 60 depictsthe above as a construct.7.7 Limitations Of The ResearchThis research is one of the few studies of its kind in India. Therefore as is common with suchearly efforts, the challenges faced are commensurate with the advantages. A few of these aredescribed here. The first challenge lay in determining the sample size as well as the type.Questions regarding the ideal size and type of institutions i.e. government run, autonomous,private etc and their academic rankings as appearing in leading media were taken intoconsideration to arrive at the best possible sample mix. Only those institutions offeringtechnical and management programmes at undergraduate and post graduate levels have beenincluded in the study.The second limitation is that of time availability, as data had to be collected just before theclose of annual academic year (months of April - May) in order to avoid the closure ofinstitutions for annual vacation. In case of executives, they were curious to know more aboutPM education, but were unable to devote much time due to the academic year closureconstraints. Thirdly the industry perspective could have been further researched for the typeand depth of PM training, in house trainers and their approach to PM training etc. Howeverbudgetary constraints did not make this feasible. Future studies should address this issue ingreater depth. Fourthly the government though a major stakeholder as well as promoter ofnew educational initiatives, has not been directly approached in this study. The views of thegovernment with regard to PM, in either its user departments or its education arm, have notbeen researched to obtain a wider understanding of PM and its benefits.7.8 Scope For Future ResearchThe future scope of study could include awareness in other types of institutions such asIndustrial Training Institutes, graduate business management colleges, and in house corporatetraining centres.The governmental departments that initiate new projects as Clients, such as UrbanDevelopment, Housing, Roads, Railways, Ports, Irrigation, Airports, Rural Development,Healthcare, Education, Defence, Space, Science and Technology, etc. need to be researchedmore to understand their perspectives on PM in general, especially against the backdrop ofincreased Public Private Participation mode of investment. At the Central Government level,148
  • 149. Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation (MOSPI) provides detailed andvoluminous data on projects executed in the Central Sector. No such elaborate data isavailable at the State Government level. In both cases, there is no data on training activityundertaken as part of execution of projects. It should be relatively easy to undertake separatestudy on training and developmental activities in projects being monitored by MOSPI, withsupport from the Ministry.Furthermore, the government’s role in initiating and advancing the PM approach throughsystematic top down channels such as Ministry of HRD, Ministry of Statistics andProgramme Implementation also needs to be studied. Lastly the existing awareness and viewof students as stakeholders and investors will be a good study on PM education and its effectson their career prospects. The next chapter derives conclusions and recommendations forimproving PM education in India.CHAPTER 8CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS149
  • 150. The study began by asking a few pertinent questions regarding the status of PM education inIndia especially compared to its global counterparts in more advanced ‘projectised’ societies.These were• Why is project management as a profession not yet adequately recognized in India?• Is India still found wanting in being classified as a ‘project oriented society’?• Why have the technical institutes, some of which are many decades old, notintroduced PM modules in their curricula?• What inhibits leading business schools from introducing a PM curriculum in theircourse offerings?• Should the PM education in technical/business schools be knowledge based orcompetency based; which leads to the problem of availability and competence of thefaculty and instructors required for teaching the discipline?• What is the role played by professional associations/societies in promoting PMeducation amongst the industry and government?• To what extent is the regulatory authority’s role conducive or insidious in thepromulgation of PM education?In the course of the study, the questions above were answered in a number of ways thathelped the researchers to arrive at some key conclusions. Based on them, we make somerecommendations.8.1 ConclusionsFrom the analysis of the secondary literature on the state of PM in India as compared toglobal standards, we conclude that, in its current state, India needs to initiate and sustaingreater effort in propagating the benefits of PM to all stakeholders. It appears that in itscurrent state, PM is yet to be understood as a subject of such universal application andversatility that encompasses all types of businesses and organisations and across almost allsectors of the economy. Viewed from the perspective of the global standards, India appearsfar behind what can be considered as an acceptable threshold level of practice of PM.Compared to our immediate neighbour China, India’s efforts in propagating the PM mindsetand methodology of accomplishing organisational and national goals remain substantiallybehind compared to other developed countries.150
  • 151. Against the backdrop of the enormous amount of money invested in projects and the quantumof upcoming investments in public as well as private initiatives, the entrenchment of PMprinciples in project procurement, planning, implementation and control is of utmostsignificance. However, it appears from the study that the significance does not appear to havebeen completely absorbed by the decision makers from the industry, government and even bythe majority of the academic world. All this is reflected in the current status of PM educationin India being assessed as ‘below par’ especially when compared against existing globalstandards. However there exists a huge untapped potential for the widespread establishmentof PM in India with a section of the faculty, executives and organisations realising the needfor the same. It is obvious from the study, that PM training is considered directly beneficial tothe practitioners as well as the organisations in terms of better project planning andimplementation. PM training has resulted in direct gains to both, the companies as well as theexecutives.8.1.1 BarriersThe most prominent barriers to the propagation of PM education in India are found to be thefollowing• There exists a lack of awareness amongst the managements of technical andmanagement institutions, about the importance and relevance of teaching PM forcapacity building of the technical and professional graduates.• Systematic curriculum development with a focussed view to develop PMcompetencies is found quite absent at graduate and post graduate levels of technicaland management schools.• In majority of the cases, it was found that if at all PM interests are pursued by faculty,it is more as a consequence of their individual interest and not so much arising out ofan institutional vision to encourage these pursuits (except in the cases of a handful ofthe institutions such as, NICMAR, IITs, IIMs, NITIE, S.P. Jain, Symbiosis etc).• The lack of trained instructors in the educational institutions.• Lack of research and publications, with only the leading institutions of national reputeproducing limited original research in the area of PM.151
  • 152. • Regulatory approvals took anywhere from more than a year upto 3 years with averageof 16.5 months to introduce new curriculum. The average internal lead time is foundto be even higher at 19 months. Viewed against the response time of a year or more,to build institutional capacity in terms of qualified faculty, library and otherinfrastructure, the overall delays have tended to magnify. When most of the facultyhave admitted that the companies that come for recruitment do look specifically forPM competencies amongst the students, the response time in introducing PM courseson the part of the institution assumes utmost importance due to the ‘employability’enhancement feature of PM education. Thus institutions should take active steps tocover this need gap.• Though working executives are clearly in favour of gaining PM competencies at thetime of graduation, the limiting factors are the lack of awareness, inadequateavailability of faculty, training and instruction material in the technical and businessschools as well as in the Indian system as a whole.• Though efficacious, training in PM is still considered more expensive as compared totraining in other fields by the HR departments of project organisations.8.2 RecommendationsCurriculum development related to PM requires to be more competency focused rather thanjust knowledge based. Overall it is recommended that Project Management and TechnologyArea subjects should be taught to develop project level competencies. Curricula in Strategy,Economics & Finance Area and Behavioural Sciences area should focus on genericknowledge and skill based competencies. Our specific recommendations stemming from thedetailed research findings are as follows:• Train the Trainers initiatives and the accreditation of Registered EducationProviders®s (REP®s) like PMI need to be pursued vigorously, by all majorstakeholders: Government, Industry and Academic Institutions• Academic institutions should patronise and encourage research in PM at the facultyand students level, in a phased manner to cover a wider net of institutions that are alsoregionally distributed all over India. Sustained efforts are needed on the part of152
  • 153. academic institutions to obtain research funding support from national fundingagencies and the private sector• PM research pursuits have to be more broad based and penetrate all fields where itsbenefits are palpable• There is an urgent need to improve awareness through mass media coverage about thePM and the application of PM techniques to business. This will be an important areafor joint academia-industry initiative• Arrange seminars and symposia to deliberate on PM at the national, state and locallevels, covering academic institutions, government officials and industry• Sustained advocacy of PM in different forums such as industry, academia andgovernment needs to be understood as an essential component of organisationalsuccessBased on the research study, we recommend model curricula covering introductory levelproject management courses in general management programmes, and undergraduateengineering programmes that can be offered to students in their final year. Shorter durationcourses suited for middle management and senior management professionals and finally acourse specially designed for Project Leaders would be helpful. Annexure No.7 suggests theModel Course Curricula for the courses mentioned above in longer duration as well shortduration modes.153
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  • 159. ANNEXURE 1A. List Of Respondents Participating In Institutional SurveySr.No.Name of The Institute City Respondents Details Designation1Jaypee Institute ofInformationTechnologyNoida Samir Dev Gupta Associate Dean2JBS, JaypeeUniversityNoida Prof. A. K. Vodera Professor3ABES EngineeringCollegeGhaziabad Dr. S. N. GuptaProfessor & Head,ME Dept.4AKG EngineeringCollegeGhaziabad Prof. A. K. Arora Professor5IMS EngineeringCollegeGhaziabad Dr. Akshay DvivediProfessor & Head,ME Dept.6InderprasthaEngineering CollegeGhaziabad Prof. D. GanguliProfessor & Head,ME Dept.7Dept. of ManagementStudies, IIT-DelhiDelhiDr. Banwet / Jain / Gupta/ ShankarProfessor & GroupChair8Dept. of ChemicalEngineering, IIT-DelhiDelhi Dr. Saroha/Konda/GuptaAssociateProfessor9ABS, AmityUniversityNoida Dr. Sanjeev BansalDirector & HeadPh.D.10Army Institute ofManagement andTechnologyGreaterNoidaProf. Sanjeev TandonA.P. & AreaChairpersonMarketing11Galgotias College ofEngineering andTechnologyGreaterNoidaDr. M. N. DeshmukhProfessor & Head,ME Dept.159
  • 160. 12Galgotias College ofEngineering andTechnologyGreaterNoidaDr. Raju GProfessor & Head,MBA Dept.13Lal Bhadur ShastriInstitute ofManagement andDevelopment StudiesLucknow Dr. Sunil Kumar Director14ACCF, AmityUniversityNoida Dr. Shipra MaitraProfessor &Director15IEM ManagementCollegeAnwari,LucknowDr. Padma IyerProfessor &DirectorSr.No.Name of The Institute City Respondents Details Designation16Institute ofEnvironment andManagementLucknow Chandan GhoshAssociate Prof. &Head17Deccan College ofEngg & TechHyderabadDr. M. A. Malik/Dr. MirIqbal FaheemPrincipal/Professor18Vasavi College ofEnggHyderabad Prof. M. BhaskerProf & Head CivilEngg deptt19M. J. College ofEngg. & TechnologyHyderabad Prof. Syed YousufuddinProf & Head CivilEngg deptt20University College ofEnggHyderabad Prof. V S S KumarProf & Head CivilEngg deptt21 JNTU Hyderabad HyderabadProf. K . M. LakshmanaRaoProf & HeadTransporatationEngg Deptt.22Dr. B.R. AmbedkarOpen UniversityHyderabad Prof. K. SwamyProf & Head ofBusiness Mgmt23Engg Staff College ofIndiaHyderabad Prof. C L N SastryHead WaterResource Dept24 YCCE Nagpur Prof A. V. PatilAsst. Prof & HeadCivil Engg Deptt.25G.H. Raisoni Collegeof EnggNagpur Dr. N. M. KanheProf & Head CivilEngg deptt26Priyadarshni Collegeof EnggNagpur Prof. Shrikrishna DhaleAsst. Prof & HeadCivil Engg Deptt.27 SRKNEC Nagpur Dr. N. V. DeshpandeProf & Head CivilEngg deptt28 VNIT Nagpur Dr. Rajesh GuptaProf & Head CivilEngg deptt160
  • 161. 29 NIT Raipur Raipur Dr. Abir BandyopadhyayAsso. Prof. &Head Arch. Deptt.30 UIT RGPV, Bhopal Bhopal Dr. A. C. TiwariReader & HeadMechanical EnggDeptt31 RKDFCT & R Bhopal Prof. Sohail BuxAsst. Prof & HeadCivil Engg Deptt.32Shree Institute ofScience & TechBhopal Prof. Bharat Gupta Director R & D33 MANIT Bhopal Dr. N.D. MittalProfessor &Professor I/CAcademicsSr.No.Name of The Institute City Respondents Details Designation34Shree G.S. Institute ofTech & ScienceIndore Dr. Deepak KilledarProf & DeanStudent Welfare35Indore Institute ofScience & TechIndore Dr. S. R. Lapalikar Principal36Dayanand SagarSchool ofManagement studiesBangalore Dr.K.L.KumaraswamyPrincipal andProfessor37Dayanand SagarCollege ofEngineeringBangalore Dr.Nethaji S. Ganesan Principal38BMS College ofEngineeringBangalore Dr.G.N.Sekhar Vice Principal39University OFViswesvariya Collegeof EngineeringBangalore Dr.Venugopal K.R Principal40Institute of BusinnessManagement nadResearch (IBMR)Bangalore Ms.Purnima K.PProfessor andacademic co-ordinator41Alliance BussinessAcademyBangalore Dr.s.Prabhakaran Professor42 Christ University Bangalore Prof.Alex JosephAssociate PRO andLecturer43Oxford College ofBussinessManagementBangalore Dr.Chandraswamy T.P Professor44R.V.Institute ofManagementBangaloreDR.R.K.Gopal/Ms.Jayanthi PatilProfessor andHead,MBA deptt45AMC College ofManagementBangalore Dr.B.BalajiProfessor andHead,MBA deptt161
  • 162. 46Community Instituteof Management andSciencesBangalore Dr. V.VekateswaranDirector andProfessor47AMC College ofEngineeringBangalore Dr. D.V.S.S.R.PrakashDirector andPrincipal48Jeppiar EngineeringCollegeChennai Dr.Sushil Lal Das Principal49Jeppiar School ofManagementChennai Dr.P.Tanve Head,MBA Deptt50St.Josephs College ofEngineeringChennai Prof MuthukumarProfessor,Mechanical depttSr.No.Name of The Institute City Respondents Details Designation51St.Josephs College ofManagementChennai Prof.A.S.MohanramProfessor andHOD, MBA Deptt52Sai Ram Institute ofManagement studiesChennai Dr.K.MaranProfessor andDirector53Sai Ram College ofEngineeringChennai Dr.C.V.Jayakumar Princpal54Vellore Institute ofTechnologyVellore Dr.P.KuppanProfessor andProgrammemanager,MechDeptt55Indian Institute ofManagementAhmedabadProf. Satish YashwantDeodharProfessor56 CEPT Ahmedabad Prof. Rajan Rawal Professor57Indera Institute ofManagementPuneProf.KrishnanRamanathanProfessor58MKSSSs Smt.Hiraben NanavatiInstitute ofManagementPune Prof. M.JoshiDy. Head &Professor59Abhinav EducationSocietys College ofArchitecturePune Prof. Sujata Deshmukh Professor60MKSSSs CumminsCollege ofEngineering forWomenPune Prof. M.Divekar Professor61Genba SopanraoMoze College ofEngineeringPune Prof. P.Kumar Professor62International SchoolOf Business andMediaPune Dr.P.K.De Executive Director162
  • 163. 63College OfEngineering, punePune Dr. Sukhanand.S.Bhosale Professor64 SOM, IIT, Bombay MumbaiProf.Kiran KumarMomayaProfessor65Sardar Patel CollegeOf EngineeringMumbai Prof. R.R.Easow Professor66Rajiv Gandhi InstituteOf TechnologyMumbaiProf. udhav Bhosale /Prof.N.N.BhostekarPrincipalSr.No.Name of The Institute City Respondents Details Designation67 IIM , Kolkata Kolkata Prof. Sanjeev D. Vaidya Professor68IES College ofArchitectureMumbai Prof. G. ChandawarkarPrincipal In-Charge69 NIT, Rourkela Rourkela Prof. Baliarsingh Professor70VJSOM, IITKharagpurKharagpur Prof. T.P. Bagchi Professor71Padma BhushanVasant Dada PatilInstitute ofTechnologyPune Prof. Indrajeet Jain Principal72 IIT , Bombay Mumbai Prof. N. Hemachandra Professor73 NITIE Mumbai Dr.Shankar Murthy Professor74IES College ofEngineeringMumbai Prof.M.W.ShaikhProfessor &Programme Co-ordinator75KJ Somaiya Instituteof Engineering &InformationTechnologyMumbai Prof. Vrinda P. Ullas HOD & Professor76Institute of ChemicalTechnologyMumbai Prof.Mhaske. S.T Professor77 VJTI Mumbai Prof.J.S.Main Head & Professor78Indira College ofEngineering &ManagementMumbai Prof.Vijay Waragade Head & Professor79Rajiv Gandhi Collegeof engineering andTechnologyChandrapur Dr. Rajiv G. Weginwar HOD & Professor163
  • 164. 80Government Collegeof EngineeringChandrapur Dr.C.P.Kalambe Professor81KIIT, ManagementSchoolBhubaneswarDr. VijayaBandyopadhyayAsst. ProfessorB. List Of Respondents Participating In Working Executives SurveySr.No.Name of The Organisation Respondents Details Designation1 NSN Mr. Kamran Ganai Field Manager -TI2 Technip KT India Ltd. Mr. Ajay VishwakarmaGroup Leader- ProjectManagement3 TATA Consulting Engineers Ltd Mr. Rohit Bansal Project Control Engineer4 Technip KT India Ltd. Mr. Vineet Kumar Sr.Engineer5Nokia Siemens Networks Pvt.LtdMr. Nitin N Shah Project Manager6 Lodha Group Mr. Rahul Chavan Asst. Site Engr.7 Lodha GroupMr. Mahadev AshokMohiteJunior Engr.8 Lodha Group Mr. Prakash S. Keni Site Engr.9 Lodha Group Mr. Sahil Sadashiv Kave Sector Engr.10 Lodha GroupMr. Amol ShashikantBidwaiSector Engr.11 Lodha Group Mr. Amit Poddar Manager-Projects12 Lodha Group Mr. Hemat Ratnakar Project Engr.13 Lodha Group Mr. Ravindra U.Bhagat Site Engr.14 Lodha Group Mr. Anand V. Kulkarni Sector Engr.15 Lodha Group Mr. Bari Mohit Kamlakar Asst. Site Engr.16 Lodha Group Mr. Bhushan Pramod Joshi Site Engr.17 Lodha Group Mr. Amar Raghunath Putta Site Engr.18 Lodha GroupMr. Prashant AshokraoShrisathSector Engr.19 Lodha Group Mr. Jitendra Yadav Site Engr.20 Lodha Group Mr. Pandurang Chopade Site Engr.21 Lodha Group Mr. Durgaprasad Pandey Sector Engr.22 Lodha Group Mr. Amol Kesarkar Site Engr.164
  • 165. 23 Lodha Group Mr. Sachin Tiwari Site Engr.24 Lodha Group Mr. Nivrutti Davekar Site Engr.25 Lodha Group Mr. Ravindra Bhagat Site Engr.26 Vijay Infrastructure Ltd Mr. Devendra Singh Manager (Audit & MIS)27 DLF Projects Ltd Mr. Ashish Khaparde Asst. Manager – Civil28 TATA Projects Ltd Mr. P.Anbu Ganapathy Cons.Engr.Sr.No.Name of The Organisation Respondents Details Designation29 Ramky Infrastructure Mr. Manasa Rayabhari Trainee Engr.30 DLF Projects Ltd Mr. Dhananjay K.Saha Asst. Manager-Projects31 Miskin & Associates Mr. Suraj T. Miskin Trainee Engr.32 Ramky Infrastructure Ltd Mr. Sandeep Kodandapani Sr. Engr.-Planning33 Motherson Group of Companies Mr. Ravindra Lande Asst. Manager34 Systematic Cons Com Ltd Mr. Virendra Kumar Singh Manager – Civil35Structwel Designers &Consultants Pvt.LtdMr. Vijay Ashok Bhore Sr. Engr. – Project36 Rourkela Steel Plant Mr. D. P. Mahapatra A.G.M. – Projects37Hindustan ConstructionComapany Ltd.Mr. Ravi Chandra Manager - Contracts38Hindustan ConstructionComapany Ltd.Mr. Harikrishna V S Engineer - Contract39Hindustan ConstructionComapany Ltd.Mr. Jegonathan N. Engineer - Contract40Hindustan ConstructionComapany Ltd.Mr. Prattipati MallikarjunRaoManager - Contracts41Hindustan ConstructionComapany Ltd.Ms. Shweta Phansalkar Engineer - Contract42Hindustan ConstructionComapany Ltd.Mr. Sri Devajit Das Manager - Contracts43Hindustan ConstructionComapany Ltd.Mr. Mahendra JayantDhanveEngineer - Contract44Hindustan ConstructionComapany Ltd.Mr. Madhav Nizalapur Manager - Contracts45Hindustan ConstructionComapany Ltd.Mr. Sagar Kanade Engineer - Contract46Hindustan ConstructionComapany Ltd.Mr. Prakash Hiremath Engineer - Contract47Hindustan ConstructionComapany Ltd.Mr. Nikhil Solanki Management Trainee48Hindustan ConstructionComapany Ltd.Mr. Sachin JadhavQ.S. & Engineer -Contracts165
  • 166. 49Hindustan ConstructionComapany Ltd.Mr. Ezra Praveen. P Engineer - Contract50Hindustan ConstructionComapany Ltd.Mr. Neelabh Manager - Contracts51 URC Construction (P) Ltd. Erode Mr. Murugaiah Sr. A.G.M.52 URC Construction (P) Ltd. Erode Mr. R. Chakrapani Sr. A.G.M.53 URC Construction (P) Ltd. Erode Mr. M. Srinivasan Manager - ProjectsSr.No.Name of The Organisation Respondents Details Designation54 URC Construction (P) Ltd. Erode Mr. E. Neelakandan A.G.M. - Projects55 URC Construction (P) Ltd. Erode Mr. N. Kandasamy Manager - Projects56 URC Construction (P) Ltd. Erode Mr. V. Krishnan D.G.M. - Projects57 URC Construction (P) Ltd. Erode Mr. C. Manikandan Sr. Engineer58 URC Construction (P) Ltd. Erode Mr. A. Thamil Nathan D.G.M. - Projects59 URC Construction (P) Ltd. Erode Mr. A. Vijayakumar A.G.M. - Projects60 URC Construction (P) Ltd. Erode Mr. A. Saravanan A.G.M. - Projects61 URC Construction (P) Ltd. Erode Mr. Siva Shanmugam Trainee Engr.62 URC Construction (P) Ltd. Erode Mr. M. Vetrivel A.G.M. - Projects63 URC Construction (P) Ltd. Erode Mr. A. Muthu Rathinam A.G.M. - Projects64 URC Construction (P) Ltd. ErodeMr. S. NavaneethaKrishnanD.G.M. - Projects65 URC Construction (P) Ltd. Erode Mr. C. Loganathan Manager - Projects66 URC Construction (P) Ltd. Erode Mr. S. Rajaguru A.G.M. - (B & E)67 URC Construction (P) Ltd. Erode Mr. R. Udhayakumar Manager - Projects68 URC Construction (P) Ltd. Erode Mr. Vishal Fiske Asst. Manager - Projects69Hindustan ConstructionComapany Ltd.Mr. Avinash Momle Engineer - Planning70Hindustan ConstructionComapany Ltd.Mr. Ashutosh Mukherjee Engineer - Planning71Hindustan ConstructionComapany Ltd.Ms. Suvidha Aherkar Engineer - Planning72Hindustan ConstructionComapany Ltd.Mr. Sushanta Kumar Guha Manager - Planning73Hindustan ConstructionComapany Ltd.Mr. Y. Sandeep Engineer - Planning74Hindustan ConstructionComapany Ltd.Mr. C. Bhaskar Ganesh Engineer - Planning75Hindustan ConstructionComapany Ltd.Mr. Mahesh Somvanshi Manager - Planning166
  • 167. 76Hindustan ConstructionComapany Ltd.Mr. M. Karunakar Engineer - Planning77Hindustan ConstructionComapany Ltd.Mr. Anand D. Rituraj Engineer - Planning78Hindustan ConstructionComapany Ltd.Mr. Ketan Shah Engineer - Planning79Hindustan ConstructionComapany Ltd.Mr. T V N S S Sri Charan Engineer - Planning167
  • 168. Sr.No.Name of The Organisation Respondents Details Designation80Hindustan ConstructionComapany Ltd.Mr. Shashank Pitale Engineer - Planning81Hindustan ConstructionComapany Ltd.Ms. Soumya Roy Engineer - Planning82Hindustan ConstructionComapany Ltd.Mr. Nitin Krishnaji Pathak Manager - Planning83Hindustan ConstructionComapany Ltd.Mr. Winner Mattoo Engineer - Planning84 Shapoorji Pallonji & Co. Ltd Mr. Vinod Ramrao Surve Sr. Manager - Construction85 Shapoorji Pallonji & Co. Ltd Mr. P. Virupakshaiah Sr. Manager - Construction86 Shapoorji Pallonji & Co. Ltd Mr. Tushar Hire Dy. Manager87 Shapoorji Pallonji & Co. Ltd Mr. Rajesh Sharma D.G.M. - Projects88 Shapoorji Pallonji & Co. Ltd Mr. Siddhartha Nath Sr. Manager - ConstructionANNEXURE 2 a (DEC - 2005)168
  • 169. S. No. Company NameStafftrainingAnnual (Rs.Crore)1.A P Power Generation Corpn. Ltd. 0.562.Bhagheeratha Engineering Ltd. 0.013.Bhoruka Power Corpn. Ltd. 0.224.Engineering Projects (India) Ltd. 0.045.Engineers India Ltd. 0.316.Geo Connect Ltd. 0.27.Gujarat Industries Power Co. Ltd. 0.158.H L S Asia Ltd. 0.349.Ircon International Ltd. 0.4910.Jindal Drilling & Inds. Ltd. 0.0511.Mecon Ltd. 0.112.N T P C Hydro Ltd. 0.0213.N T P C Ltd. 2614.Neyveli Lignite Corpn. Ltd. 215.North Eastern Electric Power Corpn. Ltd. 0.0316.N P D C Co. of Andhra Pradesh Ltd. 0.0317.O N G C Videsh Ltd. 0.1218.S J V N Ltd. 0.5719.Sunil Hitech Engineers Ltd. 0.0120.Tamil Nadu Police Housing Corpn. Ltd. 0.0421.Tata Projects Ltd. 0.2922.Utility Powertech Ltd. 0.01Total 31.59169
  • 170. CMIE Database, 2010ANNEXURE 2 b (DEC - 2006)S. No. Company NameStafftrainingAnnual(Rs.Crore)1.Andhra Pradesh Power Generation Corpn. Ltd. 0.682.Bhoruka Power Corpn. Ltd. 0.083.Brigade Enterprises Ltd. 0.244.Dakshin Haryana Bijli Vitran Nigam Ltd. 0.025.Engineering Projects (India) Ltd. 0.066.Engineers India Ltd. 0.477.Geo Connect Ltd. 0.078.Gujarat Energy Transmission Corpn. Ltd. 0.139.Gujarat Industries Power Co. Ltd. 0.1810.H L S Asia Ltd. 0.2211.Ircon International Ltd. 0.4712.Lanco Infratech Ltd. 0.01170
  • 171. 13.Lodha Developers Ltd. 0.0114.Lurgi India Co. Pvt. Ltd. 2.5515.N T P C Hydro Ltd. 0.0516.N T P C Ltd. 30.717.Neyveli Lignite Corpn. Ltd. 1.6818.North Eastern Electric Power Corpn. Ltd. 0.0319. Northern Power Distribution Co. Of Andhra PradeshLtd. 0.0220.Orissa Power Generation Corpn. Ltd. 0.3621.Promac Engineering Inds. Ltd. 0.0122.S J V N Ltd. 0.5323.Tamil Nadu Electricity Board 1.8824.Tamil Nadu Police Housing Corpn. Ltd. 0.0225. Tamilnadu Adidravidar Housing & Devp. Corpn.Ltd. 0.14Total 40.61CMIE Database, 2010ANNEXURE NO.2 c (DEC - 2007)Sr.No.Company Name Staff training1. Annual (Rs.Crore)2. Andhra Pradesh Power Generation Corpn. 0.64171
  • 172. Ltd.3.Brigade Enterprises Ltd. 0.264.D L F Commercial Developers Ltd. 0.365.D L F Home Developers Ltd. 0.326.D L F Laing ORourke (India) Ltd. 0.797.Dakshin Haryana Bijli Vitran Nigam Ltd. 0.098.Engineering Projects (India) Ltd. 0.049.Engineers India Ltd. 0.4710.Geo Connect Ltd. 0.0111.Gujarat Energy Transmission Corpn. Ltd. 0.1712.H L S Asia Ltd. 0.413.Ircon International Ltd. 0.5114.J M C Projects (India) Ltd. 0.1915.Jindal Drilling & Inds. Ltd. 0.1816.K Raheja Corp Pvt. Ltd. 0.3517.Lanco Infratech Ltd. 0.1318.Mahindra Water Utilities Ltd. 0.0319.N T P C Hydro Ltd. 0.0220.N T P C Ltd. 29.221.Neyveli Lignite Corpn. Ltd. 1.622.North Eastern Electric Power Corpn. Ltd. 0.0923. Northern Power Distribution Co. OfAndhra Pradesh Ltd. 0.3124.Orissa Power Generation Corpn. Ltd. 0.425.R N S Infrastructure Ltd. 0.126.S J V N Ltd. 0.54172
  • 173. 27.Tamil Nadu Electricity Board 2.2628.Tamil Nadu Police Housing Corpn. Ltd. 0.0429. Tamilnadu Adidravidar Housing & Devp.Corpn. Ltd. 0.0730.Tata Projects Ltd. 1.2631.Uttar Haryana Bijli Vitran Nigam Ltd. 1.69Total Total 42.52CMIE Database, 2010ANNEXURE 2 d (DEC - 2008)S. No. Annual (Rs. Crore)Company Name Staff training1.Andhra Pradesh Power Generation Corpn. Ltd. 0.622.Bhoruka Power Corpn. Ltd. 0.373.Brigade Enterprises Ltd. 0.314.D L F Commercial Developers Ltd. 0.845.D L F Home Developers Ltd. 1.026.D L F Laing ORourke (India) Ltd. 1.927.Dakshin Haryana Bijli Vitran Nigam Ltd. 0.358.Engineering Projects (India) Ltd. 0.079.Engineers India Ltd. 1.4710.Ganesh Housing Corpn. Ltd. 0.0111.Gujarat Energy Transmission Corpn. Ltd. 0.8312.H L S Asia Ltd. 0.4513.Hinduja Properties Ltd. 0.0214.Ircon International Ltd. 0.84173
  • 174. 15.J M C Projects (India) Ltd. 0.3316.Jindal Drilling & Inds. Ltd. 0.0917.Jubilant Infrastructure Ltd. 0.0118.K Raheja Corp Pvt. Ltd. 1.319.Kanti Bijlee Utpadan Nigam Ltd. 0.0120.Kei-Rsos Maritime Ltd. 0.0121.Kirloskar Constructions & Engineers Ltd. 0.0322.Lanco Infratech Ltd. 1.8923.Lodha Developers Ltd. 0.1624.Mahindra Water Utilities Ltd. 0.0625.Marg Ltd. 0.9626.Mecon Ltd. 0.2727.N T P C Ltd. 34.628.Neyveli Lignite Corpn. Ltd. 1.0829.North Eastern Electric Power Corpn. Ltd. 0.1330.Northern Power Distribution Co. Of Andhra Pradesh Ltd. 0.5131.Omaxe Buildwell Pvt. Ltd. 0.1132.Orissa Power Generation Corpn. Ltd. 0.5433.Promac Engineering Inds. Ltd. 0.0334.S J V N Ltd. 0.4435.Sheth Developers Pvt. Ltd. 0.1936.Shipra Estate Ltd. 0.1137.Tamil Nadu Electricity Board 238.Tamil Nadu Police Housing Corpn. Ltd. 0.0239.Tamilnadu Adidravidar Housing & Devp. Corpn. Ltd. 0.140.Tata Projects Ltd. 1.0641. U Tech Developers Ltd. 0.03174
  • 175. 42.Utility Powertech Ltd. 0.0443.Uttar Haryana Bijli Vitran Nigam Ltd. 4.19Total 59.42CMIE Database, 2010ANNEXURE 3QUESTIONNAIRE FOR INSTITUTIONSThis is a pioneering effort being carried out for the first time in India to find out the factorsthat are aiding or hindering the establishment of project management curricula in ourtechnical and business management institutions.Based on secondary research of developed countries, a major finding that emerges is thatproject management as a scientific discipline is deeply entrenched in the educational fabric ofthese countries; as also amongst popular psyche thus earning them an appellation of being‘project-oriented societies’. A major reason for this may be attributed to project managementbeing included as necessary curricula in all streams of education.Universally, governments, large private corporations, and non-governmental organizationspractice the ‘projects’ approach to fulfill their targets and goals. If so be the case, projectmanagement as a discipline would have had a much higher acceptance by the industry andProject Management (PM) courses would have been taught in India’s technical and businessschools. The study from the point of view of educational institutions is to determine thefactors that affect the inclusion of project management curricula.Survey InstructionsThe survey is divided into four parts. The first part asks for your background information.The second part aims at discovering your general opinion on project management (PM)curricula. The third part aims to identify any distinguishing factors that characterize thespecific PM curriculum development. The fourth part deals with finding out about theexisting educational infrastructure available with institutions and also management supportavailable to the institutions to establish new courses. Also covered are regulatory aspects thataffect the decision-making and launch of new curricula. For every question, you are asked toprovide a tick/score as per your opinion.This research does not involve any sensitive issues. It is designed to gather information basedon your personal experience, knowledge and opinion alone. It will not be taken to representor reflect your institution’s view-points. The information provided will be kept strictlyconfidential and will be used solely for the purposes of this research. If you have anycomments or enquiries, please contact Dr. Mona N. Shah at mnshah@nicmar.ac.in or 02027291342/ 65102745.Thank you for your interest.175
  • 176. PART IRESPONDENTS PARTICULARSNameName of InstitutionDesignationAddress of institutionTel (O):Mobile No.Fax (O):Email OfficePersonalHow many years ofwork/researchexperience do you havein academics?Years:How many years ofexperience do you havein curriculum/syllabusdevelopment?Years:Would you agree if weacknowledge you in ourreport for yourcontribution andassistance in the survey?If yes, kindly givePersonal name:Organization’s name:Please indicate whether Yes:176
  • 177. you would like toreceive a summary ofthe report uponcompletion of thisresearchNo:177
  • 178. PART IIGENERAL OPINION ON EXISTING STATE OF PM EDUCATION IN INDIA1. What in youropinion is thecurrent status ofPM education inIndia?Poor Fair Good Very Good Excellent2. Has yourinstituteconsideredintroducing PMin curricula ofanyprogramme ?Yes: No:3. If yes, at whatlevel has thisbeenconsidered?Please alsomention thename of theprogrammeUnderGraduate:Post-Graduate:AdvancedLevel:ResearchLevel:Certificate4. Which typeof PM relatedcourses do yourun? Please alsomention thename of thecourseElective Course: Compulsory Course:178
  • 179. 5. Of whatintensity is thecourse?Elementary: Intermediate: Advanced:6. In youropinion howessential is it toteach PM in1. EngineeringColleges?2. ManagementInstitutions3. Specializedinstitutions :- Architecture- Planning anddesign- Infrastructuremanagement- Any otherSomewhatEssentialFairlyEssentialEssential VeryEssentialAbsolutelyEssential179
  • 180. PART IIICURRICULUM DEVELOPMENTGiven below are the set of subject areas essential to develop PM competencies amongstudents. Rate them according to the following scale and write the corresponding scalenumber in the box given below.Scales: 1-Not Important; 2-Somewhat Important; 3-Important; 4-Very Important; 5-Extremely Important.Also, in the box marked ‘Level’, please tick the level / levels at which these competenciesshould be covered.Course-Levels: 1-Certificate; 2-Under-Graduate; 3-Post-Graduate; 4-Advanced(Doctoral / Post Doctoral); 5– Applied ResearchA: MANAGEMENT AND TECHNOLOGYRatings Levels1 - 5 1 2 3 4 51. Operations management for Projects.2. Planning, Scheduling, Monitoring andControl Techniques3. Statistical Methods for Project Analysis4. Operations Research for Projects5. Project Quality Management6. Health/Safety/Environment in Projects7. Cost Estimation and budgeting8.Accounting and Control Systems9. Quantity Surveying and Estimation10. Projects Marketing11. Project Site and EquipmentManagement.180
  • 181. 12. Project Procurement & MaterialsManagement13. Contract Management14. ProcessDesign./Engineering/Testing/Commissioning15. Facilities Engineering and Management16. Logistics & Supply Chain Management17. Transportation Management18. Technology and EngineeringManagement19. Project Formulation and Appraisal20. Project Engineering21. Any other ( Please specify )B: STRATEGY, ECONOMICS AND FINANCERatings Levels1 - 5 1 2 3 4 51. Macro-Economic Policy2. Project Strategy3. Social Cost Benefit Analysis4. Financial Management5. Project Financing6. Risk and Insurance Management7. Legal, Commercial and TaxationAspects of Projects8. Project Joint Ventures, StrategicAlliances, Special Purpose Vehicles9. Any other ( Please specify )181
  • 182. B: BEHAVIOURAL SCIENCES AREARatings Levels1 2 3 4 51. Project Organization and Structure2. Managerial Skills for Projects(Communication, Leadership, TeamBuilding, Negotiation, other soft skills)3. Human Resources Management inProjects4. Industrial/Labour Relations5. Conflict Management6. Diversity Management7. Any other ( Please specify )C: INFORMATION TECHNOLOGYRatings Levels1 2 3 4 51. PM software-Primavera, MSP, GIS /GPS for Project Management2. Enterprise Resource Planning ( ERP)3. e-Business Applications4. Engineering Software (Auto-Cad,Staadpro, Estm8, Ansys, Auto-Revit,3D-Max, Calquan)5. Excel / SPSS / DBMS6. Any other ( Please specify )182
  • 183. D: SECTOR SPECIFICScore Level1 2 3 4 51. Information CommunicationTechnology (ICT)2. Telecom3. Research and Development4. Space Exploration5. Technology6. Defense7. Roadways8. Railways9. Civil Aviation10. Ports11. Shipbuilding12. Urban Infrastructure13. Mega Property Developments14. Petrochemicals15. Chemical Engineering16. Oil and Gas Exploration17. Services18. International Project Management19. Any other ( Please specify )183
  • 184. PART IVINFRASRUCTURE, MANAGEMENT SUPPORT, REGULATORY FACTORS ANDCURRENT STATUS OF PM RESEARCH IN INSTITUTEThis section deals with the existing issues faced by institutions’ management in setting upcourses related to the PM area. These issues are internal in nature. The last part deals with theregulatory environment and the extent to which it affects the institution’s management intaking decisions for the same. Rate them according to the following scale and write thecorresponding scale number in the box given below.Scales: 1-Not Available; 2-Somewhat Available; 3- Available; 4-Easily Available; 5-Very Easily Available.A : INSTITUTE INFRASTRUCTURERatings1 2 3 4 51. Availability of library and e-resources2. Course Material3. Classrooms4. Laboratories5. Computer Labs6. Qualified faculty7. Availability of research facilities8. Management vision9. Any other ( Please specify )B : MANAGEMENT SUPPORT1. Have there beenattempts in the past tointroduceYes: No:184
  • 185. courses/more coursesin PM in yourinstitute?2. If yes tick thedegree to which theprogress was made intheir introduction.Negligible Initial Considerable Advanced Established3. If interested, whenare you planning tointroduce PM coursesin the institute?0 to 6 Mths >6Mths to1yr>1 to 2 yrs > 2yrs to3yrs> 3 yrs4. In your opinion,will the introductionof PM coursesimprove theemployability of thestudents?Somewhat Fairly Good ConsiderablyImmensely5. During recruitment,do companiesspecifically ask forPM competencies inthe students?If so to what extent ?Yes:- To some extent- To considerable extent- To great extentNo:C : REGULATORY FACTORSYou are required to respond to the extent of regulatory challenges that are faced byengineering/business institutes in the introduction of new courses. The latter part of thequestionnaire revolves around how institutions management overcomes regulatorylimitations.185
  • 186. This section deals with the approximate time period in which new courses may be introduced,after the course design is ready.1. Tick the category inwhich your institutionexists (There may bemore than onesimultaneous category)AutonomousUnaffiliated,non AICTEUniv.Affiliated/Univ.DepartmentAICTE International Accredited( Pleasespecify )2. Academic Council /BoS approval0 to 6 mths >6m to 1yr >1 to 2yrs> 2yrs to 3yrs > 3 yrs3. Regulatory approvals0 to 6 mths >6m to 1yr >1 to 2yrs> 2yrs to 3yrs > 3 yrs4. Recruitment andtraining of faculty0 to 6 mths >6m to 1yr >1 to 2yrs> 2yrs to 3yrs > 3 yrs5. Resource building(library/journals etc)0 to 6 mths >6m to 1yr >1 to 2yrs> 2yrs to 3yrs > 3 yrs6. Which of the aboveactivities takes placesimultaneously0 to 6 mths >6m to 1yr >1 to 2yrs> 2yrs to 3yrs > 3 yrsD : CURRENT POSITION OF RESEARCH IN PROJECT MANAGEMENT AREAThis section deals with the current position of PM related research in the Institution,availability of resources and funding for the same. It also covers the factors that impede theresearch / publications in PM area.1. Have you personally been involved inproject management related research?Yes: No:If the answer is Yes, then tick the following option/s1a. Funded Research ( If yes, pleasespecify the funding source )1b. Own Professional InterestIf the answer is No, then tick the following option/s to state which of the following186
  • 187. factors impede the research in PM area in your Institute1c. Lack of awareness of PM asa systematic academic andresearch discipline1d. Level of Courses Offered1e. Availability of Literature Books Journals E-Resources Others1f. Inadequate information regardingsources of funding for PM Research2. Do you/any member of the faculty haveany published work in this area?Yes: No:If the answer is Yes, then tick the following option/s2a. Articles2b. Research Papers2c. Conference/Seminar Papers2d. Books3. Have you/any other member of facultyundergone a programme / certification inPM area?Yes forProgram:Yes forCertificate:No:4. Would you like to state anything else ?If yes, please specifyINTERVIEWER’S DETAILSName:Signature:Date:Time:187
  • 188. ANNEXURE 4CORRELATION MATRIX OF FACTORS (SUBJECTS) CONTAINED INQUESTIONNAIRE FOR ACADEMIC INSTITUTIONS (Part III A)The correlation matrix gives the correlation coefficient of each and every subject (factor)with rest of the subjects (factors). If the correlation coefficient between two subjects is veryhigh, i.e., 0.90 or above, then both the subjects (factors) are to be treated as single factor.Here, we check the same for selected different groups of subjects.Part III A. MANAGEMENT AND TECHNOLOGYA200.40.20.30.40.60.50.30.50.40.50.50.60.60.60.50.40.50.40.81A190.40.20.30.40.60.50.50.40.40.50.50.50.60.60.60.50.50.610.8A180.40.30.30.50.60.40.50.40.30.30.30.30.40.50.50.60.610.60.4A170.50.30.50.50.50.50.40.60.50.60.60.50.50.50.70.710.60.50.5A160.40.30.40.50.40.50.30.60.30.60.60.60.60.50.710.70.60.50.4A150.40.30.40.40.50.60.50.60.50.70.70.60.70.610.70.70.50.60.5188
  • 189. A140.30.30.30.30.60.50.50.50.50.40.60.60.710.60.50.50.50.60.6A130.30.30.30.30.60.50.50.50.50.60.80.710.70.70.60.50.40.60.6A120.30.20.30.40.50.50.40.40.40.60.810.70.60.60.60.50.30.50.6A110.30.20.30.40.50.50.50.50.40.610.80.80.60.70.60.60.30.50.5A100.30.30.40.30.40.50.30.50.310.60.60.60.40.70.60.60.30.50.5A90.40.50.30.40.40.40.50.610.30.40.40.50.50.50.30.50.30.40.4A80.30.50.50.50.50.60.510.60.50.50.40.50.50.60.60.60.40.40.5A70.20.40.30.30.50.610.50.50.30.50.40.50.50.50.30.40.50.50.3A60.50.40.50.50.710.60.60.40.50.50.50.50.50.60.50.50.40.50.5A50.50.30.40.610.70.50.50.40.40.50.50.60.60.50.40.50.60.60.6A40.60.40.710.60.50.30.50.40.30.40.40.30.30.40.50.50.50.40.4A30.60.410.70.40.50.30.50.30.40.30.30.30.30.40.40.50.30.30.3A20.510.40.40.30.40.40.50.50.30.20.20.30.30.30.30.30.30.20.2A110.50.60.60.50.50.20.30.40.30.30.30.30.30.40.40.50.40.40.4A1A2A3A4A5A6A7A8A9A10A11A12A13A14A15A16A17A18A19A20In the group of Management and Technology, the correlation coefficient of eachsubject/factor with rest of the subject is below 0.90. Therefore, all the selected subjects in thisgroup is significant of their own capacity.Part III B. STRATEGY, ECONOMICS AND FINANCEB1 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6 B7 B8B1 1.00 0.73 0.72 0.61 0.60 0.21 0.64 0.55B2 0.73 1.00 0.76 0.71 0.65 0.23 0.65 0.64B3 0.72 0.76 1.00 0.67 0.71 0.27 0.72 0.68B4 0.61 0.71 0.67 1.00 0.80 0.14 0.56 0.52B5 0.60 0.65 0.71 0.80 1.00 0.18 0.65 0.58B6 0.21 0.23 0.27 0.14 0.18 1.00 0.17 0.38B7 0.64 0.65 0.72 0.56 0.65 0.17 1.00 0.86B8 0.55 0.64 0.68 0.52 0.58 0.38 0.86 1.00Similarly, here also the correlation coefficients of each subject/factor with rest are not morethan 0.90. So, all the subjects in this group is significant.189
  • 190. Part III C. BEHAVIOURIAL SCIENCES AREAC1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6C1 1.00 0.66 0.57 0.66 0.53 0.59C2 0.66 1.00 0.68 0.50 0.45 0.38C3 0.57 0.68 1.00 0.58 0.54 0.43C4 0.66 0.50 0.58 1.00 0.79 0.78C5 0.53 0.45 0.54 0.79 1.00 0.81C6 0.59 0.38 0.43 0.78 0.81 1.00In this group also all the coefficients is less then 0.90 and they show their importance forincluding this group.Part III D. INFORMATION TECHNOLOGYD1 D2 D3 D4 D5D1 1.00 0.64 0.47 0.46 0.49D2 0.64 1.00 0.72 0.39 0.54D3 0.47 0.72 1.00 0.35 0.35D4 0.46 0.39 0.35 1.00 0.81D5 0.49 0.54 0.35 0.81 1.00According to the results given above, the correlation coefficients of each subject/factor withrest factors are below 0.90. Therefore, all the subjects included in this group is significant.CORRELATION MATRIX OF FACTORS (SUBJECTS) IN THE SECTORSPECIFIC AREAS (Part III.E)E180.70.70.70.70.90.90.90.80.90.80.90.90.90.90.90.90.91E170.60.70.60.70.90.80.90.90.90.90.90.90.90.80.90.910.9E160.60.70.70.80.80.90.90.80.90.80.90.90.91110.90.9E150.70.80.60.80.80.90.90.80.90.80.90.90.91110.90.9E140.60.80.60.80.80.90.80.80.90.80.90.80.91110.80.9E130.60.70.60.80.80.80.80.80.90.80.90.910.90.90.90.90.9E120.60.70.60.70.80.80.90.90.90.80.910.90.80.90.90.90.9E110.60.70.60.70.80.90.90.91110.90.90.90.90.90.90.9E100.50.70.50.70.80.80.80.90.9110.80.80.80.80.80.90.8E90.60.70.70.70.80.90.90.910.910.90.90.90.90.90.90.9E80.60.70.60.60.80.80.910.90.90.90.90.80.80.80.80.90.8190
  • 191. E70.60.70.60.70.90.810.90.90.80.90.90.80.80.90.90.90.9E60.60.80.60.80.910.80.80.90.80.90.80.80.90.90.90.80.9E50.60.70.70.710.90.90.80.80.80.80.80.80.80.80.80.90.9E40.70.70.810.70.80.70.60.70.70.70.70.80.80.80.80.70.7E30.60.610.80.70.60.60.60.70.50.60.60.60.60.60.70.60.7E20.810.60.70.70.80.70.70.70.70.70.70.70.80.80.70.70.7E110.80.60.70.60.60.60.60.60.50.60.60.60.60.70.60.60.7E1E2E3E4E5E6E7E8E9E10E11E12E13E14E15E16E17E18In this Sector Specific Group, we included 18 sectors, but the results given above, show thatthe correlation coefficients of so many sectors with other sectors are greater than 0.90. Forexample, the correlation coefficient of the sector Oil & Gas and Telecom is 0.92, whichmeans that they are highly correlated and for the further analysis we can not treat them asdifferent sectors. There are so many similar results in this correlation matrix.ANNEXURE 5QUESTIONNAIRE FOR EXECUTIVESThis is a pioneering effort being carried out for the first time in India to find out the factorsthat are aiding or hindering the establishment of project management curricula in ourtechnical and business management institutions.Based on secondary research of developed countries, a major finding that emerges is thatproject management as a scientific discipline is deeply entrenched in the educational fabric ofthese countries; as also amongst popular psyche thus earning them an appellation of being‘project-oriented societies’. A major reason for this may be attributed to project managementbeing included as necessary curricula in all streams of education.Universally, governments, large private corporations, and non-governmental organizationspractice the ‘projects’ approach to fulfill their targets and goals. If so be the case, projectmanagement as a discipline would have had a much higher acceptance by the industry andProject Management (PM) courses would have been taught in India’s technical and businessschools. The study from the point of view of educational institutions is to determine thefactors that affect the inclusion of project management curricula.Survey Instructions191
  • 192. The survey is divided into four parts. The first part asks for your background information.The second part aims at discovering your general opinion on project management (PM)curricula. The third part aims to identify any distinguishing factors that characterize thespecific PM curriculum development. The fourth part deals with finding out about theexisting educational infrastructure available with institutions and also management supportavailable to the institutions to establish new courses. Also covered are regulatory aspects thataffect the decision-making and launch of new curricula. For every question, you are asked toprovide a tick/score as per your opinion.This research does not involve any sensitive issues. It is designed to gather information basedon your personal experience, knowledge and opinion alone. It will not be taken to representor reflect your institution’s view-points. The information provided will be kept strictlyconfidential and will be used solely for the purposes of this research. If you have anycomments or enquiries, please contact Dr. Mona N. Shah at mnshah@nicmar.ac.in or 02027291342/ 65102745.Thank you for your interest.192
  • 193. PART I ARESPONDENTS PARTICULARSNameName of InstitutionDesignationAddress of institutionTel (O):Mobile No.Fax (O):Email OfficePersonalHow many years ofwork experience do youhave?Years:Would you agree if weacknowledge you in ourreport for yourcontribution andassistance in the survey?If yes, kindly givePersonal name:Organization’s name:When did you completeyour graduation/postgraduation course?Degree earned Year Univ/ InstituteAt that time were thereany courses that wereoffered in yourinstitution related toYes No Some topics taught(please mention)193
  • 194. PM?Did you undergo anyformal certification inPM. If so, pleasementionName ofcertificationCertifying Agency YearDid you receive anyformal training in PMrelated areas? If soplease mention.Name of thetrainingprogrammeInstitute/Agencyconducting theprogrammeDuration YearPART IBHave you been involved as a project teammember/leader in a project in any of thefollowing areas? (Tick the appropriatechoice)ConceptualisationDesignPlanningEngineeringExecutionCommissioningPlease state the1) name of project2) size in rupees3) year of starting4) year of completion5) client6) your role in the project team7) period of involvement in project8) major techniques you used for e.g.PERT/CPM/Decision tree/ Fishbone/Arrow Diagram9) major skills you found usefulFor more than one project, please fill out the rest of the details in the space provided at theend of the form.PART ICHave you been invited to teach ProjectManagement by any college /institute /In-house management training centre If so,please mention1) Course/ Module taught:2) College/Institute/In-house MDP centre:3) Class for which taught:194
  • 195. 4) Year of teaching:5) No. of sessions taught:6) If any test/evaluation was conducted afterteaching:For more than one institution/module/course, please fill out the rest of the details in the spaceprovided at the end of the form.195
  • 196. PART IIPROJECT MANAGEMENT CURRICULUMGiven below are the set of subject areas essential to develop PM competencies amongmanagement executives. Rate them according to the following scale and write thecorresponding scale number in the box given below.Scales: 1-Not Important; 2-Somewhat Important; 3-Important; 4-Very Important; 5-Extremely Important.A : MANAGEMENT AND TECHNOLOGYRatings1 2 3 4 51. Operations Management for Projects.2. Planning, Scheduling, Monitoring andControl Techniques3. Statistical Methods for Project Analysis4. Operations Research for Projects5. Project Quality Management6. Health/Safety/Environment in Projects7. Cost Estimation and budgeting8.Accounting and Control Systems9. Quantity Surveying and Estimation10. Projects Marketing11. Project Site and EquipmentManagement.12. Project Procurement & MaterialsManagement13. Contract Management14. ProcessDesign./Engineering/Testing/Commissioning196
  • 197. 15. Facilities Engineering and Management16. Logistics & Supply Chain Management17. Transportation Management18. Technology and EngineeringManagement19. Project Formulation and Appraisal20. Project Engineering21. Any other ( Please specify )B: BEHAVIOURAL SCIENCES AREARatings1 2 3 4 51. Project Organization and Structure2. Managerial Skills for Projects(Communication, Leadership, TeamBuilding, Negotiation, other soft skills)3. Human Resources Management inProjects4. Industrial/Labour Relations5. Conflict Management6. Diversity Management7. Any other ( Please specify )C : INFORMATION TECHNOLOGYRatings1 2 3 4 51. PM software-Primavera, MSP, GIS /GPS for Project Management197
  • 198. 2. Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP)3. e-Business Applications4. Engineering Software (Auto-Cad,Staadpro, Estm8, Ansys, Auto-Revit,3D-Max, Calquan)5. Excel / SPSS / DBMS6. Any other ( Please specify )D : SECTOR SPECIFICScore1 2 3 4 51. Information CommunicationTechnology (ICT)2. Telecom3. Research and Development4. Space Exploration5. Technology6. Defense7. Roadways8. Railways9. Civil Aviation10. Ports11. Shipbuilding12. Urban Infrastructure13. Mega Property Developments14. Petrochemicals15. Chemical Engineering16. Oil and Gas Exploration198
  • 199. 17. Services18. International Project Management19. Any other ( Please specify )199
  • 200. PART IIICHANGES IN WORK PERFORMANCE AFTER COMPLETION OF PROJECTMANAGEMENT PROGRAMMEThese issues are internal in nature. This part deals with the extent of difference PM traininghas made to you in your workplace. Rate the factors listed below according to the followingscale and write the corresponding scale number in the box given below.Scales: 1-Not Helped; 2- Somewhat Helped; 3- Helped; 4-Helped Substantially; 5-Helped Immensely.A : STRATEGIC PROJECT OVERVIEWRatings1 2 3 4 51. To get an integrated view of theproject2. Role clarity3. Work Breakdown Structure andResponsibility mapping4. Understanding the exact placementof a project in the overall corporatestrategy5. Importance of Earned Value of aproject to the company6. Understanding project profitability7. Importance of Human relations andConflict management in projectsuccess8. Management vision9. Any other ( Please specify )B : PROJECT SKILLS OVERVIEW200
  • 201. 1.Importance of ProjectPlanning/Scheduling/Execution2. Importance of Monitoring &Control3. Importance of ContractManagement4. Project Risk Management5. Project Costing6. Importance ofHealth/Safety/Environment7. Quality Management8. Communication and SoftSkillsPlease Tick In The Appropriate Box/S1. How didPMTraininghelp in yourprofession?Remuneration Incentive Responsibility Promotion Decision-makingPowerBetterInterpersonal-relation &conflictresolutions.201
  • 202. PART IVCURRENT POSITION OF PROJECT MANAGEMENT IN INDIAThis section deals with your opinion regarding the current position of PM related educationoffered in the academic institutions.To what extent in your opinion are the factors given below affecting PM education fromtaking root in India. Rate them according to the following scale and write the correspondingscale number in the box given below.Scales: 1-Not Important; 2-Somewhat Important; 3-Important; 4-Very Important; 5-Extremely Important.Ratings1 2 3 4 51. Lack of awarenessamongst students andeducators.2. Lack of trainedinstructors at theundergraduate andpostgraduate level.3. Being a practical field itcannot be ‘taught’ in theclassroom.4. Mastery comes onlyfrom practical experience.5. Prior knowledge notessential in working inthis field.INTERVIEWER’S DETAILSName:Signature:Date:Time:202
  • 203. PART IBHave you been involved as a project teammember/leader in a project in any of thefollowing areas? (Tick the appropriate choice)ConceptualisationDesignPlanningEngineeringExecutionCommissioningPlease state the1) name of project2) size in rupees3) year of starting4) year of completion5) client6) your role in the project team7) period of involvement in project8) major techniques you used for e.g.PERT/CPM/Decision tree/ Fishbone/Arrow Diagram9) major skills you found useful203
  • 204. PART ICHave you been invited to teach ProjectManagement by any college /institute /In-house management training centre. If so,please mention1) Course/ Module taught:2) College/Institute/In house MDP centre:3) Class for which taught:4) Year of teaching:5) No. of sessions taught:6) If any test/evaluation was conducted after teaching:ANNEXURE 6204
  • 205. QUESTIONNAIRE FOR HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGERSThis is a pioneering effort being carried out for the first time in India to find out the factorsthat are aiding or hindering the establishment of project management curricula in ourtechnical and business management institutions.Based on secondary research of developed countries, a major finding that emerges is thatproject management as a scientific discipline is deeply entrenched in the educational fabric ofthese countries; as also amongst popular psyche thus earning them an appellation of being‘project-oriented societies’. A major reason for this may be attributed to project managementbeing included as necessary curricula in all streams of education.Universally, governments, large private corporations, and non-governmental organizationspractice the ‘projects’ approach to fulfill their targets and goals. If so be the case, projectmanagement as a discipline would have had a much higher acceptance by the industry andProject Management (PM) courses would have been taught in India’s technical and businessschools. The study from the point of view of educational institutions is to determine thefactors that affect the inclusion of project management curricula.Survey InstructionsThe survey is divided into four parts. The first part asks for your background information.The second part aims at discovering your general opinion on project management (PM)curricula. The third part aims to identify any distinguishing factors that characterize thespecific PM curriculum development. The fourth part deals with finding out about theexisting educational infrastructure available with institutions and also management supportavailable to the institutions to establish new courses. Also covered are regulatory aspects thataffect the decision-making and launch of new curricula. For every question, you are asked toprovide a tick/score as per your opinion.This research does not involve any sensitive issues. It is designed to gather information basedon your personal experience, knowledge and opinion alone. It will not be taken to representor reflect your institution’s view-points. The information provided will be kept strictlyconfidential and will be used solely for the purposes of this research. If you have anycomments or enquiries, please contact Dr. Mona N. Shah at mnshah@nicmar.ac.in or 02027291342/ 65102745.Thank you for your interest.205
  • 206. PART IRESPONDENTS PARTICULARSNameName of OrganizationDesignationAddress of institutionTel (O):Mobile No.Fax (O):Email OfficePersonalHas your organization in the pastsent employees for PM relatedtraining?Yes: No:If yes, sincewhen has thisbeen done?0- 5 years >5-10 years >10-15years>15 yearsWhat is thenature of theemployees sentfor this training?OnlyTechnicalTechnicaland Non-technicalOperationalstaffManagerialOf what levelare these?Supervisory JuniormanagersMiddle levelmanagersSenior levelPART IIGiven below are the set of Project Management (PM) related fields essential to developPM competencies. Rate them according to the following scale and write thecorresponding scale number in the box given below.Scales: 1-Not High; 2-Somewhat High; 3-High; 4-Very High; 5-Extremely High.206
  • 207. A:What is the need for PM relatedfields in the company?1 2 3 4 51. Stipulation In The Contract2. Improving Effectiveness OfProject Operations3. Understanding Global Projects4. Perceived Gains From SuchTraining5. Human Resource DevelopmentFor Better Performance6. Employee Retention7. Career Development8. Prerequisite For Project BasedOrganizations Such As Yours9. Improves Ability To Bid ForComplex Projects10. Improves Ability To ExecuteComplete Projects11. Improves Ability To MonitorAnd Control Projects12. Improves Ability To PlanProjects13. Improves Ability To ManageContracts In Projects14. Improves Ability To DeliverProjects In Right Time, RightCosts And Right Quality15. Improves Any Other Ability,Please SpecifyB:1. Which typeof trainingmethod ispreferred byyourorganization?(Tick in theOn thejobtrainingIn class training(for e.g. in housetraining sessions)In class trainingwith on the jobprojectsComprehensiveDegree /Diploma leveltraining207
  • 208. spaceprovided)2. Whatpredominantoutcome issought afterthe training?(Tick in thespaceprovided)Buildingknowledgebase oftraineesBuildingskillsbaseBuilding aset ofcompetenciesBuilding the right attitudes ofthe employees towards theirjobsC: Which Of The Levels Of PM Training Is Most Preferred In Your Organization?Level of training/Level of employeeOperatives SupervisoryMiddle levelmanagersJuniormanagersSenior level1. Elementary2. Basic3. Advanced4. Strategic5. Any other(specify)D: Rate The Costs Of PM Related Training In India On A Scale Of 1-5.1- Least expensive, 2- fairly expensive, 3- expensive, 4 – quite expensive, 5 – highlyexpensiveType of Cost 1 2 3 4 51. Trainer’ssalary andtime2. Trainees’salaries and208
  • 209. time3. Materials fortraining4. Expenses fortrainers5. Expenses fortrainees6. Cost offacilities andequipment7. LostproductivityE: Rate The Benefits Of PM Related Training In India On A Scale Of 1-5.1- Least beneficial, 2- fairly beneficial, 3- beneficial,, 4 – quite beneficial, 5 – highlybeneficialBenefits 1 2 3 4 51. Increase inproduction/performance2. Reduction in errorsand improvement ofsafety standards3. Employee Retention4. Less supervisionnecessary5. Ability to use newskills and capabilities6. Improved deliveryperformance in terms ofcost, time and quality7. Attitude changes8. Growth of businessopportunitiesF: Express Your Opinion On The Efficacy Of Training Imparted By The FollowingTraining Entities On Scale Of 1-5.1- Least efficacious, 2- fairly efficacious, 3- efficacious, 4- quite efficacious, 5 – mostefficaciousTraining entity 1 2 3 4 51. Technical/businessinstitute2. Independent trainer209
  • 210. 3. Certified franchiseetrainer4. Internationallycertified trainers5. In-house trainers6. Self-trainingG: Please Mention The Names Of Upto 5 Training Institutes Where You RegularlySend Employees For Training.Sr.No.Name ofinstituteName/areaof TrainingProgrammeTraining for Duration(Tick in the space provided) Workmen Supervisors Middlemgt.Sr.mgrs1.2.3.4.5.H: If PM Training Of Your Employees Was Accompanied By An InternationalAccreditation Would It Be More Valuable And Beneficial To Your Organization?□ Yes□ No□ MaybeINTERVIEWER’S DETAILSName:Signature:210
  • 211. Date:Time:ANNEXURE 7MODEL COURSE CURRICULUM DESIGNS IN UNDERGRADUATEPROGRAMMES OF TECHNICAL AND BUSINESS MANAGEMENT SCHOOLSIn this section some suggested outlines and curricula for offering PM courses at variouslevels like Basic, Advanced and Proficiency, for engineering, general management andworking executives have been described. Various degrees of experience and prior exposure toPM of the students have been considered to arrive at the model course outlines.1. PROJECT MANAGEMENT ESSENTIALS IN ENGINEERING211
  • 212. • Course Objective: To introduce the engineering students to the discipline of PM inindustry and application of PM skills to improve performance on projects.• Student Profile: This is suggested as an Introductory (Level 1) course and the targetaudience is students undergoing engineering courses having no formal background inproject management• Course Mix: All compulsory with a total of 10 subjects to be covered over an annualacademic calendarS. No. Subject Description1 Role of PM Department in Engineering Companies2Project Planning, Network Scheduling, and MonitoringTechniques3 Introduction to Project Management Software4 Basics in Procurement, Tendering, Bidding, Contracting5Project Equipment Purchase, Stores and InventoryManagement6 Project Quality7 Project Safety, Health and Environment8 Project Site Management and Control9 Basics of Project Cost Accounting10 Integrated Project Workshop - Assignments11 Tests and assessments• Course Duration: One academic calendar year.2. PROJECT MANAGEMENT ESSENTIALS IN GENERAL MANAGEMENT• Course Objective: The objective of this course is to provide all students withessential PM skills that can be applied across all sectors to plan, schedule,implement and control projects.• Student Profile: This is suggested as an Introductory (Level 1) course, and thetarget audience is students undergoing General Management Programmes withsome or no prior work experience.• Course Mix: A mix of compulsory and electives subjects with a total of 10courses based upon the educational background of the student i.e. non-technicaland technical.212
  • 213. S. No.Subject Description1 Key People Skills for Project Managers2 Role of PM in Organisations3 Project Costing & Funds Management4 Project Planning, Scheduling, Monitoring and Controlling5 Introduction to Project Management Software6 Organising for Project Management7 Project Safety Management8 Project Quality Management9Basics of Tendering, Bidding, Contracting, Procurementand Claims Management10* Project Site Management and Control11* Equipment Management12* Role of PM Department in Engineering Companies13 Legal and Taxation Aspects of Projects14 Innovation and Managing Project Life Cycle15 Project Portfolio Management16 Tests and Assessments- Assignments*(may be offered only to students with technical background)• Course Duration: Spread over one to two academic terms.MODEL COURSE CURRICULUM DESIGNS PROGRAMMES FOR WORKINGEXECUTIVES1. PROGRAMME FOR PRACTISING EXECUTIVES (MIDDLE LEVEL)• Course Objective: The objective of this course is to provide the participants withessential PM skills to plan, implement and control projects efficiently.• Participant Profile: This is suggested as a Level 2 course and the target audienceis project personnel with 3 – 6 years of experience and having no formalqualification in project management.• Course Mix: An integrated mix of subjects for all participants213
  • 214. S. No. Subject Description1. Project Design, Scope and Engineering2. Project Procurement3. Project Planning, Scheduling and Monitoring Techniques4. Project Cost Accounting and Control5. Basics of Project Finance6. Project Risk Management7. Contracts and Claims Management in Projects8. Project Safety Management9. Project Quality Management10. Project Equipment and Materials Management11. Project HR and People Skills12. Project Site, Documentation and Close Out Management13. Case Analyses14. Tests and Assessments• Course Duration: Spread over 2 weeks with 15 sessions per week.2. PROGRAMME FOR PROJECT LEADERS (MID TO SENIOR LEVEL)• Course Objective: The objective of this course is to provide participants withessential PM skills to independently lead projects of large and complexmagnitude.• Participant Profile: This is suggested as a Level 3 course and the target audienceis project personnel with 6 – 10 years of experience and having no formalqualification in project management.• Course Mix: An integrated mix of subjects for all participants.S. No. Subjects1. Project Organization and Human Resource Issues214
  • 215. 2. Project Procurement and Negotiation Skills3. Project Operations (I) -Advanced PM Integration –WBS, Impacted schedules and CPM after Crashing.4. Project Operations (II)- Advanced PM Integration -WBS, Impacted Monitoring for Productivity and CTC5. Project Risk Management6. Project Quality, Health, Safety, Environment( HSE ) Management7. Project Finance Management8. Legal, Taxation and Claims Issues in ContractManagement9. Conflict Resolution10. Strategic Management of Projects Business11. Leadership Role in Integrated Management ofMultiple, Large, Complex Multi Location Projects12. Tests Assessments – Case Analysis• Course Duration: Spread over 2 weeks with 15 sessions per week.3. PROGRAMME FOR SENIOR LEVEL EXECUTIVES OF PROJECTCOMPANIES• Course Objective: To enable participants to appreciate the strategic businesscontexts of projects and formulate plans for growth, expansion and diversificationfor project based companies.• Participant Profile: This is suggested as a Level 4 course and the target audienceis project personnel with more than 6 – 10 years of experience and having noformal qualification in project management.• Course Mix: An integrated mix of subjects for all participants.S. No. Subject Description1. Leadership in Project Organisations2. Public Policy and Macro-Economic Environment3.Advanced Project Operations Management215
  • 216. 4.International Project Management – Issues in multi-country projects5. Project Risk Management6. Global Procurement, SCM and TechnologyManagement for Projects7. Project Finance Management8. Conflict Resolution9.Project Portfolio Analysis10.Innovation and New Project Development11.Case AnalysisCourse Duration: Spread over 4 weeks with extensive case analysis and discussionsANNEXURE 8MASTER DATABASE FILE OF PRIMARY DATAChapter 4Data Analysis Of Survey Of Technical And Business Institutions In IndiaTable 2: Category Of Institutions (Fig 2)Type of Colleges Frequency PercentageGovernment 21 25.93Private 60 74.07Table 3: Graph Showing Region Wise Distribution Of The Academic Institutions (Fig 3)Region wiseDistribution ofthe Institutions Frequency Percentage216
  • 217. North 16 19.75South 26 32.10East 5 6.17West 21 25.93Central 13 16.05Table 4: Experience Of Responding Faculty (Fig 4)Total Experiencein Years Frequency Percentageupto 5 years 0 0.0006 to 10 9 11.1111 to 15 11 13.5816 to 20 19 23.4621 to 25 16 19.7526 to 30 15 18.5231 to 35 3 3.7036 to 40 5 6.17Above 40 3 3.70Table 5: Experience In Curriculum Development (Fig 5)Total Experience in Yearsin curriculum development Frequency Percentageupto 5 years 19 23.7506 to 10 20 25.0011 to 15 25 31.2516 to 20 9 11.2521 to 25 5 6.2526 to 30 2 2.50Table 6: Perception Of The Current Status Of PM Education In India (Fig 6)Level Frequency PercentagePoor 19 23.46Fair 40 49.38Good 21 25.93Very good 1 1.23Table 7: Attempts At Introducing PM In The Curriculum (Fig 7)217
  • 218. Frequency PercentageYes 66 81.48No 15 18.52Table 8: Level At Which PM Courses Have Been Introduced (Fig 8)Level Frequency PercentageUndergraduate 49 50.52Post graduate 38 39.18AdvancedLevel 3 3.09ResearchLevel 6 6.19Certificate 1 1.03Table 9: Type Of PM Related Course (Fig 9)Type ofCourse Frequency PercentageElective 49 50.00Compulsory 49 50.00Table 10: Intensity Of The Course (Fig 10)Intensity Frequency PercentageElementary 25 30.86Intermediate 41 50.62Advanced 15 18.52Table 11A: Essentiality Of PM In Various Types Of Institutions (Fig 11)C. Engineering Course (A)Frequency PercentageSomewhat 2 2.47Fairly 0 0.00Essential 9 11.11Very 30 37.04Absolutely 40 49.38D. Management Course (B)Management Frequency PercentageSomewhat 2 2.53218
  • 219. Fairly 0 0.00Essential 5 6.33Very 24 30.38Absolute 48 60.76E. Specialised CoursesCi: Architecture Course (Fig 11 Ci)Architecture Frequency PercentageSomewhat 0 0.00Fairly 1 1.27Essential 12 15.19Very 25 31.65Absolute 41 51.90Cii: Planning And Design (Fig 11 Cii)Planningand design Frequency PercentageSomewhat 0 0.00Fairly 0 0.00Essential 8 10.26Very 23 29.49Absolute 47 60.26Ciii: Infrastructure Development (Fig 11 Ciii)Essential Frequency PercentageSomewhat 0 0.00Fairly 0 0.00Essential 8 10.26Very 23 29.49Absolute 47 60.26219
  • 220. A. Table 12A: Ratings Of Subject Areas In Management And Technology (Fig 12A)RevisedAR1AR2AR3AR4AR5AR6AR7AR8AR9AR10AR11AR12AR13AR14AR15AR16AR17AR18AR19AR20NotImportant 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 2 1 2 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 2 1 1SomewhatImportant 1 1 4 2 2 6 7 7 8 7 9 10 11 8 13 7 14 6 6 9Important 31 17 23 20 18 24 20 38 31 34 29 27 25 23 43 35 35 25 30 22VeryImportant 39 48 40 42 37 46 39 31 40 41 33 36 37 34 36 36 31 45 45 42ExtremelyImportant 29 33 33 36 42 23 34 21 20 15 28 26 25 33 8 21 18 22 18 26A. Table 12B: Level Of Teaching Of Subject In Management And Technology (Fig 12B)AL1 AL2 AL3 AL4 AL5 AL6 AL7 AL8 AL9 AL10 AL11 AL12 AL13 AL14 AL15 AL16 AL17 AL18 AL19 AL20Certificate 2 1 0 1 2 2 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 1 2 2 1 0 1 1UG 38 35 30 28 24 32 34 26 31 23 30 23 21 21 28 29 26 22 20 24PG 53 50 57 49 56 53 50 59 54 57 54 57 60 57 57 51 61 59 59 56Advanced 5 8 8 13 11 10 10 7 7 12 12 17 14 13 6 10 6 9 13 9AppResearch 2 6 4 7 8 2 4 6 6 6 2 2 4 7 6 8 6 10 7 10220
  • 221. B. Table 13A: Ratings Of Subject Areas In Strategy, Economics And Finance (Fig13A)BR1 BR2 BR3 BR4 BR5 BR6 BR7 BR8Not Important 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 2SomewhatImportant 7 6 6 6 6 8 12 11Important 26 25 27 24 24 22 30 27Very Important 35 47 35 38 35 32 34 33ExtremelyImportant 31 20 31 30 34 38 23 26B. Table 13B: Levels Of Subject Areas In Strategy, Economics And Finance (Fig13B)BL1 BL2 BL3 BL4 BL5 BL6 BL7 BL8Certificate 2 2 0 1 2 1 1 0UG 35 24 24 25 20 24 25 23PG 53 64 64 63 69 66 63 63Advanced 7 8 7 7 4 4 9 9AppResearch 2 2 5 4 5 5 2 4C. Table 14 A: Ratings Of Subject Areas In Behavioural Sciences Area (Fig 14A)CR1 CR2 CR3 CR4 CR5 CR6Not Important 1 1 1 2 2 3SomewhatImportant 6 4 4 5 8 11Important 31 18 29 40 43 36Very Important 53 61 46 51 46 44ExtremelyImportant 9 16 20 2 0 7Average 3.63 3.87 3.80 3.46 3.33 3.44C. Table 14 B: Levels Of Subject Areas In Behavioural Sciences Area (Fig 14B)CL1 CL2 CL3 CL4 CL5 CL6Certificate 1 1 1 2 1 1UG 31 27 24 30 24 26PG 62 60 63 59 63 57Advanced 6 11 10 6 0 13AppResearch 0 2 2 2 12 2Average 2.73 2.89 2.88 2.73 2.98 2.86221
  • 222. Table 15 A: Ratings Of Subject Areas In Information Technology (Fig 15A)DR1 DR2 DR3 DR4 DR5Not Important 1 1 2 1 0SomewhatImportant 1 6 8 3 4Important 22 27 32 20 20Very Important 39 49 50 29 28ExtremelyImportant 37 16 9 47 48Average 4.10 3.70 3.59 4.18 4.20D. Table 15b: Level Of Subject Areas In Information Technology (Fig 15b)DL1 DL2 DL3 DL4 DL5Certificate 2 1 1 2 1UG 38 33 33 39 38PG 52 55 57 55 49Advanced 5 9 6 4 9AppResearch 2 2 3 0 2Average 2.64 2.78 2.77 2.61 2.70222
  • 223. D. Table 16A: Ratings Of Sector Specific Importance Of PM (Fig 16A)ER1 ER2 ER3 ER4 ER5 ER6 ER7 ER8 ER9 ER10 ER11 ER12 ER13 ER14 ER15 ER16 ER17 ER18NotImportant 1 4 2 4 3 3 3 4 4 5 5 2 3 4 4 4 4 2SomewhatImportant 19 22 16 13 16 18 18 16 19 19 15 17 13 16 18 15 17 13Important 35 40 36 39 27 33 31 32 26 32 31 31 33 31 30 29 30 35VeryImportant 30 15 21 26 30 16 22 16 25 21 23 12 17 18 21 18 21 18ExtremelyImportant 15 19 24 19 25 30 27 32 26 24 26 39 34 31 27 33 29 32Averagwe 3.39 3.23 3.46 3.46 3.61 3.52 3.55 3.56 3.5 3.43 3.5 3.72 3.66 3.56 3.49 3.58 3.57 3.65E. Table 16B: Levels Of Sector Specific (Fig 16b)EL1 EL2 EL3 EL4 EL5 EL6 EL7 EL8 EL9 EL10 EL11 EL12 EL13 EL14 EL15 EL16 EL17 EL18Certificate 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1UG 18 16 13 15 11 14 12 11 12 12 14 10 12 12 13 13 10 10PG 28 26 25 22 25 24 19 16 23 21 21 15 17 17 18 19 24 15EL1 EL2 EL3 EL4 EL5 EL6 EL7 EL8 EL9 EL10 EL11 EL12 EL13 EL14 EL15 EL16 EL17 EL18Advanced 26 33 31 24 28 24 24 27 27 20 15 26 20 17 19 19 22 22AppResearch 27 25 30 38 35 36 43 45 38 46 49 47 50 53 49 48 42 52Average3.613.683.763.833.853.773.934.043.92 3.98 3.97 4.05 4.06 4.09 4.02 4.00 3.92 4.14223
  • 224. Table 17: Ratings Of Institute’s Infrastructure (Fig 17)IR1 IR2 IR3 IR4 IR5 IR6 IR7 IR8Not Available 3 2 0 1 1 3 2 2SomewhatAvailable 11 15 7 9 6 12 17 11Available 20 18 21 26 27 17 26 13Easy Available 28 37 34 37 39 27 20 30Very EasilyAvailable 38 28 38 27 28 42 35 44Average 3.87 3.74 4.03 3.80 3.90 3.96 3.69 4.03Table 18: Earlier Attempts Of Institutions To Introduce PM Courses (Fig 18)Yes No52 29Table 19: Progress Of Introduction Of PM Courses (Fig 19)Ratings PercentageNegligible 23.73Initial 20.34Considerable 40.68Advanced 15.25Established 0.00Table 20: Impact Of PM Courses On Employability Of Students (Fig 20)Somewhat Fairly Good Considerably Immensely3 4 21 32 21Table 21: Company Specifically Looking For PM Competency In Students (Fig 21)SomeExtentConsiderable GreatNoImpact19 38 13 9224
  • 225. Table 22: Category Of Institutions (Fig 22)Category frequency PercentageAutonomous 12 11.54UniversityAffiliated 25 24.04AICTE 45 43.27InternationalAffiliation 1 0.96Accredited 21 20.19Table 23: Academic Council Approval (Fig 23)Years PercentageUpto 6Months 13.70> 6 - 12Months 30.14> 1 - 2 Years 19.18> 2 - 3 Years 12.33> 3 Years 24.66Table 24: Regulatory Approval (Fig 24)Years PercentageUpto 6 Months 12.33> 6 - 12 Months 38.36> 1 - 2 Years 23.29> 2 - 3 Years 13.70> 3 Years 12.33Table 25: Resources Building (Fig 25)Years PercentageUpto 6Months 26.32> 6 - 12Months 39.47> 1 - 2Years 19.74> 2 - 3Years 7.89> 3 Years 6.58225
  • 226. Table 26: Recruitment And Training Of Faculty (Fig 26)Years PercentageUpto 6 Months 17.33> 6 - 12 Months 37.33> 1 - 2 Years 26.67> 2 - 3 Years 10.67> 3 Years 8.00Table 27: Involvement In Project Management Research (Fig 27)Yes No28 53Table 28: Funded Research (Fig 28)YES NO NA17 60 4Chapter 5226
  • 227. Data Analysis Of Survey Of Working Executives Employed In Project-BasedCompanies In IndiaTable 29: Years Of Experience Of The Working Executives (Fig 29)TotalExperience Frequency PercentageLess than 5years 28 37.846-10 years 19 25.6811-15 years 12 16.2216-20 years 8 10.8121-25 years 4 5.41more than 25years 3 4.05Table 30: Institutes Teaching PM Related Curriculum (Fig 30)PM trainingbeing offered Frequency PercentageYes 15 25No 45 75Table 31: Executives With Prior PM Related Training (Fig 31)PM Training Frequency PercentageYes 10 11No 78 89Table 32: Value Of Projects In Rupees (Fig 32)Total size ofthe Project inRs Frequency PercentageLess than 100crores 14 23.73100-200 crores 22 37.29200-300 crores 5 8.47300-400 crores 9 15.25Above 400crores 9 15.25Table 33: Tools And Techniques Used On Projects (Fig 33)Major Techniques Used Freque Percentage227
  • 228. During Projects ncyPrimavera 2 4.08CPM/ PERT 32 65.31Arrow Diagram 10 20.41Fish Bone Diagram 3 6.12MS Projects 2 4.08228
  • 229. Table 34: Subject wise Ratings For Management And Technology Area (Fig 34)A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 A6 A7 A8 A9 A10 A11 A12 A13 A14 A15 A16 A17 A18 A19 A20NotImportant0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0SomewhatImportant1 0 3 10 1 1 0 2 1 6 1 1 0 1 9 4 7 2 2 1Important 26 5 33 34 14 15 5 17 10 29 13 14 14 21 35 26 31 25 25 19VeryImportant38 22 42 43 45 34 35 44 36 35 46 46 42 37 42 50 40 43 44 48ExtremelyImportant35 73 22 13 40 50 60 38 53 29 40 40 44 41 14 19 21 29 29 323.854.603.663.374.094.194.464.004.263.524.104.114.163.963.413.633.503.833.823.95Table 35: Subject Wise Ratings For Behavioural Sciences Area (Fig 35)B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6Not Important 0 0 0 0 0 0SomewhatImportant 0 0 1 3 5 8Important 17 8 19 26 27 32Very Important 55 32 52 42 44 47ExtremelyImportant 28 61 28 30 24 134 4.425 3.95 3.8 3.67088 3.443038229
  • 230. 6Table 36: Subject Wise Ratings For Information Technology Area (Fig 36)C1 C2 C3 C4 C5Not Important 0 0 0 1 0SomewhatImportant 1 2 7 3 1Important 14 17 29 26 17Very Important 36 29 38 34 36ExtremelyImportant 49 51 25 37 464.1875 4.0753.5384623.772152 4.088608Table 37: Ratings For Importance Of PM Education In Sector Specific Areas (Fig 37)D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8 D9 D10 D11 D12 D13 D14 D15 D16 D17 D18NotImportant0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0SomewhatImportant4 8 5 12 1 11 2 3 5 6 7 3 5 6 12 5 5 4Important 30 25 35 28 27 35 16 17 18 26 38 21 28 29 31 34 27 26VeryImportant44 52 37 42 36 34 47 43 49 39 33 42 34 42 36 39 43 33ExtremelyImportant22 15 22 16 35 19 35 37 28 30 22 34 33 23 19 21 24 373.613.513.533.283.853.303.993.923.713.653.423.853.703.563.273.563.663.79230
  • 231. 231
  • 232. Table 38: Gaining Perspectives Related To The Strategic Context Of Projects (Fig 38)A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 A6 A7 A8Not Helped 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0Somewhat Helped 4 1 0 1 1 1 3 2Helped 30 20 10 28 25 25 26 18HelpedSubstantially 52 53 54 54 56 38 45 49HelpedImmensely 14 26 35 17 17 36 25 313.59 3.87 4.1 3.75 3.74 3.92 3.71 3.91Table 39: Understanding Of Project Context (Fig 39)B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6 B7 B8Not Helped 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0Somewhat Helped 1 1 2 0 3 2 1 1Helped 6 8 19 13 13 21 20 19Helped Substantially 36 39 33 45 47 41 45 53Helped Immensely 58 51 46 41 37 36 34 274.39 4.21 4.03 4.01 4.01 3.87 3.97 3.89Table 40: Gains In The Individual’s Career (Fig 40)Benefits Frequency PercentageRemuneration 5 5Incentive 1 1Responsibility 28 25Promotion 7 6Decision Making Power 37 33Better Interpersonal-relation& conflict resolutions 33 30Table 41: Factors In Order Of Importance Affecting Growth Of PM Education (Fig 41)Importance ofawareness amongststudents andeducatorsLack of trainedinstructors atundergraduate andpostgraduatelevelsIt is morepractical sopracticaltraining isrequiredMastery onlycomesthroughpracticalexperiencepriorknowledgenot essentialin the field ofPMNever 0.00 0.00 8.57 5.63 8.29Somewhat 7.04 8.70 8.57 5.63 8.29Important 30.99 37.68 32.86 33.80 49.71Very Imp 46.48 34.78 35.71 30.99 45.57Extremely 15.49 18.84 14.29 23.94 35.21232
  • 233. Chapter 6Data Analysis Of Survey Of Human Resource Managers Employed In Project-BasedCompanies In IndiaTable 42: Companies With Prior PM Training Record (Fig 42)Yes 95No 5Table 43: Inception Of PM Training In Companies (Fig 43)0-5 Yrs 5-10 Yrs 10-15 Yrs >15 Yrs63 26 5 5Table 44: Category Of Employees Sent For PM Training (Fig 44)Only TechnicalTechnical & NonTechnical Operational Staff Managerial7 30 24 39Table 45: Level/ Grade Of Managers Chosen For PM Training (Fig 45)Supervisory Junior ManagersMiddle LevelManagers Senior Level12 22 34 32Table 46: Factors Considered On A Scale Of Essentiality In PM Training (Fig 46)1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10111213 1415Not High 5 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0SomewhatHigh 5 5 5 5 15 5 0 0 5 0 0 0 5 0 0High30 25 15 15 10 10 20 20 302515 5 1510 12VeryHigh 45 50 40 45 50 50 40 40 25305565 4040 41ExtremelyHigh 15 20 35 35 25 35 40 40 40453030 4050 47233
  • 234. Table 47: Type Of Training (Fig 47)Training Method PercentagesOn Job 28In House Training 41In Class Training with on Job Projects 28Comprehensive Degree/ Diploma levelTraining 3Table 48: Predominant Outcome Of The Training (Fig 48)Predominant Outcome PercentagesBuilding Knowledge 28Building Skills Base 34Building a Set ofCompetencies 26Building the Right Attitude 13Table 49: Type Of Training And Level Of Executives Sent For PM Based Training (Fig49)Elementary Basic Advanced Strategic Any OtherOperatives 48 10 0 0 0Supervisory 34 47 25 6 0MiddleLevel 17 37 47 32 0SeniorLevel 0 7 28 61 100234
  • 235. Table 50: Ratings Of Training Costs Of PM Training (Fig 50)Trainers Salaryand TimeTrainees Salaryand TimeMaterial forTrainingExpensesFor TraineesExpensesFor TraineesCost of facilitiesand equipmentLostProductivityLeastExpensive 0 0 5 0 5 0 0FairlyExpensive 20 20 15 10 5 5 20Expensive 20 20 25 40 30 35 55QuiteExpensive 55 40 40 40 60 45 25HighlyExpensive 5 20 15 10 0 15 0Table 51: Ratings Of Benefits Of Training (Fig 51)Increase inProductionReduction inErrorsEmployeeRetentionLesssupervisionnecessaryAbility touse newskillsImproveddeliveryAttitudeChangesGrowth ofBusinessLeast Beneficial 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0Fairly Beneficial 16 5 5 11 11 0 0 0Beneficial 37 47 32 26 32 47 58 37Quite Beneficial 42 42 53 58 53 37 32 58Highly Beneficial 0 5 11 5 5 16 16 5235
  • 236. Table 52: Efficacy Ratings Of Various Types Of Trainer Options (Fig 52)TechnicalBusinessIns.IndependentTrainerCertifiedFranchiseetrainerInternationallyCertifiedtrainersInhouseTrainerSelfTrainingLeastEfficacious 0 0 0 0 0 5FairlyEfficacious 10 5 10 10 10 35Efficacious 40 35 15 25 50 40QuiteEfficacious 30 50 60 50 30 20MostEfficacious 20 10 15 15 10 0Table 53: Most Preferred Training Options Of HR Managers (Fig 53)Type of training Frequency PercentageInhouse training 7 20.00Other Technical /ManagementInstitutes 20 57.14NICMAR, Pune 4 11.43IIT / IIM / IIPM 4 11.43Table 54: Value Of An International Accreditation Accompanying PM Training ByOrganisations (Fig 54)Validity ofInternationalAccreditation PercentagesYes 47No 0May Be 53236
  • 237. Chapter 7Interpretations From Of Data Analysis And Findings Of Pmi Survey (Annexure For Table 5, Figure 56)F-A01F-A02F-A03F-A04F-A05F-A06F-A07F-A08F-A09F-A10F-A11F-A12F-A13F-A14F-A15F-A16F-A17F-A18F-A19F-A20F-A21F-A22F-A23F-A24F-A25F-A26F-A27F-A28F-A29F-A30F-A314 4 2 2 4 5 5 3 3 3 5 4 4 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 5 4 3 4 4 3 3 2 2 33 5 5 4 5 5 5 4 4 3 5 5 5 2 2 2 1 2 5 4 5 5 3 3 5 4 5 4 3 1 12 5 4 2 4 4 5 5 5 3 5 5 5 3 3 5 3 3 4 3 3 4 3 3 4 3 5 5 5 2 52 5 4 2 3 4 5 3 2 3 3 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 4 3 3 4 3 3 4 3 2 2 2 1 34 5 3 3 5 4 5 4 5 3 4 5 5 5 3 5 4 4 4 4 4 5 4 3 4 4 4 3 3 4 44 5 3 3 3 5 4 3 5 5 3 4 3 4 3 4 5 3 5 4 4 5 3 3 3 3 4 4 3 3 35 5 4 4 4 5 5 4 5 5 4 4 5 5 4 4 5 5 5 4 4 5 5 4 3 3 5 4 5 5 41 4 4 2 5 5 5 3 5 1 5 3 5 4 3 4 4 4 5 5 4 5 4 3 2 3 5 5 3 5 55 5 5 4 5 4 5 4 5 3 4 5 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 5 5 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 55 5 4 4 5 5 4 5 4 4 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 54 5 4 4 4 4 5 4 5 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 4 3 3 3 5 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 35 5 4 4 4 3 4 2 4 2 5 5 3 3 2 1 2 2 3 3 4 3 3 2 3 3 3 5 3 4 44 4 4 4 3 4 5 5 5 5 4 3 4 4 3 3 3 3 4 4 3 3 3 2 3 3 4 4 3 5 54 3 3 3 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 4 3 4 3 3 4 3 3 44 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 4 5 5 55 5 4 5 4 5 4 4 4 5 4 5 3 5 4 5 5 4 5 5 4 4 5 5 5 4 5 3 5 5 55 5 4 3 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 5 4 5 4 4 4 5 4 4 4 5 4 4 4 3 4 3 3 4 34 5 4 4 5 5 4 3 3 4 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 34 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 44 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 4 4 4 3 4 4 4 4 44 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4F- F- F- F- F- F- F- F- F- F- F- F- F- F- F- F- F- F- F- F- F- F- F- F- F- F- F- F- F- F- F-237
  • 238. A01A02A03A04A05A06A07A08A09A10A11A12A13A14A15A16A17A18A19A20A21A22A23A24A25A26A27A28A29A30A314 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 44 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 4 4 4 3 4 4 4 4 44 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 44 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 44 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 5 4 5 4 4 4 3 4 4 4 4 45 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 45 5 3 4 5 5 5 5 4 4 5 5 5 5 3 3 3 5 5 4 4 5 4 3 2 2 5 5 2 3 33 5 5 4 4 3 5 4 4 3 3 3 4 5 3 3 3 5 3 3 4 5 3 4 4 3 5 5 4 4 55 5 3 3 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 4 3 3 4 4 5 5 4 4 3 3 4 4 4 4 54 5 5 3 5 4 4 3 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 5 4 4 5 4 5 5 5 4 53 5 5 3 4 2 3 5 4 3 5 5 4 3 4 4 3 4 3 3 3 3 4 3 3 2 4 3 3 3 53 3 3 3 3 3 4 3 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 3 3 3 4 5 5 5 2 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 44 5 4 4 4 4 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 5 3 4 3 3 4 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 43 5 3 3 4 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 5 4 4 4 4 5 4 4 5 3 3 3 3 5 5 4 4 44 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 24 5 4 4 5 5 5 5 4 2 2 3 5 5 2 3 2 5 3 3 5 5 4 4 5 4 5 5 4 3 53 3 2 2 2 3 4 2 4 1 3 2 4 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 4 3 2 3 2 3 2 2 3 35 5 4 4 5 4 5 4 5 4 4 4 5 3 2 3 3 5 5 5 5 4 4 5 5 4 5 5 4 5 53 3 3 3 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 3 4 3 3 4 4 4 5 4 3 3 3 3 33 4 3 3 4 4 4 3 4 3 4 4 5 5 3 4 4 5 5 5 3 5 4 5 4 4 5 5 4 5 45 5 5 5 5 4 5 4 5 4 4 5 5 4 5 4 4 4 5 5 4 5 5 4 4 4 5 5 5 4 45 5 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 55 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 54 5 4 3 3 4 4 3 3 3 3 4 5 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 5 4 3 4 4 4 5 4 4 5 55 5 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 4 5 4 5 5 4 4 4 5 4 4 4 5 4 3 3 3 4 4 3 5 5F- F- F- F- F- F- F- F- F- F- F- F- F- F- F- F- F- F- F- F- F- F- F- F- F- F- F- F- F- F- F-238
  • 239. A01A02A03A04A05A06A07A08A09A10A11A12A13A14A15A16A17A18A19A20A21A22A23A24A25A26A27A28A29A30A314 4 3 3 4 3 4 4 4 3 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 4 3 4 5 4 4 4 3 3 4 3 4 4 35 5 3 3 4 4 5 5 5 2 4 4 5 3 3 3 4 3 4 4 4 5 4 3 3 3 5 5 4 4 44 5 3 4 3 3 3 3 3 5 5 5 4 3 4 4 3 3 4 4 4 5 4 3 4 4 3 3 3 3 35 5 5 5 4 4 5 5 5 3 4 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 44 5 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 43 5 3 3 5 5 5 5 5 4 5 4 4 3 4 4 5 4 4 4 4 4 5 4 4 5 5 4 4 43 4 3 2 4 5 5 4 5 4 4 4 3 3 3 4 4 3 3 4 4 4 4 5 2 2 4 5 3 5 43 4 3 2 3 5 5 4 5 4 4 4 3 3 3 4 4 3 3 4 4 4 4 5 2 2 4 5 3 4 43 4 3 2 2 3 4 4 5 4 4 4 4 3 3 4 5 5 4 4 4 5 5 5 4 4 5 5 5 5 54 5 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 4 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 4 4 5 5 3 3 53 4 3 2 5 3 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 3 3 3 4 3 5 3 5 3 2 5 5 2 5 53 5 4 3 3 3 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 5 4 4 4 4 5 5 4 5 5 4 4 4 4 5 4 3 34 4 4 3 4 4 4 3 4 5 4 4 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 43 5 4 3 4 4 4 4 5 3 4 4 4 4 3 3 4 5 4 4 4 5 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 44 4 3 3 3 3 4 4 5 2 4 4 4 3 3 3 2 3 3 3 3 4 3 3 3 2 3 3 3 3 43 5 3 4 5 4 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 4 5 5 4 5 5 4 3 53 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 4 3 4 4 3 3 4 4 4 3 4 4 4 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 33 5 3 3 4 3 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 5 4 4 4 4 3 5 5 3 4 53 5 3 3 4 5 5 4 4 2 2 4 3 1 2 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 4 3 2 3 5 3 1 3 53 5 3 3 5 5 5 5 5 4 5 4 4 3 4 4 5 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 4 4 5 4 4 3 55 5 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 5 5 4 5 4 4 4 5 4 4 4 4 5 4 5 5 4 4 4 5 54 5 4 4 4 3 4 4 4 3 4 4 3 4 4 4 4 4 3 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 3 44 5 5 4 4 4 5 4 4 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 4 4 3 4 4 4 3 3 3 4 4 3 43 4 2 3 3 4 4 4 3 3 4 3 4 4 3 3 3 3 4 5 4 5 4 3 3 3 4 3 3 3 45 5 4 4 3 3 3 4 4 3 5 5 5 5 4 4 3 4 4 5 4 4 5 5 4 4 4 4 3 4 4F- F- F- F- F- F- F- F- F- F- F- F- F- F- F- F- F- F- F- F- F- F- F- F- F- F- F- F- F- F- F-239
  • 240. A01A02A03A04A05A06A07A08A09A10A11A12A13A14A15A16A17A18A19A20A21A22A23A24A25A26A27A28A29A30A313 3 4 3 4 4 4 4 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 3 34 5 3 2 4 4 5 5 5 4 4 4 5 4 2 2 2 3 3 4 5 5 4 3 3 3 4 4 2 2 44 5 3 3 3 3 4 3 3 3 5 5 4 3 3 4 3 4 4 5 4 3 3 2 2 2 4 4 3 3 44 4 2 2 4 4 4 2 4 1 4 3 4 3 2 4 2 3 2 2 4 3 3 3 2 2 3 2 2 3 33 5 5 4 4 4 5 4 4 3 4 3 4 4 4 5 3 5 5 5 3 5 4 4 3 3 5 5 4 5 44 4 3 3 3 3 4 5 3 2 3 4 3 4 2 2 2 3 4 3 4 4 4 3 3 2 5 5 3 4 35 5 3 3 5 5 5 4 4 4 5 4 3 4 4 3 4 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 2 4 45 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 5 4 5 5 5 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 4 45 5 4 4 4 5 5 4 4 4 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 4 5 55 5 4 4 5 4 5 4 4 4 4 5 4 5 5 4 5 4 5 4 4 5 5 5 4 4 4 5 5 5 44 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 3 5 5 4 4 3 4 4 5 5 5 3 54 5 3 3 4 5 4 4 5 3 3 4 4 4 3 4 3 3 3 3 4 4 3 4 3 3 4 3 3 3 33 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 5 2 3 5 5 3 3 3 2 2 2 3 3 5 5 5 4 2 4 5 4 4 53 4 3 2 4 5 5 3 4 2 3 3 3 3 2 3 2 3 2 2 4 5 4 3 4 3 4 4 3 3 34 4 3 2 4 5 5 5 5 3 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 4 4 5 5 5 4 5 5 4 4 5 4 5 53 5 3 3 5 5 5 3 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 5 4 5 4 4 5 5 5 4 4 4 4240
  • 241. Table No.6 Total Explained Of Factors (Subjects) Included In Practicing ExecutivesF01F02F03F04F05F06F07F08F09F10F11F12F13F14F15F16F17F18F19F20F21F22F23F24F25F26F27F28F29F30F313 5 5 5 3 5 5 5 3 4 3 3 3 4 3 4 3 3 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 55 5 5 5 5 4 5 5 5 3 5 5 5 5 4 4 5 4 4 5 4 4 4 4 5 4 4 4 4 5 55 4 4 4 5 5 3 3 3 4 3 3 3 4 4 3 2 4 4 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 35 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 53 3 3 3 5 4 5 3 3 5 5 5 5 3 3 2 2 3 5 5 3 4 4 3 5 4 5 5 2 2 54 4 4 4 3 2 2 3 2 5 5 5 5 5 4 5 5 3 3 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 55 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 4 4 5 55 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 4 4 5 55 5 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 5 4 4 4 5 5 4 5 5 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 54 4 4 4 5 4 4 4 4 5 4 4 4 3 3 5 5 5 4 4 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 55 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 5 4 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 55 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 5 5 4 5 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 4 4 5 55 5 5 5 4 5 5 5 4 4 5 5 5 5 3 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 53 3 4 4 4 4 5 4 3 3 3 3 5 4 3 3 3 4 5 4 4 5 4 4 5 4 4 5 4 5 45 5 5 5 5 4 4 3 5 4 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 4 5 4 5 5 5 4 5 5 45 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 5 5 4 4 5 4 4 5 5 5 4 4 54 4 4 4 5 5 4 3 4 3 5 5 4 5 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 3 3 2 5 5 2 5 54 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 4 5 4 5 4 4 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 4 4 4 5 4 4 5 53 5 4 4 4 4 5 3 3 4 3 4 4 5 4 3 4 4 4 4 4 5 4 5 3 4 5 5 3 5 53 4 2 5 5 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 3 2 2 2 2 4 2 2 1 2 2 1 1 1 4 2 2 2 23 2 4 3 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 3 3 4 3 3 4 4 3 3 3 3 33 3 4 4 3 2 3 3 2 2 2 3 2 2 3 4 3 4 3 3 3 4 3 3 3 2 3 4 4 4 4F01F02F03F04F05F06F07F08F09F10F11F12F13F14F15F16F17F18F19F20F21F22F23F24F25F26F27F28F29F30F31241
  • 242. 3 3 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 3 2 3 3 3 3 3 2 4 3 3 3 2 4 2 2 3 33 5 3 1 2 3 4 3 3 3 2 2 2 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 33 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 33 3 2 3 4 3 4 1 4 1 4 3 3 4 3 1 1 1 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 2 4 14 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 3 3 3 3 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 5 5 5 5 4 4 5 4 4 2 23 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 4 4 2 23 4 5 5 4 3 4 2 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 5 54 3 4 4 4 4 2 2 1 3 3 4 2 2 2 4 1 1 1 1 1 4 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 43 4 3 4 1 2 2 3 4 1 4 3 2 1 2 4 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 2 1 5 44 3 3 3 4 4 3 3 2 3 4 3 3 4 3 3 2 3 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 4 3 3 5 43 4 3 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 4 4 3 4 3 4 4 3 4 4 4 4 3 4 3 3 4 4 4 4 34 4 3 3 3 3 4 2 4 3 3 4 4 3 3 4 3 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 4 3 2 5 54 4 3 3 4 3 4 2 3 3 2 2 2 4 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 2 2 5 4 4 5 43 5 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 35 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 5 5 4 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 44 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 2 4 4 4 3 2 3 3 34 4 4 4 4 3 2 5 5 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 2 3 4 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 34 4 4 4 4 2 2 1 2 2 1 1 2 3 1 1 1 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 2 2 23 4 4 2 4 3 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 4 3 2 3 4 2 3 3 3 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 33 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 43 4 2 3 3 4 4 3 3 5 5 4 4 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 3 4 4 3 3 3 4 4 4 3 33 3 4 4 3 3 4 4 3 3 4 2 2 2 4 3 3 4 2 2 3 3 4 4 4 3 4 3 3 4 33 4 2 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 2 2 3 3 3 3 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 44 4 4 4 4 3 2 4 3 2 2 3 2 2 2 2 3 1 1 5 2 2 4 4 3 3 3 3 4 4 4F01F02F03F04F05F06F07F08F09F10F11F12F13F14F15F16F17F18F19F20F21F22F23F24F25F26F27F28F29F30F314 4 3 3 2 2 2 1 3 1 1 1 1 4 2 2 2 3 2 1 3 3 4 4 5 5 3 3 3 3 3242
  • 243. 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 2 2 3 4 1 1 2 3 3 4 5 3 2 4 4 3 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 34 4 4 4 3 3 2 2 2 2 3 3 1 1 2 4 3 5 4 2 2 4 5 3 5 1 5 5 5 5 55 5 4 4 2 2 2 1 3 3 2 4 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 5 4 2 2 4 3 3 2 23 3 3 4 4 2 2 3 4 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 3 3 3 4 55 5 5 5 4 4 4 3 4 4 2 2 1 1 3 3 4 3 3 3 4 4 4 3 3 2 3 3 3 3 34 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 2 4 4 3 3 2 3 3 4 2 3 3 4 4 4 4 3 2 3 4 4 4 45 5 5 5 4 4 3 3 4 3 1 2 2 3 3 2 2 3 3 4 5 4 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 42 2 3 1 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 33 5 5 5 5 5 4 4 3 4 4 4 4 5 4 4 3 4 3 3 4 5 5 4 4 3 4 4 2 3 34 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 43 4 4 3 3 4 4 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 43 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 44 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 33 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 3 3 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 34 5 5 3 4 4 5 5 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 4 4 53 4 2 2 3 4 5 3 4 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 4 44 4 3 3 4 3 4 2 2 4 3 2 4 2 2 3 2 3 4 4 2 4 5 3 2 2 3 2 1 1 23 4 2 4 5 3 5 4 3 2 3 4 3 5 3 4 2 5 4 4 3 4 4 3 3 3 4 4 3 5 54 4 4 4 5 4 4 3 4 5 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 53 3 3 3 3 2 4 3 2 3 3 3 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 3 3 3 23 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 44 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 5 5 5 4 5 5 3 3 3 5 2 2 5 54 3 3 2 3 2 3 1 2 2 2 2 4 3 2 3 2 4 3 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 4 5 5 5 5F01F02F03F04F05F06F07F08F09F10F11F12F13F14F15F16F17F18F19F20F21F22F23F24F25F26F27F28F29F30F314 4 3 4 4 3 4 2 4 3 3 3 3 4 2 3 2 4 3 3 2 4 3 2 2 2 5 2 2 5 44 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 5 5 5 5 5243
  • 244. 3 3 4 4 4 4 3 3 4 4 4 4 3 4 3 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 33 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 44 4 5 4 5 3 4 3 3 4 3 4 4 4 3 4 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 3 3 4 4 3 3 33 3 3 3 5 4 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 4 4 4 4 3 3 4 4 44 4 4 5 5 4 5 4 5 3 4 4 4 5 4 4 4 5 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 5 3 3 5 54 5 3 4 5 4 5 3 5 2 3 4 3 5 2 3 3 5 3 4 3 4 4 3 3 3 5 4 3 5 44 4 3 4 5 4 4 3 4 4 4 4 4 5 4 4 3 4 4 4 4 5 5 3 4 4 4 3 3 5 55 4 4 5 5 4 4 4 3 3 4 4 4 5 3 4 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 3 3 3 5 4 3 5 55 4 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 4 4 5 5244
  • 245. General Factor Ratings (Factor Analysis) (ANNEXURE FOR TABLE 7, FIGURE 58)F01 F02 F03 F04 F054 5 3 3 44 3 1 5 55 5 1 1 13 3 1 1 15 5 2 3 43 4 5 4 33 3 3 5 53 2 3 4 35 5 4 4 44 4 4 5 44 4 3 5 43 4 4 4 53 4 4 4 42 3 3 2 14 4 4 4 45 3 5 5 43 3 5 3 43 3 3 3 34 4 4 4 35 4 3 5 53 4 3 5 24 4 4 5 54 5 3 4 34 3 2 4 14 3 4 4 34 4 4 4 44 4 5 5 44 4 2 4 44 3 4 4 14 2 5 5 52 5 4 4 55 3 4 3 12 5 5 4 55 5 1 2 54 4 5 4 13 4 4 4 44 2 3 3 34 3 1 5 13 4 4 4 45 3 3 3 33 5 3 1 2245
  • 246. 3 3 3 3 34 4 3 3 33 4 3 3 34 2 4 3 54 3 4 3 34 4 4 3 33 3 3 4 43 3 3 2 34 3 4 2 34 5 5 3 43 4 2 5 35 5 4 1 34 5 5 5 54 4 4 3 44 3 3 4 33 4 4 3 25 3 5 5 33 5 3 3 34 3 4 4 24 3 3 3 42 4 3 3 33 2 4 3 44 3 4 4 34 5 4 4 34 5 3 3 34 3 2 5 12 3 5 5 33 4 4 3 43 2 3 3 34 3 2 4 45 4 5 5 34 4 1 3 54 4 3 3 44 5 4 4 44 4 4 4 44 4 3 4 44 3 4 4 44 4 4 4 4Rating Of Different Disciplines (Multiple Regression Analysis) For Model No. 1QuestionnaireSl. No.PMIOR PMENG PMMGM PMARCH PMPND PMINFRA1 2 5 5 4 4 4246
  • 247. 2 2 5 5 5 5 53 2 5 5 3 4 44 3 5 5 5 5 55 1 5 5 5 5 56 1 5 5 5 5 57 3 5 5 5 5 58 3 5 5 5 5 59 2 5 5 4 5 510 2 4 4 4 4 411 2 4 5 5 5 512 3 5 5 5 5 513 2 5 5 5 5 514 3 4 5 5 5 415 2 5 5 5 5 516 2 5 5 5 5 517 2 4 4 4 4 418 1 5 5 5 5 519 2 4 4 4 4 420 3 4 4 4 4 421 1 5 5 5 5 522 1 5 1 5 5 523 3 3 3 4 4 524 2 4 4 4 4 425 2 3 4 4 5 526 2 4 4 4 4 427 2 3 4 4 5 528 2 4 4 4 5 529 3 4 4 3 3 330 1 1 4 4 4 431 1 1 4 3 4 432 1 4 4 4 4 433 2 4 4 4 4 434 2 3 3 3 3 335 2 4 4 4 4 436 1 5 5 5 5 537 2 5 5 5 5 538 2 4 4 4 4 439 1 5 4 4 4 440 1 5 5 5 5 5QuestionnaireSl. No.PMIOR PMENG PMMGM PMARCH PMPND PMINFRA41 2 4 1 4 4 443 2 5 5 5 5 544 1 4 4 4 4 445 1 5 5 5 5 546 2 5 5 5 5 5247
  • 248. 47 2 5 5 5 5 548 3 5 5 5 5 549 1 5 5 5 5 550 2 5 5 5 5 551 1 5 5 5 5 552 3 3 5 5 5 553 2 4 4 4 4 454 2 5 5 5 5 555 2 3 4 4 4 556 2 4 4 4 4 457 3 4 5 5 5 558 3 4 3 3 3 359 2 4 5 5 5 560 2 4 4 4 4 461 3 3 5 5 5 562 3 5 5 5 5 563 3 5 5 5 5 564 2 4 3 3 4 365 2 5 5 5 5 566 3 5 5 5 5 567 3 4 4 2 3 368 1 5 5 5 5 569 3 5 5 4 5 570 3 4 3 3 3 371 2 4 4 4 4 472 2 3 4 3 3 473 4 4 5 3 4 474 1 5 5 5 5 575 1 3 4 3 3 376 2 5 5 5 5 577 3 5 5 5 5 578 3 5 5 3 3 379 2 4 5 4 5 580 2 5 5 5 5 581 2 4 5 3 4 5Ratings Of Infrastructure & Other Related Facilities (Master File For MultipleRegression Analysis) For Model No.2Questionnaire Sl. No.PMIORLSERCMCRLABCOMLABQFACRFACIMVISIONEIPMEEMP1 2 3 3 4 3 5 3 3 3 3 32 2 3 3 5 4 5 5 5 5 3 43 2 3 3 5 2 4 3 2 4 2 54 3 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 5 3 35 1 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 2 5248
  • 249. 6 1 4 4 3 3 4 4 3 4 4 47 3 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 58 3 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 59 2 5 5 5 4 5 4 3 5 3 410 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 1 3 3 511 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 2 412 3 4 4 4 4 5 4 4 4 3 513 2 5 3 5 5 5 5 5 5 3 514 3 2 3 3 2 2 2 2 3 3 415 2 5 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 3 516 2 5 5 5 4 5 5 5 5 3 517 2 4 5 5 5 5 5 4 5 2 418 1 5 4 4 4 4 3 2 2 3 519 2 5 4 4 4 5 4 4 4 3 420 3 4 4 4 4 5 4 5 5 4 421 1 3 2 3 2 3 3 3 4 3 222 1 3 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 323 3 4 4 3 2 3 4 2 3 3 424 2 4 3 4 2 4 2 2 4 3 425 2 5 5 5 4 5 5 4 3 3 426 2 4 3 4 4 4 3 3 5 3 327 2 2 2 5 2 5 5 3 5 3 228 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 429 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 530 1 3 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 3 131 1 3 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 3 132 1 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 5 3 433 2 4 4 4 4 3 3 4 3 3 334 2 4 3 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 535 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 3 436 1 2 3 4 4 5 2 2 2 1 337 2 2 2 3 3 4 4 2 1 3 338 2 2 2 3 3 3 1 2 2 1 339 1 2 2 4 3 4 1 2 2 3 5Questionnaire Sl. No.PMIORLSERCMCRLABCOMLABQFACRFACIMVISIONEIPMEEMP40 1 1 2 3 3 2 2 1 1 1 441 2 2 2 3 3 4 2 2 3 2 542 1 2 2 2 3 3 2 3 1 1 543 2 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 2 444 1 2 2 4 1 1 3 3 2 2 345 1 1 1 3 3 4 2 2 4 4 446 2 1 2 2 3 3 2 2 2 1 347 2 2 2 2 1 1 3 3 1 2 348 3 2 2 3 2 2 1 3 2 3 449 1 1 1 2 2 3 2 1 1 1 3249
  • 250. 50 2 1 2 4 3 2 2 2 3 1 351 1 2 1 3 3 3 1 1 1 1 552 3 2 2 2 3 3 2 2 2 1 453 2 1 1 2 2 2 1 2 2 1 354 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 2 2 1 255 3 5 4 5 4 5 5 5 5 3 356 2 1 3 4 4 4 4 2 4 3 157 3 3 3 3 3 2 3 3 2 2 458 3 3 3 4 4 4 3 3 2 3 359 2 3 2 2 3 3 2 2 2 2 360 2 3 3 3 2 3 2 3 2 1 361 3 3 2 2 3 3 2 2 1 3 362 3 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 5 4 563 3 4 4 5 5 5 4 4 4 3 564 2 5 4 3 4 2 5 4 4 4 465 2 3 4 3 3 3 4 3 4 3 566 3 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 3 467 3 5 5 5 2 5 5 5 4 3 368 1 3 3 3 3 3 1 1 2 1 469 3 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 3 470 3 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 471 2 3 3 4 3 3 4 2 4 2 472 2 5 5 5 4 4 5 5 5 4 473 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 4 4 374 1 2 2 3 3 1 1 2 3 3 575 1 3 2 4 4 4 4 3 4 3 276 2 5 5 3 5 5 5 5 4 3 577 3 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 4 3 478 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 4 3 479 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 4 3 480 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 481 2 5 4 4 3 5 4 4 5 1 4250
  • 251. List of Average Ratings - InstitutionsA. Management and TechnologySubject Ratings NumericalAverageLevels NumericalAverage1. Operations management for Projects. AR1 – 3.79 AL1 – 2.492. Planning, Scheduling, Monitoring andControl TechniquesAR2 – 3.98 AL2 – 2.593. Statistical Methods for Project Analysis AR3 – 3.81 AL3 – 2.674. Operations Research for Projects AR4 – 3.87 AL4 – 2.725. Project Quality Management AR5 – 3.93 AL5 – 2.736. Health/Safety/Environment in Projects AR6 – 3.60 AL6 – 2.567. Cost Estimation and budgeting AR7 – 3.74 AL7 – 2.598.Accounting and Control Systems AR8 – 3.26 AL8 – 2.659. Quantity Surveying and Estimation AR9 – 3.43 AL9 – 2.5910. Projects Marketing AR10 – 3.30 AL10 – 2.7611. Project Site and EquipmentManagement.AR11 – 3.40 AL11 – 2.6112. Project Procurement & MaterialsManagementAR12 – 3.40 AL12 – 2.7313. Contract Management AR13 – 3.31 AL13 – 2.7614. ProcessDesign./Engineering/Testing/CommissioningAR14 – 3.48 AL14 – 2.7915. Facilities Engineering and Management AR15 – 3.12 AL15 – 2.6216. Logistics & Supply Chain Management AR16 – 3.37 AL16 – 2.6717. Transportation Management AR17 – 3.12 AL17 – 2.7118. Technology and EngineeringManagementAR18 – 3.46 AL18 – 2.8319. Project Formulation and Appraisal AR19 – 3.46 AL19 – 2.8420. Project Engineering AR20 – 3.46 AL20 – 2.78B. Strategy, Economics And FinanceSubject Ratings NumericalAverageLevels NumericalAverage1. Macro-Economic Policy BR1 – 3.52 BL1 – 2.51251
  • 252. 2. Project Strategy BR2 – 3.45 BL2 – 2.653. Social Cost Benefit Analysis BR3 – 3.55 BL3 – 2.774. Financial Management BR4 – 3.58 BL4 – 2.705. Project Financing BR5 – 3.62 BL5 – 2.706. Risk and Insurance Management BR6 – 3.60 BL6 – 2.677. Legal, Commercial and TaxationAspects of ProjectsBR7 – 3.30 BL7 – 2.708. Project Joint Ventures, StrategicAlliances, Special Purpose VehiclesBR8 – 3.27 BL8 – 2.67C. Behavioural Sciences AreaD.Subject Ratings NumericalAverageLevels NumericalAverage1. Project Organization and Structure CR1 – 3.39 CL1 – 2.582. Managerial Skills for Projects(Communication, Leadership, TeamBuilding, Negotiation, other soft skills)CR2 – 3.64 CL2 – 2.693. Human Resources Management inProjectsCR3 – 3.58 CL3 – 2.724. Industrial/Labour Relations CR4 – 3.22 CL4 – 2.555. Conflict Management CR5 – 3.08 CL5 – 2.726. Diversity Management CR6 – 3.09 CL6 – 2.68E. Information TechnologySubject Ratings NumericalAverageLevels NumericalAverage1. PM software-Primavera, MSP, GIS /GPS for Project ManagementDR1 – 3.83 DL1 – 2.472. Enterprise Resource Planning ( ERP ) DR2 – 3.47 DL2 – 2.603. e-Business Applications DR3 – 3.25 DL3 – 2.614. Engineering Software (Auto-Cad,Staadpro, Estm8, Ansys, Auto-Revit,3D-Max, Calquan)DR4 - 3.91 DL4 – 2.445. Excel / SPSS / DBMS DR5 – 3.95 DL5 – 2.53252
  • 253. F. Sector SpecificSubject Ratings NumericalAverageLevels NumericalAverage1. Information CommunicationTechnology (ICT)ER1 – 3.03 EL1 – 3.172. Telecom ER2 – 2.80 EL2 – 3.273. Research and Development ER3 – 3.07 EL3 – 3.394. Space Exploration ER4 – 2.97 EL4 – 3.405. Technology ER5 – 3.08 EL5 – 3.496. Defense ER6 – 3.03 EL6 – 3.367. Roadways ER7 – 3.04 EL7 – 3.568. Railways ER8 – 3.00 EL8 – 3.659. Civil Aviation ER9 – 2.95 EL9 – 3.5210. Ports ER10 – 2.88 EL10 – 3.5311. Shipbuilding ER11 – 2.94 EL11 – 3.4912. Urban Infrastructure ER12 – 3.17 EL12 – 3.6713. Mega Property Developments ER13 – 3.15 EL13 – 3.5914. Petrochemicals ER14 – 3.05 EL14 – 3.6215. Chemical Engineering ER15 – 2.98 EL15 – 3.5616. Oil and Gas Exploration ER16 – 3.06 EL16 – 3.5517. Services ER17 – 3.03 EL17 – 3.5018. International Project Management ER18 – 3.19 EL18 – 3.72PART IVA. Institute InfrastructureSubject Ratings NumericalAverage1. Availability of library and e-resources AR1 – 3.372. Course Material AR2 – 3.313. Classrooms AR3 – 3.784. Laboratories AR4 – 3.495. Computer Labs AR5 – 3.556. Qualified faculty AR6 – 3.437. Availability of research facilities AR7 – 3.218. Management vision AR8 – 3.51253
  • 254. Chapter VList of Average Ratings - ExecutivesA. Management and TechnologySubject Ratings NumericalAverage1. Operations management for Projects. AR1 – 3.842. Planning, Scheduling, Monitoring andControl TechniquesAR2 – 4.603. Statistical Methods for Project Analysis AR3 – 3.664. Operations Research for Projects AR4 – 3.375. Project Quality Management AR5 – 4.086. Health/Safety/Environment in Projects AR6 – 4.197. Cost Estimation and budgeting AR7 – 4.468.Accounting and Control Systems AR8 – 4.009. Quantity Surveying and Estimation AR9 – 4.2610. Projects Marketing AR10 – 3.5111. Project Site and EquipmentManagement.AR11 – 4.1012. Project Procurement & MaterialsManagementAR12 – 4.1113. Contract Management AR13 – 4.1614. ProcessDesign./Engineering/Testing/CommissioningAR14 – 3.9615. Facilities Engineering and Management AR15 – 3.40254
  • 255. 16. Logistics & Supply Chain Management AR16 – 3.6317. Transportation Management AR17 – 3.5018. Technology and EngineeringManagementAR18 – 3.8219. Project Formulation and Appraisal AR19 – 3.8220. Project Engineering AR20 – 3.90B. Behavioural Sciences AreaSubject Ratings NumericalAverage1. Project Organization and Structure B1 – 4.002. Managerial Skills for Projects(Communication, Leadership, TeamBuilding, Negotiation, other soft skills)B2 – 4.423. Human Resources Management inProjectsB3 – 3.954. Industrial/Labour Relations B4 – 3.805. Conflict Management B5 – 3.676. Diversity Management B6 – 3.44C. Information TechnologySubject Ratings NumericalAverage1. PM software-Primavera, MSP, GIS /GPS for Project ManagementC1 – 4.182. Enterprise Resource Planning ( ERP ) C2 – 4.073. e-Business Applications C3 – 3.534. Engineering Software (Auto-Cad,Staadpro, Estm8, Ansys, Auto-Revit,3D-Max, Calquan)C4 – 3.775. Excel / SPSS / DBMS C5 – 4.08255
  • 256. D. Sector SpecificSubject Ratings NumericalAverage1. Information CommunicationTechnology (ICT)D1 – 3.602. Telecom D2 – 3.503. Research and Development D3 – 3.524. Space Exploration D4 – 3.285. Technology D5 – 3.856. Defence D6 – 3.297. Roadways D7 – 3.988. Railways D8 – 3.919. Civil Aviation D9 – 3.7110. Ports D10 – 3.6411. Shipbuilding D11 – 3.4112. Urban Infrastructure D12 – 3.8413. Mega Property Developments D13 – 3.7014. Petrochemicals D14 – 3.5615. Chemical Engineering D15 – 3.2616. Oil and Gas Exploration D16 – 3.5517. Services D17 – 3.6518. International Project Management D18 – 3.78256
  • 257. PART IIIA. Strategic Project OverviewSubject Ratings NumericalAverage1. To get an integrated view of theprojectA1 – 3.592. Role clarity A2 – 3.873. Work Breakdown Structure andResponsibility mappingA3 – 4.104. Understanding the exact placement ofa project in the overall corporate strategyA4 – 3.755. Importance of Earned Value of aproject to the companyA5 – 3.746. Understanding project profitability A6 – 3.927. Importance of Human relations andConflict management in project successA7 – 3.718. Management vision A8 – 3.91B. Project Skills OverviewSubject Ratings NumericalAverage1.Importance of ProjectPlanning/Scheduling/ExecutionB1 – 4.392. Importance of Monitoring & Control B2 – 4.203. Importance of Contract Management B3 – 4.024. Project Risk Management B4 – 4.015. Project Costing B5 – 4.016. Importance ofHealth/Safety/EnvironmentB6 – 3.867. Quality Management B7 – 3.978. Communication and Soft Skills B8 – 3.89PART IVCurrent Position of Project Management System (Factors in Order of ImportanceAffecting Growth of PM Education)Subject Ratings Numerical257
  • 258. Average1. Lack of awareness amongst studentsand educators.Q1 – 3.702. Lack of trained instructors at theundergraduate and postgraduate level.Q2 – 3.693. Being a practical field it cannot be‘taught’ in the classroom.Q3 – 3.434. Mastery comes only from practicalexperience.Q4 – 3.625. Prior knowledge not essential inworking in this field.Q5 – 3.29Chapter VIList of Average Ratings – Human Resources ManagementPART IIA. Factors Considered on a Scale of Essentiality in PM Training258
  • 259. Subject Ratings NumericalAverage1. Stipulation In The Contract M1 – 3.602. Improving Effectiveness OfProject OperationsM2 – 3.853. Understanding Global Projects M3 – 3.954. Perceived Gains From SuchTrainingM4 – 4.105. Human Resource DevelopmentFor Better PerformanceM5 – 3.856. Employee Retention M6 – 4.207. Career Development M7 – 4.208. Prerequisite For Project BasedOrganizations Such As YoursM8 – 4.009. Improves Ability To Bid ForComplex ProjectsM9 – 4.0010. Improves Ability To ExecuteComplete ProjectsM10 – 4.2011. Improves Ability To MonitorAnd Control ProjectsM11 – 4.2012. Improves Ability To PlanProjectsM12 – 4.3013. Improves Ability To ManageContracts In ProjectsM13 – 4.2014. Improves Ability To DeliverProjects In Right Time, RightCosts And Right QualityM14 – 4.40D. Ratings of Training Costs of PM TrainingSubject Ratings NumericalAverage1. Trainer’s salary and time N1 – 3.452. Trainees’ salaries and time N2 – 3.603. Materials for training N3 – 3.454. Expenses for trainers N4 – 3.50259
  • 260. 5. Expenses for trainees N5 – 3.456. Cost of facilities and equipment N6 – 3.707. Lost productivity N7 – 3.05D. Ratings of Benefits of TrainingSubject Ratings NumericalAverage1. Increase inproduction/performanceK1 – 3.152. Reduction in errors andimprovement of safety standardsK2 – 3.473. Employee Retention K3 – 3.684. Less supervision necessary K4 – 3.575. Ability to use new skills andcapabilitiesK5 – 3.526. Improved delivery performancein terms of cost, time and qualityK6 – 3.687. Attitude changes K7 – 3.608. Growth of business opportunities K8 – 3.68E. Efficacy Ratings of Various Types of Trainer OptionsSubject Ratings NumericalAverage1. Technical/business institute U1 – 3.602. Independent trainer U2 – 3.653. Certified franchisee trainer U3 – 3.804. Internationally certified trainers U4 – 3.705. In-house trainers U5 – 3.406. Self-training U6 – 2.75260