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EARLY HISTORY OF MONGOLIA
• Archeological digs have uncovered human remains in the Gobi
and other regions of Mongolia dating back nearly 500,000
• The 1st Mongolian state -Hunnu was founded by Mooduni
Shanyu in BC209.
• The Great Wall of China was built partly as defense against the
nomads from the north.
• In the 4th century Hunnu defeated by the Chinese and split into
two 2 parts. West part of the Hunnu migrated to the Europe.
• Attilla was the most powerful King of Hunnu who settled in
• After the Hunnu, Mongolian land was occupied by Siyanbi, then
by Nirun from the III century until VI century.
History of Mongolia
Fall of Empire, Socialism
Hunnu and other
THE GREAT MONGOL EMPIRE
• In 1206, after the several
years of war with other
Mongol tribes, Temujin
(Chinggis Khan) the leader
of one of the Mongolian tribe
united Mongol tribes and
proclaimed The Great
Mongol State in Orkhon
• He originated the largest
land empire in World history.
THE GREAT MONGOL EMPIRE
The map of Mongol Empire
The Great Mongol Empire 1206-1294
• The largest contiguous land
empire in world history.
• Under his successors it
stretched from present-day
Poland in the west to Korea
in the east, and from
Siberia in the north to
Vietnam in the south,
covering some 33,000,000
km², (22% of Earth's total
land area) and having a
population of over 100
1.565 million km²
Capital city Ulaanbaatar
Languages Mongolian 94%,
Russian , English,
1.5 million km²
6th largest country in Asia,
19th in the world.
Mongolia is a landlocked country in Central Asia. It is
bordered by Russia to the north and China to the south, east
and west. Ulan Bator, the capital and also the largest city, is
home to about 45% of the population. Mongolia's
political system is a parliamentary republic.
Flag of Mongolia
The soyombo is a national
emblem which contains
individual symbolism within
Blue is a traditional
Mongolian color and
described as the eternal
Red is freedom and
Emblem of Mongolia
(Mongolian: Монгол улсын төрийн сүлд,
Mongol ulsyn töriin süld) is used by the
government of Mongolia as its symbol of state.
It is officially used for example on documents
such as Mongolian passports, and government
and embassy placards. The state emblem was
adopted on March 25, 1992, following the fall of
the Communist government
On the centre of the field is a combination of
the Soyombo symbol and the wind horse
(treasured steed), symbolizing Mongolia's
independence, sovereignty, and spirit
The soyombo is a columnar arrangement of
abstract and geometric representations of fire,
sun, moon, earth, water, and the Taijitu or YinYang symbol.
POLITICS AND GOVERNMENT
26 November 1921
12 february 1992
18 years of age,
State Great Khural
The Government Building
Prosperity of Mongolia
PRESIDENT OF MONGOLIA
The silver stemp of
him and went parade.
After election in 2013
coal, copper, gold, petrolium, iron, molybdenum etc.
Mongolia’s trade major partners:
China, Russia, Japan, Korea and
Coal, copper, iron, petrolium, gold, cashmer
Fuel, machineries, equipments, cars, chemicals
And none 38.6%
SITE SEEING IN ULAANBAATAR
The centre of Lamaist Buddhism of Mongolia
Total 40.27 (mln)
Clothing is closely connected with the
way of life of the Mongolian people,
with the specific features of their
economic system and with the natural
conditions of the country.
In summer the Mongols wear a light
coat or frock, the "Terleg“.
In winter a sheepskin dress reminding
of a fur coat, the "Tsagaan Nekhi
Portable housing, tents of nomads
Skeletion of Ger
/This is Mongolian Cyrillic script/
Many alphabets have been devised for the
over the centuries, and from a variety of
scripts. The oldest,
called simply the Mongolian script, has
been the predominant script
during most of Mongolian history, and is
still in active use.
In the 20th century, Mongolia first switched
to the Latin script,
and then almost immediately replaced it
with the Cyrillic script
for compatibility with the Soviet Union, its
political ally of the time. It was introduced
in the 1940s and has been in use as the
official writing system of Mongolia ever
After 1921, the Naadam Festival
became an official celebration
of the National Revolution's victory.
During the holiday (11-13 July) 3 kinds
of traditional sport events took place.
2. Horse racing
Mongolian wrestling is kind of freestyle wrestling and judo. But
rule is different. Two people wrestling together. Who is first fall?
if someone would be fallen, he lost.
Mongolia's traditional wrestlers have made the transition to
Japanese sumo wrestling with great success.
Tuvshinbayar, a Mongolian traditional wrestler and judo
wrestler,he won 100kg judo gold medal in 2008 summer
Olympic, silver medal in 2012 summer Olympic.
however he has only reached "Ulsiin Khartsaga" which is
the 8th highest title in Mongolian wrestling.
Climate is extreme continental,
warm rainy summers from +20
to +40 C and extremely cold
winter from -20 to –40 C with
four seasons a year: spring,
summer, autumn and winter.
fluctuations and variations.
Average annual precipitation
is 200-300 mm.
MONGOLIA - FACTS
• The highest point is Huitnii Orgil 4374m
• The lowest point is Khukh Nuurs
Khotgor - 518m
• Average altitude of 1580m above the
• The largest lake is Uvs -3350 sq.km
• The longest river is Selenge -992km
• The most pure lake in the world is
Over the years, Mongolian
nomads have developed
a number of unique dairy
products “white food”
which include different
of yoghurt, cottage cheese,
dried curds, and fermented
mare’s milk. Preferably,
airag is is made in autumn
the animals have eaten
of summer grasses.
It may be further distilled to
produce a mongolian vodka
(shimiin arkhi) – best
when warm and fresh.
Natural fruits in
Borts - Борц
Dried meat cut in stripes or ground to powder.
The long and harsh winters in Mongolia make it
necessary to store sufficient food to survive, and most of
that will be meat. A family will eat approximately one cow
and seven or eight sheep.
The source of the meat varies by region. In the Govi
camel meat is available, and in the mountainous north
reindeer. But particularly for Borts horse meat is also a
popular option. It is said to keep people warm more than
other types, which is attributed to the special fat of a
Prepare the Borts
The fresh meat is cut into long strips, 2-3 cm thick and 57 cm wide. The strips are hung on strings under the roof
of the yurt, where the air is free to circulate.
After about a month the meat is dry. It has turned into
hard and small sticks which feel like wood and have
taken on a brown color. The volume has shrunk so much
that the meat of a cow now can easily fit into the
stomach of the same cow.
The dried Borts is broken into small pieces or ground to
a coarse and fibrous powder. It is stored in a linen bag
which allows contact with air. In the dry climate of
mongolia, this method of storage preserves the quality of
the meat over months or even years.
Among the unique contributions of Mongolia to the
world's musical culture are the long songs, one of
the greatest features of the Mongolian music,
overtone singing and morin khuur, the horseheaded fiddle. The music of Mongolia is also rich
with varieties related to the various ethnic groups.
The Mongolians are renowned for their love for
music and singing. Any celebrations by the
Mongolians always turn into a celebration of
MORIN HUUR is
instrument. It is
one of the most
people. and is
symbol of the