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001 mongolian presentation

  1. 1. About of Mongolia Presented by: Gantulga.T Odbaatar.N Odonchimeg.B The institute of CMC, New Delhi, India 20.11.2019
  3. 3. EARLY HISTORY OF MONGOLIA • Archeological digs have uncovered human remains in the Gobi and other regions of Mongolia dating back nearly 500,000 years. • The 1st Mongolian state -Hunnu was founded by Mooduni Shanyu in BC209. • The Great Wall of China was built partly as defense against the nomads from the north. • In the 4th century Hunnu defeated by the Chinese and split into two 2 parts. West part of the Hunnu migrated to the Europe. • Attilla was the most powerful King of Hunnu who settled in Europe • After the Hunnu, Mongolian land was occupied by Siyanbi, then by Nirun from the III century until VI century.
  4. 4. History of Mongolia Democrac y, Free Market Independence, Fall of Empire, Socialism Manchu Domination Great Mongol Empire In the beginning Hunnu and other Steppes Empires 209 BC 1990 1900 1368 1189
  5. 5. THE GREAT MONGOL EMPIRE • In 1206, after the several years of war with other Mongol tribes, Temujin (Chinggis Khan) the leader of one of the Mongolian tribe united Mongol tribes and proclaimed The Great Mongol State in Orkhon valley. Chinggis Khan 1162-1227 • He originated the largest land empire in World history.
  6. 6. THE GREAT MONGOL EMPIRE The map of Mongol Empire The Great Mongol Empire 1206-1294 • The largest contiguous land empire in world history. • Under his successors it stretched from present-day Poland in the west to Korea in the east, and from Siberia in the north to Vietnam in the south, covering some 33,000,000 km², (22% of Earth's total land area) and having a population of over 100 million people.
  7. 7. MONGOLIA TODAY GEOGRAPHY AREA 1.565 million km² Capital city Ulaanbaatar Population 3.2 million Kod 976 Languages Mongolian 94%, Russian , English, Turkic, 6.0%
  8. 8. World Map Territory: 1.5 million km² 6th largest country in Asia, 19th in the world.
  9. 9. Mongolia is a landlocked country in Central Asia. It is bordered by Russia to the north and China to the south, east and west. Ulan Bator, the capital and also the largest city, is home to about 45% of the population. Mongolia's political system is a parliamentary republic.
  10. 10. Administrative 21 Province
  11. 11. Flag of Mongolia The soyombo is a national emblem which contains individual symbolism within it. Blue is a traditional Mongolian color and described as the eternal blue sky. Red is freedom and advancement.
  12. 12. Emblem of Mongolia (Mongolian: Монгол улсын төрийн сүлд, Mongol ulsyn töriin süld) is used by the government of Mongolia as its symbol of state. It is officially used for example on documents such as Mongolian passports, and government and embassy placards. The state emblem was adopted on March 25, 1992, following the fall of the Communist government On the centre of the field is a combination of the Soyombo symbol and the wind horse (treasured steed), symbolizing Mongolia's independence, sovereignty, and spirit The soyombo is a columnar arrangement of abstract and geometric representations of fire, sun, moon, earth, water, and the Taijitu or YinYang symbol.
  13. 13. POLITICS AND GOVERNMENT Government type Independence 26 November 1921 New constitution 12 february 1992 Legal system Civil code Suffrage 18 years of age, universal Legislature State Great Khural /Parliament/ Executive branch The Government Building Parliamentary Prime minister, Government
  15. 15. Harward University To inauguration The silver stemp of the president People congratulated him and went parade. After election in 2013
  16. 16. Prime Minister Altanhuyag Norov
  17. 17. Speaker of the Parliament Enkhbold.Z
  18. 18. MONGOLIAN CURRENCY TUGRUG 100 Tugrug 5000 Tugrug Tugrug (MNT) 1 $ =1,600 MNT 25 tugrug = 1 rupee
  19. 19. MONGOLIAN ECONOMY GDP growth: 17% /2011/ GDP Total: 15 billion USD Per capital: 5300 USD
  20. 20. MONGOLIA 4 th largest copper mine MINEGOLI A
  21. 21. coal, copper, gold, petrolium, iron, molybdenum etc.
  22. 22. Mongolia’s trade major partners: China, Russia, Japan, Korea and USA. Export goods: Coal, copper, iron, petrolium, gold, cashmer etc. Import goods: Fuel, machineries, equipments, cars, chemicals etc.
  23. 23. Buddha Religion in Mongolia _______________ Buddhism 43.0% Christian 12.1% Islam 3.0% Shamanist 2.9% Other 0.4 And none 38.6% Shaman ism  Chiris t
  24. 24. SITE SEEING IN ULAANBAATAR The centre of Lamaist Buddhism of Mongolia Gandan temple
  25. 25. Monument of Buddha Zaisan hill
  26. 26. Monument of Chinggis Khan Sukhbaatar`s square
  27. 27. Ih burkhan
  28. 28. ANIMALS MAIN LIVESTOCK Total 40.27 (mln) 0.26 camel 2.24 horse 2.43 cattle 16.99 sheep 18.35 goat.
  29. 29. NATIONAL CLOTHING Clothing is closely connected with the way of life of the Mongolian people, with the specific features of their economic system and with the natural conditions of the country. In summer the Mongols wear a light coat or frock, the "Terleg“. In winter a sheepskin dress reminding of a fur coat, the "Tsagaan Nekhi Deel".
  30. 30. NATIONAL HOUSE GER (YURT) Portable housing, tents of nomads Skeletion of Ger
  32. 32. Alphabet
  33. 33. МОНГОЛ Cyrillic /This is Mongolian Cyrillic script/ Many alphabets have been devised for the Mongolian language over the centuries, and from a variety of scripts. The oldest, called simply the Mongolian script, has been the predominant script during most of Mongolian history, and is still in active use. In the 20th century, Mongolia first switched to the Latin script, and then almost immediately replaced it with the Cyrillic script for compatibility with the Soviet Union, its political ally of the time. It was introduced in the 1940s and has been in use as the official writing system of Mongolia ever since
  34. 34. NATIONAL SPORTS NAADAM FESTIVAL After 1921, the Naadam Festival became an official celebration of the National Revolution's victory. During the holiday (11-13 July) 3 kinds of traditional sport events took place. 1. Wrestling 2. Horse racing 3. Archery
  35. 35. Wrestling Mongolian wrestling is kind of freestyle wrestling and judo. But rule is different. Two people wrestling together. Who is first fall? if someone would be fallen, he lost.
  36. 36. INTERNATIONAL SPORT-SUMO Mongolia's traditional wrestlers have made the transition to Japanese sumo wrestling with great success. Yokozuna Asashoryu Height:184.0cm Weight:147.0kg Yokozuna Hakuho Height:192.0cm Weight:154.0kg Ozeki Harumafuji Height:185.0cm Weight:128.5kg
  37. 37. Tuvshinbayar, a Mongolian traditional wrestler and judo wrestler,he won 100kg judo gold medal in 2008 summer Olympic, silver medal in 2012 summer Olympic. however he has only reached "Ulsiin Khartsaga" which is the 8th highest title in Mongolian wrestling.
  38. 38. The World Best Judo
  39. 39. Jugderdemidiin Gurragchaa spaceman
  40. 40. CLIMATE Climate is extreme continental, warm rainy summers from +20 to +40 C and extremely cold winter from -20 to –40 C with four seasons a year: spring, summer, autumn and winter. Sharp seasonal fluctuations and variations. Average annual precipitation is 200-300 mm.
  41. 41. Climate Winter Summer Autumn Spring
  42. 42. MONGOLIA - FACTS • The highest point is Huitnii Orgil 4374m • The lowest point is Khukh Nuurs Khotgor - 518m • Average altitude of 1580m above the sea level • The largest lake is Uvs -3350 sq.km • The longest river is Selenge -992km • The most pure lake in the world is -Khovsgol
  43. 43. NATIONAL FOODS • Meal – Horhog, Buuz, Huushuur, bansh, bantan (soup) • Alcohols – Nermel, airag (mare's milk) • Milk products – Tarag, eezgii, aaruul, urum and others
  44. 44. Over the years, Mongolian nomads have developed a number of unique dairy products “white food” (tsagaan idee), which include different types of yoghurt, cottage cheese, dried curds, and fermented mare’s milk. Preferably, airag is is made in autumn after the animals have eaten their full of summer grasses. It may be further distilled to produce a mongolian vodka (shimiin arkhi) – best consumed when warm and fresh.
  45. 45. seabuckthorn Natural fruits in Mongolia Birdcherry Strawberry
  46. 46. Borts - Борц Dried meat cut in stripes or ground to powder. Background The long and harsh winters in Mongolia make it necessary to store sufficient food to survive, and most of that will be meat. A family will eat approximately one cow and seven or eight sheep. The source of the meat varies by region. In the Govi camel meat is available, and in the mountainous north reindeer. But particularly for Borts horse meat is also a popular option. It is said to keep people warm more than other types, which is attributed to the special fat of a yellowish color. Prepare the Borts The fresh meat is cut into long strips, 2-3 cm thick and 57 cm wide. The strips are hung on strings under the roof of the yurt, where the air is free to circulate. After about a month the meat is dry. It has turned into hard and small sticks which feel like wood and have taken on a brown color. The volume has shrunk so much that the meat of a cow now can easily fit into the stomach of the same cow. The dried Borts is broken into small pieces or ground to a coarse and fibrous powder. It is stored in a linen bag which allows contact with air. In the dry climate of mongolia, this method of storage preserves the quality of the meat over months or even years.
  47. 47. Mongolian Music Among the unique contributions of Mongolia to the world's musical culture are the long songs, one of the greatest features of the Mongolian music, overtone singing and morin khuur, the horseheaded fiddle. The music of Mongolia is also rich with varieties related to the various ethnic groups. The Mongolians are renowned for their love for music and singing. Any celebrations by the Mongolians always turn into a celebration of singing.
  48. 48. horsehead fiddle MORIN HUUR is a traditional Mongo lian bowed stringed instrument. It is one of the most important musical instruments of the Mongol people. and is considered a symbol of the Mongolian nation.
  49. 49. THANK YOU FOR ATTENTION Welcome to Mongolia