Prehistory 1/4 • Remains of Mongolia’s earliest inhabitants have been uncovered by archeological digs in the Gobi and other regions dating back nearly 750,000 years.
Prehistory 2/4 209 BC In the second millennium B.C the nomadic tribe, known as the Hunnu, founded the first powerful Empire in northeastern Asia and Shanui (meaning King) governed it.
Prehistory 3/4• 213 BC Great Wall in China was built• 2nd-4th century AD Xiang-bi state• 555 Turkish wins Joujan• 745 Uigar state established• 10th Century AD Kidan state• 10th-12th century AD various tribes of Mongolian origin lived in a vast area of land stretching from the great Gobi desert in the south to Lake Baikal in the north• 1162 Birth of Chinggis Khaan• 1206 At Ikh Khuraldai Chinggis Khaan, the Leader of “All the people who live in a felt Ger” and who finally ended up the disintegration of 12th century Mongolia, founded the “Great Mongolian State”
Prehistory 4/4• 1207-1226 Chinggis Khaan conquered the half the world establishing the “Great Mongolian Empire” (13th – 14th century)
History • 1921 The People’s Republic of Mongolia was proclaimed after the victory of Mongolian People’s Revolution and since 1924 Mongolia had been the world’s second communist country. • 1962 Mongolia became a member state of the United Nations • 1992 First parliamentary election, and new constitution
Climate• Hot summers and cold winters. Average summer temperature +20C, average winter temperature -23C, average rainfall 200-220 mm per annum, the sun shines for over 200 days a year. Winter lasts from November to late February, spring from March to May, and summer from June to September.
Geography • Territory: 1.564.100 sq km, 19th and the most sparsely populated independent largest country in the world • Population: 2.754.314 people with density of 1.8 person/sq km • Geographic position: Mongolia lies in Central Asia and borders with Russia and China. • Average altitude: 1.580 m above sea level • Landscapes: Semi-desert and plains, mountains in the west and southwest, Gobi desert in the south and southeast, taiga forests and lakes in the north.
Capital City• Like nearly one half of the Mongolian population, the capital city of Ulaanbaatar is herself a nomad. The city has changed locations more than twenty times over the past 350 years before taking root in her current location in a sweeping valley bounded by four sacred peaks, including Bogd Khan mountain to the south.
About tourism 1/3• HORSE AND CAMEL RIDINGHorse and camel riding in Mongolia range fromeasy day trips with guides, to multi-week soloadventures deep in the mountains wild steppesand Gobi deserts.
About tourism 2/3• WALKING & HIKINGHiking vacations and trekking holidays in the mostremote and beautiful parts of Mongolia. Mongolianhiking adventures offer you to experience theculture and untouched landscapes on foot.
About tourism 3/3• WILDLIFE & BIRD WATCHING• Some people are drawn to Mongolia for its history, some for its rich cultural traditions. But for many, it is the country’s abundant biodiversity that makes Mongolia truly unique among world destinations. Home to a huge variety of mammals, birds, fish, reptiles, and plants, the country lays claim to some impressive facts about its flora and fauna.
About Mongolian Adventure Sport Tourism• Mongolia is one of the upcoming places to visit for adventure sports tourism. The attractions and adventure activities for tourists in Mongolia closely relate to the unique natural environment, historic features and its cultural heritage.• Nature and wildlife adventure travel trips are growing in popularity. Example: Whitewater rafting and game fishing, hiking and trekking in the mountains, horse riding and camel trekking, mountain biking, on the long Rivers you can Canoe and Kayak, jeep trip, snow sport and photography. Mongolia can offer a wide variety of exciting natural and wildlife adventures.
Canoeing, Kayaking and Whitewater Rafting in MongoliaThe Kherlen River in easternMongolia is one of the biggest rivers;it is suitable for paddlers of anyability. Over in the western Altairegion, the steep mountainescarpments and valleys are home tomany white water rivers that aresuitable for adventure trips by Canoe,Kayak and Raft. The rivers flowthrough lush pine and larch forestswhile tumbling over rocks andthrough eddies. Mention rafting inthis area and there is plenty ofopportunity to set the hearts ofexperienced paddlers racing.
Climbing Altai Tavan Bogd MountainMost mountaineers who visit Mongolia go to the westernregion. The Mongol Altai range is the highest mountain rangewith many glacier topped peaks between 3000m and 4300m.The Altai region has beautiful clean mountain rivers alongwith amazing wildlife, such as; Blue Sheep - Argali, Ibex, Snowleopard, Golden Eagles and many other birds. The name AltaiTavan Bogd (Five Holy Peaks of Altai) is given to a cluster offive dramatic glaciated peaks. The highest Mountain inMongolia is Khuiten peak at 4374m.
Mountain Bike in MongoliaThe amazing variety of landscapes and roads in Mongolia area Mountain Bikers paradise. Although, because of the realnature of the Mongolian wilderness, mountain bikers shouldhave some technical experience. You can travel with orwithout you own bikes. There are challenging routes all overMongolia, but especially in the northern Bulgan province orthe Khan Khentii National Park, which lies northeast ofUlaanbaatar.
Horse Trekking and Hiking the mountainsThe Mongolian North is home toLake Khovsgol – The Blue Pearl ofMongolia. Horse trekking throughthe colourful valleys towards themost beautiful lake of Khovsgol isa special journey. Trekking in thisway, you can visit local families ofmany different minority groupsallowing you to experience andexplore their lifestyle and customsas well as the possibility ofexchanging conversations with aTsaatan family.
Fishing in MongoliaFishing in Mongolia is one of themore famous adventure sportsMongolia has to offer. Many of ourlarger rivers are home to theTaimen (Hucho Taimen) the world’slargest Salmonidae. Taimen canreach up to 100 kg and reach over2m long. The fly fishermans realtreasure lies in the unbelievableclear, easy wading waters withincredible, nearly untouchedwilderness with amazing mountainsand vast valleys.
EVENTS • Yak Festival • "Tengeriin Tsadig" the circus artistic performance of horseback battle. • Tsaatan Festival • Naadam Festival • Mongolian National Costum Festival • "Following in the Footsteps of Genghis Khan" Horse Trekking Tour • The Mongolia Bike Challenge • The Grand Orchestra of the Mongolian National Song and Dance • Mongolia Tour Chess Master Cup-2011 • Golden Naadam • Ceremony of Summoning Spirits of the Great Chinggis Khaan’s Imperial Guards • The Nomads Day Festival • Gobi Marathon • Golden Eagle Festival
Yak festivalIn Mongolia, the yak plays an important part insupporting local livelihoods. Yaks are used totransport people and cargo; warm clothes aremade from their wool; their milk and meat providefood; and even their dung is used for fuel.
Tsaatan festival• Event Date: 6-7 July• Venue: Khatgal sum “Dalai Tour” tourist ger camp Khuvsgul National Park, Khuvsgul province• "Tsaatan festival"- it’s mean Reindeer festival It provides great opportunity to see Tsaatan people’s ancestral culture,
Mongolian National Costum festival• Event Date: 8 July• Venue: Gorkhi Terelj National Park Tuv province• Mongolian National Costume is a bright example of culture that introduces foreign guests and tourists to the marvels of national costumes and folk performances in the country.
Golden Eagle festival• Event date: 1-2 October• Venue: Bayan-Ulgii province Mongolia• This annual festival, which celebrates the Golden Eagle as well as the hunters traditional culture, is arranged by the local Kazakh community and members of the Berkut Association, a community- based conservation organization.