Hi, I am Kayoko Zahn. I am going to give a presentation about Mongolia.
Mongolia is a country located in east and central Asia. The country is bordered by China and Russia. It is a landlocked country which means the country is entirely surrounded by other countries and has no seaports.The capital of Mongolia is Ulan Bator and is known as the world’s coldest capital city.The country is slightly smaller than Alaska and most of the land, about 80%, is used for grazing.
The Climate of Mongolia is a desert climate and there are large temperature differences daily and seasonally.People make their living traditionally by herding and agriculture. The land of Mongolia is rich in many types of mineral resources.The agricultural products include Wheat, barley, vegetables, forage crops for sheep, goats, cattle, camels, and horses.
People of Mongolia.In this presentation, I am focusing mostly on people in the country of Mongolia however I would like to note that a large population of ethnic Mongols live in other countries such as China because the homeland of Mongolia used to be a lot bigger as shown in this picture. Actually more ethnic Mongolians live in a region of China, called “Inner Mongolia” than in Mongolia.So, the population in the country of Mongolia is a little over 3 million, one hundred thousand. The US population is 100 times that of Mongolia.Most people in Mongolia, approximately 95% are Mongol and speak Khalkha（カルカ） Mongol. The rest of the population is mostly Turkic people who are originally from Turkestan which is another country in central Asia.The country became independent in 1921 with the help of Soviet Union. The country experienced a peaceful democratic revolution After the breakdown of communist regimes in Eastern Europe and adopted multi-party system and went to a market economy.About 75% of the people live on less than $2 a day.
This slide is about religions.About a half of people follow LamaistBuddhism known as Tibetan Buddhism. 40% of people don’t have any religion. The rest, about 10%, practice is traditional Shamanism and Christianity. Tibetan Buddhism is a form of Buddhist religion widely spread in Tibet and certain regions of the Himalayas. Interestingly, vegetarianism is rare in Tibetan Buddhism.
Now, I would like to talk about Mongolian culture.Their culture is influenced by the Mongol nomadic way of life. Other influences are, as mentioned in the previous slide, from Tibet and Tibetan Buddhism and from China. Since the start of the 20th century, Russian and European culture have affected Mongolian culture.This is a picture from an article on the BBC News website. After the communist regime（レジーム） ended, people have been trying to recover the traditional culture and religion which were lost during the communist era.
This slides introduces Mongolia’s holidays and celebrations.One big national holiday is Independence and revolution day on July 11th.There are two major traditional festivals. TsagaanSar (''ツァガーンサル') and Naadam.TsagaanSar means the white month. It is held in the first month of spring to celebrate New Year, addition of age and the safe ending of winter for animals.Naadam is a summer festival.
Here we come to the discussion of Mongolian food.This is a typical family in Mongolia. This picture is found in a book called ”What the World Eats”. I happened to have this book so some of the information in this presentation is from this book. This book introduces families from different countries all over the world and their weekly food. It is a very interesting book and educational. I recommend it.So, as you can see, this family put at all of the food they were going to consume for this particular week and there is a lot of meat on the table.
Here are typical traditional Mongolian dishes.They have an old saying “Keep breakfast for yourself, share lunch with your friend and give dinner to your enemy”. Their custom is to eat a big meal for breakfast and lunch, not so much for dinner. What they eat is strongly affected by their herder（ハーダー） culture. Their diet consists of a lot of meat and dairy products. Sheep or mutton is the most popular food. They eat beef, chicken and horse meat, too. They don’t add much spice to their food.The dish on the left is Khorkhog (ホルホグ). Khorkhog is cooked with heated stones in a milk container. They usually use sheep meat and vegetables. In this picture, the soup obtained from the cooking process is also served.The dish in the center is Buuz (ボーズ, Boatsと聞こえる). They look like Chinese dumplings. The picture on the right is Khuushuur (ホーショール, “ho-shur”). Both Buuz and Khuushuur are made with minced meat with some vegetables and covered with flour. They could be boiled or fried.Finally the picture on the bottom is Mongolian beef which you have eaten before. Actually Mongolian beef is not a traditional Mongolian food.
I found this table comparing different countries annual meat consumption from the book I mentioned a couple of slides back.It is a little hard to see but among these countries, the US is the #1 country consuming the most meat. Mongolia is another of the countries that consumes a large amount of meat.
This slide is about Mongolian Americans.I wanted to know how much Mongolian culture affected the US culture so I checked the population in the US.This is a table I took from Wikipedia and the current estimate is about 15,000 to 18,000 Mongolian-Americans which is not many. In my opinion, since the population size of the Mongolian immigrants is not very large, therefore Mongolian influence in the US food culture seems to be limited.
Here is a summary of this presentation.The Mongolian culture is strongly affected by their traditional nomadic way of life.Their culture is traditionally influenced by Tibet and from China. More recently since early 1920’s, there were influences from Russian and European culture.The major religion is Tibetan Buddhism. A half of the population follows Tibetan Buddhism. 40% of people don’t have any religion. A small percentage of people believe in traditional Shamanism.Food customs and practicesTraditional Mongolian diet depends on meat and dairy products.This was due to the country’s dry, mountainous landscape and nomadic culture.In spite of the influences of Buddhism, vegetarianism is not common.
These are the references I used for this presentation.That’s all I have to say. Thank you for listening.
Understanding different cultures_Mongolia
Geography of Mongolia
East and Central Asia
Bordered by China and Russia
Ulan Bator (the world’s coldest capital city)
Slightly smaller than Alaska
Land used for grazing: 80.7%
Source of maps: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/mg.html
Geography of Mongolia (cont.)
Economic activity as regards to its geography:
large daily and seasonal temperature
Traditionally based on herding and agriculture
Mineral deposits (copper, gold, coal, molybdenum, etc.)
Wheat, barley, vegetables, forage crops; sheep, goats, cattle,
People of Mongolia
Mongols and Mongolia:
Khalkha Mongol 90% (official), Turkic, Russian
Soviet economic aid stopped in:
Mongol (mostly Khalkha) 94.9%, Turkic (mostly
Kazakh) 5%, other (including Chinese and Russian)
3,179,997 (US population 313,847,465) in July
(Livestock population: 30,500,000)
The map on the right shows the boundary of 13th
century Mongol Empire and location of today's
Mongols in modern Mongolia, Russia, Central
Asian States and China.
Population living on less than $2 a day:
Buddhist Lamaist (Tibetan Buddhism) 50%, Shamanist and
Christian 6%, Muslim 4%, none 40%
“A form of Mahayana Buddhism with an admixture of
indigenous animism that is practiced in Tibet, Mongolia,
Bhutan, and neighboring areas.” (from thefreedictionary.com)
“A Buddhist doctrine that includes elements from India that are
not Buddhist and elements of preexisting shamanism” (from
Vegetarianism is rare in Tibetan Buddhism.
Influenced by the Mongol nomadic way of life
Other influences from Tibet and Tibetan Buddhism, and
Since the 20th century, Russian and, via Russia, European
culture have had a strong effect on Mongolia
“At the beginning of the 20th Century, more than half
the male population of this landlocked country lived as
monks in places like Ganden. But then came
"Mongolia's return to religion" from the BBC News website
Holiday and Celebrations in Mongolia
Independence Day/Revolution Day, 11 July (1921)
Tsagaan Sar (the white month): a celebration of New Year held in the
first month of spring, addition of age and safe ending of winter for
The 2012 National Naadam Festival
Naadam: the traditional Mongolian summer festival
Mongolia : The Batsuuri family of Ulaanbaatar
What the World Eats, Part I - Photo
Essays - TIME
Food expenditure for one week: 41,985.85 togrogs or $40.02
Family recipe : Mutton dumplings
Source of the photo: http://www.eatnineghost.com/what-theworld-eats/
An old Mongolian saying advises: “Keep breakfast for yourself, share lunch with
your friend and give dinner to your enemy”.
Mongolian traditional meals (such as buuz, khuushuur and bansh) are made with
minced meat seasoned with garlic or onion (it can be anything from mutton to beef
to camel to horse to gazelle) covered with flour and steamed in boiling water, fried
in oil and boiled in water. The use of spice is limited.
Khorkhog (left) served with a plate
of meat and vegetables (right)
Mongolian Beef is not a traditional Mongolian food!
Source of photos: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mongolian_cuisine
Annual Meat Consumption
Original source: Food and
of the United Nations
Copied from “What the world’s eat” on page 76
communities today are
composed largely of
migrants who arrived in the
1990s and 2000s, as
communism in Mongolia
came to an end and
restrictions on emigration
Since the population size of
the Mongolian immigrants is
not very large the influence
in food culture to the US
seems to be limited.
Traditional nomadic way of life
Influences from Tibet and from China
Influences from Russian and, via Russia, European culture
Food customs and practices
Traditional Mongolian diet depends on meat and dairy products.
This was due to the country’s dry, mountainous landscape and
In spite of the influences of Buddhism, vegetarianism is not common.
“Mongolia - CIA - The World Factbook”, The CIA website, Web. 7 Sept. 2012.
“Discover Mongolia - Official tourism website of Mongolia”, The website of
Ministry of Nature, Environment and Tourism, Mongolia, Web. 7 Sept. 2012.
“Mongolian Culture : Arts, language, Food, Tsagaan Sar & Nadaam ”, The The Best
of Mongolia website, Web. 7 Sept. 2012. http://www.emongol.com/mongolia_culture.htm
"An Introduction to Mongolia: The Legacy of Chinggis Khan.", The asianart.com
website, Web, 7 Sept. 2012. http://www.asianart.com/mongolia/intro.html
"Mongolia's return to religion.", the BBC news website, Web. 7 Sept. 2012.
D'Aluisio, Faith, and Menzel, Peter, What the World Eats. Berkeley: Tricycle Press,
"Mongolian cuisine.", the Wikipedia website, , Web. 7 Sept. 2012.
"Mongolian Food.", the Exploremongolia.blogspot.com website, Web. 7 Sept. 2012.