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3.foundation of effective

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  • 1. 03 mrspzfPAoh (03 Chapter) fu;a;d ixl,amh & wdfjzok moku (Metta Concept : Foundation of Affective ) wdfjzok hk jpkh iZoyd bx.@Sis NdIdfjka Affective hk jok jHjydrflfrA1 fuz Affective hk jok iZoyd wF:! jYfhka ps;a;fjz.sl" wdfjzoksl" l@shdldrS"n,mdk" Woafjz.hla" wdfjzok hk f;areuz iuQyh Ndjs;d lr we;2 idudkHfhka idrOrAuyd ixl,am ms<snZoj bx.@Sis NdIdfjka rps; fndfyda ufkdajsoHd jsIhh fCIa;@hg wh;a.@F:hkays fuu wrA:h iZoyd Ndjs;d jS we;af;a Emotion hk bx.@Sis jokhs3 wF:! jYfhkafuu Emotion yd Affective hk jpk folu iudkdrA:j;a f,i jHjydr flfrAEmotion hk jofkys wF:! jkqfha ps;a;fjz.h" Woafjz.h" rih yd Ndjh hkakhstfukau Ndjh hkak weZ.jSu iZoyd bx.@Sis NdIdfjz Wesen, affection, being, emotion,entity, gist, meaning, nature, order, sentiment, status hk joka Ndjs;d jS ;sfnz4 affection hk jpkfhys wrA: f,i olajd ;sfnkqfha iafkayh" ohdj"frda.h" wdorh" wdndOh" wkqrd.h" Ndjh" jskaokh" wdfjzokh yd jd;ai,H hkdoshhs5tfiau emotion hk jpkfhys wrA: f,i ps;a;fjz.h" Woafjz.h" rih yd Ndjh hk wrA:iuQyh o being hk jpkfhys wrA: f,i i;a;dj" i;ajhd" i;d" cSjh" Ndjh" N~;hd"m@dKh" meje;au oelajsh yel fuys oS ilaldh osgzGs hk wrA:h m@Nj jSug n,mdk ,oilaldh hk jok ;ekS we;s wkaou ms<snZoj wjOdkh fhduq jSu jeo.;ah ulaksido h;alsis|= cSj i;a modrA:hla rys; m@ia;`;hla jQ ialkaO mxplfhys tla tla ialkaO fldglamdidu uu uf.a hehs ie,lSu ilaldh osgzGsh m@NjjSug fya;`jk nejsks tfiau entity hkjpkfhys wrA: f,i wdia:s;Hh" ia:s;sh" ia:s;s" jia;`j" wia;s;ajh" Ndjh yd N~;hd hkwrA: iuQyhka o meaning hk jpkfhys wrA: f,i f;areu" woyi" wre;" wNsm@dh" Pdhd"Pdhdj" Ndj yd N~;drA:h hk wrA: iuQyhka o nature hk jpkfhys iegsh" ienEj"iajrEmh" iajNdjh" jrA.h" fidndoyu" .;sh" .`Kh" ckau .;sh" OrAu;dj" Ndjh",CIKh" ksiZ." ksirA. nj" OrAuh" m@lD;sh yd irEm" hk wrA: iuQyhka o sentimenthk jpkfhys f,i ufkda .;sh" ye.Su" u;h" wNsm@dh" rih" Ndjh" rxckh ydufkdaNdjh hk wrA: iuQyhka o status hk jpkfhys f,i ia:s;Hh" ia:s;sh" whs;sh";rd;sru" ;ru;sru" Ndj" Ndjh yd ;;ajh hk wrA: iuQyhka o order hk jpkfhysf,i wkqms<sfj<" hqla;s OrAu;dj" ksldh" ms<sfj<" iduh" ie,iqu" iudch" ix>hd"ixjsOdkh" Tzvrh" jev ms,sfj<" jekak" jok" jrA.h" fufyjr" Ydikh" wdZ{dj" wdZ{dm;@h" wiqk" wiak" weKjqu" Tf<dx.`j" l@uh" wK" wkq l@uh" .Kh" jsOsh" jsOdkh";SrK wdZ{dj" Ndjh" mgsmdgsh" ksis md,kh" ms<sfj<" kshuh" ksfhda.h" m@ldrh" 93
  • 2. m@luh" msrsi" wkq ms,sfj<" jskh" f.da;@h" iegs" iuzj;d" iQ;@" irKs" ika lrkjd" wKlrkjd" ms<sfh< lrkjd" kshu lrkjd yd Tiq b,a,d hjkjd hk wrA: iuQyhka ofmkajd osh yelsh fulS jpk ish,a, i,ld n,k l< lsishuz ixl,amhl Ndjuh ;;ajhweZ.jSu msKsi jvd;a fhda.Hu yd Wps;u jpkh l`ulaoehs ;SrKhlg t<Ush yelshtnejska Ndjuh ixfjzokhka ksrEmKh lsrSu msKsi Wps;u moh tys mqZM,au wrA:ksrEmKh f,i fuys l,ska fmkajd fok ,o Affective hkak meyeos,sh fuu Affectivehk jpkfhka lsishuz ixl,amhl tla;rd me;slvla jQ Ndjuh ;;ajh losug ksrEmKhlr oelajsh yelsh tfukau Ydia;@Sh jYfhka jvd;a ishquzu ufkda.;sl ia:rhla lrdwmf.a jsurAYkh fufyhjSug jvd jevs bv m@ia;djla o fuz uZ.ska Wodfjz Affective hk jpkh m@Nj jSug uq,a jQ Affection hk Ynzoh odrAYkslwrA:fhka Ndjs;d jSu wdruzN jQfha crAuka NdIdfjz we;s jpkhka jk tflafgkaf,yafrA (Affektenlehre ) hk jok uq,a jSfuks6 th ix.S; fi#kaorAh Ydia;@fhys isoaOdka;hkams<snZoj fh|=kls mqZM,a f,i oelajqjfyd;a wikakka ;`< jsjsO jQ b;d jsfYaIs;uh Ndjhkacks; lsrSug iu;a jkakd jQ iajr rgdjka yeZoskajSu msKsi fuh Ndjs;d lr ;sfnz fulSodrAYksl woyfiys idrh kuz ckm@sh ix.S;Z{hskayg jsjsO WmlrK ;`<ska kefZ.kix.S; kdorgd ksrAudKYS,Snjg m;a lrjSug bjy<ajk mokuhsjsjsO ix.S; WmlrKrd. kuz jQ jsOsu;a kdoud,dj,g wkqj jdokhlr tuZ.ska tajd wikakka;`< Ndjd;sYh l`ZM.ekajSula we;s lrjQ muKg jvd;a is;a .kakd iqZM ix.S;hla ksrAudKh lrkakg yelshdjwe;snj fmr wmros. fi#kaorAh Ydia;@ ms<snZo mrAfhaIKj, ksr;jk jsoaj;`kaf.ajsYajdihhs WoEik"oyj,a"iji yd rd;@S jeks ojfia jsjsO hduhka j,oS cSj jsoHd;aulmiq;,hlg jvd;a Tnsk f,i jskaok yelshdfjz we;s fjkialuz i,ld fuu rd. ms<sfh, jSmej;snj fmros. ix.S; Ydia;@fha oelafjzNr;uqks jeks mqrdK Ndr;Sh mZvsjref.a kHdhhYdia;@ .@ka:j, mjd udkj wdfjzok yd ri ksIam;a;sh ms<snZo funZ|= jsjsO lreKq iZoykahix.S;fhys we;s by; iZoyka l< .`Khka wdfjzok mCIfhys o olakg ,efnk nejskaix.S; ( fi#kaorAh ) Ydia;@fhys isoaOdka;hka ms<snZoj Ndjs;d lrkakg fh|=Kq wdfjzokhhk jHjydrh ffcj ixfjzokhla kuz lsrSu jsIfhys o Ndjs;d lrkakg jsh jsfYaIjYfhka ix.S;fhys yd fi#kaorAhh Ydia;@fhys jsia;r jk ixOzjksh ;`< .enzjkf,,fok iajNdjh yd pu;aldr ckl iajNdjh wdfjzok .`Kfhys o ta wdldrfhka .enzjSu ksid wdfjzokh yeZoskajSu iZoyd o ix.S;fhys Ozjks .`Kfhys tla;rd iajNdjhlayeZoskajSu msKsi Ndjs;d l< Affective hk mohu jHjydr lrkakg jsh fu;a;dixl,amfhys .enz jkakd jQ fi#uH yd pu;aldr ckl iajNdjh tu ;;ajh wdfjzokhAffective f,i jHjydr lrkakg fya;`jla jS ;snQ nj fuz wkqj meyeos,s fjz usksiaixfjzokhkays b;du;au ishquz Ndjuh wjia:djla wdfjzokh hkqfjka kuz jS ;sfnz tfukaufulS ishquz nj jvd;a lemS fmfkkafka fu;a;d ixl,amh ms<snZoj idlpzPd lrkwjia:djhka ysoSh7 94
  • 3. fu;a;d ixl,amfhys wdfjzok moku hkqfjka yeZoskafjkafka fu;a;didrOrAuh ms<snZoj we;slr.kakd jQ Ndjuh m@ia;`;hhs8 Ndjuh ;;ajh f.dvkefZ.kafkahuzlsis idrOrAuhla yd iuznJO yeZ.Suz ps;a;fjz. ufkdaNdj wdosh tla;eka jSu uZ.sks9 nq|=iufhys ffp;isl mCIfhka ksrEmKh jkafka fuu Ndjuh ;;ajhhs10 fu;a;dfpf;dajsuqla;s wdosfhka m@ldYjkQfha fulS l~gm@dma;jQ mru ksIagdj lrd <Z.djQ NdjuhmrsmQrAKFjhhs. wdfjzokhka idudkHfhka udkisl mCIfhka l@shdldrS udkisl jQ o ufkda.;sl iajNdjhka o fj;a tfukau tys lsishuz fjz.j;a iajNdjhlao w;aoelsh yelsh fuu,CIKhka tkuz wdfjzok iajNdjh w;aolsk js,dYh usksidg fukau iFj f,dalfhysfjk;a cSjSkago msysgd ;sfnz nsh" i;`g" fldamh, iduQyslFjh" us;@YS,SFjh jeks udkislwdfjzok iajNdjhka usksidg fukau ish,q iFj m@cdjgu fmd|= wdfjzok fjz tla;rd w;lgfuu wdfjzohka iFj meje;afuys wLKav;djh ;SrKh lrkakd jQ idOlhla f,io fmkajdosh yelsh ula ksido h;a fuu wdfjzok uZ.ska iFj jrA.hdg Tjqkaf.a ffokslwjYH;djhka iuzmQrAK lr.ekSug lsishuz bZ.shla fukau bv m@ia;djla ie,fik nejsks11usksid we;`ZM ffcj m@cdju iuia;hla f,i .;a l< iduQysl cSjs;h ms@h lrkafkda fj;affcj jrA.hd fuu iduQysl cSjs;hg m@sh lsrSug mgka .kq ,enQfjz fuhg fndfyda wE;ld, jljdkqjlg fmr mgkah ta Tjqkaf.a wdrCIdjg yd meje;aug jsjsOdldrfhka;rAckhka mrsirfhka" fidndoyfuka yd fjk;a iFj jsfYaIhka uZ.ska t,a,jkakg jQld,jljdkqj;`<oSh jsfYaIfhkau ;ks ;ksj yqol,d jqjfyd;a ;u jrA.hd usys u;ska jZojS h;ehs hk wjodkug yd ;rAckhg ,la jQ fndfyda ffcj jsfYaIhka ish meje;au;yjqre lr.ekSu msKsi iduQysl cSjk fmfj;lg yqre mqre|= jQy12 fuu ;rAckhkacdkuh yd fjk;a ffcjSh lreKq iuznJOfhka mjd t,a, jkakg jsh iduQysl osjsfmfj;la;`< oS ;uka ;ksjS ke;ehs hk wdl,amh fukau nsfhka wdrCIdjSu" l`i.sskakm,jd yerSu msKsi ork ,o iduQysl m@h;akhka" fjk;a cSjS jsfYaIhkaf.ka ish cSjs;hgt,a, jk wys;lr n,mEu wju lr.ekSu jeks lreKq ms<snZoj jsfYaI ie,ls,a,la oelajSu;;a ld,jljdkqj wkqj b;d wjYH fohla jS ;snsKs fujeks wjOdkd;aul ld,mrspzfPaohla.; lruska isgS ffcj jrA.hd yg us;@Fjh ms<snZo uQ,sl wvs;d,u jegqfka fulS iduQysl osjsfmfjf;ys wjYH;djh u;` jSu;a iuZ.uh13 idudkH jYfhka us;@YS,S wdl,am j,ska iukajs; jqj;a tlS us;@YS,S njjvd;a jrAOkhg ,lajkqfha mYapd;a ld,Sk jYfhks mYapd;a ld,Skj fiiq iFj jsfYaIhkawNsNjkh lruska usksid fmrg meusfK;au usksid ;`< ixjrAOkh jS mej;s udkislmrsK;sfhys iajNdjhg iu.duSj Tyq;`< us;@YS,S wdl,amhka ixl,am ugzgfukq;a TnzngjrAOkh jkakg jsh tkuz ffcj f,dj ;`< fjfikakd jQ wfkl`;a iFj jrA.hkayg fukayqfola lsishuz idudkH udkisl ixfjzos iajNdjhla muKla fkdjS th jrAOs; wdfjzokiajNdjhla njg mrsjrA;kh jsh fjk;a ffcj jsfYaIhkays fkdue;s tfy;a usksidguwdfjzKsl jQ wdfjzok l`i,;djhka usksid w;am;a lr .kq ,enQfjz Tyq ;`< ixjrAOkh jS 95
  • 4. meje;s udkisl mrsK;sh ksiduh14 fuu udkisl mrsK;sh fya;`fldgf.k usksid ;`<we;s fu;a;d ixl,amfhys wdfjzok me;slv Tyq;`< we;a;d jQ ishZM udkisl |=rAj,;dwNsNjkh l< yels wdldrfhka ixjrAOkhg md;@ l< yelshdj ysus lrf.k isgshs fuzksid jsYajfhys fjkia lsis|= iFj jsfYaIhlg ish meje;au wrUhd iajdOSkj lghq;` l<fkdyels wdldrhlska hqla;j lghq;` lr tuZ.ska iajlSh iod;ksl jsula;sh idlaId;alr.kakg mjd usksidg yels jS ;snSu usksi;a nfjys we;s fY@aIaGFjh lshdmdkakd jQ losuwjia:djls15 fu;a;d idrOrAufhys wdfjzok moku hg;g .efkkafka ps;a;fjz.ShjYfhka fl;ruz ixfjzoSNdjhla tys .enzjkafka o hk lreK yd wNHka;r.; ps;a;ifudaOdkh ta ;`<ska we;s lr,kafka flfiao hk lreKqh16 wNsOrAu yd iQ;@ msglhkays.enzjk iQ;@foaYkd yd jskh msglfhys pq,a,j.a.md,s yd uyd j.a.md,s hk fm<.@J:j,ska m@lg flfrkakd jQ fu;a;d ixl,amfhys wdfjzok moku .eUqrska wOHhkh lsrSuuZ.ska prAhd ixialrK l@ufjzohla jYfhka th nq|=iufhys Ndjs;hg .kq ,enQ wdldrhms<snZoj meyeos,s wjfndaOhla ,ensh yelsh fuz uZ.ska ;;ahq.fhys wOHdmk jsOs l@uhlajYfhka fu;a;d ixl,amfhys wdfjzok moku w;s idrA:l f,i Ndjs;hg .kq ,enQwdldrh ms<snZoj meyeos,s jegySula o ,ensh yelsjkq we;17 fu;a;d idrOrAufhys wdfjzzok mokug wh;ajkafka ps;a; ffp;isljYfhka nq|=iufhys oelafjk ukfiys Ndjuh ia:rfhys we;s ishquz iajrEmhhs fuz hgf;amqoa., ukfia we;sjk Ndjuh ;;ajhkag wkql~, jk mrsoafoka fu;a;d idrOrAuh uZ.skawe;slrk fm#reI ixjrAOkh mqoa., fjzu;a;;dj u; lsishuz ksYaps; ia:dkhla lrd wod<mqoa.,hdj b,lal.; lrjk nejz meyeos,sj fmkajd oS ;sfnz uq,a nq|=iufha js.@yjkfpzf;dajsuqla;shg mdoljk Ndjuh l~gm@dma;sh weiqrska fu;a;d idrOrAufhys wdfjzokmoku wrA: olajd we; jspdr mQrAjl jsYaf,aIKhka is|=l< hq;` wjia:djkays oS wdNsOuzusljsjrKhkays yd wgzGl:djkays18 .enzjkakdjQ ufkdajsoHd;aul js.@yhka uZ.ska fulSfu;a;d idrOrAufhys wdfjzok moku .eUqrska wOHkhg ,lajsKs fu;a;d ixl,amh fnfyjska Ndjuh .`Kfhka fmdaIs; idrOrAuhlsys;j;anj us;`renj ;`< is;g oefkkafka lsishuz uq|= fudf<dla wdl,amhls us;`renjfyj;a ys;j;anj uq|= fudf<dlah19 tfukau tys lsishuz taldnoaO;djla usY@jQ yeZ.Sulaof.kfohs fuu ys;j;a iajNdjh we;sjkafka iuia; cSj m@cdju ;ukaf.a cSjs;h yd iiZodne,Su ;`<ska we;slr.kakd ,o iuia;;djh uZ.sks20 lsishuz flfkl` ;ud;`< olskakdjQys;j;anj yd cSj;ajSfuz we;s leue;a; wkH cSjSka jsIfhyso Tjqfkdjqkag idOdrKnj oelwjfndaO lr.kshs tfiau tf,i wjfndaO lr.ekSuka wk;`rej ;ud iajlSh ldh ps;a;wNHka;rh fyj;a ialkaO mxplh ;`< olskakdjQ ;udf.a iajNdjh wkH cSj m@cdj ;`<o ta 96
  • 5. wdldrfhkau oelSu ksid ;uka wkH cSjSkaf.ka fjkajQ wkH jQ iajrEmhla fkdfmkajk yq|=iuia; ffcj f,dalhgu wh;a ;j;a tla udkj iajrEmS yev;,hla muKla f,i yZ.shsilaldh osgzGsh |=re jkqfha fufia jegySu ksidh;ud iuia; ffcj m@cdjf.ka fjkalrie,lSu ilaldh osgzGsh nsysjSug fya;`jhs;ud iuia; ffcj m@cdj;`< oelSu fukau iuia;ffcj m@cdj ;ud;`< oelSu o fu;a;d ixl,am ixjrAOkfha iSud blaujSu uZ.ska is|= flfrAfuz wdldrfhka iuia;h iuia;h ;`< isgskakd jQ tla tla cSjshd ;`<ska oel yZ|=kd .ekSuiuia;h flfrys tla tla cSjshd olajkakd jQ odhlFjh meyeos,s lrjhs iuia;h ;`<talSh iajNdjh fukau talSh iajNdjh ;`< iuia;h ms<snZo wdl,amh we;s jkafka ;ud wkHcSjSkaf.ka fjka fldg l,amkd lrkakdjQ iajNdjh jshqla; lsrSu uZ.sks21 ;uka wkH cSjSkaf.ka fjkalr olajkafka wd;audrA:h uZ.sks wd;audrA:h yg.kqfha iuia;h yd ;ud hkq tlu i;a iajNdjfha jsNskak iajrEmhka nj jgyd fkd.ekSuksidh fuz whqrska tlu i;a iajNdjfha jsNskak iajrEmhka fmkajkafka ukao hk ldrKhfuysoS u;`jk jeo.;a lreKls thg fya;`j kuz tu jsNskak iajrEmhka ienE f,ium@mxp f,dj ;`< jsoHudk fohdldr iajNdjhla fkdj ta foi n,kakdjQ oDIagsfhys fjkiaiajrEmh u; flfkl` ukiska ixcdkkh lr.kq ,nkakd jQ wdldrh fjz wdruzNfhaoS nqoaOsjsIhhl iajrEmhla m@orAYkh l<o wjidkfhaoS fuu ;;ajh Ndjuh .`Khla njgmrsjrA;kh fjz fuys Ndjuh ;;ajh kuz ;ud ;uka flfrysu fukau iuia;h flfrysous;@Fjh f.dv kZ.d .ekSuhs fuu l@shdj,sh ;`<oS is|=jkqfha ;ud iuia;h flfrystald;ausl jSuhs fuu tald;ausl jSu jkdyS wdOHd;ausl neZoSuls th Ndjuh mCIhksfhdackh lrhs fu;a;d ixl,amfhys fulS nkaOkSh iajNdjh uekjska wka;rA.; fjzfuu wdOHd;aul ;;ajh fyj;a Ndjuh iajNdjh uD|= ugis,sgs iajNdjhla m@;sksrAudKhlrkakls idrOrAu mCIfhys,d th wod< jkafka l`i,h fnfyjska uD|= yd ugis,sgsiajNdjhla .kakd ksidh l`i,h ieye,a,qh is;g yd lhg wdiajdo ckl wdl,am j,skamsrS we; uki uD|= lrjk ieye,a,q lrjk fuu wdfjzok ;;ajh fu;a;d ixl,amfhysfnfyjska nyq, f,i wka;rA.;h ys;j;a nj we;s jkafka uD|= f,i l,amkd lsrSu ksidhwkH cSj m@cdj flfrys uD|= yd WKqiquz f,i Ndjuh m@;spdrhla oelajSug wjldYie,fikafka ukfiys mj;skakd jQ ieye,a,qnj ksid we;s jk ps;a; m@fndaOhhs22 udkisl wd;;s rys; nj uZ.ska jvd;a ksjeros jsksYaphka .ekSug is;gwjldY ,efnk mrsoafoka is; ieye,a,qNdjhg m;a fjz ksrjoH;djh fyj;a ;uka ksjerosflfkl`h hk udkisl yeZ.Su TzkEu flfkl`f.a is; iqjm;a lrjkakd jQ ldrKhls fuzfya;`j ksid ksrjoH;djh ms<snZo flfkl` ;`< we;sjkakd jQ hym;a wdl,amh TzkEuflfkl`f.a udkisl ksfrda.S;djh msKsi ukd msgsjy,la imhkakla njg m;a fjz fuzfya;`j ksid TzkEu flfkla ;uka ks;ru ksjeros l@shd lrkakd jQ ksjeros flfkl`h hkyeZ.Su we;s lr .ekSug fukau iudcfhys wka fndfyda fokd ;uka ksjeros flfkl`h hk 97
  • 6. udkislFjfhka hq;`j ;uka foi n,kq oelSug b;d reps lr;s fuu cSj jsoHd;aulwjYH;djhla muKgu udkjhdf.a ukfiys b;du;a ;oska ;ekam;a jQ ldrKhls fu;a;dixl,amfhys ;j;a tla yria lvla jkqfha fuu ksrjoH;djh ms<snZo yeZ.Su ukisgldjeoaoSug th iu;aluz oelajSuhs iEu flfkl`u l@shd lsrSfuzoS yels;dla ;ukaf.a l@shdjkaksrjoH wdl,amhlska hq;`j fufyhjSug Wkka|= jkafka Tjqka ;`< n,mj;ajk fuuksrjoH;djh ms<snZo yeZ.Suhs23 kuq;a wjdikdjlg fuka fndfyda fokd ksjeros hehs is;dlrkakd jQ fndfyda l@shdjka ksid fmd|=fjz udkj j.!hdg f.k fokafka ys;lr jsmdlfkdfjz ta Tjqkaf.a l@shdjka wd;audrA:h uZ.ska oevsj uev mj;ajkq ,nk ksidh wd;audrA:hkuz iuia;fhka mqoa.,hd fjka lr,kq ,nk jeros oDIagshhs fu;a;d ixl,amh fuu jerosoDIaGsh usksia ukfika bj;a lr oukq ,nhs fu;a;d ixl,amh uZ.ska mqoa., ika;dkh ;`<we;sjkafka fmd|=nj yd iduQyslFjh ms<snZo yeZ.Suls fuu fmd|= nj yd iduQyslFjh ms<snZoyeZ.Su jQ l,S iuia;fhka mqoa.,hd fjka lr oukq ,nkakd jQ wd;audrA:hg m@;sjsreoaO jQyeZ.Suhs24 fu;a;d ixl,amfhys mj;a;d jQ fuu iduQyslnj ms<snZo wdl,amh ydfmd|=nj ms<snZo yeZ.Su uZ.ska mqoa., l@shdfjys ksrjoH;djh we;slrkq ,nhs fuhska m@ldYjkafka wd;audrA:fhka f;dr jQ is;ska hq;`j lrkq ,nk lshkq ,nk tfukau is;kq ,nkiEu fohla ;`<u mdfya fuu ksrjoH;djh .enzj mj;sk njhs ksjeros l@shdjka ksjerosl:khka yd ksjeros pska;khka mokuz jS we;af;a fu;a;d ixl,amh nj fuz wkqj ks.ukhl< yel ksjeros nj kuz ;ukag;a wkqkag;a hym;la jQ foa muKlauh hkak f.dvkefZ.kqfha fuu kHdh wkqjh idudkH csjs;fhys oS flfkl` fydZo fyda krl hkqfjkaf.dvkZ.d .kakd idrOrAu rduqjla we; tu rduqj ;`< fydZo foa f,i ks;ru wF:!oelafjkafka ;uka yd wkHhka w;r us;@YS,S nj f.dvkxjk wdl,am yd l`i,;djrAOkhhs25 ysff;ISNdjh fyj;a ys;j;anj hk lreK flfryso fu;a;dixl,amfhys n,mEu w;suy;ah fu;a;d ixl,amfhys uqLH mrudrA:hu jkqfha il,jsOcSj m@cdj fj; ys;j;a nj me;srjSu jk fyhsks uq,skau ;uka ;ukag ys;j;anjwe;slr.; hq;`h ljodlj;au flfkl` ;ukag ;udu ys;j;a ke;akuz Tyq flosklj;awkHhka jsIfhys ys;j;anjla we;s lr.ks;shs is;sh fkdyelsh tnejska ys;j;a nj we;slr.; hq;af;a m<uqfldgu ;uka jsiska ;ud flfrysuh fojkqj ;ud ;uka flfryswe;slr.kakd ,o ys;j;aNdjh wkHhka lrdo l@udkQl~,j me;srjsh yelsjkq we;ienjskau wdfjzokhla jYfhka fuu ys;j;a nfjys we;s Wmfhda.S;djh m@udK l<fkdyelsh cSj f,dalh tfukau wcSj f,dalh wLKavj meje;au iZoyd ishZM fokdf.aul@shdldrluz ys;j;alu u; flaJ|@.; jS ;snsh hq;af;ah fuf,dj jikakd jQ il,jsO cSjm@cdj Tjqfkdjqkag ys;j;a fkdjkafka kuz cSjh meje;aug fuf,dj iq|=iq ia:dkhla fkdjkq 98
  • 7. we; fuu ys;j;anj jqjo iSud iys; jmirshla u; rZod mj;skafka kuz th kshu ys;j;anj f,i Wml,amkh l< fkdyels jkq muKla fkdj th irAj iuzmQrAK jYfhka fu;a;dixl,amfhys l@shdldrSFjh jYfhka yZ|=jkajd oSug o fkdyelsjkq we;26 tnejska ys;j;anjil, cSj m@cdfjka tla;rd fldgilg muKla iSudjk wdldrfha ys;j;a njla fkdjshhq;`h lsishuz wd.usl fyda odrAYksl pska;khla uZ.ska fu;a;d ixl,amfhys jmirsh by;oelafjk wdldrfhka b;d iSus; rduqjlg fldgqlr ;nkakg jEhuz flfrA kuz tu wd.uslfyda odrAYksl pska;kh uZ.ska ksrEmKh flfrkakd jQ fu;a;d ixl,amh tys kshuiajrEmh f,i ms<s.ekSu fuz wkqj wiSreh fuz wkqj tla;rd lKavdhulg fyda fldgilgmuKla iSud jk jsOsfha fu;a;d ixl,amhlska tys wdfjzok mCIh ksis f,i wF:!ksrEmKh fkdflfrA fu;a;d ixl,amfhys wdfjzok .`Khka jk uD|= ugis,sgs yd ieye,a,qiajNdjh tjka iSud iys; jmirshlska hq;` wF:! l:khka ;`<ska flfkl`f.a is;;`< ygfkd.kS27 wfkla w;g fu;a;d ixl,amh m;`rjkq ,nkakd jQ iSudj mqZM,a jkakg jkakgtys uD|= ugis,sgs yd ieye,a,q iajNdjh flfkl`f.a is;g jv jvd;a ;oska oefkkag mgka.kshs fuz oekSu iuZ.u ta mqoa.,hd ,nkakd jQ udkisl iekiqfuz wdfjzokSh .`Kh ;Sj@ fjzflfkl` huz lsisjla lsrSug fm<fUkakd jQ m@n,u ldrKh jkqfha tu mqoa.,hd tuldrAhh weiqrska ,nk wd;au ;Dma;sh fyj;a jskaokhhs fjk;a f,ilska olajf;d;awdfjzokSh .`Kfha ;Sj@;dj WmrSu whqrska jsZo .ekquhs28 wd;auwNsudkh ms<snZo yeZ.Suo fu;a;d ixl,amfhys l@shdldrSFjh m@lglrkakd jQ wjia:djls TzkEu mqoa.,fhl`g ;ud ms<snZoj huzlsis wd;au jsYajdihlaf.dvkeZ.S ;snsh hq;`h fuu wd;au wNsudkh hkqfjka woyia jkqfha thhs il,jsO ffcjf,dalh fj; us;`renj m;,lr yrskakgo flfkl` ;`< fuu wd;au wNsudkh fyj;a wd;aujsYajdih f.dvkeZ.S ;snSu uy;au rel`,la fjhs iuia; m@dfKaJ|@hka jsIfhysu fu;a is;m;, lrkakd jQ mqoa.,hdf.a isf;ys fulS wd;au jsYajdih uZ.ska we;s lrkqfha tlS wruqKflfrys jQ wLKav fhduq lrjSuhs iuia; ffcj f,dalhu iqrCIs; jsh hq;` njg m@n,jsYajdihla fujsg tu mqoa.,hdf.a isf;ys yg.kshs fu;a;d ixl,amh fmrgq fldgf.kwe;ssjkakd jQ fuu wd;au jsYajdih uZ.ska mqoa.,fhl`f.a is; uD|= lrAukH iajNdjhlg m;alrjkq ,nhs fujsg isf;ys wdfjzokhkays iajNdjh w;sYhskau mjs;@ jk w;r ieye,a,qofjz mjs;@ yd ieye,a,q wdfjzok iajNdjhlska hq;`j lghq;` lrkakg lrkakg wkHhkaiuZ. Tyqf.a neZoSu jevs oshqKq fjz fuu nJOkSh iajNdjh jQ l,S us;@;ajfhys nJOkhhskuq;a fuu nJOkSh iajNdjfhys we;af;a f,daNfhka is|=jkakla fuka isf;ys ;o njlawe;sjSu fkdj is; thska uqojd,Suhs th yqfola m@S;sh yd ps;af;al.@;djh wruqKqfldguwe;sjkakd jQ ieye,a,q ksoyia wdfjzokhls29 fuu ieye,a,qnj isf;ys jrAOkh jkakg jSuis; ;j ;j;a tjeksu jQ ieye,a,q wruqKq yd wdfjzok Tiafia l@shdlsrSug w;sm@n,Wmia:uzNkhla fjhs fu;a;d ixl,amfhys n,mEu ksid is; ;j ;j;a fujeksu uD|= ydieye,a,q nj Tiafia jv jvd;a ishquz njg meusfKa uq,ska ;uka ;ud ms<snZoju wd;au 99
  • 8. jsYajdifhka l@shdlrk l:dlrk yd is;k ;eke;af;a miqj ishZM ffcj m@cdj ms<snZojuwd;au jsYajdifhka lghq;` lrkakg fm<fUz jrAudkfhys f,dj we;sjk .egquz yeutllgu mdfya uq,a jS we;af;a mqoa., ps;a; ika;dkh ;`<ska fuu mqoa., wd;au jsYajdih ydwkqka flfrys we;sjk jsYajdih ;`rka jS hduhs ;ukag ;uka flfrys jsYajdihla fkdue;sjsgu wkHhka ms<snZojo jsYajdih ySkjS hhs ;uka ;ukaj iel lrk muKgu wkHhka.eko iel lsrSug fy;u fm<fUz fuz wdldrfhka ielfhka hq;`j ySk jQ mqoa.,.; ydwkH jsYajdihlska lghq;` lrkakg fm<USu ksidu fu;a;d ixl,amho mqoa., ukiskajshelS hhs wNHka;r yd ndysr .egqug uq, thhs flfkl` ;`< wjYH muKg fu;a;d ixl,amkh l@shd;aul fjz kuz tu;eke;a;d ;`< mqoa.,.; yd iudc.; jsYajdih jrAOkh fjz mqoa.,.; jsYajdihjrAOkhjSu wNHka;r ifudaOdkh we;sjSu flfrys bjy,a jk w;r iudc.; jsYajdihjrAOkhjSu iudc .egZM wju lsrSfuys,d uy;a fia Wmldr flfrA wfkla w;g iudc.;.egZM wjujSu hkq mqoa.,.; udkisl fi#LHh wdrCIdjSu f,i wF:! l:kh l< yelsh30fuh lsishuz wdldrhl tlsfkl yd noaOjqkq jD;a;hla jeksh tys tlla iuzmQrAK jSu hkqwfkl iuzmQrAK jSu iZoyd wjYH fya;` idOlhla tla jSu jeksh tl w;lg fya;` M,iuznJO;djfhys fn#oaO wF:!l:kh fuz uZ.ska ksrEmKh flfrkafka hehs wjYH kuzflfkl`g fujeks foa idOl fldg bosrsm;a l< yelsh flfia jqj;a ;drAlsl uki mdolfldg.;a jrA;udk oekquz moaO;Skag mjd f;areuz.; fkdyels wdldrhlg huz huz foais|=jkq kuz oelsh yelsh tajd jrA;udkfhys fnfyjska oshqKqj mj;sk jsoHd;aul fuj,uzyd WmlrK Ndjs;hg f.k mjd fu;a;d ixl,amfhys wdfjzok l@shdj<sh uZ.ska we;sjkOkd;aul oshqKqj ksjerosj uek ne,Sug fyda ta ms,snZoj fN#;sl idOl bosrsm;a lsrSugyelshdjla fkdue; tfia lrkakg jEhuz lsrSfuys oS mjd mek kZ.skakd jQ m@Odku .egZMjjkqfha ta iZoyd Wmfhda.S lr.kakd jQ WmlrKj, ksrjoH;djh yd ishquz nj ms<snZoju;`j we;s .egZM iy.; Ndjhhs fuz ksid m@udKhg jvd ngysr jsoHd;aul jsYaf,aIKhkaTiafiau osjejSu ksid usksia pska;kh Tyq jsiskau ksmojk ,o iSud iys; ksrjoH;djhla ydishquz njla iys; fN#;sl WmlrKhkays isr.; lsrSug;a ta Tiafia jsgska jsg jsjsOixialrKhkag ,lajk fodaI iy.; jsjrKhka fm<.eiajSug;a is|=j we; fujeks is|=jSuz woaN~; yd us:Hdjka .Kfhys ,d neyer lsrSug fukauwjsoHd;aul pska;kfhka hqla;j jyd ms<s.ekqug fndfyda fofkla leue;a; olaj;;anq|=iuh wF:! olajkafka tfukau miikafka jspdrmQrAjlj ks.ukhka j,g meusKSuhstfiau jspdr mQrAjl ks.uk j,g meusKSfuzoS jqjo fnfyjska w;sOdjkldrSj l@shd lsrSunq|=iuh ms<sfkd.kshs iEu fohlau is|=jSug tajdgu wkHkH jQ ksYaps; ld,hla ;sfnz tlSkshus; ld,hg fmrd;`j b;du yosisfha m@ia;`;hka ksis f,i msrslaiSulska f;drj jy jydysi .sks.;af;l` f,i Tz,drslj l@shdlsrSu w;sOdjkldrSjSu f,i nq|=iuh olajhs luz 100
  • 9. ue,sluska yd w,injska hq;`j ld,h ld oeuSuo fuhska woyia fkdfjz31 l`ula l,;a tyslsishuz uOHia: njla ;snsh hq;`h hkakhs uOHia: jSu hkq WodiSk jSu fkdjk nejskstfiau uOHia: jSu hkq wOsl w,i jSu yd w;sOdjkldrS nj hk fo wxYfhkau gsl gslwkq.ukh lsrSu hkako fkdjk nejsks hym;a whqrska W;aiyjka;j l@shdlsrSu uZ.skaiuchg ;ukaf.ka is|=jsh hq;` hq;`luz yd j.lSuz ksis f,i bgql< yel W;aiyhg wruqKqlr.kqfha fu;a;d ixl,amfhka hqla; wdfjzokhhs ffu;@S mQrAjl wdfjzokfhka fufyhjkq,enqjd jQ mqoa.,hd b;d jer jEhfuka l@shdfldg iudchg ys; iqj i,iajkafkl` fjz32 tfukau mqoa.,hd ;uka flaJ|@ lrf.k f.dvkZ.d f.k we;a;d jQ oevswd;audrA:lduS fpz;kdj iuia;h ;`< oshlr yerSu fu;a;d ixl,amh ksid bgq fjz fu;a;dixl,amh ;uka iy wkHhka w;r us;`re nj jrAOkh lrjkakd jQ md<uls th jvd;aoshqKq ;,hlg meusKSfuzoS ;uka flaJ|@ fldgf.k l@shdlsrSu l:dlsrSu iy is;Su iuia;ffcj m@cdj flaJ|@ fldgf.k l@shdlsrSu l:dlsrSu iy is;Su njg mrsjrA;kh fjzidrOrAu mCIfhka .;fyd;a fuh idrOrAuhkaf.a wjidk ksIagdj fjhs fyj;a fuhgjvd idrOrAuhkays W;alDIaguh wjoshla fkdue;s mru ksIagdj njg meusfKa idudkHmqoa.,hd fuu wjia:djg fkdmeusKu ish iir iersiereu wjika lrk w;rfndaOsiFjjre yd nq|=jre hk fo fldgzGdYh ;`< muKla fulS wjidk ksIagduh ;;ajhkaoel.; yelsh33 tu ksidu fujeks wjia:djla mqoa., fm#reIFjh w;ska b;du oshqKqwjia:djla hehs kuz lrkq ,efnz34 nq|=iuh uyd mqrsi f,i olajd ;sfnkqfha fulSfm#reIFjfhys mru ksIagduh ;;ajhhs mYapd;a nq|=iufhys ldhsl yd udkislfm#reIFjfhys mru ksIagdj f,i fuu wjia:dj jrAOkhg m;a lrk ,oS35 uq,anq|=iufhys nq|=r|=kau fuu uyd mqreI wF:!l:kh fldg olajd ;sfnkqfha udkisl mCIfhkapska;k oshqKqfjys WmrSu wjia:dj oelajSu msKsih36 fu;a;d ixl,amfhys n,mEu ksidufnaOsiFjjre yd nq|=jre ishZM ffcj m@cdj jsIfhysu us;`re njg meusfKa37 fuz ksidl,HdK us;@hka w;rska fydZou l,HdK us;@hka jkqfha o Wkajykafia,duh38 ishZM ffcj m@cdj w;rska kdhlFjhg jvd;au iq|=iafil` jkqfha fu;a;dixl,amh m@.`K l< ;eke;a;dh iuia; ffcj m@cdj jsIfhys is;iqj leue;sjSu fuyswe;s iq|=iqluhs msrsia n,h msrsia fufyhjSu jeks ldrAhhkays jvd;a fydZoska l@shdl< yels;eke;a;d fu;a;d ixl,amh m@.`Kl< ;eke;a;dh msrsiays ksrANh yd jsYdro njg t<USuhk ldrKdjka fu;a;d ixl,amfhys n,mEu ksid we;s jkakd jQ ufkdaNdjfhda fj;ajsYdro hkafkys wrA:h jkqfha ksmqK Ndjhhs fuu ksmqKnj ,efnkafka lsishuz jsIhfCIa;@hla ms<snZoj f.dvkZ.d .kakd ,oaod jQ oekqu yd mqyqKqjhs fuu mqyqKqj ,enSfuzoSjkafka TzkEu fCIa;@hla flfrys oekqu l`i,;d yd wdl,am f.dvkZ.d .ekSu iZoyd wjYHjkakd jQ udkisl tald.@;djh fu;a;d ixl,amh uZ.ska mqoa.,hdyg ,enSuhs wkHhka iuZ.iyfhda.h f.dvkZ.d .ekSug yelsjSu o ish oekqu yd l`i,;djh uZ.ska wkHhka fj; 101
  • 10. jsjsO ixl,amhka ikaksfjzokh lsrSu flfrys Okd;aul f,i n,mdkq ,nhs n,anhla uq,ska;ud oe,ajS miqj tys wdf,dalh msg;g m;`rejkakdla fuka oekqu wdl,am ydl`i,;djhkaf.ka msrsmqka mqoa., f;fuz m,uqfjka ish ps;a; ika;dkh bka oSma;su;alr.kshs mqrjd .kshs miqj iudcfhys fjfik wkHhka yg o oekqu wdl,am ydl`i,;djhka ,nd foa tnejska fu;a;d ixl,amh jrAOkh lr.kakd ,oaod jQ mqoa.,fhl`,ensh fkdyelald jQ ps;a; tald.@;djhla yd ta weiqfrka ,nkakd jQ oekqu l`i,;d ydwdl,am moaO;shla fkdue;s ;ruzh fu;a;d ixl,amfhys wdfjzokSh mCIh t;ruzu iqLiy.; yd ufkda f.dapr jQjls OHdk ;;ajhka fj; is; fhduq l<fyd;a tys oelafjk m@S;siqL hk wdfjzok ;;ajhka Wmojkafka fuu iqL iy.; ufkdaNdjh uZ.sks wdfjzokhkays mj;skakd jQ fuu iqL iy.;Ndjh uZ.ska iFjhdf.a jskaokfCIa;@h mqZM,a lsrSulao is|=lrkq ,nhs th jkafka fuf;la l,la Tz,drsl jskaokhkagwruqKq jS meje;s yqre jS meje;s uki thska uqojd jvd;a by< ;,fha ri jskaokhkag yqrelrjSu uZ.ska ksrdhdifhkau mqoa.,hdf.a udkisl ugzgfuz WiiaNdjhg muqKqjkq ,nhsfuz wdldrhg fkdoekqj;aju udkisl ugzgfuka Wiia ri jskaokhkag yqre jQ yd fhduq jQmqoa.,hkaf.ka idudkH tnZ|= ri jskaokhkag fhduq fkdjq rZM udkisl ugzguzj, wh w;skais|= jkakd jQ m@n, .Kfha jeros is|=jSu wvqh mqoa.,hka jeros fohg fhduq jkqfha Tjqkaf.ari jskaokfhys mj;akd fuu |=n,;djh fya;` fldgf.kh tu ksid ms<shuz fhosh hq;`jkafkao fn#oaO fya;`M, kHdhhg wkqj jrog jvd tu jro is|= jSug ;`vq=|=ka fya;`j |=relsrSu wrnhdh thu jrog lrkq ,nk ksYaps; ms<shulao fjz39 fuu |=n,;djh fya;`fldgf.k ksrka;rfhka usksid hym;a lrjSu iZoyd kS;s rS;s meKjSu wjYHjk w;r rijskaok ;,h Wiia flfkl` ksrdhdifhka jroska j<lskafkl` jk ksid tnZ|= wh md,khlsrSu iZoyd tnZ|= w;sfrAl kS;s rS;s wjYH fkdjkq we; wfkla w;g fldmuK kS;s rS;smeKjqj;a jrog fokakd jQ ovqjuz oevs l<;a Wiia ri jskaokhg fhduq fkdjkd;dlal,amqoa.,hka jrfoys neZoSu w;afkdyrskq we; thg fya;`j Tjqkag cSjs;hg ri jsZosh yelstlu udrA.h rZM Tz,drsl my;a .@duH jskaokhka lrd fhduqjSu jk nejsks ksrka;rfhkaufuu Tz,drsl my;a .@duH jskaokhka ,nkakd jQ udrA.h jegS we;af;a jeros yeisrSu ;`<skajk nejska jv jvd;a mqoa.,hka jrog fhduq jSu olakg ,efnz ksrka;rfhka jrog fhduqjQ jrfoys neZ|=kd jQ mqoa.,hka w;ska iudc iuzu; kS;s rS;s lvjkafka Tjqyq ;uka ,nkakdjQ rZM udkisl wdfjzokhkays jyf,l` jSu ksidh40 fuu ;;ajfhka uqZMukskau usZoS huzlsis mqoa.,fhl` Wiia ri jskaokhlaiys; wfhl` f,i lghq;` lsrSug fm<fUkafka kuz tnZ|= mqoa.,hka w;ska iudc iuzu; kS;srS;s wdrCId jkafka yqfola jro l<fyd;a thg ,ndfokakd jQ oZvqjfuys nrm;,lums<snZoj nshjSfuka fyda tu jro l<fyd;a ;uka urKska u;` wmdhg hkq we;ehs nsh jSfukafyda fkdj tjka jrola is|= jSu iZoyd Wmia:uzN jk rZM Tz,drsl my;a .@duH 102
  • 11. jskaokhkaf.ka f;dr wdfjzokhka ,enSu msKsi mqoa., uki ilia jSu ksidh41 rZM Tz,drslmy;a .@uH jskaokhkaf.ka f;dr wdfjzokhka ,enSu msKsi mqoa., uki ilia jkafkafu;a;d ixl,amh ukfiys jrAOkh lsrSu ;`<ska we;sjk ps;a; wdfjzokhkays ishquz jSu ydieye,a,q jSu ksidh nsh jeks wys;lr ufkdaNdjhka isf;ys yg.kq ,nkafkao is; rZMwdfjzokhkag yqrejSu ksid we;sjkakd jQ wd;;suh fma@rKhkaf.a l@shdldrSFjhfya;`fldgf.kh tfukau is; lsis|= lreKla Tiafia tl wruqK msysgqjSug wmyiq;;ajhl mej;Su ksid lsishuz fohl ksmqK njla ,nd .ekSug wmyiq fjz tu ksid thskajkafka jsYdronj fyj;a ksmqKNdjh ,nd .ekSug we;s bvlv weysrS hduhs fu;a;dixl,amh jrAOkh lsrSu fulS ;;ajhkaf.ka is; uqojd .ekSu msKsi fya;` fjz fu;a;dixl,amfhys mj;akd jQ uD|= yd lrAuKH iajNdjh is; ieye,a,q lrjk w;r l@shdfjysWps;Ndjhgo muqKqjd,hs ta ksid th ksrANhNdjhg yd jsYdro njg fydZo pska;kmiqnsula isf;ys frdamKh lrjhs tlZ.;ajh isf;ys we;s jkakg is; uD|= yd ieye,a,q wdfjzokhla jQ fu;a;dixl,amfhys wdNdih ,ensh hq;`h ks;ru is; tlZ. jkafka is; jskaokhg m;a lrjkakdjQ udkisl wdfjzokhka ieye,a,q jQ muKghs ieye,a,q is;ska uD|= yd lrAuKH jQ is;skahq;`j lrk lshk is;k oE uZ.ska is;g iqj t<jhs tfukau tnZ|= is;lg jyd tlZ.njfyj;a tl wruqKla Tiafia l@shd;aul jSug yelshdj we; fuu yelshdj f,#lsl ydf,daflda;a;r hk ishZM lghq;` j,oS uy;a fia m@fhdackj;a fjz f,#lsl ia:rhksrka;rfhka mj;afka f,daflda;a;r ia:rhg fmrd;`j nejska uq,ska f,#lsl ia:rh iqjm;anjg meusKSu hkq mYapd;a ld,Skj iqjodhs f,daflda;a;r ia:rhlg uxmdod .ekSulao jkqwe; tuksid nq|=iuh Wmfoia fokqfha ishZM cSjSkaf.a fuz fo wxYhu iqjm;a lrkqiZoydhs42 we;euz wjia:djkays fuz oajsjsO jrA.SlrKh fuf,dj mrf,dj jYfhkao oel.;yelsh fuysoS fuf,dj f,#lsl iqNisoaOsh ixfla;j;a lrK w;r mrf,dj f,daflda;a;riqNisoaOsh ixfla;j;a lrhs l`ZMKq .`Kh we;s jSug fu;a;d ixl,amfhys wdNdih ,ensh hq;`h l`ZMKq.`Kh hk wkHhka jsIfhys ohdnrs; jSuhs ohdj we;s jkafka fu;a;d ixl,amfhysn,emEfuks ;uka ;ukag ohdnr jkjd fiau wkHhkago ohdnr jSu fu;a;d ixl,amhuZ.ska is|=lrkq ,nhs43 ;ukag ;ukaf.a |=la fjzokdjka mSvdjka ksid we;sjkakd jQ luzmkhwkHhkaf.a |=la fjzokdjka ksido we;sjSu l`ZMKq .`Kh isf;ys msysgd we;s njg idOlhlstfukau tjeks |=la mSvdjkaf.ka ;uka ;ukagu msysg jk wdldrhg wkHhkao tjeks |=lamSvdjkaf.ka uqojd .kq ,nkafka l`ZMKq.`Kfha n,mEu ksidh l`ZMKqnr is; fu;a;diy.;h fu;a;d iy.; is; ishquz yd ieye,a,qh tnZ|= ieye,a,q is;g jy jyd wkHhkaf.aps;a; mSvd jgyd.; yelsjkq we; wkHkag msysg jkafka fuz jgyd .ekSu ksid ,nkwjfndaOh flaJ|@fldgf.kh44 is; l`ZMKqnr jSu l`i,hls ieye,a,q is;ska i;`g f.k fok 103
  • 12. nj nq|=ysushka olajd we;af;a fuz fya;`j ksidh mqoa.,hka i;`g ,nd .ekSu msKsifkdfhl`;a fkdl<hq;` foa mjd lsrSug bosrsm;a fj;s ukqIH is;a i;ka ieyeis foa j,gfm<fUkafka tjka foa ;`<ska i;`g ,efn;shhs Tjqka jrojd Wml,amkh lsrSu ksidh i;`gms<snZoj jrA;udk iudch orkakd jQ wdl,amho idl,Hfhkau ksrjoH fkdjknj mejishyelsh45 i;`g ndysr wruqKq ksid we;sjk nj olakg ,enqk;a ienjska i;`g Wmoskafka ishwNHka;rfhks tfiau i;`g oefkkqfha yoj;gh fuh yoj;o tfia ke;fyd;a fud<fhysridhk l@shdldrSFjhoehs fuysoS wkjYH ;drAlsl m@ia;`;hkg t<eUSu wjYH fkdjkafkafuysoS idlpzPd lrkakg hk ldrKh wdfjzok yd iDcqju iuznJO foa muKla jk nejsksfuysoS lshkakg wjYH jk ldrKh kuz wmg oefkk foa tkuz wdfjzok uD|= yd ieye,a,qjkakg jkakg isf;ys l`ZMKqnr nj jrAOkh jk njhs tfukau fu;a;d ixl,amh isf;ysjrAOkh jkakg jkakg ps;a; wdfjzokhka uD|= yd ieye,a,q njg m;ajk njhs fuhska fmfkkafka fu;a;d ixl,amfhys jrAOkh yd isf;ys l`ZMKqnrNdjh w;r wfkHdakH iDcq iuznJO;djla olakg ,efnk njhs fuu iDcq iuznJO;djhlrKfldg f.k idrOrAu mCIfhka fu;a;d ixl,amfhys wdfjzok me;slv ffcj is;ai;kays idrOrAu jrAOkfhys,d b;du;a iqjsfYaIs ldrAhNdrhla bgqlr,k nj meyeos,sjufmfkkag ;sfnz ienjska ffcj jrAOkfhys,d b;du;a jeo.;a ls@shdoduhla fu;a;didrOrAu ixl,amh uZ.ska bIag fjz ffcj l@shdldrSFjh cSj wdhq ld,h jrAOkh jSu Wm;awkqmd;slh by<hdu yd urK wkqmd;slh my< neiSu jeks lreKq iuznJOfhka fu;a;dixl,amfhys n,mEu b;du jsYd, f,i ms<snsUq fjz ks;ru wkHhka jsIfhys fu;a;dixl,am wdfjzokfhka hqla;j is; i;`gska fjfikakd jQ mqoa.,fhl`f.a wdhqld,h tfiafkdlrk mqoa.,fhl`f.a wdhqld,hg jvd jrAOkh fjz tfiau YrSfhys we;s jk jsjsOms<sld jrA." fkdfhl`;a nelagSrshd jrA. uZ.ska we;s lrkakd jQ wdidok yd fndafjkfrda.j,ska wdrCIdj ie,iSu o fu;a;d ixl,am wdfjzok jrAOkh fya;`fjka we;s jkakd jQys;lr m@;sM, fjz tfiau iajNdjsl YrSr m@;sYla;sh jrAOkh fjz iqjpnj hkafkka woyia flfrkafka ukdj yslauqKqnjhs YsCIKh hkakwOHdmk l@shdj,sfhys m@Odk ia:dkhla .kakd lreKls .`rejrhd hkq YsIHhdjyslaujkakdh hk wF:!fhka YsCIlhd f,i yeZoskafjkafka fuz woyi wkqjh wOHdmkh,ndoSu wOsYsCIKh lsrSu kuska yeZoskafjkafkao fuz woyi wkqj husks YsIHhdg wOHdmkh,ndoSfuz l@shdj,sh uZ.ska yslaujd .ekSug kuz .`rejrhd fyj;a YsCIlhd YsIHhd flfrysfu;a;d ixl,amh fmrgqfldgf.k l@shd l<hq;`nj nq|=iuh fmkajd fokq ,nhs46 wpdrAhWmdOHdh ioaOs jsydrsl kuska yeZoskafjk fn#oaO mejsos wOHdmkh ;`< .`re YsIH iuznJOhflfia meje;ajsh hq;`oehs fmkajdfok nq|=iuh tu iuznJOh msh mq;` fifkyi fukafu;a;d ixl,amh fmrgq fldg f.k meje;ajsh hq;` hehs fmkajd oS ;sfnz fuz wkqj wdpdrAhWmdOHdhka jykafia,d jsiska ;ukaf.a mejsos YsIHhdj yslaujsh hq;af;a o YsIHhd jsiska tu 104
  • 13. wjjdo yd .`re WmfoaY wkqj l@shdl< hq;` jkafkao fu;a;d ixl,amh fmrgq lr f.k njwdpdrAh WmdOHdh yd ioaOsjsydrsl j;ams<sfj;a jsia;r flfrk j;a;laLJOfhys fmkajd oS;sfnz tu l@shdms<sfj; mejsos mCIhg ksrAfoaY lr ;snqK;a mejsos iudch .sys iudchgwdorAY iudchla jYfhka l@shd;aul jkakla nejska .sys .`re YsIH iuznJOho tawdldrfhka l@shdjg keZ.Su Wps; nj fmfka fuhska woyia flfrkafka iqjpnj .sys mejsosfomCI Wfoidu ish cSjk meje;au Wfoid w;HjYH .`Kdx.hla njhs isf;ys iqjpnjwe;sjSug kuz is; uD|= ishquz yd ieye,a,q njg m;ajsh hq;`h rZM orovq is;ls;a iqjpnjlawfmaCId l< fkdyelafla tjeks is;lg ishquz yeZ.Sula jQ iqjpnj wruqKq fkdjk ksidhiqjp iajNdjh ksid is; wk;sudks fjz wk;sudk iajNdjh l@ul@ufhka jrAOkh jSwjidkfha oS ksy;udkS iajNdjhg m;afjz fuz ksid isf;ys wdfjzok l`i,;djh ishquzjkakg jkakg tlS is;g wruqKq flfrkakd jQ wruqKqo jv jvd;a ishquz njg meusfKaiqjpnj b;d ishquz ixfjzokhla nejska th o< rZM is;lg jvd fydZoska uekjska mqre|=mqyqKq lrk ,oaod jQ ieye,a,q uD|= yd lrAuKH is;g wruqKq fjz fu;a;d ixl,amfhka is; uD|= ieye,a,q yd lrAuKH njg m;a lrjhsfu;a;d ixl,amfhys jskaokuh iajNdjh idudkHfhka fjk;a idrOrAuhkg jvd jevsfhkamsysgd ;snSu wdfjzok mCIfhka fu;a;d ixl,amfhys Wmfhda.S;djh biau;` lr fmkajd,hsfu;a;d ixl,amh uZ.ska isf;ys wdfjzokhkaf.a rZM yd o< iajNdjh l@u l@ufhka wjulrjhs fu;a;d ixl,amh isf;ys jevs jevsfhka jrAOkh jkakg jkakg is; jv jvd;aiqjp njg m;afjz wkql@ufhka isf;ys ish,q laf,aYhka m@ySk jk ;rug mdfya fu;a;dixl,amh wdfjzok mCIfhka m@.`K l< yelsh fu;a;d ixl,amfhys n,mEu ;j;ame;a;lska isf;ys iqjpnj jrAOkh lsrSu iZoyd Wmldrj;a fjz tkuz ishZM ffcj m@cdjjsIfhys us;`renj we;slr.kakd ,o mqoa.,hd miqjkafka iajNdjfhkau wkH cSjSka ms<snZojys; iqj leue;af;ks ta mqoa.,hdf.a is; ;o njg m;alrjk rZM njg muqKqjk fl@daOhffjrh mgs>h jeks wys;lr ufkdaNdjuh jQ wdfjzok ;;ajhkaf.ka is; jshqla; jS we;sksid isf;ys m@Ndiajrh jrAOkh jQ ieye,a,q jQ uD|= jQ lrAuKH jQ is;lska miqjSu lrKfldgf.k b;d myiqfjka thg iudk wdl,amhka isf;ys jrAOkh jSug ksrdhdifhkaulsishuz fm<USula we;sfjz iqjpnj hk wdfjzokho uD|= ieye,a,q wdfjzokhla nejska tjeksuD|= ieye,a,q yd lrAuKH njg mrsjrA;kh jQ is;l jvd myiqfjka yd jvd blaukskatjeks wdfjzokhka me;sr hhs fyj;a uD|= ieye,a,q is;la ysus mqoa.,hd b;d blaukskaiqjpnjg m;a fjz47 wk;sudksnj hkafkka woyia jkafka WvZ.`njg fkdmeusfKkakd jQiajNdjhs isf;ys WvZ.`nj we;s jkafka ;uka wkHhkaf.ka fjkalr iqjsfYaIS mqoa.,fhlajYfhka ie,lSu ksidh ;uka wkHhkaf.ka fjkajq mqoa.,fhla nj ienE uq;a th oevs f,iisf;ys msysgqjd f.k ta Tiafia wkHhkag fjkialuz lsrSu n,j;a jrols fuz ksid ;ukaowkHhka fukau ffcj f,dalhg wh;a ;j;a tla cSjsfhla muKlah hk yeZ.Su fndfyda 105
  • 14. fofkl`g b;d blaukska wu;lj hhs b;d blaukska uq, wu;l fldg l@shd lrkafkaofndfydajsg fujeks Wojshhs is; udkqIsl nj u; rZojd l@shdlsrSfuz yelshdj is;g ,ndfokafka wk;sudks nj fyj;a udkh hgm;a lsrSu uZ.sks udkfhka is; jsisreKd jQiajNdjhlg m;ajk w;r th hgm;a lr.ekSu Wfoid l< yels fydZou yd jsOsu;aum@;sldrh jkqfha isf;ys fu;a;d ixl,amh jrAOkh lr .ekSuhs fu;a;d ixl,mfhyswdfjzok iajNdjh jkqfha is; tl wruqKl /ZojSu yd is; ieye,a,q uD|=NdjhgmeusKjSuhs fuhska jskaokh jk wdfjzok iajNdjfhys isf;ys fhduq.; jSfuz yelshdjjrAOkh lrhs tfukau fu;a;d ixl,amfhys jmirsh mqZM,a jk ksid b;d mqZM,afkdyelsZMKq is;lska hq;`j wruqKqj, ienE iajrEmh yZ|=kdf.k lghq;` lsrSfuz yelshdjwe;sfjz udkh uqZM ukskau |=rel< yels jkafka wrAy;a udrA. Z{dkfhka jk w;r idudkHjHjydrfha oS ksy;udks kdufhka yeZoskafjk fh|=u Ndjs;d l< yelshdj ienjskau we;af;audkh uqZM ukskau |=rel<djQ ry;ka jykafia,d wrnhd muKs idudkH f,dalhd ksy;udkShk jHjydrfhka yZ|=jkq ,nkakd jQ idudkH mqyq|=ka ckhd yeZoskajSu msKsi Ndjs;dl< hq;`jQ kshu jpkh udkh hgm;a l< hk wrA: we;s wk;sudkS hk jpkhhs fu;a;d ixl,amh isf;ys wdfjzokSh jYfhka jv jvd;a jrAOkh lroaoS is;;`< we;s jkakd jQ ieye,a,qnj yd wkH iFjhka flfrys yg.kakd us;`renj ms<snZo ishquzNdjuh ;;ajh lrK fldgf.k udkh yg.kajk ;o rZM njska f;drj ;uka yd wkHhkaw;r mj;skakd jQ iSudj nsZo oud ;ud yd wkHhka talFjfhka ie,lsh yelsfjz fuutalShNdjh ;`<ska iEu fohlu we;s ksiaidrnj yd jskdYhg meusfKk iajNdjh i<ld;uka wkHhkaf.ka fjkalr oelSug fya;`jk udkh |=re lsrSfuys ,d W;aiyj;a fjz48 fuysuq,au wjia:dj udkh ;djld,slj hgm;a fldg lghq;` lsrSug fm<USuhs tfia;djld,slj udkh hgm;a fldg lghq;` lrkakg yqre mqre|= jQ ;eke;a;dg miqld,Skjudkfhka uqZMukskau |=rej lghq;` lrkakg yelshdj we;s lr.; yels fjz fn#oaOb.ekajSuz wkqj udkh hk ixfhdack OrAufhys n,j;alu flf;la oehs lsjfyd;a wkd.duS;eke;a;dg mjd tla;rd |=rlg udkh n,mj;ajk nj iZoyka jSu uZ.ska fmfka udkh we;sjSug m@Odku fya;`j ;ud yd wkHhka hkqfjka il,jsO ffcj m@cdj fofldgilg fnodie,lSuhs fuu fnoSu iuZ.u ;uka wkHkag jvd Wiiah iudkh fyda my;ah hkdoSfkdfhl`;a wdldrfhka udkh yg.kshs uq,a mshjfrysoS fuz ;;ajh |=re jkafka fu;a;dixl,amh m@.`K lsrSu uZ.ska ;ud;a yd wkHhka hkqfjka il,jsO ffcj m@cdjfofldgilg fnod ie<lSu keje;ajSu ;`<sks fyj;a ;uka yd wkHhka w;r talFjh we;sjkafka us;`renj we;slsrSu uZ.ska nj ta mqoa.,hd wjfndaOh lr .kshs fuz wkqj fu;a;dixl,amh isf;ys jrAOkh jSu wk;sudks nj we;slsrSfuys,d ufydamldrS fjz iqrCIs;;djh hkq wdrCId iys; hkakhs fyj;a /ljrKh ,enSuhs/ljrKh ,enSu is|=jSug wkH cSjSkaf.ka ;u meje;aug ;rAckhla t,a, fkdjsh hq;`h;ukaf.a meje;aug ;rAckhla mj;skakd jQ jljdkqjl iqrCIs;djh ;snsh fkdyelsh ;uka 106
  • 15. wkHhkaf.a osjs meje;aug ;rAckhla fkdjk wdldrfhka l@shdlrkq ,nkafka ;ud ;udf.aosjs meje;au fukau jgskdlulska hq;`j wkHhkaf.a cSj;ajSfuz ksoyi yd ksoyfial@shdlsrSfuz ksoyi iqrlsk jsgh fuz iZoyd ;udf.a cSjs;h yd iudk jgskdlulska hq;`jwkHhkaf.a cSjs;ho ie,lSug yelshdj ,efnk udkisl jd;djrKhla f.dvkZ.d .;hq;`h49 tjka udkisl jd;djrKhla ksrdhdifhka f.dv fkdkefZ.a tnejska tjka udkisljd;djrKhla ;ud ;`< we;slr .ekSu msKsi fu;a;d ixl,amfhys wdNdih ,ensh hq;`hfu;a;d ixl,amh ;ud ;`< jrAOkh lr.ekSu ksid ;uka ;ukaf.a cSjs;h fukau wdhqld,h jrAOkh lr.ekSu iZoyd wjYH fN#;sl yd wdOHd;ausl mrsirhla we;s lr.kshstfukau wkHhka iuZ. us;`re wdl,amhka jrAOkh lr.ekSu fya;`fjkao ;udf.a is; msrsis|=jSu fya;`fjka ;ukaf.a YrSr fi#LHh jrAOkh lr.ekSug yelshdj ,efnz tfukaufN#;sl jYfhka wkHhkaf.a cSjs;h fukau wdhq ld,h jrAOkh jSu iZoyd iq|=iq fN#;slyd wdOH;ausl mrsirhlao fu;a;d ixl,amh isf;ys jrAOkh lr.ekSu fya;`fjka l@shdfjkal:kfhka yd pska;kfhka ;uka jsiskau iafjpzPdfjka ilialr fokq ,nhs usksidg w;ajsZoSug ,efnkakd jQ fiiq wdfjzokhka w;rska us;@YS,SNdjhfndfyda fldgu usksia is;g i;`g okjkakd jQ wdfjzokhls ffcj jrA.hd w;r wdfjzKsliyc ,CIKhla fia ie,flk iduQysl cSjkh mj;ajd .kq iZoyd ffcj jsoHd;aulj Wreulr.;a Tjqka tlsfkld fj; we,quzlrk iajNdjh usksid fu;a;d ixl,amh fj; fu;ruzwdYla; jSug fya;`j f,i ie,lsh yelsh ta fya;`j ksidu fndfydajsg ksrdhdifhkaumdfya usksid ;`< us;@YS,S wdfjzokhka yg.kshs us;@YS,sFjfhys ,CIKh jkafka usksiqkaw;r iduQyslFjh f.dvkexjSuhs tfukau wdfjzokhla jYfhka tu yeZ.Su is;g f.ktkafka fnfyjska iqjodhs iajNdjhls tmuKla o fkdj usksiqka w;r iqrCIs; iudcmrsirhla ksrAudKh lr oSu flfrys o fuu wdfjzokh odhlFjh imhkq ,nhs nq|=iuh;`< fu;a;d ixl,amh js.@yhg ,la jSug tlu fya;`j fjk;a ndysr iuh jdohka ;`<fu;a;d ixl,amhg iudk fjk;a ixl,am jsoHudk jSu fyda tlS iuh jdohkays fu;a;dixl,amfhka bosrsm;a flfrk wdfjzok iajNdjh Bg jvd wvqfjka jsjsO iSudjka iys;jidlpzPdjg ,lajSu fkdfjz nq|=iuh ish iuh ixl,amhka f.dvkZ.kqfha fjk;a lsis|= iuhixl,amhlg tfrysj fkdjSu;a" fuz fya;`j ksid nq|=iufhys ;rZ.ldrS iajNdjhla olakgfkdjSu;a" wjsysxidj b;du m@n, wdldrfhka ish m@Odk flaJ|@.; b.ekajSula f,inq|=iufhka bosrsm;a lrkq ,enSu;a" nq|=iuh ;`< fu;a;d ixl,amfhys Ndjs;djg m@Odkufya;`ka fjz usksid we;`ZM iuia; cSjS iajNdjfhys wdfjzKsl lreKla jkqfha yqfolacSjSka ;`< mek kZ.skq ,nk udkisl wdfjzok flfrys tu cSjSka b;du oevs ixfjzoSiajNdjhla yd wkqjrA;kSh iajNdjhla oelajSuhs cSjSkaf.a iuia; foayh ksrAudKh jS;sfnkqfhau fujeks udkisl wdfjzokhka j,g m@;spdr oelajSu iZoyduh usksiqkaiajNdjfhka ixl,amj,g jvd jevsfhka ps;a;dfjz.j,g m@;spdr olaj;s tu ps;a;fjz.S 107
  • 16. yeZ.Suz m@Odk jYfhka ys;lr yd wys;lr hkqfjka fohdldr fjz fulS fohdldr wdfjzokrgdjka w;`frka jvd;a usksia is; weZoS hkafka ys;lr wdfjzok rgdj fj;h wys;lrwdfjzokhka usksid fj; Tyqf.a is; ;`< f.dkq jS mej;s wZ|=re rZM wdl,amuh iajNdjhkauZ.ska we;s lrjkjd usi lsisu mqoa.,fhl` ish leue;af;ka wys;lr wdfjzokhka ish is;ayscks; lr tuZ.ska udkisl fjzokdjka jsZoSug rsisfha jS fkdfjz mqoa.,hka iajNdjfhkau rsisjkqfha ys;lr udkisl wdfjzokhka f.dvkZ.df.k thska udkisl usysrla w;ajsZoSugh50tjka udkisl jd;djrKhla ;`< oS mqoa.,fhl` jvd;a reps lrkqfha ;ukaf.a mqoa.,slw;aoelSula fjk;a fndfyda fokd iuZ. fnodyodf.k N`la;s jSZoSugh fuu fnod yod.ekSukshudldrfhka is|=jSug kuz mqoa.,hka ;`< wka wh iuZ. iuZ.shla yd iduQyslFjhlaf.dvkeZ.S ;snsh hq;`h mqoa.,dka;r jYfhka iuZ.sh yd iduQyslFjh f.dvkefZ.kqfhaus;@YS,S wdl,amhlska iuia; iudchu tlai;aj lghq;` lrkafka kuz iuKs tu mrudorAYS;,hg <Z.djSu msKsi nq|=iufhka bosrsm;a flfrk fu;a;d ixl,amfhka jsYd, msgsjy,laimhhs51 mqoa.,hka cSj;a jkqfha ;j;a mqoa.,hka rdYshla iuZ. jsjsO wka;rAl@shdlruska iudch kuska yeZoskafjk ixjsOdkd;aul jH=yhla ;`<h tjka iudc mrsirhla ;`<flfkl`yg ;j;a mqoa.,fhl` iuZ. iyfhda.fhka yd iduQyslFjfhka lghq;` lrkakgis|=jSu fm#oa.,sl ixisoaOshla fkdj iudc ixisoaOshla njg m;a flfrA iudch ;`< jsjsO.;s.`K" reps wrepsluz we;s mqoa.,hka we;s nj wms jgydf.k isgsuq we;euz mqoa.,hkafm#reIh jYfhkau wka;rAjrA;S mqoa.,hka jk w;r ;j;a iuyre fm#reIh jYfhkaunysrdjrA;S mqoa.,hkah iyfhda.h yd iduQyslFjh fm#oa.,sl ixisoaOshla fkdj iudcixisoaOshla njg mrsjrA;kh jk fmd|= iudc ixia:djl oS wka;rAjrA;S fmdreIhla ysusmqoa.,hkayg fiau ndysrdjrA;S fm#reIhla ysus mqoa.,hkayg o wkHhka iuZ. tluq;`jlghq;` lsrSfuz wjYH;djh we;s fjz fuu tluq;` nj we;s jkqfha fu;a;d ixl,amhm@udKj;a ;ruska jrAOkh jS mej;`kfyd;a muKh52 mqoa.,hka tfiau iajNdjfhkauwdfjzokYS,Sh yeZ.Suzj,g wkql~,j l@shdlrkakd jQ iajNdjh mj;S TzkEu iudc moaO;shla;`< m@;sudk fyda jHjia:dms; kS;s moaO;shla mKjd ;sfnkqfha usksidf.a fuu iajNdjh,CIKh jQ wdfjzokYS,S iajNdjh fya;` fldgf.k iudcfhys jikakd jQ wfkla fndfydaidudcslhkaf.a idudcsl whs;sjdisluz lvlsrSug ,la jsh yels wdldrfha huz huz jroj,aTjqka w;ska is|=jSug jvd;a by< iuzNdjs;djla mj;sk fyhsks us;@YS,S wdl,amhla mj;akdiudc jgmsgdjla ;`< oS usksiqka wfkla mqoa.,hd o ;ud yd iudk fldg i,ld is;kakgyd l@shd lrkakg mqre|= mqyqKq jk nejska ;uka wlue;s hula wkHhka jsIfhys o l@shd;aullsrSu kqiq|=iq nj ;ukaj Wmudjg f.k i,ld .ks;s kS;S rS;s yd oKavk l@u uZ.ska usksiawdfjzokhka md,kh lrkq ,nkafka fu;a;d ixl,amhg iuzmQrAKfhka m@;sjsreoaOwdfjzokhla jQ fodaI uQ,fhka yg.kq ,nk wys;lr wdfjzokhla jQ nsh tlS oKavkhkaksid yg.kq ,nk nejsks ta ksid hf:dala; oKavk l@u l@shd;aul jk yd tu l@shdldrSFjh 108
  • 17. ;ud wh;a huz huz idudcSh jrm@ido lrk fldg f.k wNsnjd hd fkdyels miq;,hl oSmuKla oKavkh Wmfhda.S fldg f.k huzlsis idudcslfhl` w;ska uqZM uy;a iudcfhafjfik wfkla idudcslhkayg is|= jkakd jQ idudcsl whs;sjdisluz lvlsrSuz je<lajSug bvm@ia;djkdj we;;a" th j,x.` jkqfha b;du;a iSus; jmirshlg muKla nejska tlSl@shdj<sh flgsld,Sk jYfhka huzlsis idrA:hFjhla fmkakquz lr;;a" os.`ld,SkjirAjiuzmQrAK jYfhkau ksrjoH jsiZ|=ula jYfhka ms<s.ekSug wiSreh fuh os.`l,SkjYfhka idrA:l jsiZ|=ula fkdjkafka tys moku fu;a;d ixl,amhg mrsndysr BgiuzmQrAKfhka m@;sjsreoaO wdfjzokhla u; mdolj fuh iliaj we;s ksidh53 fuz fya;`j ksidu os.` ld,Skj idrA:l ms<shula jYfhka iuh ixia:djkaysfuz iZoyd bosrsm;a lrkqfha usksia wdfjzokhka usksia iudcfhys hymeje;aug ys;lr jkwhqrska yd fu;a;d ixl,amh weiqrska ixialrK l@shdj<shlg ,la lsrSu;a" tu l@shdj<shfya;`fldg f.k usksid ;`< yg .kakd jQ ishZMu wys;lr wdfjzokhka j,ska usksia ukiuqla; lrjd tla tla wd.fuys W.ekafjk mru ksIagdj kuska jQ tlS wd.ugu wkHkH jQtla;rd mrudorAYS ;,hla lrd udkisl Yla;sh fufyjSu msKsi idrA:l wd.uslWmfoaYkhka iemhSu;a hk jsiZ|=uzh fu;a;d ixl,amh jsjsO kuzj,ska jsjsO iajrEmfhkajsYaf,aIKhjk fiiq iuhhka w;r ;nd ;`<kd;aulj i,ld ne,Sfuz oS fuz ;;ajhnq|=iufhys mjd jsoHudk jk uq;a" nq|=iufhys js.@yjk wdldrhg wdfjzok ixialrKl@shdj<sfhys .enzjk jsoHd;aul pska;k rgdj yd nqoaOsf.dapr iajNdjh fjk;a iuhkayswjsoHudk jQjls fuz fya;`j ksid nq|=iufhys iZoykajk wdfjzokh ixialrK l@shdj<shuZ.ska jspdr mQrAjl whqrska yd jsoHd;aul whqrska jsjsO ixl,amhkays wdfjzokh me;slvjs.@yhg ,la lrkq ,nk w;r fuz uZ.ska ;ukagu ;ukaf.a wdfjzokhkays h:d iajNdjhms<snZoj ksjeros ;lafiarejlg meusKsug wod< mqoa.,hdygu wjia:djla ,efnk w;rtuZ.ska ;u;a ms<snZoj ,nd.kakd iajhx wjfndaOh lrKfldgf.k ;uka ;`< l@shd;auljkakd jQ tlS wys;lr wdfjzokj,ska uqZMukskau usoS lghq;` lsrSfuz yelshdj tu mqoa.,hdgks;e;skau ,efnz54 fujeks wys;lr udkisl wdfjzokj,ska uqZMukskau jsksrAuqla; jQmqoa.,fhl`f.a is; ksrdhdifhkau mdfya iudcfhys fjfik wfkl`;a cSjSka flfrys ffu;@SmQrAjl wdl,amj,ska msrS mj;S uqZM uy;a f,dj ;`< fjfikakd jQ f,dl` l`vd il,jsO cSjSiuQyhhd o ;uka jeks ;ukaf.a cSjs;h mj;ajd f.k hEfuz wdYdj yd jvd;a fydZoskacSjs;h mj;ajdf.k hEfuz wdYdfjka hqla; nj kqjKska wjfndaO lr.kakd fy;u ishZMcSjSka flfrys ohd mrjY ;eke;af;la fjz iudcfhys fjfikakd jQ ishZM cSjSka N`la;sjsZoskakd jQ idudcsl whs;sjdisluz iqrCIs; lsrSug;a" tajd ksoyfia N`la;s jsZoSug Tjqkag we;swhs;sh ms<s.ekSug;a fy;u W;aiql fjz jrA;udkfhys udkj ysusluz yd udkjwhs;sjdisluz ms<snZoj jsYaj m@ldYkfhys iZoyka jk ishZMu lreKq;a wu;r jYfhka iFj 109
  • 18. ysxikh msgqoelSu msKsi mKjd we;s kS;s rS;s yd iuzuq;Skaj, js.@yjk ishZM lreKq;a Bgwu;rj f,dj u;`jg we;sjsh yels tnZ|= huzlsis wysxidjdoS ms<sfj;l .enzjsh yelald jQ;a"ishZM lrekq;a iudc moaO;sh ;`< fjfikakd jQ il,jsO cSjS iuQyhhd N`la;s jsZoskakd jQidudcsl whs;sjdisluz wfkl`;a idudcslhkayg ysreyerhla fkdjkdldrfhka Tjqka leue;smrsos ksoyfia N`la;s jsZoSug Tjqkag we;s ysuslu fuz uZ.ska jsYo flfrA by; fmkajd fok ,omrsos ffcj ys;jdoS whqrska mqoa., uki ilia lsrSfuz ixialrK l@shdj<sh nq|=iuh ;`<bosrsm;a flfrk fu;a;d ixl,amfhys wdfjzok me;slv ;`< .enz fjz nq|=iuh ;`< ixl,amhla cSjS ukig .e,fmk wdldrfhka idrA:l f,iwka;rA.@yKh lrjkafka flfiao hk lreK jsfYaIfhkau ixl,am ikaksfjzolfhl` ;`<;snsh hq;` ,CIK olajk wjia:dj, oS b;du;a ijsia;r f,i fmkajd oS ;sfnz tnZ|= ;ekaj,oS ixl,am ikaksfjzokh lrjkakd jQ mqoa.,hd wkHhka jsIfhys ffu;@S .`Kh fmrgqfldgf.ku Wla; l@shdj<sh wdruzN l< hq;` nj yd tlS l@shdj<sfhys fhosh hq;` njwjOdrKh lr ;sfnz fuhska fmkS hkafka wOHhk yd wOHdmk l@shdj<sfhys uQ,sl wjia:djfu;a;d ixl,amh fmrgqj .ukal< hq;` njhs wOHhkh yd wOHdmkh hkafkka woyiajkqfhao ixl,am iajwNs,dIfhka .@yKh lr.ekSu yd tfia .@yKh lrjSu jk nejskaYsIHd .`rejrhd jsIfhys o .`rejrhd YsIHhd jsIfhys o fu;a;d ixl,amh fmrgqjmej;sh hq;` nj iZoykajSu ;`< ixl,am ikaksfjzok l@shdj<shg wjYHjk udkisl miq;,hus;@YS,S iajNdjhlska mej;sh hq;` nj fmkajd oS ;sfnz ixl,am ikaksfjzok l@shdj<shys osjvd;a jeo.;a ;ekla .kq ,nkafka wdfjzok me;slvhs Bg fya;`j ikaksfjzok l@shdj<shm@fndaOu;a whqrska is|=jSu wdod< ixl,amh ksis whqrska .@yKh lr.ekSfuzys,dm@;scdkkd;aul Wmia:uzNkhla jYfhka mqoa., uki ;`< l@shd;aul jk nejsks fuys oSm@;scdkd;aul Wmia:uzNlhla jYfhka l@shd;aul jkafka fu;a;d ixl,amfhys .enzjkwdfjzok me;slv nj meyeos,s fjz fu;a;d ixl,amfhys wdfjzok me;slfvys jsoHudk jkieye,a,q iajNdjh" uD|=nj" msrsis|=lu" fkdyelsZMKq iajNdjh jeks wNHka;r .`Khka;`<ska thg m@fndaOu;a iajNdjhla tla flfrA fu;a;d ixl,amfhys wdfjzok me;slv ;`< .enzjk uD|=nj" ieye,a,qiajNdjh" msrsis|=lu yd fkdyelsZMKq iajNdjh jeks wNHka;r .`Khka ksid tlamqoa.,fhl` flfrys jsoHudks; fuu ,CIK flfrys wkH mqoa.,hkaf.a wdlrAIKh we;sflfrA us;@YS,S Ndjfhys wdruzNh t;ekhs mqoa.,fhl` wkH mqoa.,hka flfryswdlrAIKhjSu;a" wkH mqoa.,hka tlS mqoa.,hd flfrys wdlrAIKhjSu;a fufyhjkq ,nkmd,l WmlrKh jkqfha fuu fu;a;d ixl,amfhys wdfjzok me;slv ;`< jsoHudks;wNHka;r .`Khka fjz wdfjzokh hkq iFjhdf.a uqZM uy;a iakdhq moaO;shu luzmkhlrjSug iu;a jkakd jQ m@n, yeZ.Suzh wdfjzokh huzlsis wd;;shla jkqfha wdfjzokhwys;lr ,CIKhkaf.ka iukajs; jQ jsgh fuhg jsreoaO f,i wdfjzokh ys;lr,CIKhkaf.ka iukajs; jQ l, th iakdhq moaO;sfhys ishZMu wd;;Ska iukh msKsi 110
  • 19. Wmldrj;a fjk T#IOhla js,iska l@shd;aul fjz tlu foh tla;rd wjia:djl oS jsiiys; jSug;a" wfkla wjia:dfjys .`K iys; jSug;a n,mdk ,oafoa wdfjzok me;slfvysjsoHudks; uD|= yd rZM iajNdjfhys fjkia njhs fuhska meyeos,s jkqfha huzlsis wdfjzokme;slvl jsoHudks; rZM iajNdjh uZ.ska wd;;Ska ckkh lsrSfuz YlH;djh;a" tfukauwdfjzok me;slvl jsoHudks; jk uD|= iajNdjh uZ.ska wd;;Ska iukh lsrSfuz YlH;djh;awka;rA.; nj meyeos,sj fmfka55 udkisl wdfjzokhka uD|= yd rZM jSug n,mdk m@Odku fya;`j jkafkawkHhka jsIfhys yd wkHhka wruqKq fldg we;s lr.kakd udkisl wdl,amj, uD|= yd rZMiajNdjhhs ;uka fjku mqoa.,fhla fldg wkH cSjSkaf.ka fjka lr.kakd iajNdjh ksid;uka wkH cSjSkaf.ka iqjsfYaIS jQ mqoa.,fhla f,iska wkH cSjSka ;`< fkdue;s ;ukagumuKla iSud jQ wkH;djhla f.dvkZ.d .ekSug huzlsis mqoa.,fhla fm<fTz fuuwkHkH;djh yqfola wkHkH;djhlau muKla fkdj wkHkHNdjfhys iSudj blaujd .shdjQ wd;audrA:lduS yeZ.Sula njg mrsjrA;kh jSu ksid tu wd;audrA:lduS yeZ.Su ;j |=rg;afmdaIKh jk mrsos ;uka iy wkH mqoa.,hka w;r mr;rh ;j ;j;a jsYd, lr.kq ,nhstuZ.ska ;uka ms,snZo wd;audrA:lduSFjh fyj;a uu;ajh ;yjqre lr.kq ,nhs mD:laiajNdjh jkqfhao fuu wd;audrA:lduS njhs tjsg mD:.ack hkq fuu wd;audrA:lduSfpz;kdj To jevqKq mqoa., fldgzGdYh f,i wrA: oelajsh yelsh huzlsis cSjs fldgzGdYhla ;`< iuZ.sh iyfhda.h fkdue;s jSug fya;`j tlSmqoa.,hka tlsfkld w;r mj;sk To jevqKq wd;audrA:lduS fpz;kdfjys m@n,Fjhhshuzlsis fyhlska fulS wd;audrA:lduS fpz;kdj wvq jkafka kuz tjsg iuia; cSj iajNdjhms<snZoj jvd mqZM,a oelaulska hq;`j n,kakg yd tfia ;uka jsiska f.dvkZ.d .kakd ,oorAYkh Tiafia lghq;` lr bka udyeZ.s m@;sM, ,nd .ekSug yelshdj ,efnz fn#oaOhskajsiska tla;rd |=rlg fpz;kdj jYfhka i,lkqfha o wdfjzok me;slv ;`<ska ixfjzokhka/ialr .ekSu nj fmkajd osh yelsh wNsOrAufhys jsia;r lrfok wdldrhg huzlsisps;a;jS:shl wjidkfhys olakg ,efnk ;odruzuK fol jYfhka fndfyda |=rgyeZoskafjkafka tu ps;a; jS:sfhys uq,ska olajk ,o cjka ps;a;CIK fm<g wruqKq jYfhka,nd .kakd ,o wruqK f.k we;s jkakd jH;sfrAl ps;a; fjz.hla jYfhks cjkaps;a;CIK jYfhka ,nd .kakd ,o wruqfKys m@n,Fjh fl;ruzo h;a tu cjkaps;a;CIK fm< wjidkfhys mjd tu wruqfKys ;Sj@;dj ;odruzuK jYfhka we;sjk njfuys oS fmkajd oS ;sfnz by; oS wdfjzok me;slv hkafkka lsishuz wdfjz.YS,S iajNdjhlafyda yeZ.Sula fyda fpz;kdjla bka weZ.fjk nj fmkajd fokq ,enQfha o fuz ksiduh fuys oS jrojd fkdjgyd.; hq;a;la we; tkuz iEu ;odruzuKhlaulsishuz is;a l,Tjk iqZM" wys;lr mCIfhys wdfjzok muKlau fkdfjz hkakhs wdfjzokiajNdjfhkau fjz.j;a is;sjs,s ldKavhla jQfha jS kuq;a tu fjz.j;a is;sjs,s iEu tllau 111
  • 20. wys;lr wruqKq flaJ|@fldg nsys jQ krl tajd fkdfjz iuZ.sh" iduQyslFjh" us;@YS,SiajNdjh yd iyfhda.h hk wdfjzok .;fyd;a tajd wdfjzok jqj;a lsisfia;au is; fkduZ.hjk iqZM tajd fkdfjz is;g ieye,a,q nj i;`g yd us;@Fjh ,Z.d lrjk wdldrfha msrsis|=is;sjs,sh l@udkQl~,j is; mjs;@ lrk yd is; ksjd,k iajNdjhla thg we; fuhska meyeos,s jkqfha wOHdmkh ,ndoSfuz l@shdj<sfhys oS tu wOHdmk ydwOHhk l@shdj<sh jvd;a idrA:l njg m;a lr .ekSu msKsi lsishuz ixl,amhl wdfjzokme;slv M,odhl f,i Ndjs;hg .; yels njhs56 fuz wkqj fu;a;d ixl,amhikaksfjzokh lsrSfuzoS th jvd;a mqoa., uki ;`<g ldjosk whqrska bosrsm;a l< yelaflawdfjzok me;slv Tiafia lreKq bosrsm;a lsrSu uZ.ska nj fuz wkqj meyeos,s fjz wdfjzokme;slv fu;ruz wOHdmk yd wOHhk l@shdj<sfhys ,d jeo.;a ia:dkhla ysus lrf.kisgskqfha ukaoehs f;areuz .ekSug myiqu l@uh jkafka tu l@shdj<sfhka wfmaCIs; ksIa:djidOkh lsrSfuys,d jvd;a m@;sM,odhl wdldrfhka Ndjs;d lrkqfha l`uk l@ufjzohoehsYsCIlhska jsiska ie,ls,a,g .kq ,nk nj jgyd.ekSuhs YsCIlhska jsiska jvd;a ie,ls,a,olajkqfha jsjsO ugzguzj, miqjk YsIH msrsilf.ka tla jrl oS is|= lrkq ,nk wOHhk ydwOHdmk l@shdj<shl oS Tjqka w;rska jvd;a jevs msrsilg idrA:l f,i ixl,am b.ekajSuis|= lrkafka l`uk l@uhlskao hk ldrKhhs Tzkeu YsIH msrsila w;rska by< fmf<anqoaOsuh l`Y,;d j,ska iukajs; jkqfha b;du;a iSus; YsIH msrsila jk w;r nyq;rhlafokd idudkH nqoaOs ugzgulskao ;j msrsila nqoaOs ugzgu w;ska fiiq YsIHhkag jvd wvql`Y,;d fmkakquz lrk w;r Tjqka ish,q fokd jsIfhys tlu ixl,amhla yeufokdguwjfndaOjk f,i bosrsm;a lsrSfuz wjYH;djh we;s jQ l, jvd;a nqoaOs f.dapr l@uh jkqfhafiiq YsIHhkag jvd wvq l`Y,;d iys; YsIHhkag o myiqfjka f;areuz.; yels jk mrsosTjqkaf.a ugzgfuka b.ekajSfuz l@shdj<sh is|= lsrSuh fuz iZoyd b.ekajSugn,dfmdfrd;a;`jk jk ixl,amh ikaksfjzokh lrkafka |=rAj, YsIHdg;a th jvd;amyiqfjka .@yKh lr.ekSug yelshdj we;sjk wdldrhgh fuz wkqj lsishuz ixl,amhlaixcdkk me;slv Tiafia ikaksfjzoh l< fyd;a th fydZoska jgyd.kq ,nkafka b;du;aiSus; YsIH msrsila jk w;r wdfjzok me;slv Tiafia tu ikaksfjzok l@shdj<shuf.k.shfyd;a jvd;a jevs YsIH msrsila th fydZoska .@yKh lr.ekSug iu;a fjz fuzwdldrhg bf.kquz b.ekajSuz l@shdj<sfhys oS Ndjs;d lrkqfha tu ia:dkhg yd tu YsIHmsrsig jvd;a Wps; b.ekajSfuz l@fudamdhh fjz tfukau wdfjzok me;slv Tiafia lsishuz ixl,amhla ms<snZoj ,ndfokq,nk jegySu l`vd <uqka w;r muKla fkdj jevsysgs mqoa.,hska w;r mjd nqoaOs ugzgfukajsjsO;d olakg we;s jsjsO mqoa.,hkayg ukdj .e,fmk jsOsl@uhls57 fu;a;d ixl,amhms<snZo ie,ls,a, fhduq lrkq ,enqjfyd;a tys .enzjk wdfjzok me;slfvys fCIa;@M,h fiiqixcdkk yd prAhd me;slvj, fCIa;@M,hg jvd by< w.hl mj;shs tfukau fuz fya;`j 112
  • 21. ksid fu;a;d ixl,amfhys oekSfuz yd ixfjzoS iajNdjh wOslh fuu oekSfuz yd ixfjzoSiajNdjh uZ.ska oekquz ugzgu t;ruz fkdue;s mqoa.,fhl`yg mjd thska b;d jsYd,Okd;aul n,meula t,a, lrkq ,nhs fuu n,mEu Tyqf.a hym;a yeisrSu fyj;aOkd;aul ufkdapd<l yelshdjka muKla fkdj wNHka;r ps;a; ifudaOdkh" ;Sj@mrsl,amk Yla;sh" ksrAudKYS,SFjh" oelSu fyj;a oY!k lD;Hh yd jspdr mQj!l wdl,amhk udkj l`Y,;djhka jrAOkh lrkq ,nhs wOHdmk yd wOHhk l@shdj<sfhkan,dfmdfrd;a;` jkakd jQ wjidk we.hSu jkafka o mqoa.,fhl` ;`< fujka foa jO!kh lrjSujk w;r wOHdmk yd wOHhk l@shdj<sh fu;a;d ixl,amh mdol fldgf.k l@shd;aullrkafka kuz tys wjidk ksIagdj f,i YsIHhka ;`< fuu .`Kdx. myiqfjka frdamKh l<yels jkafkah58 wOHdmk uQ,OrAu w;r o wdfjzok me;slv uZ.ska huz huz prAhduh,CIKhka ixialrKh lsrSfuz yelshdj we;s nj fmkajd oS ;sfnz jsfYaIfhkau ixcdkkme;slvg jvd is;g oefkk iajNdjh wdfjzok me;slfvys wka;rA.; jk nejska lsishuzixl,amhla jvd fydZoska b.ekajSfuz oS wdfjzok me;slv Tiafia tu wOHdmk l@shdj<shfufyhjSu jvd;a idrA:l m@;sM, Wod lrkakd jQ l@uhla f,i wOHdmk jsoHdZ{hska w;rms<s.ekSug md;@j we; l`vd orejka ms<snZoj .;fyd;a idudkHfhka m@d:usl jirj, l`vdorejkayg lsishuz ixl,amhla ms<snZoj wjfndaOhla ,nd oSug ixcdkk me;slv TiafiamrsY@uhla oerSug jvd wdfjzok me;slv Tiafia ta wjfndaOh ,nd oSug mrsY@uhla oerSuM,odhl nejz mejish yelsh jevsysgshkag idfmaCIlj l`vd orejkaf.a fud<fhys jrAOkhwju ugzgul mej;Su ixcdkk me;slvg jvd wdfjzok me;slv jvd;a m@;sM,odhl jSuflfrys n,mdkq ,nk idOlh fjz tfukau l`vd orejkag ixl,am wjfndaO lrjSfuz oSTjqkaf.a ufkdaNdjhg .e,fmk ixl,am f;dard .ekSug is|= fjz us;@YS,S nj jeksixl,amhla jvd;a myiqfjka l`vd orefjl`f.a wjOdkhg md;@ fjz us;@YS,S nj is; msrsis|=lrk is; ieye,a,qjg m;a lrjk ishquz udkqIsl wdfjzokhla nejska l`vd orejka jvd;afydZoska th .@yKh lr.kshs us;@YS,S nj hk ixl,amfhys fiiq me;slv w;rska wdfjzokme;slv jvd;a fydZoska l`vd orejka jsiska wjfndaO lr.ekSu fiiq ixl,amj,g jvd tuixl,amh l`vd orejka w;r m@p,s; jSug fya;`jhs l`vd orejka hkq jevsysgshka olajdfud<fhys jrAOkh is|= jkakd jQ mqoa.,hka ksid l`vd orejkag mjd jvd;a fydZoska fu;a;dixl,amfhys wdfjzok me;slv .@yKh lr .ekSug yels kuz fu;a;d ixl,amfhys wdfjzokme;slv TzkEu ;rd;srul mqoa.,fhl` jsiska myiqfjka bf.ksh yels yd myiqfjkawjfndaO lr osh yels nj ukdj meyeos,s fjz59 ;j;a f,ilska .;fyd;a fu;a;d ixl,amfhys wdfjzok me;slv jvd;am@n, jkqfha fu;a;d ixl,amfhysu .enz jkakd jQ ixl,amShuh w.h jvd;a NdjuhwxYhg jevs keUqrejla oelajSu ksid nj fmfkkakg ;sfnz fu;a;d ixl,amfhys ixcdkk"prAhd hk me;slv folg jvd wdfjzok me;slv m@n, jkqfha tys fuu ixl,amfhysidrOrAu w.h jvd;a Ndjuh wxYhg jevs keUqrejla we;s f,ilska jsoHudk jSu ksidhs 113
  • 22. ksoiqkla f,i .;fyd;a we;euz ixl,am tys idrOrAu w.h w;ska jevs keUqrejla olajkqfhaixcdkk me;slv fj;gh jspdr mQrAjl nj jeks ixl,amhla fuz .Khg jefgz ;j;aiuyr ixl,am tajdfhys idrOrAu w.h w;ska jevs keUqrejla m@orAYkh lrkqfha prAhdme;slv fj;hs mfrdamldrh jeks ixl,am fuz fldgig wh;a fjz by; ksoiqka folskaujs.@yl< wdldrhg fu;a;d ixl,amfhys idrOrAu w.h w;ska jevs keUqrejla m@lglrkqfha wdfjzok me;slv fj; nj fuz wkqj meyeos,s jsh hq;`h60 fu;a;d ixl,amfhysjHdma;sh flfrys fulS lreK Okd;aul f,i Ndjs;d lr.kq ,nkafka kuz wdfjzokme;slv flaJ|@ fldgf.k fu;a;d ixl,amh mqoa.,hka fj; bosrsm;a l< hq;` nj fuhskafmkajd fokq ,nhs fu;a;d ixl,amfhys wdfjzok me;slv fiiq me;slvj,g jvd meyeos,sjumqoa.,dka;r ikaksfjzokh flfrys m@;scdkkd;aul ia:uzNkhla we;s lrjk nj fuhska;yjqre flfrA61 tu;` o fkdfjz fu;a;d ixl,amfhys wdfjzok me;slv ffcj jsoHd;auljYfhka usksia yeisrSuz yd usksia l@shdldrluz jsIfhys jvd;a ixfjzokd;aul jYfhkan,mdkq ,nk nj o fuhska meyeos,s fjz iakdhq yd tys ieleiau tuZ.ska huz huzixfjzokhka ,nd .ekSu hkdosh wdfjzok me;slfvys ldrAhNdrh f,i ie,lsh yelshnq|=iufhys fu;a;d ixl,amfhys wdfjzok moku iuznJOfhka bosrsm;a lrkakd jQ oyuzlreKq ffjoH jsoHd;aul meyeos,s lsrSuz yd mrAfhaIKd;aul m@;sM, ksid jrA;udkfha jevsfofkl`g fN#;slj mjd myiqfjka oel n,d.; yelsh ffjoH jsoHd;aul moku wkqji,lf;d;a" reOsrfhys wekv@,Ska m@udKh wju jSu uZ.ska wys;lr ps;a;fjz.Sh wdfjzokj,ixisZoSu fmkakquz lrhs fu;a;d ixl,amfhys wdfjzok me;slv uZ.ska ixfjzokh lrkakd jQiakdhquh ixfjzokh ksid isrer ;`< uqZM uy;a ffcj l@shdjkays ys;lr mrsjrA;khla we;sfjz isrefrys iajNdjsl m@;sYla;sh fuz ksid by< w.hla lrd kxjkq ,nhs isrere.;m@;sYla;slrK moaO;sh Yla;su;ajSu jsjsO f,v frda. yd wdidokj,ska wdrCIdjSu flfrysWmia:uzNl fjz cSjSyq idudkHfhka wdfjz.YS,S iajNdjhlska hqla;j lghq;` lsrSug oevsrepshla olaj;s fufia jkafka wdfjz.YS,S yeisrSug Tjqka olajk kuHYS,S Ndjhhswe;euzjsgl oS fufia jkafka usksid o tla;rd iFj jsfYaIhla ksid usksid ;`< o fiiqiFjhkayg Wreu jk fmd|= iFj .`K wka;rA.; cdkuh iajNdjh .enzjk nejska hehswkqudk l< yel wdfjz.YS,Sj lghq;` lsrSug fiiq iFj j.!hd fiau usksiqka olajk jevskeUqrej yd leue;a; fya;`fldg f.k iudchla jeks usksia iuQyhla jdih lrk ia:dkhlwkjYH .egquz yd l,flda,dy, we;s lrjSug uZ. mdokq ,nhs tnZ|= wkjYH .egquz ydl,flda,dy, we;s jsgl oS usksid l@shdlrkqfha o idudkH iFj f,dalfhys fiiq iFjjsfYaIhka l@shdlrkakd jQ wdldrhguh iuyr jsfgl oS usksid thskq;a my< ia:dkhlgm;ajk nj ;rula Wmydifhka hq;`j mejiSug mjd wm mqre|=j isgsuq fuh fufia jkafka 114
  • 23. ixcdkk me;slv uQ,sl fldgf.k huz huz foa ms<snoj jspdr mQrAjl ks.ukj,gmeusKSug jvd wdfjzok me;slv flaJ|@ fldgf.k huz huz foa ms<snZoj wdfjz.YS,SufkdaNdjhkag m;ajSug usksid iajNdjslju olajk repslFjhhs funZ|= repslFjhlausksiqka jsiska m@orAYkh lrkqfha ula ksido hk m@Yakhg ms<s;`r f,i ngysr ufkdajsoHdjyd udkj jsoHdj jsiska fmkajd fokq ,nk iFj yd udkj mrsKduh iuznJO we;euzisoaOdka; nq|=iuh jsiska ta jQ wdldrfhkau wkqu; fkdlrk nejska Bg jvd jspdr mQrAjlf,i ta ms<snZoj is;d ne,Sug wm;`< fm<Ujsula we;s jsh hq;`h usksiqka iajNdjfhkau jsjsO repslFj" jsjsO .;s isrs;a yd jsjsO udkisl ;,Wreu lrf.ku nsysjk nj nq|=iuh ms<s.kshs kdkd;a; ldfh kdk;a; iZ[aZ[dZ hkqfjka kdkd;aoelafjkqfha o usksiqkaf.a fuu jsjsO jQ iajNdjhhs usksiqka jsjsO jk ksid iudch o jsjsOfjhs fuz jsjsOFjh wd;audrA:fhka hqla; jQ l, jsIu nj ckkh fjz jsjsOFjh jsIu njyg.ekajSug taldhk fya;`j fkdfj;;a" jsjsOFjh ksid jsIu nj we;s jSug wjldYie,fia tla w;lska w;audrA:lduS nj ksid usksiqka jsIu jk w;r wd;audrA:h iuZ.sh"iyfhda.h yd iduQysl osjs meje;au jskdY lr ouhs usksiqka Tjqfkdjqka tlsfkldg oafjzIlr.kakd jQ uy;a wd;audrA:lduS mqoa.,hka jSug tjka ;;ajhla ukd msgsjy,la imhhsfu;a;d ixl,amfhys Wmfhda.S;djh u;` jkafka fujka jd;djrKhla ;`< oS jk w;rwdfjzok iajNdjfhys mj;skakd jQ ;Sj@ .`Kh fya;` fldgf.k fu;a;d ixl,amh flfrysTzkEu usksia is;la wdlrAIKh fjz usksia isf;ys wdlrAYkh rZod mj;afka lsishuzixl,amhla flfrys is; wdYla; jkafka kuz muKs ta w;ska fu;a;d ixl,amfhys wdfjzokme;slfvys mj;akd wdfjzok wdYla;;djh ksid th jvd;a usksia yeZ.Suz .@yKh lrhsusksid muKla fkdj ljr huz cSjsfhl` fyda fuu wdYla; njg weZoS hkafkauh wdYla;iajNdjh wdYdj fkdfjz ;Kaydj wdYla; jSfuka wdYdj ckkh jk w;r fu;a;dixl,amh wdYla; jSfuka us;@Fjfhka imsrsKq iduQyslFjh nsys fjz fydZo fyda krl TzkEuixl,amhl wdYla; jSfuz iuzNdjs;dj u; tu ixl,amh fl;ruz m@dfhda.sl wxYfhkaidrA:l jkafkao hk lreK rZod mj;shs lsishuz ixl,amhla usksia is;g we;`<a jkafkawdYla; jSfuz l@shdj idrA:lj bgqjkl,h wdfjzokhka kuz wdYla; nj lrd t<USfuys uq,amshjrhkah wdfjzok me;slv jYfhka kuz jkafka o wdYla; jSfuz l@shdj<shuh ish,q cSjSka wdYla; nj m@sh lrkafkda jk w;r wdfjzokhkays .enzjkwdYla; nfjys we,qfkda fj;s wdYla; njg wruqKq lr.kakd jsjsO wruqKq w;r fu;a;dixl,amh jvd;a fydZo wruqKls fu;a;d ixl,amh wruqKq lrf.k wdfjzok me;slv ;`<we;sjk wdYla; nfjys .enzjkafka uD|= yd ieye,a,q ffp;isl jskaokhkah fuu udkisljskaokhka fnfyjskau iqL iy.; jk w;r m@S;sh o ckkh lrhs fuu iqLh fukau m@S;sho yg.kajkafka wdfjzok me;slfvys wdYla; iajNdjh uZ.sks tfukau fu;a;d ixl,amhjspdr mQrAjl wdl,amhlska hq;`j msrslaid ne,Su uZ.ska wdfjzok me;slvg oefkk iqLiajNdjh yd m@S;su;a ijNdjh jvd;a jrAOkh l< yel fu;a;d ixl,amfhys iqL 115
  • 24. iajNdjh yd m@S;su;a iajNdjh ;`< jspdr mQrAjl pska;kh o wka;rA.;h us;@Fjhyg.kafka ish,q iFjhd jsIfhysu we;s lr.kakd ,o ys;j;a iajNdjh lrKfldgh tuksid wd;audrA:fhka cks;jk uuFjfhka f;drju iudch foi wjOdkh fhduq l< yelsyd iuQyfhka ;ud fjkalr fkd.kakd jQ iuQy.; pska;khg fuhska wjldY jsjr fjzfuu iuQy.; pska;kh fu;a;d ixl,amhg iudk yd ta yd neZ|=kq kj ixl,am cks;lrjSu iZoyd Wmia:uzNk fjz fujsg ixl,am cks; jkafka ixl,am modi yd fmdl`ref,ih tla ixl,amhlska wfkla ixl,amh l`ulaoehs ksjerosj f;drd fnzrd .; fkdyelsjk muKgu os.ska os.g ixl,am je,la fyda ixl,am fmdl`rla nsys lrjSu fuysmrudrA:hhs js;rAlkh f,i idudkH jHjydrfhys olakg ,efnk ixl,am f.dkq nsysjSutla ixl,amhla flaJ|@,; fldgf.k we;s fjz fu;a;d ixl,amh flaJ|@.; fldgf.knsysjk ixl,am f.dkqjl ta yd iuznJO jsysxidj" wjHdmdoh yd wfodaih nZ|= ;j;a fu;a;dixl,amhu wruqKq lrf.k yg.kakd jQ ixl,am rdYshla f.dkq.; jS ;sfnkq oelsh yelsfjz fu;a;d ixl,amfhys wdfjzok me;slv ;`< olakg ,efnk funZ|= ixl,amf.dkqjla fu;a;d ixl,amh wruqKq fldg yg.efkk nejska js;rAlkh kuska tu ixl,amf.dkqj yg.ekSfuz l@shdj yeZoskafjz fuu ixl,am f.dkq yg.ekSfuz l@shdj,sh jspdr mQrAjliajNdjh yd o iuznJO;djhla fmkajkq ,nhs fu;a;d ixl,amh wruqKq fldgf.k is;ayscks; jk jspdr mQrAjl udkisl iajNdjh ksid jspdrj;a f,i ;j ;j;a Bg iudkixl,am yg.kajhs tf,iskau m@S;sh yd iqLh jeks wdfjzok iajNdjhka ksid Bg iudki;`g" ieye,a,qj" wdya,doh yd fiduzki jeks wdfjzok iajNdjhka is;ays cks; fjz fu;a;dixl,amfhys wdfjzok me;slvg wruqKqjk fuu m@S;sh yd iqLh jeks ixfjzokhka fukaufu;a;d ixl,amhg iudk fjk;a ixl,amhkays wdfjzok me;slvg wruqKqjk fndfydaixfjzokhka we; ksoiqkla f,i fu;a;d ixl,amhg iudk fjk;a ixl,amhka jsysxidj"wjHdmdoh yd wfodaih jk jsg" tajeks ixl,amkays wdfjzok me;slvg ixfjzokh jkafkaisis,i" uD|=nj" ldreKslnj" iduQyslFjh yd iuZ.sh jeks wdYla;l .`Khka fjz fuzwdYla; .`Khka uZ.ska usksid we;`ZM fiiq iFjhska cSj ys;jdoS ia:djrhl msysgqjd,kq,nhs fuf,dj wLKav meje;aug fulS cSj ys;jdoS wdl,amhka w;HjYH idOlhls yqfolawdl,amhka muKla ;snqfha jS uq;a th fkdiefya tu wdl,am wdOHd;au.; jS iuia; ffcjl@shdjka ta uZ.ska md,kh jk ;rug ;oska th uq,a neif.k mej;Su wjYHh ffcjwdfjzok me;slv ;`<ska bgq lrkq ,nkafka hf:dala; ldrAhh Ndrhhs ffcjSka nqoaOs ugzguw;ska jsjsOh ixl,am ixcdkkh flfrys ffcj nqoaOs ugzgu n,mdkq ,nhs we;euz ixl,amnqoaOs ugzgfuka wfmaCIs; ia:dkfhys fkdisgsk cSjSfhl`yg ksis whqrska ixcdkkh fkdfjzkuq;a ta |=n,;djh wdfjzok me;slfvys jsoHudk fkdfjz wdfjzok me;slv flfrys nqoaOsugzgu n,dmq ,nkafka b;du wju wdldrfhks nqoaOs ugzgu w;ska b;du m@d:ussl cSjshdg;ab;d by< nqoaOs ugzgulska hqla; cSjshdg;a hk mqoa., fldgzgdY fol w;r;`r isgsk TzkEucSjS fldgilg wdfjzok me;slv uZ.ska b;d myiqfjka ixl,am ixfjzokh lsrSug mqZMjk 116
  • 25. we;euz wjia:dj, oS ixl,am wdfjzokh lsrSfuz l@shdj<sh fjzokd hk kuska ofn#oaO idys;Hh ;`< olajd ;sfnz wdfjzokfhys iajNdjh u; tuZ.ska nsysjk fjzokdjiem" |=la fyda uOHia:;djh t<jk iqZM tlla jSug bv ;sfnz fjzokd uZ.ska iFjhka ;`<nsys lrkafka jsZoSuhs ke;fyd;a jskaokhhs th fN#;sl mCIfhka .;fyd;a iakdhquhixfjzokhla fjz tfukau fud<fhys wod< m@foaYhkays ridhksl m@;sl@shdjl iajrEmhlafjz foay wNHka;r ffcj iudfhdack l@shdjl m@;sM,hla fjz kuq;a fuys oS tys iajrEmhjvd;a jeo.;a jkqfha wdfjzok mCIfhys ,d th wod< jk muKgh fu;a;d ixl,amhwdfjzok me;slv ;`< oS fjzokd iajrEmfhka ksrEmKh jk wdldrh ms<snZoj fidhd ne,SuuZ.ska fjzokdfjys h:d iajNdjh ms<snZoj wmg jvd;a meyeos,s ks.ukhlg meusKSugmqZMjkalu ,efnz huzlsis jsIh.; wruqKla bJ|@sh oajdrhl oS wod< wruqK yd bJ|@shiamrAY jSu;a" tlS iamrAYh fya;`fjka yg.kakd jQ ishquz ixfjzokh fjzokd kdufhkafn#oaO ixorANh;`< oS ud;DldjSu;a fu;a;d ixl,am ksid yg.efkk fjzokdfjys h:diajNdjh ms<snZoj .fjzIKh lrkakd jQ mqoa.,fhl`yg b;d jsYd, lreKq iuzNdrhlaWlyd.; yels ia:dk fjz wjYHfhkau fu;a;d ixl,amfhys wdfjzok me;slv ms<snZoj idlpzPdlsrSfuz oS us;@YS,SNdjh mqoa.,fhl`yg oefkkafka flfiao yd Tyq jsiska th jsZo ord .kqfhaflfiao hk lreK jeo.;a fjz fu;a;d ixl,amh wdfjzok mCIfhka is;g iqj t<jk iqZMwdfjzokhls tuksid fjzokd wxYfhka o tys .enzjkqfha iqL fjzokdj hehs Wml,amkhlgmeusKsh yelsh62 ngysr ufkda jsoHdj ;`< fuz iqL fjzokdj fndfyda fldgu iodpdr ydidrOrAu jrAOkh lsrSfuys ,d m@;scdkkd;aul ia:uzNkhla jYfhka Ndjs;d jS ;sfnz fuhiqL mrujdoh hk kuska ngysr ufkdajsoHdj yZ|=kajkq ,nhs ffcj jsoHd;aulj iFjhka;`< iajNdjslju msysgd we;s iqjhg we;s leue;a; fuys oS iqL mru jdoh hk kuskayZ|=kajkq ,nk w;r th iajNdjsl fm@arKhla f,iska l@shd;aul jk nj fndfyda ufkdajsoHdZ{hska jsiska m@ldY lr ;snsKs usksid jsiska is|= lrkq ,nk fndfyda l@shdjka md,khlrkq ,nkafka ta l@shdjka ksid Tyqg w;ajsZoSug is|= jkakd jQ iqL iy.; jQ fulS udkislfm@arKh nj jsjsO usksiqka weiqfrka is|= lrkq ,enQ jsjsO mrAfhaIK lghq;` j,oS ;yjqrelrf.k ;sfnz tfukau fuu iqL iy.; udkisl fm@arKh wOHdmk ufkda jsoHdj ;`< oSoprAhd ixialrK l@uYs,amhla f,i Ndjs;hg f.k ;sfnz jsjsO wOHdmk ufkda jsoHdZ{hskajsiska fuz iuznJOfhka b;du;a jeo.;a jQ u; m< lr ;sfnz63 prAhdjka ixialrKh hkqprAhdjka md,kh lsrSu fyda fjkia lsrSu hkqhs ta khska .;al< fu;a;d ixl,amfhyswdfjzok me;slv ;`< .enzjk ufkda jsYaf,aIKd;aul wka;rA.;fhys b;du;a jsYd,jsoHdkQl~, mokula we;s nj meyeos,s fjz 117
  • 26. fuys iZoyka prAhd ixialrK ,CIK Wmfhda.S lr.ekSu uZ.ska TzkEumqoa.,fhl`yg fuf;la f.k .sh ish wys;lr prAhdjka ;j |=rg;a os.ska os.gu thmj;ajdf.k fkdf.dia" iudcfhys iqN isoaOshg .e,fmk wkaouska fjkia lr th kej;;udg yd wka whg .e,fmk f,i ilia lr .ekSug yd udkj wNsjDoaOsh flfrys Wps;jk wdldrhg ish wdl,am yev .iajd .ekSug yels nj hk ,CIK fu;a;d ixl,amfhyswdfjzok me;slv ;`< olakg we;s iqjsfYaI;d fjz lsishuz mqoa.,fhl` lsishuz jsIhhlaflfrys wjOdkhla cks; jkafka ta mqoa.,fhyg wod< jsIfhys jgskdlu yd thyeoErSfuka ;ukag w;ajk M,m@fhdack ms<snZoj i,ld ,nkq ,enSfuka wk;`rejh tfukaulsishuz mqoa.,fhl` fu;a;d ixl,amh jevSug fm<fUkafka tys wka;rA.; jeo.;alu ydth jevSfuka ;ukag w;ajk M, m@fhdack i,ld ne,Sfuka wk;`rejh fu;a;d ixl,amhflf;ruz wka whg iudchg m@fhdackj;a jqj;a th jevSfuka ;ukag M, m@fhdackhla w;afkdfjz kuz lsishuz flfkl` fuu ixl,amh jevSug uq,a jrg fhduq fkdjkq we; lsishuzflfkl` uq,a jrg fu;a;d ixl,amh jevSug fhduq jSfuz wdlrAYKh rZod we;af;a fu;a;dixl,amfhys wdfjzok me;slv ;`< .enzjk iqjodhs yd isis,i okjk is;sjs,s j,skaiukajs; jQ iqL iy.; yd m@S;sh cks; lrjk fjzokdj ksidh fu;a;d ixl,amfhyswdfjzok me;slv ;`< wka;rA.; Wmfhda.S;duh ,CIK jkafka ienjskau fuz lreKqhfu;a;d ixl,amh uq,a jrg jvkakd ta flfrys wdYla; lr .ekSu;a" tu ixl,amh os.skaos.gu jevSu flfrys weZo neZo ;nd .ekSu;a fu;a;d ixl,amfhys wdfjzok me;slv ;`<skabgqjk ldrAhNdrhhs wdfjzok me;slv ksfhdackh lrkakd jQ tla;rd wjia:djla f,i fjzokdjuq,ska oelajsKs tfukau tlS fjzokdfjys iajrEmh iqL iy.; yd m@S;sh wka;rA.;iajNdjhla nj meyeos,s lr.kq ,ensKs m@S;sh yd iqLh jspdr mQrAjl iajNdjh fya;`fldgf.k yg.efkk nj;a" fulS iuia; l@shdj<shu fya;`fjka js;rAlkh fyj;a ;j;afu;a;d ixl,amh nZ|= ixl,amhka we;slr .ekSu;a" fuys oS jsia;r lrk ,oS fuz ish,qlreKq ldrKd fya;` fldgf.k fu;a;d ixl,amfhys wdfjzok me;slv prAhd ixialrKjsOsl@uhla jYfhka jvd;a m@;sM,odhl jkafka ukaoehs yd th prAhd ixialrK jsOsl@uhlajYfhka nq|=iufhys Ndjs;d jkafka ukaoehs hk m@Yakj,g usska meyeos,s ms<s;`rla ,efnz uqZMuy;a nq|=iuh mqrdu jsia;r flfrkqfha prAhd ixialrK jsOsl@uhka Ndjs;hg .ekSu uZ.skamqoa., fm#reIFjh f.dvkZ.d .ekSu ms<snZojhs fulS mqoa., fm#reIFj f.dvkeZ.`uyqfola mqoa.,hd foajFjhg muKla Tijd fkd;nkakla fkdjk w;r foajFjh yd bkaTnzfnys jQ b;du by< ;, olajd mqoa., fm#reIFjh oshqKq l< yels wdldrh fuysfudkjg meyeos,s flfrA64 ukqIHFjh" foajFjh" n@yauFjh" wrAy;ajh muKla fkdj mfianq|= yd iuzud iuznqoaO ;;ajh olajdu mqoa., fm#reIh f.dvkeZ.sh yels nj uska ukdjfmkajd fokq ,nhs 118
  • 27. nq|= iufhys wdfjzok me;slfvys iajrEmh b;d ishquzj mqZM,aj wrA:ksrEmKh fldg olajd ;sfnz we;euz jsfgl oS oafjzIh" fl@daOh" ffu;@sh jYfhka hym;afpz;kd jYfhka o whym;a fpz;kd jYfhka o wdfjzok me;slfvys l@shdldrSFjh jsia;rlr olajd ;sfnz ixLdr jYfhka fjzokd iajrEmhg miqj tysu jsldYkhla jYfhka fuuwdfjzok me;slv olajd ;sfnz wdfjzok me;slv nq|=iufhka js.@y flfrk ixLdr fldgiuZ.ska ksis whqrska jsia;r l< fkdyels jqj o fjzokd fldgi iy ixLdr hk fldgia foflatl;`j ;`< wdfjzok me;slv ksrEmKh jkafka hehs i,ld .; yelsh tfia kuz lsishuzixl,amhl ixLdr ixfjzokh uZ.ska tlS ixl,amh flfrys tlS cSjshd olajk Tyqgu wkkHjq m@;spdrh ms<snzoj huzlsis ks.ukhlg t<USfuz yelshdj we; wdfjzokh hkq mqoa.,jsIhg wkkH jQ ;;ajhla nejska wdfjzokfhys oS mqoa., jsfYaI;d o tlS wdfjzok l@shdj<shflfrys n,mdkq ,nhs we;euzjsg mqoa., wdl,amhka huzlsis f,ilska wdfjzok l@shdj<shflfrys iDKd;aul f,i n,mE yels w;r ;j;a f,ilska Okd;aul f,i n,mE yelsh fuzksid wdfjzok l@shdj<sfhys ;Sj@;djh iZoyd n,mdkq ,nk tlu fya;`j tlS wdfjzokl@shj<sh iZoyd wruqKq lr.kakd ixl,amfhys m@n,Fjhu fkdjsh yelsh ;j;a wjia:djloS wdfjzok l@shdj<sh iZoyd wruqKq lr.kakd jQ ixl,amfhys m@n,Fjh ksid o m@n,fkdjk wdfjzokhka jvd;a ;Sj@ f,iska oefkkakg mqZMjk fu;a;d ixl,amh wruqKqlrf.k yg .kq ,nk wdfjzokhl fu;a;d ixl,amfhys we;s m@n,Fjh mqoa., prs;iajNdjh wkqj fuz ksid |=n, jsh yelsh mqoa.,hd oafjzI prs;hla kuz fl;ruz fu;a;dixl,aamh jvkq ,enQj;a fuz wkqj tlajru Tyq wffjrS mqoa.,fhl` njg mrsjrA;kh fjzhehs wmg ms<s.ekSug wmyiqh wfkla w;g huzlsis mqoa.,fhl` iajNdjfhkau ffu;@SiajNdjfhka hqla; wfhl` jS kuz l,d;`rlska fyda Tyqf.a is;g oafjzIh msjsisfha jS kuq|=jyd tlS oafjzIh is;ska bj;a jS hk nj;a" Ouzumofhys fmkajd oS ;sfnz iajNdjfhkauffu;@S pska;kfhka hqla; wfhl` ;j |=rg;a fu;a;d ixl,amh m@.`K lrkafka jS kuziajNdjfhkau oafjzIfhka hqla; mqoa.,hdg jvd myiqfjka yd ;sr f,iu fy;uffu;@sfhys msysgkafkl` fjz nq|=iufhys fpz;kdj olajd we;af;a o wdfjzok me;slvg iudkqmd;sljl@shd;aul jk whqrlsks fpz;kdyx NslaLfjz luzux jodus hk mdGfhka .uH jk mrsoshuzlsis wdfjzokhl .enzjk mqoa.,uh wkkH;djh os.ska os.gu tlS wkkH;djh ;yjqrelrf.k hEfuz l@shdj<sh flfrysu lsishuz fm<USula we;s lrk nj fmfkkag ;sfnz65iFjhka iir iersierSfuys fya;`j jYfhka olajk wjsoHdj mjd yg.ekSug ;`vq foklreK jkafka fufia mqoa., wkkH;djhla flfrys os.ska os.gu oevs f,i f,dn neZoSuhswdfjzokfhys mj;akd jQ usksia is; jiZ. lrk iqZM nj fulS wkkH;djh os.ska os.gumj;ajd .ekSug m@Odku fya;`j fjz wdfjzok me;slv usksia is; jiZ. lrkqfha os.ska os.guiqLh yd m@S;sh ms<snZoj fkdikaisZ|=kq n,dfmdfrd;a;`jla is;g ,nd oSu ;`<sks iajNdjsljuiEu wdfjzokhlau fjkiajk njska hqla;h tnejska ta weiqfrka yg .kqfha |=lla ydw;Dma;slr nj ms<snZoj yeZ.Sula usila iqLh yd m@S;sh fkdfjz is; lrkafka jrA;udkfhys 119
  • 28. mqoa.,hdyg flosklj;a fkd,efnk tfy;a wkd.;fhys ,efn;ehs lsis|= ;rAldkQl~,mokula u; fkdfmkajsh yels jQ uk%l,ams; iqLhla yd m@S;shla ms<snZoj jHdcn,dfmdfrd;a;` yd fpz;kd os.ska os.g is;ays my< lr.ksuska mqoa., is; thska weZo neZo;nd .ekSuhs ienjskau we;af;a wiykh yd w;Dma;sh kuz ta ;;ajh ms<s.ekSu fjkqjgjHdc ;;ajhla ,qyqneZo hdu ;j ;j;a is; fjfyig yd l,lsrSug m;alrjk iqZM fjz uskais;g oafjzIh ms<sl`<l iajrEmfhka we;s fjz fu;a;d ixl,amh jevSu uZ.ska is|= lrkafkawdfjzok me;slv ksid iFjhdyg ksrdhdifhkau Wreu jk fuz by; olajk ,o udkislwiykfhka yd l,lsrSfuka Tyqj uqojd .ekSuhs fu;a;d ixl,amh jevSu uZ.ska mqoa.,hdyg jrA;udkfhys Tyqg jsZoskakg ,efnk wdfjzokj, wiykldrS yd w;Dma;slr iajNdjhkqjKska oek yZ|=kd .ksuska tajdfhys wks;H iajNdjh wjfndaO lruska is; mSvdjgm;afkdfjuska wluzms;j jsZo ord .ekSug yqrejla ukfiys we;s lrjkq ,nhs fuu ;;ajhwdfjzokhkays yq|= fjzokd mCIh blau kqjKska msrsisZo olskakg yqre jSuls nq|=iuh fuz;;ajh hful`yg tlajru mila lr.; yels hehs mjkafka ke; kuq;a ta ;;ajh lrdb;du l@udkQl~,j hd yels .uka uZ.la meyeos,sju nq|=iufhys jsia;r lroS ;sfnznq|=iufhys p;`rdrAh i;Hh ;`< olajd we;af;a by; lS .uka uZ. ms<snZo b;du m@Yia;js.@yhhs tysoS wiykh yd w;Dma;sh;a" tlS wiykh yd w;Dma;sh we;sjSug fya;`j;a" tlSwiykh yd w;Dma;sh |=re lr.kakd jsOsl@uh;a yd tu jsOsl@uh Ndjs;fhka wiykh ydw;Dma;sh |=re lr.ekSu;a hk i;rjsO i;Hhka bka jsYo flfrA ffcj f,dj;`< bkakd tlu iFjhd ;ud fkdjk nj;a" ;uka ish,q ffcjf,dj ;`< wxY`jla muKla nj;a mila lr.ekSu uZ.ska mqoa.,fhl` i;rjsO i;Hh ms<snZom@;HCI wjfndaOh ,nhs66 tuZ.ska fy;u ;uka hkqfjka ;u mqoa., wkkH;djh wfklaiFjhka w;frka fjka lr f.dvkZ.d .kakd udkisl m@fCIamkh mokuz lr.;a uuFjjdoSjQ jHdc oDIaGsh nsZo oud ienE orAYkhg m@jsIaG fjhs m<uq orAYkh m@jsIaGfhys oSu fy;u;j |=rg;a ndysr u;jdoj,ska ps;a; m@fCIamk ;j |=rg;a f.dvfkdZ.kakd jQ meyeos,sm@;HCI wjfndaOhla ,nd wdrAhh kdufhka yeZoskafjk Wiia udkisl oshqKqjla w;am;alr.kakd ,o mqoa.,fhla njg meusfKhs ;j |=rg;a ;ud ,nk ,o m@;HCI wjfndaOhTiafia is; fufyhjk fy;u ;ksju ;uka ,nd.kakd ,o orAYk udrA.fhys l~gm@dma;swjia:dj jQ ish,q ffcj f,dj;`< ;ud hkqfjka f.dvkZ.d .kakd ,o mqoa.,sl udkislm@fCIamK ish,a, w;yer oud ish is; ta yeu fohskau ixisZojuska ksjd .kakd wjia:djlgmeusfKa67 ish,q ffcj f,dj flfrys mrsmQrAK ffu;@sfhka hqla;j l,amkd l< yels tluudkisl wjia:dj fuh fjz fuz olajd ish,q iFjhka flfrys ffu;@sh m@.`K lrkq ,nqj;ath lsishuz wd.usl Ydia;Djrfhl` jsiska wkqoek jod< ksid Ydia;D f.#rjh fmroerslrf.k jvk fu;a;d ixl,amhla usil fujeks mrsmQrAK wjfndaOfhka ksrdhdifhkauisf;ys meKkZ.sk ;;ajhla fkdfjz ish,q udk ixLHd; oDIaGSka ish,a, wZMhu ,Q l`Kqfl<msvla fia w;yer ouk ,o fulS W;`uz wrAy;ajhg m;a ry;kajykafia ksrdhdifhkau ish,q 120
  • 29. f,daljdiS ffcj m@cdj flfrys ksre;aidylju fu;a;d ixl,amfhka hqla;j lghq;`lsrSug iu;a jk fial68 fu;a;d ixl,amfhys wdfjzok me;slfvys mrsmQrAK ksIagdjfujsg Wkajykafia jsiska w;am;a lrf.k isgsk nejska Wkajykafiaf.a is; yeu jsgluikaiqkah ksYap,h meyeos,s ksi, js,l osh fuks69 nq|=iuh ;`< wdfjzok me;slfvys l~gm@dma;sh olajd we;af;a fpzf;da jsuqla;shk kdufhks tfukau ixcdkk me;slfvys l~gm@dma;s wjia:dj m@Z{d jsuqla;s kdufhkaolajd we; wdfjzok yd ixcdkk me;slv foflysu tlajka l~gm@dma;s wjia:dj wksus;a;jsuqla;s kdufhka olajd we; fuys oS m@Z{d jsuqla;sh msKsi Y`kH;d jsfudlaIh;a" fpzf;dajsuqla;sh msKsi wm@Ksys; jsfudlaIh;a" WNf;da jsuqla;sh msKsi wksus;a; jsfudlaIh;aolajd ;sfnz fuys oS jeo.;a jkqfha wdfjzok me;slfvys l@shdldrSFjh ksrEmKh jkfjzf;da jsuqla;s yd WNf;da jsuqla;s hk fol muKs fpzf;da jsuqla;sh flfrys n,mdkq ,nkixl,am w;rska fu;a;d ixl,amh m@uqL ia:dkhla .kq ,nk nj iZoyka jS ;sfnz fu;a;dixl,amfhys .enzjk iqL y.; iajNdjh yd m@S;su;a iajNdjh uZ.ska isf;ys .egquzldrS ydl,lsreKq .;sh uZ.yrjkq ,nhs jvd;a myiqfjka is; tlZ. lrjk w;r ps;a; iudOsh,nd .ekqug ufydamldrS fjz ps;a; iudOsfhys by<u wjia:d f,#lsl OHdk uZ.skaksrEmKh jk w;r ps;a; mdrsY`oaOsfhys f,daflda;a;r wjia:djka ud.!M, kdufhkaoelafjz fuys f,#lsl OHdk iudOsfhys by<u ysKsfm;a; ksrEmKh lrk w;rf,daflda;a;r OHdk m@Z{dfjys yd ps;af;al.@;djfhys by<u ysKsfm;a; ksrEmKh lrhsisysh yd wLKav ksrSCIKh ud.!M,hkag meusKSug jsOsl@uh fjz tys wdfjzok l~gm@dma;shiuZ.u m@Z{d l~gm@dma;sh o wka;rA.;h wdfjzok me;slv flaJ|@lrf.k wdfjzokl~gm@dma;sh uZ.ska m@Z{d l~gm@dma;sh we;s lr.kakd l@ufjzohg fpzf;da jsuqla;sh hehsjHjydr lrk w;r" wdfjzok me;slv yd ixcdkk me;slv hk me;slv folu bjy,alrf.k ta fol uZ.skau wdfjzok yd mZ@{d l~gm@dma;sh we;s lr.kakd jsOsl@uhg WNf;dajsuqla;sh hehs jHjydr lrkq ,nhs fpzf;da jsuqla;sh yd WNf;da jsuqla;sh hk jsOsl@uhkafol msKsiu wdfjzok me;slv i;` jQ wdfjzok .`Kh Wmldrj;a fjz fu;a;d ixl,amhmdol lrf.k hfula is; ixisZ|=jhs kuz fyda m@Z{dj wjos lrhs kuz fyda is; ixisZojSu ydm@Z{dj wjos lrjSu hk folu is|=lrhs kuz fyda wdfjzok me;slv i;` jQ m@;sNdjh thskajgyd .; yelsh70 fu;a;d ixl,amh i;` jQ ishquz nj yd uD|= iajNdjh ksid th Wmldrlrf.k wdfjzok me;slv Tiafia ;ukag wjYH mrsos ;ukaf.a is; yiqrejd .ekSugmqoa.,hka yg uska uy;a rel`,la ie,fia ffcj wdfjzok me;slv ilia jS ;sfnkqfha b;dishquz ixfjzokhkag mjd jyd m@;spdr oelajSfuz myiqj we;s jk mrsosh th tla;rd |=rlgiFj .`Khla jYfhkao iZoyka lsrSug yelsh iFj .`Khla jQ wdfjzokh ffcj prAhdjkaixialrKh lsrSu msKsi o nq|=r|=ka jsiska b;du;a m@Yia; wdldrfhka Ndjs;hg .kq ,en 121
  • 30. ;snqKq nj fu;a;d ixl,amh ta iZoyd wkqoek jodrd we;s wdldrh wkqj meyeos,s fjzfu;a;d ixl,amh jO!kh lsrSug mjd iSudjla oelajsh fkdyels mrsoafoka ;srsika"usksia"foaj yd n@yau hk ljr ffcj fldgilg jqjo wdfjzok wjYH;djhka ;Dma;su;a jk mrsosNdjs;d l< yels f,i fu;a;d ixl,amfhys wdfjzok mCIh ishquz lulska hqla;j olajdwe; wdfjzok me;slv ishquz jkakg jkakg ;srsika.; iFjhdf.a isg n@yau ldhsl cSjShdolajd ffcj ;,h Wiia jk w;r" ffcj ;,h tnZ|= f,ilska Wiia jkakg jkakg wdfjzokme;slfvys ishquz iajNdjh o Wiia fjz ta wdldrfhkau wdfjzok me;slv rZM jkakg jkakgn@yau ldhsl cSjshdf.a isg ;srsika.; iFjhd olajd ffcj ;,h my< niskakg mgka.kshs tfiau ffcj ;,h my< niskakg niskakg ta ;,j, isgsk cSjSkaf.a wdfjzokme;slv rZM jkakg fjz fuhska fmfkkafka wdfjzok me;slv iy ffcj ;,h w;r wkqf,dauiudkqmd;hla olakg ,efnk njhs fuzz ksid ksrAjdKh nZ|= Wiia wruqKla lrd iuzm@dma;sjSug wosgka lrf.k isgsk iEu flfkl` jsiskau ish wdfjzok ;,h yels;dla |=rg rZMwdfjzokhkaf.ka jsksrAuqla;j yd yels;dla |=rg ishquz wdfjzokhkaf.ka hqla;j mj;ajd.ekSug W;aiyj;a jsh hq;`h71 fu;a;d ixl,amfhys olakg we;s jsfYaIFjh jkqfha tuZ.skaiFj wdfjzok me;slv yels;dla |=rlg ishquz lsrSuhs fu;a;d ixl,amh b;du;au ishquzwdfjzokhla nejska fuz wdldrfhka tlS wdfjzokfhka os.ska os.gu ish is;a i;ka mqrjd.kakd jQ mqoa.,hkaf.a is;a uD|= yd ieye,a,q njg m;afjz fulS ieye,a,q iajNdjhWmfhda.S lr.ksuska iFj ps;a;h ;srYapdk iajNdjfhyss isg n@yau iajNdjh olajd Wiia;,hlg m@jsYaG lr,Sfuz yelshdj we;s lr .kshs tmuKla o fkdj wjidk mrudorAYhjYfhka fmkjd fokq ,nk laf,aY ksrAfjzoh jk ksrAjdKh keue;s w;sm@KS;;r udkislwdfjzokh <Z.d lr.ekSug mjd fulS fu;a;d ixl,amh uyZ.` msgsjy<la fjz fu;a;d ixl,amfhys wdfjzok me;slv usksia is;a i;ka fi#uH yeZ.`uskamqrjd,hs usksiqka tlsfkld w;r mj;sk ;rZ.h tlS ;rZ.h fya;`fjka Wkqka yd w;rwe;sjk oafjzIh m<jd yer ukqIHFjfhys WKqiquska is;a f;;a lrkq ,nhs fu;a;dixl,amfhys wdfjzok me;slv uZ.ska usksi;alu fl;ruz W;`uz fohlao yd usksi;aluwrAy;ajh mfia nqoaOjh yd iuzud iuznqoaOFjh olajd jevs oshqKq l< yels nj usksiqkaygmyod fokq ,nhs fu;a;d ixl,amh usksia iudch iduQyslFjfhka weZo neZo ;nd .kakdnJOkhla yd iudkh jsjsO ixl,amhka usksia is;a i;ka ;`<g m@fjzY jSfuzoS tu m@fjzYhis|=jkq ,nkakd jQ wdfjzok me;slv fyj;a jskaokd;aul mCIh jvd;a m@Yia;j ;nd.ekSuuZ.ska m@fjzYjkq ,nk wd.ka;`l ixl,amhka jvd;a fydZoska wjfndaO lr.ekSug wjldYie,fihs fuu ixl,am wjfndaOh fydZoska m@Yia; ugzguska is|=jSu mYapd;a ld,Skj nqoaOsuhjYfhkao ufydamldrS fjhs iFjhdf.a nqoaOsuh wxYh m@ldY jkafka ixcdkk me;slvuZ.ska jk nejska wdfjzok me;slfvys l@shdldrSFjh uekjska mj;ajd .ekSu ixcdkkme;slfvys oshqKq ikaksfjzok yelshdj flfrys Wmia:uzNl jk nj fuysoS meyeos,s fjzfuhska m@lg jkqfha wdfjzok me;slfvys l@shdldrSFjh fjk;a fiiq wxY iuZ.iyiuznJOfhka ;`<kd;aul f,i jrAOkh jSu flfrys o Wmia:uzNl jk njhs fuu 122
  • 31. lreK fu;a;d ixl,amh iuznJOfhka jvd;a ;yjqre flfrk ldrKhls ulaksido h;afu;a;d ixl,amfhka is;a i;ka uD|= yd ieye,a,q lsrSug wjYH flfrk udkisl jgdmsgdjmyiqfjka f.dvkefZ.k nejsks ieye,a,q yd uD|= udkisl jgdmsgdjla iys; mrsirhla ;`<oS TzkEu mqoa.,fhl`f.a ixcdkk yelshdj yd wdfjzok ;Sj@;djh ;j ;j;a by< hknejsks tfukau ixcdkk wxYfhka oshqKqj;au ta wdY@h lrf.k mj;sk prAZhd me;slvuZ.ska wod< cSjshd ffcj ys;jdoS l@shdldrluzj, ksr;lrkq ,nhs wfkla w;g os.ska os.guffcj ys;jdoS prAhd rgdjlg wenzneys jSu ksid o tuZ.ska ixcdkk yelshdj yd wdfjzok;Sj@;djh jrAOkh jk njo fmkS hhs fuu tlsfkl wxYhkays ukd ifudaOdkh ksid iuQy.; usksia prAhdjgys;lr whqrska ixcdkk" prAhd yd wdfjzok me;slv hk wxY ;`ku jrAOkh fjz tysldrAhCIu;djh by< hhs iduQysl nj jevs iudc jvd;a blaukska ixjrAOkh lrd mshTijkafka o fuz ldrKh ksidh iduQyslFjh yd us;@YS,S wdl,am mqoa., yd iudcixjrAokh fjz.j;a lsrSfuys ,d b;du;a jeo.;a ;ekla .kakd ldrKhls fuz fya;`j ksidfu;a;d ixl,amh jevSfuka TzkEu mqoa.,fhl`f.a ldrAhCIu;djh fyj;a udkislOdrs;djh by< kxjk nj lrKSh fu;a;d iQ;@h wkqj meyeos,s fjz jvd jevsldrAhCIu;djhlska iukajs; ixcdkk" prAhd yd wdfjzok hk me;slv ;`k uZ.skacSjshdf.a ffcj ;,h o ;srsika fhdksfha isg n@yau f,dalh olajd ixjrAOkh fjuska .uka.kshs kuq;a nq|=iuh ish iuh orAYkfhys mru ksIagdj f,i i,lkqfha n@yau ldhsliajNdjfhkao jsksrAuqla; jQ il,jsO jQ laf,aYhkaf.ka ksrAfjsos; wjia:dj jk nejska tawjia:dj olajd ixcdkk" prAhd yd wdfjzok me;slvhkays l@shdldrSFjh oshqKq lsrSu" ;Sj@lsrSu" ishquz lsrSu yd Wiia ;,hlg meusKjSu is|= lrkq ,nhs fulS Wiia lsrSu l`Y,fhysfhoSu fyj;a mskaoyuzj, ksr;jSu kuska o thska mrsndysrj wka w;g" jsreoaO osYdNsuqLjixcdkk" prAhd yd wdfjzok me;slvhkays l@shdldrSFjh msrsyShdu msKsi wkqn, ,nd oSul`Y,fhys fhoSu fyj;a mjzluz lsrSu kuska o wF:! olajd we; fuz khska .;fyd;a mskfyj;a l`Y,h ;@sjsO me;slvhkays ixjrAOkh ms<snsUq lrkakla f,iska o mj fyj;awl`Y,h ;@sjsO me;slvhkays msrsySu iksgqyka lrkakla f,iska o oelajsh yelsh72 l`Y,h yd msk o wl`Y,h yd mj o iudkdrA:j;a f,iska jHjyrfhysfh|=k o fuys b;du;a ishquz fjkialuz fjz fuys msfkys wdfjzokd;aul iajNdjhg jvdishquz njla l`Y, hkafkys o wl`Y,fhys wdfjzokd;aul iajNdjhg jvd rZM njla mjhkafkayso .enzfjz fuys uq,skau ish prAhdjka ixialrKh lr.ksuska wdfjzok me;slvishquz njg muqKqjd .ekSu wdruzN lr isgsk mqoa.,hdg Wmfoia fokq ,nkafka ffcjiudch flfrys olajkakd jQ us;@YS,S wdl,amh ksid mj keue;s b;du;au rZM udkislwdfjzokj,ska je<flk f,ih inznmdmiai wlrKx hkafkka th lshfjz bka wk;`rej mdmia;j |=rg;a us;@YS,S Ndjfhys by< ;,hka lrd .uka .kakd mqoa., uki wl`Y, keue;sfiiq l`vd rZM udkisl wdfjzokj,ska je<lSug;a" mska keue;s ishquz udkisl wdfjzokhkag 123
  • 32. yqre mqre|= lr.ekSug;a Wmfoia fokq ,nhs bka wk;`rej wod< mqoa.,hdf.a is; ;j |=rg;aishquz wdfjzokhkaf.ka hqla; lrkq ioyd l`Y,h jrAOkh lrk f,i Wmfoia fokq ,nhsl`i,iai Wmiuzmod hkafkys wrA:h fuhhs l@udkQl~, f,i ffcj wdfjzohka ishquz lsrSfuzl@shdj<sh;a tu l@shdj<sh wjidkfhys ish,q laf,aYhkaf.ka jsksrAuqla; jSu olajd is|=jSuzfm< ish,q iFjhka iZoyd ksrAfoaY jS ;sfnkqfha ips;a; mrsfhdaomkx hkafkks f,dalfhysnq|=jre huz;dla my< fj;a o Wkajykafia,d ish,q fokdf.au wruqK jkqfha o f,dljdiSiEu iFjfhl`u fuu jevms<sfj< m@.`K lruska iirska tf;r lrjSu nj ta;xnqoaOidikx hkakka lshfjz73 ish,q nq|=jre fuu jevms<sfj< iuia; f,daljdiS iFjhd fj;yZ|=kajd fokq ,nkafka Wkajykafia,d ;`< iuia; f,daljdiS iFjhka flfrys we;s us;`re njfmrgq fldg.;a wdkqluzmdj ksidh74 fuz f,dlafhys Wiia;u l<HdK us;@hka iuzudiuznq|=jre jkqfha fuz ksidh ish,q iFj j.!hd jsIfhys Wkajykafia,d ;`< jrAOkh jS;snqKq l,HdK us;@Fjh ksidu Wkajykafia, fulS iWmfoaYhka iFjhka fj; m@odkhlr;a wdfjzok me;slv ishquz lsrSfuz jHhdhuh ;`< .enzjkqfha o fu;a;d ixl,amfhysNdjs;djhs ish,q iFjhd fu;a;d ixl,amfhka hqla;j jsiSu ffcj ys;jdoS udkislwdl,amhls tfukau tjsg iFjhd ;uka Wmudjg f.k wkHhka flfrys fu;a;d ixl,amhwe;sj jdih lrhs huz mqoa.,fhl` ;uka ;ukag flf;ruz ys;j;a o tayd iudkjuwkHhka flfrys ys;j;a iajNdjh jrAOkh lr .kshs huzlsis iudc ia:rhl fuzwdldrfhka iFjhka jdih lr;ao ta iudch lsis osfkl msrsySug m;a fkdjk w;r osfkkaosk oshqKqj lrd md Tijhs fndfyda fofkla Bkshd oshqKq j f,i olakd ndysr fN#;sloshqKqj kshu oshqKqjla fkdfjz th iudch yd iudch ;`< bkakd mqoa.,hka tlsfkldrjgd.ekSula muKs tf,i u;`msgska oshqKqjla f,i mej;sho Tzcia .,k ;`jd,hla f,imsg;ska wdjrAKs;j we;`<; l`Kq .Zo .iuska meyejuska os.ska os.gu iudch keue;sfrda.shd ush hkf;la th fkdisZoS mj;S kuq;a wjxlju iajlSh is; we;`<;skau fu;a;dixl,amh m@.`K lrkq ,nk mqoa.,fhl` fyda tnZ|= mqoa.,hka iuQyhlska iEoS we;siudchla tf,i u;`msgska olsk oshqKqj fiau wNHka;r .;j we;s oshqKqj ksid flosklj;amsrSySula we;s fkdfjz tu iudc ixialD;sh iuZ. noaOj hk l,d Ys,am yd mqoa.,ridiajdoh o ishquz njg m;alrk ,o usksia wdfjzok me;slv uZ.ska fydZo foa muKla ta;`<g .@yKh lr.; yels wdldrhg th ilia jS we;s ksid lsis osfkl nd, yriqka foaiudch jsiska fkdb,ajkq ,nhs ksrdhdifhkau ishquz njg muqKqjk ,o wdfjzok ;`<skafydZo foa muKlau ri jsZoSug usksid yqrej we;s fyhsks fuhska meyeos,s jkqfha iudchlamjd ilia jSug fu;a;d ixl,amh uZ.ska ishquz njg muqKqjk ,o wdfjzok me;slvufydamldrS jk njhs l,dYs,am j,ska is|=jkqfhao usksiqkaf.a rZM udkisl wdfjzokTmugzguz lrjd tajd ishquz njg meusKjSu jk ksid ta wdldrfha l,d ksrAudK tjsg taiudcfhys uq,a ;efkl ,d jecfUkq we; jrA;udkfhys fuka yriqka fohska usksiqka 124
  • 33. uq,djg m;a fkdjkq we; usksiqka jvd;a w.h lrkakg fm<fUkqfha o yels;dla ishquzjskaokd;aul foa muKs fu;ekg mqoa.,dNHka;rh ilia lrkakg kuz fu;a;d ixl,amhjrAOkh lr.ksuska wdfjzok me;slv ishquz njg mrsjrA;kh lr.ekSug usksiqkag wjldYie,ish hq;`h fuysoS iudchg j.lSuz folla mejfrA tlla kuz iudch jsiskau wjYHosYdk;sh ilia lr usksiqkayg tlS wdfjzok ;;ajhkag meusKsug Wmldrj;a jSuhsfojekak jkqfha fm#oa.,slju ;u ;uka ;`< wdfjzok l@shdldrSFjh Wiia njgmuqKqjdf.k wk;`rej ;uka ;`<ska ndysr iudchg fulS ;;ajh jsysfok wdldrhgiudch ;`< lghq;` lsrSuhs fojekak jvd;a m@fhda.sl jYfhka jeo.;a jqj o wiSre;uldrAhh fjz75 idudkH .sys iudchg wdorAYhla f,i .; yels mrsos ix> iudcfhysjH=yh yd mrudorAY ilia jS we; ix> hkafkys wrA:h jkqfha iuQyh hkakhs fjka l<fkdyels tl usgshla iuQyhla hk wrA:h bka lshfjz kuskau ix> iudcfhys mrudrA:ms<snZoj o< wjfndaOhlg meusKsug yelsjk mrsos kuz flrS we; kuskau wrA:j;a flfrkmrsos ix> iudch hkq jrA;udk iudc md,k rgd w;rska jvd oshqKu ,CIK wka;rA.;mrsmd,k jH=yhla nj mejish yelsh ix> iudch mqoa., kdhlFjhla jgd f.dkqfkdjqjla jk w;r mqoa., kdhlFjhl olakg we;s wys;lr ,CIK lsisjla ix> iudchla;`< fuz ksid olakg fkdfjz ix> iudchl jsoHudk jkqfha iduQysl md,k rgdjls tyswrA:h iuia;hd iuia;hd uZ.skau md,kh lrkq ,nkafkah hk kHhdhhs fuz wkqj ix>iudcfhys tla tla idudcslhdyg idudcsl jgskdula fuz uZ.ska mjrd fokq ,en we;af;ahfuz iuQy.; iudcfhys fldgia lrefjl` jSug kuz ;udyg mjrd fokq ,nk hq;`luzj.lSuz fldgi ;ukag mqZMjka Wmrsu whqrska bgq lr oSug fulS idudcslhd wkHhka fj;iduQyslFjfhys j.lSfuka neZoS isgshs fuu iduQyslFjh f.dkq jS mj;skqfha ffu;@sh ydiudk;au;djh jeks iudc mrudorAY jgdh fuz ksid lsishuz ffk;sl isoaOdka;hlskaiudch md,kh lrkjdg jvd jevs ksoyila fuz l@uh hgf;a tu iudcfhys tla tlaidudcslhdg ,efnz76 fu;a;d ixl,amfhys wdfjzok me;slv iuznJOfhka b;du jeo.;aksrAfoaYhka ix> iudch wdY@s;j imhd .; yelsh uq,a hq.fhys ix> iudch ilia jS;snqfKa mejsos cSjs;fhys uQ,sl mrudrA: Wfoid mejsos jQ msrsilf.ka nejska yqfola Tjqkaf.auQ,sl wNsm@dh jQfhao yels blaukska tlS mrudrA:hka idCId;a lr.ekSuhs fuz iZoyd TjqkajsfYaI oekquz oSulska fyda wK oSulska f;drj b;du iyfhda.fhka ffu;@sfhka hqla;j ishuQ,sl wruqK jQ wrAy;ajh ,enSfuys jHdhdufhys wm@udoSj ksr; jQ nj fmfka TjqyqiajNdjfhkau pduz w,afmapzP iy is,aj;a cSjs;hla .; l<y ikaksOsldr mrsfNdackfhkaf;drj" fN#;sl wjYH;d w;sYhskau iSud lr mj;ajk ix> iudchg uQ,sl ksY@h i;rlajsh77 fuu uQ,sl ksY@h i;r wdY@h lr.ksuska yd fu;a;d ixl,amfhys wdfjzok 125
  • 34. me;slfvys ishquz nj w;aolsuska ieye,a,q cSjs;hla Tjqyq .; l<y ieye,a,q nj ksidu ix>iudch w;sYhskau us;@YS,S wdla,m j,ska iukajs; jsKs uq, oS ieye,a,q nj m@;HCI jYfhkaw;aolsuska f.k.sh w,afmapzP cSjs;h Tjqfkdjqka tlsfkldg olajk ,o us;@YS,s wdl,amhjshelShdu;a iuZ.u l@ufhka ixlSrAK jkakg jsh78 uq, oS ir, nj .enz jQ ix> iudchwd;audrA:lduS fpz;kdj ksid us;@YS,S cSjk rgdfjka neyer jS l@ufhka ixlSrAK njgmrsjrA;kh jS wjidkfhys ixia:d.; jq nj meyeos,sj fmfkkakls mYapd;a ld,SkjYfhka ix> iudch ixlSrAK jQj;a tys uq,a ld,Sk wruqKqj,ska neyer fkdjSu ix>iudch msysgqjSfuz wfmaCIdjh tnejska nq|=rcdKka jykafia uQ,sl NsCIq mrudrA:hkag ydksfkdjk mrsoafoka mYapd;a ld,Skj jsldYh jQ ix> iudch jsiska w;am;a lr.kakd ,o taw;sfrAl ,dN ms<s.ekSu yd mrsfNdackh ms<snZo jsjsO jskh kshuhka m@ldYhg m;a lsrSfuyswjY;djh Woa.; jQ w;r ld,Skj we;s jQ iudc jsmrAhdihkag wkqj jskh kshuhka om@ldYhg m;ajsh79 jskh ffk;sl mokula .enzjk fohla jqj;a" nq|=iufhys iZoyka jk jskhkS;s yqfola ffk;sl mokula msKsiu mKjk ,o fohla fkdfjz tys wruqK fu;a;dixl,amfhys .enzjk ishquz udkisl wdfjzokh ta jQ wdldrfhkau ix> iudch ;`< ia:dms;lsrSu iZoyd wjYH lrk udkisl jd;djrKhl /ljrKh NsCIQkajykafia,dg ,ndoSuhsfuu woyi fmroers fldgf.k fulS woyi l`ZM .ekafjk mrsos m@d;sfudCIfhys ksrEms;jskh m@Z{ma;Ska iliaj we; ta jskh kshuhka w;r uq,a ;ek .;af;a idx>sl l@uhhs fuhskawoyia lrkqfha ix> iudch i;` foa mqoa., ika;l fkdlr iuQyhd ika;l lsrSuhsiuQyhdf.a jeo.;alu olsk iudchla yegshg ix> iudch yeZoskajsh yelshs tys oS ish,qfokdg ix> iudcfhys iudc jgskdluz iu fia wdfrdamKh jS ;sfnz ix> iudcfhaw;sfrAl ,dn jYfhka ,efnk isjzmih iuQyhdg ika;l lsrSu hkq ish,q fokdf.a wjYH;dWfoid lem lsrSu hkakhs80 idx>sl foam< l@uh m@cd;dka;@sl ,CIK m@lg lrkqfha tamrsfNdack l@uh ;`< us;@YS,S iudc mrsirh mdol lrf.k ish cSjk rgdj f.k.sh lsis|=NsCIqjla meje;au ms<snZoj fjfyig m;a fkdfjk nejsks wfkla w;g .Dyia:hska fukauqo,a bmhSfuys kshqla; jSu NsCIQFjh uQ,sl mrudrA:fhka .s,syS fjfyig meusKSulsiuQyhd jsiska mqoa.,hd iqrCIs; lrk nejska ix> iudch ;`< fm#oa.,sl Okj;a njla;snSu wjYH fkdfjz tfukau fm#oa.,slj lrk odkhg jvd iduQysl odkfhys wdksixYfkdtlajsg nq|=r|=ka jsiska jodrd ;sfnz uska fy<sfmfy<s jkqfha us;@YS,S yeisrSuz rgdfjysjeo.;alu iduQyslFjh iqrCIs; lsrSfuys oS jeo.;ajk njhs nq|=rcdKkajykafia mqoa.,slodkhg jvd iuQy.; odkfhys w.h jod<y81 Wkajykafia iuQyhd yd iuQyfhys us;@YS,Swdl,amh mj;ajd .ekSu ms<snZoj olajk ,o ie,ls,su;a nj uska m@lg fjhs wdrdu fikiqkamsrskeuSu;a" iuZ. wdrdusl jQ fkdfhla NdKav w;sfrAl ,dN jYfhka ix> iuQyhd fj;msrskeuSu is|= jsh lsis|= m@;s,dNhla mqoa.,fhl` ika;l fkdlr iuQyhd jsIfhys mejrSuuZ.ska n,dfmdfrd;a;` jQfha" ix> msrsi w;sYhskau ys;j;a iajNdjhla" tfukau Tjqfkdjqka 126
  • 35. flfrys ie,lsu;a jk iajNdjhla we;slsrSuhs82 us;@YS,S nj uq,afldg.;a" iuQyhdf.ameje;au myiqjkq msKsi fuz iZ.i;` foam< mrsyrKfha oS ta ta mqoa.,hdf.a wjYH;djhms<snZoj jevs ie,ls,a,la oelajSu ix> iudch ;`< idudkHfhka olakg ,efnz thskamqoa.,fhl` ;j;a mqoa.,fhl`f.a wjYH;djh ms<sno ie,ls,su;ajSug;a" ;uka ydwkHhkaf.a wjYH;d i,ld n,d lsishuz us;@YS,S wdl,amhlska hqla;j wkHhka jsIfhyslghq;` lsrSug;a ix> iudcfhys idudcslhska yeu foku mdfya Wkka|= jsKs fuhskawkHhka jsIfhys us;@YS,s wdl,amhlska lghq;` lsrSug ix> iudcfhys idudcsl msrsi yqremqre|= jsKs83 ix> iudcfhys wksjdrAhfhkau mej;sh hq;` jQ fu;a;d ixl,amh neyerjSuksid huz wl@usl;djhla is|= jqjfyd;a thg j.lsj hq;` NsCIqj iuQyhd fj;ska jskhdkQl~,oZvqjulg Ndckh fjhs tu oZvqju mjd tu NsCIqjg ,ndfokq ,nkafka fu;a;d ixl,amhfmroers lrf.k tu NsCIqj tu jroska uqojd .ekSfuz fpz;kdjks mqoa.,hd iuQyhdgj.lsj hq;` nejska ish,q fokd fj;u lghq;` ms<snZo j.lSuz iy.; njla ;snsh hq;` fjziduQysl iudchl ;snsh hq;` us;@YS,s wdl,amh jrAOkh jSug fuh wksjdrAh idOlhlafjz84 idx>sl foam, iuQy mrsfNdackhg ,lajk jsg tajdfha ukd meje;au yd wdrCIdjis|=jsh hq;af;a us;@YS,s njska hq;` jQ iuQyhd w;skauh85 ish,q ix>hd jykafia fmd|=fjz ;uj.lSuz fldgi yZ|=kdf.k mj;ajk fikiqka jsyrKfha ffu;@S mQrAjl wdfjzokfhys uD|=ugis,sgs iajNdjh fuhska meyeos,s fjz wkHhkaf.a ys;iqj msKsi l@shdlrkakd jQ us;@YS,Swdl,amj,ska iukajs; jQ NsCIqjla huz jsydria:dkhl jdih lrkafka kuz tys jik wkHNsCIQkaf.a fi#LH ixrCIKh msKsi ish wjOdkh wksjdrAhfhkau fhduq l< hq;` nejznq|=rcdKka jykafia jsiska fmkajd fokq ,enSh86 idx>sl foam< iqrCIs;j us;@YS,Swdl,amfhka hqla;j mrsfNdackh lsrSfuz j.lSuz iys; nj uska m@ldYs;h iiqka ms<sfj;gms<smka NsCIQkaf.a fmd|= wruqK f,i ie,flk ksrAjdK m@drm@dma;sh ,en .ekafuys uQ,OrAuh jkqfha iduQysl foam< mrsyrKhhs87 iuQyhdf.a meje;au myiqjSu msKsi wkqoekjodrd we;s fuz jskh kshuhka us;@YS,S whqrska iduQysl osjs fmfj;la .;lrkq ,nkmqoa.,hdf.a iudcSh j.lSu m@lg lrkq ,nhs ksrAjdK ,dNh iajlSh tlu mru ksIagdj fldg i,ld l@shdlsrSfuz j.lSuorK ix> iudcfhys udkisl wdfjzok me;slfvys ishquz nj rZod nj;afka ;rZ.ldrS osjsrgdfjka w;ausoS iduQysl cSjs;hla lrkjdkuz muKla nejska hf:dala; ldrAhh idOkfhys,d ix> iudch ksr;lrjSu msKsi foam< flfrys mqoa.,sl ysusluz meje;ajSfuz whs;sh iSudlr ;sfnz tnejska ix> iudcfhys l@shd;aul jkqfha iduQysl foam< l@uhls fuz iduQyslix> foam< fm#oa.,slj mejrsh fkd yelsh fm#oa.,slj fikiqka mejrE tla wjia:djlnq|=rcdKka jykafia thg .ryd iZ. i;` jia;~ka fm#oa.,sl whs;shg fkd osh hq;` njiuzu; l<y wdrdufha wdrdusl jia;` lsisjla fm#oa.,sl whs;shg .ekSu" mejrSu wkqu;fkdjk wdldrh bka fmfka fm#oa.,sl ika;l fkdjQjo tajd jsOsu;aj mrsyrKh lsrSfuzwhs;sh iEu fokd jykafiag ;sfnz fuz mrsyrK l@uh ksid NsCIqj ;DIaKd odi Ndjhg 127
  • 36. fkd meusfKa jsydrfhys ;uka iuZ. jik wfkla ish,q fokd iuZ.u iyfhda.fhka lghq;`lsrSug fm<fUz ffu;@S mQrAjl fpz;kdj mdol lrf.k fuu lghq;`j, ksr; fjz fu;a;dixl,amh fya;`fjka yg.kakd hym;a iqjodhs udkisl wdfjzokhl miqjkafka fjz wdrdusllghq;` is|= lsrSfuz oS fu;a;d ixl,amh mdol lr.kakd ,o wdfjzok ugzgul isg tlSlghq;` l, yels jk wdldrhg m@Z{ma;s yd wkq m@Z{ma;s iliaj we; w;sfrAl ,dNhjYfhka jsydria:dj,g ,efnkakd jQ jsjsO odkudk yd msrslr nyq, jSug fmr mgkaumsKavmd;h mjd iduQysl mrsyrKhg fhduq l, hq;` wdldrh olakg ,efnz fuuiduQyslFjh ;`<ska iuZ.sh;a" fu;a;d ixl,amh;a jrAOkh jS wjidkfhys nq|=iufhkawfmaCIs; wjidk ksIagdj jQ ksrAjdK iuzm@dma;sh lrd mqoa., uki wkql@ufhka fhduqjkwdldrhg wdfjzok me;slv ilialsrSu fuhska woyia jS we; ix>hdf.a idrdKSh OrAuhlaf,i wvq jYfhka md;@ mrAhdmkak jQ wdusIhla fjz kuz th wiqj,dg fkdj" wiqj,dghhkqfjka fjka lsrSula fkdue;sj in@yaupdrSka yd idOdrK fNda.S jsh hq;` nj fmkajd oS;sfnz88 fuz uZ.ska o wfmaCIdlr ;sfnkqfha ish meje;au ms,snZoj lsis|= wu;r fjfyilafkdf.k ;ukaf.a uQ,sl wruqK jk wrAy;ajh ,nd .ekSu msKsi jSrAhh jevSug wjYHlrk udkisl ksoyila ix> iudcfhys idudcslhkag ,ndoSuhs fuz uZ.ska ish wjidk jsuqla;sh idCId;a lr.ekSu jsIfhys W;aiql jSu jskdfjk;a lsis|= f,#lsl wNsm@dhhla uq,a hq.fhys NsCIQkag fkdjQ nejska ;;a hq.h ;`< ndysrm@Z{ma;s wkqidrfhka Wla; iudc jgdmsgdjla f.dv keZ.Sfuys wjYH;djhla we;s fkdjsKsuq,a hq.fhys NsCIQkaf.a wej;`uz mej;`uz o f.dvkeZ.S ;snqfKa Tjqkaf.a by; lS mrudrA:uhwOs.uh yels blaukska YdlaId;a lr.ekSfuz wNs,dYfhka ksid Tjqka w;ska is|= jkb;du;au iqZM w;miqjSula wrUhd isysm;a lrjSuz iajrEmfhka is|= lrkakd jQ isys leZojSulamuKla wjYH jQjd jskd l< hq;` yd fkdl< hq;` foa fuzjdh fujeks foa l< fyd;a fujeksoZvqjuz jsZoskakg is|= fjzh hkdoS jYfhka oKavkd;aul iajrEmfha wdZ{djla Tjqka jsIfhysmeKjSfuz wjYH;djhla Woa.; fkdjSh fu;a;d ixl,amh wka;rA.; wdfjzok miqnsulamokuz lrf.k ix> iudcfhys tla tla idudcslhdf.a is;`uz me;`uz ta wkqj ilialr.ekSug wkqn, ,ensK mqoa.,d;aul jYfhka o ksoyia yeisrSuz rgdjla ;`< lghq;`lrkakg bv ie,iSu usksia wdfjzok wxYfhka jvd;a m@;sM,odhl lreKls thg fya;`jwdOHd;aul ixjrAOkh we;s lr,Sfuys,d udkisl wxYh jvd;a m@Odk;ajh .kakd nejskaudkisl iqj myiqj yd ksoyi N`la;s jsZoskakd jQ mrsirhla iemhSu iajlSh wruqKq jvd;amyiqfjka uia;m@dma; lr.ekSu jsIfhys b;du;au jeo.;ah udkisl ksoyi N`la;s jsZoSuhkqfjka woyia jkafka is;~ u;fhys w;a;fkdau;sl f,i lghq;` lsrSu fkdj huzlsisiodpdrd;aul jgdmsgdjla ;`< ;ukaf.a wruqKq lrd hk w;ru wkHhkaf.a ksoyio N`la;sjsZoSug iq|=iq fu;a;d ixl,am wdfjzok mokulska hqla; udkisl miqnsula Tjqkag ilialroSfuys Wmldrj;a jk ksoyia iulduS udkisl jd;djrKhls89 128
  • 37. ieu jsglu .sys iudchg mqfrdal:khla fukau wdorAYhla o jk ix>iudch iajlSh md,k jH=yh ilia lr.kq ,enqfjz w;sYh m@cd;ka;@jdoS miqnsula u;hiduQysl osjs meje;au yd iduQysl foam< mrsyrKh mjd ix> iudch ;`< l@shd;aul jQfhawdYdjka yd udkisl wdfjz.ldrS jd;djrKhla ta ;`<ska cks; fkdjk fiah fujkaudkisl jgdmsgdjla ;;ahq.fhys fnfyjska m@;sm;a;s.relj jsiQ NsCIQ iudchg iajlShudkisl ixjrAOkd;aul l@shdj<sfhys ,d w;sYhskau Wmldrj;a jsh huz fyhlska fuzwdldrfhka l@shd fkdl<dkuz wdruzNl hq.fhys NsCIq iudchg Tjqka ienjskau wfmaCIdlrk ,o mrudrA:uh wOs.u ;;ajhka lrd ;@smsglfhys yd wgzGl:d .@J:hkays oelafjkmrsoafoka myiqfjka yd iq,N wdldrfhka hd fkdyels jkakg bv ;snsKs fuz ksid uq,ahq.fhys NsCIQka jykafia,df.a cSjk meje;au yd tlS hq.fhys Tjqka jsiska YdlaId;alr.kakd ,o mrudrA:uh wOs.u ;;ajhka w;r wmQre wkqf,dau inZo;djhla mej;sKsnq|=rcdKka jykafiaf.a wfmaCIdj jQfha o ienjskau fuz ;;ajh os.ska os.gu ix> iudch;`< rZod mj;ajd .ekSu jQ w;r kuq;a mYapd;a ld,Skj ix> iudch ixlSrAK fj;au uq,ahq.fhys ix> iudchg m@fjzY jQ wdruzNl idudcslhkaf.a wruqKq yd mYapd;a ld,Skj Bgtla jQ kj idudcslhkaf.a wruqKq w;r mr;rh l@udkQl~,j |=riajkakg jsKs fuz |=ria;riajNdjh we;s jSu uqZMukskau uev meje;au m@fhda.slj lsisfia;a l< fkdyels lreKla njnq|=rcdKka jykafia jsiskau;a fydZoska oek isgsh;a" |=ria;r iajNdjh we;s jSfuz fjz.h huzmuKlska fyda wvd, lrkakg kuz ix> iudch lsishuz ffk;sl jHjia:d ud<djl /ZojSul< hq;`u ldrAhlehs ix> iudcfhys jQ fcHIaG NsCIQka jsiska mjd is;kakg jQ miqnsul ydld,jljdkqjl nq|=r|=ka hf:dla; ldrAfhys,d W;aiyj;a jQ whqre oel.; yelsh tys oSnq|=rcdKka jykafiaf.a ks.ukh jQfha ish,q ffk;sl jHjia:djka meKjSfuz wjia:djka ydwjYH ldrKhka ms<snZoj b;du;au ksrjoH ;SrK .ekSfuz yelshdj yd Bg wjYH lrkakdjQ nqoaOs mrsmdlh we;af;a iuzud iuznq|=jrekagu muKla njhs90 NsCIq msrsi mD:q, jk jsg NslaLq osjsfhys uQ,sl moku jQ fu;a;d ixl,amhiys; wdfjzokhkaf.ka neyerg hk jsg" nq|=rcdKka jykafiag iuQyhdf.a md,kh Wfoidhuz huz jskh jsOs wkq.ukh lsrSug is|= jQ nj b;d m@lgh iiqfkys kjlhska yslaujSuWfoid wdpdhH! WmdOHdh l@uhla ksrAfoaY lsrSug is|= jQfha o ta wkqjh NsCIq YsCIKfhysuQ,sl wfmaCIdj kuz jsuqla;s idOkhhs jsuqla;s idOkh msKsi wjYH lrkakd jQ udkisl,sys,a nj we;s lr.ekSfuz wOsIaGdkhlska hqla;j tu wOsIaGdkh imsfrk wdldrfhka iiqk;`< jev fjfikakd jQ NsCIQka jykafia,d lghq;` lrkafka flfiao hk meKhg jsiZ|=ulafu;a;d ixl,amh uZ.ska fmkajd oS ;sfnz huz NsCIqjla iiqfkys yd;amiska nei yslafukafkakuz ossgzGOuzu jYfhka wrAy;ajh fyda wkd.duS nj fyda hk M, folska tlla leu;s jshhq;` nj ;:d.; wfmaCIdjhs fulS mrudrA:h iZoyd nq|=rcdKka jykafia jsiska u iq|=iqfu;a;d ixl,am wdfjzok mokulska hqla; miqnsula u;" uq,a ld,Sk Y@djlhka yslaujk ,okuq;a miqj we;s jQ ;;ajhka wkqj wjjdo fkd,nk" wkqYdikd fkd ,nk" ukd f,i yeZo 129
  • 38. fkd fmrjQ wdl,am iuzmkak fkdjQ msrsia nsys jQy91 WmdOHdh jrhd wkqoek jodf<a fuzfya;`fjks92 WmdOHdhka jykafia iy wkaf;ajdislhd w;r iuznJOh jvd;a iafkayjka; jQmuKgu Tjqfkdjqkaf.a Ydiksl ldrAhNdrh o idrA:l jQ nj fuys oS fmkajd oS ;sfnz fuysoS Tjqfkdjqka fofokdf.a N~usldjka yqfola flfkla wfkldg hgy;a my;a jSu muKlaufkdj hq;`luz j.lSuz iajrEmfhka l@shd;aul jkakd jQ wfkHdakH ffu;@sh mQrAjx.ulr.kakd ,o m@;smodjla nj meyeos,ju fmfkkakg ;sfnz jsfYaIfhkau Tjqka fofokdf.aiuznJOh msh mq;` fifkyi fuka uQrA;su;a lsrSu ;`< wfkHdkH jYfhka mej;sh hq;`fu;a;d ixl,am wdfjzokfhys m@udKh fmkajd fokq ,nhs fulS fu;a;d ixl,amh wdfjzokmCIfhka yrshdldrj l@shd;aul jSug kuz ;u;uka ;ukaf.a hq;`luz fldgi wfkla mCIhfj; yrshdldrj bgq l< hq;` nj wjOdrKh lr ;sfnz fuys oS wdpdrAh WmdOHdh fofokdf.a jsfYaIFjh l`ulaoehs hkak i,ld 93ne,sh hq;`h WmdOHdhjrfhl` ke;slu hkq jro ksjro yZ|=kajd fok .`rejrfhl` ke;s 94njhs wdpdr iudpdrfhys yslaujkafka wdpdrAhjrhd njhs95 ;ukayg WmdOHdh jkquekjehs YsIHhd jsiska lrkq ,nk wdrdOkh WmdOHdh f;fuz ms,s.kafka kuz WmdOHdh.@yKh fjhs96 ta wdldrhgu wdpdrAhjrhdg o wdhdpkd lsrSfuka miqj th ms,s.kafka kuzwdpdhH! .@yKh fjhs97 WmdOHdhjrhdf.a YsIHhd ioaOsjsydrslhdh wdpdhH!jrhdf.aYsIHhd wkaf;jdislhdh fuz wdpdrAh WmdOHdh yd wkaf;ajdisl iuznJO;djh msh mq;`fifkyi ;rugu tlsfkl oevsj neZ|=kq ffu;@S mQrAjl yd iuZ.s iuzmkak tlla jsh hq;`nj fuhska b;du;a oevs f,i wjOdrKh lr ;snsKs fuz .`re YsIH fomCIh tlsfkl fj;ffu;@S mQrAjl msh mq;` wdl,amhla m@lg l< hq;`h wdpdhH! wkaf;jdisl iuznJO;dj ofufiau ffu;@S mQrAjl wdl,amhlska hqla;j mej;Su wkqoek jodrd we;98 wfkHdkH f.#rjiys;j"99 wfkHdkH msysg iys;j"100 .e,fmk mej;`uz we;sj"101 .`re – YsIH fomCIhjdih lrkafka kuz iiqfkys jrAOkh" jsmq,Fjh is|= fjhs .`re – YsIH ino;djwrA:j;ajSug fhda.H ufkdajsoHd;aul wdl,amhla f,i fu;a;d ixl,am wdfjzokh fuhskam@ldYs;h ffu;@S mQrAjl fpz;kdfjka iukajs; .`rejrhdf.a ldrAhNdrh l`ulao hkakwk;`rej myod.; hq;`h NsCIqj wkdl,am iuzmkak jkqfha wjjdoh;a wkqYdikh;a fkd,nk l,aysh tfia kuz .`rejrhdf.a uQ,sl ldrAhh ffu;@S mQrAjl fpz;kdfjka hqla;jYsIHhdg wjjdoh;a wkqYdikh;a ,nd oSuhs huz jrolg meusKSug fmr fuh lrkak"fuh fkdlrkak hkqfjka lrk m@ldYh wjjdohhs huz jrolg meusKSug miq lrkm@ldYfha wkqYdikhhs tfia u jrog meusKqk l,ays fyda ke;s l,ays fyda m@:u jpkhwjjdoh fjhs kej; kej;;a lSu wkqYdikh fjhs102 wdpdrAh WmdOHdh jSug fhda.H mqoa.,hd tlaflda wffYCIH ( ry;a )mqoa.,fhl` jsh hq;`h ke;skuz fiaL m@;smodjg ms<smka mqoa.,fhl` jsh hq;`h fiaLmgsmodjg ms<smka wdpdrAhjrhd Y@oaOdfjka hqla;"103 mdmfhys ,cAcd we;af;ls104 mjg 130
  • 39. nshh105 wrUk ,o jSrAhh we;af;ls106 t<U isgs isys we;af;ls107 tnejska wkHhka iiqfkysfhdojkakg ksis fjhs wdpdrAhjrhd iS, jsm;a;shg;a" wdpdr jsm;a;shg;a" oDIagsjsm;a;shg;a fkd meusKs nyqY@e; m@Z{djka;fhl` jsh hq;`h .`rejrhd ioaOsjsydrslhdf.a;a"wkaf;ajdislhdf.a;a myiqj ie,iSug yels whl` jsh hq;`h108 YsIHhd ;`< iiqfkys fkdwe,aula fjz kuz th |=re lrkakg fyda |=re lrjkakg yels jsh hq;`h109 YsCIdj ms<snZoWmosk l`l`ia OrAudkQl~,j neyer lrkakg fyda o; hq;`h110 wdm;a;sh o; hq;`h111wdm;a;sfhka keZ.S isgSu o; hq;`h112 fu;a;d ixl,am wdfjzok miqnsulska hqla;j" YsIHhdflfrys ldhsl jYfhkq;a udkisl jYfhkq;a myiqj ie,iSug.`rejrhd ;`< yelshdjlamej;sh hq;` nj uska wjOdrKh flfrA mejsoaog wkqf,duz jQ wdpdr YsCIdfjys YsIHhdyslaujkakg o; hq;`h113 n@yauprshdjg uQ,sl jk YsCIdjkays o yslaujSug o; hq;`h114wNsOrAufhys;a" wNsjskfhys;a yslaujkakg o; hq;`h115 YsIHhdg huz oDIags.;hlaWmkafkd;a th OrAudkql~,j jsfjzpkh lrkakg .`rejrhd o; hq;`h116 hkdoS jYfhka miawhqrlska fuh js.@y flfrA uQ,sl jYfhka YsIHhd .`rejrhd flfrys ukd f,i mej;sh hq;`h117 fuzukd f,i mej;Su hkak wdrdusl YsCIKfha oS fnfyjska jeo.;a fjhs118 .`rejrhdf.amd;@ isjqre wruqKq fldg mjd ffu;@S mQrAjl wdl,amhlska hqla;j l@shd l< hq;` wdldrhoelajSu ;`< msh mq;` fifkyfiys neZoSu ta whqrska Ydik osjsfhys wruqKq YdiaCId;alr.ekSu wrNhd o flfia Wmfhda.S lr.; oehs jgyd .; yels fjz119 ;uka jikakd jQwdjdifhys ikSmdrCIdj ms<snZoj o YsIHd ie,ls,su;a jsh hq;` nj fmkajd oS we;120tmuKla o fkdj ;uka jsiska wkHhka jsIfhys is|= lrkq ,nk ish,q u lghq;` ;u.`rejrhdf.a wjirh iys;j u l< hq;`h121 ;ukag lSlrej ffu;@sfhka hqla;j Wjegkalrkakd jQ YsIHhd frda.d;`r jqjfyd;a .`rejrhdg lrk mrsoafoka u fu;a;d ixl,amwdfjzokfhka iukajs; .`rejrhd jsiska ;ukag Wjegka lrkq ,nk iajlSh YsIHhdg oWjegka l< hq;`h ishZMu j;a ms<sfj;a YsIHhd jsiska ioaOsjsydrsl" wkaf;ajdisl j;aiuzmQrAK l< hq;`h122 huz ioaOs jsydrslfhl` WmdOHdhjrhd jsIfhys ukd f,i fkdmj;skafka ffu;@S mQrAjl fpz;kdj fkdue;s fia i,ld tnZ|= wh flfrys .;hq;` jskhdkQl~,l@shdudrA.o fmkajd oS ;sfnz123 tfia fldg;a ukd f,i .`rejrhd flfrys fkd mj;skYsIHhd neyer lrkakg wkqoek jod<y124 ukd f,i fkd mj;sk YsIHhd neyer lsrSu;atfia neyer lrkq ,enQ YsIHhd jsiska iudj wheoSu;a hk lreKq folska wfmaCId lrkqfha"ffu;@S fpz;kdj fmrgq fldgf.k Ydik mrudrA:h bgqjSu u .`re YsIH inZo;dfjz uQ,slmrudrA:h jsh hq;` njhs huz WmdOHdhjrfhla neyer lrk ,o ioaOs jsydrslfhl` jsiska iudjwhoskq ,nk l,ays iudj fkdfoa o th WmdOHdhjrhdf.a fodaIhla f,i meyeos,s lr oS 131
  • 40. ;sfnz125 huz fyhlska iudj whosk l,ays o .`reka fj;ska iudj fkd ,nk YsIHhd neyerhkakg mqZMjk126 isjqre yer hkakg o ms,sjk127 wkH ;SrA:lhka fj; hkakg omqZMjk128 tfia jsh fkdoS YsIHhd wdrCId lrkakg kuz .`rejrhd fj;ska YsIHhd iudj,ensh hq;`h tfy;a .`rejrhd flfrys ukd f,i fkd mj;akd" neyer lrk l,ays|= iudjfkd wokd YsIHhd jsIfhys kuz ms,smeosh hq;` jsOshla ke; Ydik ldrAhh bgq fkd jk;ek .`re YsIH iuznJO;djg fldfy;au m@;sIagdjla ke; NsCIq wOHdmkfhys uQ,sl mokuffu;@shhs .`rejrhd ;`< fukau YsIHhd ;`< o ffu;@Sh wjYHlrk m@udKhg jrAOkhlr.ekSu NsCIq wOHdmkfhys uQ,sl ldrAhNdrhla fjz fuz fya;`j ksid tu uQ,sl wOHdmkwruqK jk .`rejrhd flfrys ffu;@S mQrAjl wdl,amhlska hqla;j lghq;` lrkq ,nkYsIHhd neyer lrkakg lsisfia;a .`rejrhdg wjirhla ke; tfia lsrSu oafjzI uQ,slfpz;kdfjka is|= lrkakla nejsks tfiau iajlSh .`rejrhd flfrys ffu;@S mQrAjlfpz;kdfjka hqla;j lghq;` fkdlrkq ,nk YsIHhd neyer fkd lsrSfukq;a fodI iy.;mqoa.,fhl` fjz129 huz YsIHfhl` .`rejrhd flfrys wOsud;@ fm@aufhka hqla; fkdfjz owOsud;@ m@idofhka f;dr fjz o130 wOsud;@ ,cAcdjla fkdfjz o131 wOsud;@ f.#rjfhka f;drfjz o132 wOsud;@ ffu;@S ps;a;hla ke;af;a o133 tnZ|= YsIHhd neyer l< hq;`h tnZ|= |=rA.`Kwe;s YsIHfhl` neyer fkd lrk .`rejrhd fodia iys; fjz134 neyer lrkafka u fodiarys; fjz135 .`rejrhd flfrys wOssud;@ fm@auh;a" m@idoh;a" ,ecAcdj;a" f.#rjh;a" ffu;@Sps;a; Ndjkdj;a we;s YsIHhdu wdrCId l< hq;`h tnZ|= YsIHfhl` neyer lsrSfuka.`rejrhd fodia iys; fjz136 ksi .ekSu hkqfjka woyia lrkqfha WmdOHdhpdrAhjrfhl` weiqfrysisgSuh th tla;rd wdldrfhka iajlSh .`rejrhd <.u jev fjfiuska ;ukaf.a prs;ixjrAOhg wjYH lrkakd jQ Wmfoia .ekSula f,iska o wF:! oelajSfuz yelshdj we; fuz ;`<.enzjkqfha ffu;@S mqrAjl fpz;kdjhs fu;a;d ixl,amh iy.; is;ska hqla;j jdih l<hq;af;a tfia fkdjk fyj;a jHla; m@;sn, fkd jk mqoa.,hdg iiqka osjsh wka;rdhlr jknejsks fuys jHla; m@;sn, iuzmkak mqoa.,hd hkq wkHhka jsIfhys fu;a;d ixl,amhfmrgq fldg lghq;` l< yels wodk.@dyS fkdjkakd jQ mqoa.,hdh l,HdK us;@Fjh ,enSujkafka o thuh tnejska jHla; m@;sn, iuzmkak NsCIqjla mia jila o" wjHla; NsCIqjjsiska osjs we;s ;dla o wdpdrAh – WmdOHdh weiqfrys jsish hq;`h137 fya;`j fu;a;d ixl,amhix> iudcfhys idudkH idudcslfhl` fj; idudkHfhka ;snsh hq;` muKg fkdjevS we;snejska ;j |=rg;a tfia yslauSu ,ensh hq;` mqoa.,fhl` fldg i,lk fyhsks fu;a;dixl,amh jvuska ksY@hdpdrAhjrfhl` hgf;a isgsh hq;` njg fya;` /ils tajd kuz ;j|=rg;a jevsh hq;` is,a we;s nj"138 ;j |=rg;a jevsh hq;` iudOs we;s nj"139 ;j |=rg;ajevsh hq;` m@Z{d we;s nj"140 jsuqla;sfhka iukajs; fkd jSu"141 Y@oaOdj ke;s lu"142 mfjys,cAcd ke;s lu"143 mfjys nsh ke;s lu"144 l`iS; luska hq;` jSu"145 isys uq<dfjka hq;`jSu"146 iS, jsm;a;s we;s lu"147 wdpdr jsm;a;s we;s lu"148 jeros oDIags we;s lu"149 132
  • 41. w,amY@e; nj"150 |=Yam@dZ{ nj"151 wdm;a;sh fkd okakd lu"152 wkdm;a;sh fkd olakdlu"153 idudkH weje;a fkd okakd lu"154 .re weje;a fkdokakd lu"155 NsCIq NsCIqKS WNhm@d;sfudCIh fkd okakd lu156 yd jia mylg wvq jSu157 hk lreKq fu;a;d ixl,amh ksismrsos jevS fkdue;s nfjys i,l`Kq fjz NsCIq wOHdmkfha moku f,i ie,flk ffu;@SmQrAjl wdl,am iuzmkak yeisrSuz rgdj wfmaCIs; mrsidOk ugzgu olajd jevS ;snSu iEukjl NsCIqjlf.kau ix> iudch wfmaCId lrk w;r wjidkfha oS iajlSh idudcslfhl`f,i wOsiS, ixLHd; Wmiuzmodj mjd ,ndfokq ,nkafka fulS b,lalh imqrk fyda tfiaimqr;ehs ix> iudch jsiska iduQysl tlZ.Fjhlg meusfKk kjl NsCIqjlgh fuz uZ.ska b;du;a fydZoska meyeos,s jk ldrKhla jkqfha NsCIqwOHdmkfhys uQ,sl w;a;sjdru iliaj we;af;a msh mq;` iafkayh fuka jQ ffu;@S mQrAjlfpz;kdj yd wfkHdakH iyfhda.S;djh u; njhs fuz iyfhda.h n,fhka we;s l< yelallafkdjk nj o th l< yelafla ukdj wjfndaOfhka hq;`j ish cSjk wruqK l`ulaoehsf;areuz .ekSu ;`<ska muKla nejz fuz uZ.ska NsCIq iudch ;`<g jka kjl NsCIQka jykafiakulg jqj o fydZoska f;areuz hk wdldrfhka wdrdusl NsCIq wOHdmkh ilia j we;tfukau wdrdusl wOHdmkfhys iqjsfYaIsuh jeo.;a lreK jkqfha th fjk;a wOHdmkjsOsl@uhkays fuka yqfola mqoa., ixcdkk l`i,;djhu flaJ|@fldg .;a;la fkdjk w;rh:d mrsos m@fndOlhka f,i Ndjs;d lrkq ,nk ixl,amhka uZ.ska wdfjzok yelshdj jvd;aoshqKq ;,hlg m;a lrjkakla o jk njhs ix> iudch fnfyjska iduQysl cSjkhflaJ|@lr .;a;la nejska wdfjzok yelshdj yels;dla wkHhka iuZ. iyfhda.fhka lghq;`lsrSug fydZo mqre|= mqyqKqjSula ;`<ska jO!kh lr .ekSug wdrdusl wOHdmkh uZ. fy,slrfokq ,nhs jsfYaIfhka fu;a;d ixl,amh uZ.ska wfmaCIs; us;@Fjh" ifydaorFjh ydiudkFjh jeks yeZ.Suz jevs jO!kh lsrSu msKsi jvd jevz rel`,la ,nd fokq ,nhsnq|=iufhys mqoa.,sl jsuqla;sh yd iudkju jeo.;a ia:dkhla iudc jsuqla;sh fj;g o,ndfok nejska mqoa.,hd ,nkakd jQ flaj, mqoa., jsuqla;sfhka muKla iEySulg m;ajSugnq|=iuh /l`,a fokq fkd,nhs mqoa., jsuqla;sh jqj o nq|=iufhys wkqoek jodrd we;af;amYapd;a ld,Sk iudc jsuqla;shg th Wmia:uzNl lr.; yels mokula jYfhks fuzfya;`j ksidu mqoa., jsuqla;sh idOd .kakd mqoa.,fhl` ;`<o wksjdrAhfhkau iudcjsuqla;sh idOd,Sug fhda.H m@udkfhys fu;a;d ixl,am ixjrAOkhla mej;Su nq|=iuhwfmaCId lrkq ,nhs nq|=ufhys wdNdih ,nk flnZ|= Y@djlfhl` ;`< jqj o mrsiudma;shgm;a fu;a;d ixl,amfhka iukajs; wdfjzok me;slvla ;snSfuz wjYH;djh nq|=iuh iEuwjia:djlg ish Y@djlhska fj; bosrsm;a lr isgskqfha o tfyhsks 133
  • 42. mdol igyka ( Foot Notes ) & -1 u,,fialr" .`Kmd,"bx.@Sis – isxy, YnzofldaIh" iSudiys; weuz vS .`Kfiak iy iud.u" fld<U" 12 jeks uq|@Kh 1987"msgqj 152 Hornby, A. S.,Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary of Current English, Oxford University Press, Sixth edition, 2000, p. 4023 u,,fialr" .`Kmd,"bx.@Sis – isxy, YnzofldaIh" iSudiys; weuz vS .`Kfiak iy iud.u" fld<U" 12 jeks uq|@Kh 1987"msgqj 3024 Hornby, A. S.,Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary of Current English, Oxford University Press, Sixth edition, 2000, p.4105 ,, ,, ,, Do ,, ,, ,, p 206 The Encyclopeadia Britannica Volume 1, Helen Hemingway Benton Publisher, 1975, 15 th Edition, p. 1197 i. Allen,R.E, The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Current English, Oxford University Press, India, 1990, pp. 19,20 ii. Collocott,T.C, Dodson,A.B, Dictionary of Science and Technology, Allied Publishers Private Limited, India, 1974, p. 21 iii. Macdonald,M.A, Chambers Twentieth Centuary Dictionary, Allied Publishers Private Limited, India, 1982, p 20.8. ucACOsu ksldh 1" fldiuznsh iq;a;" nqcuq" msgq 756"7569. fu;a;d NslaLfj" nyqldfrd wrshiai wgzGX.sl u.a.iai Wmamdodh l;fud tlOuzfud" hosox l,HdK us;a;d" l,HdK us;a;iafi;x NslaLfj" NslaLqfkd mdgslXLx wrshx wgzGx.slx u.a.x Ndfjii;s wrshx wgzGx.sld u.a.x nyq,Slrsiaika;s l:Z[ap NslaLdj" NslaLq l,HdK us;af;d wrsh wgzGx.slx u.a.x nyq,Slrsiai;S;s l:Z[ap NslaLfj" NslaLQ l,HdK us;af;d wrshx wgzGx.slx u.a.x Ndfj;s" wrshx wgzGx.slx u.a.x nyq,Slfrd;s bO NslaLfj" NslaLq iuzud osgzGs Ndfj;s - fm - iuzud iudOsx Ndfj;s jsfjzlx ksiais;x jsrd. ksiais;x ksfrdO ksiais;x fjdi.a.mrsKdusx" tjx fLd NslaLfj NslaLQ l,HdK us;af;d wrshx wgzGx.slx u.a.x Ndfj;s" wrshx wgzGx.slx u.a.x nyq,Slfrd;S;s ixhq;a; ksldh v" l,HdK us;a; iq;a;a" nq c uq msgqj 5810 ucACOsu ksldh 1" fldiuznsh iq;a;" nqcuq" msgq 75611 i fid,uka Solomon" 1977" ,hkaia Lyons jsiska Wmqgd olajhs" 1980" ms 9 ii lsuznzf,a Kimble" 1961 & uelskafgdIa Mackintosh" 1974 " ixcdkkh ( fkahsirA Neisser" 1967 & jsfl,a.afrAka Wickelgren" 1979 ) iy fuhg iudk idudkH ufkdajsoHdj ( bielaika Isaacson" ygz Hutt " iy nz,Quz Blum" 1965 ) iii f,fhdkaia" Lyons 1980" ms 5312. ,, ,, ,, Do ,, ,,13. jsoHdZ{hska jsiska fuz iuznJOfhka is|= lrkq ,enQ mrAfhaIKj, oS fidhd .kakd ,o fohla kuz wdfjzokfhys n,mEu ksid i;`kf.a ffcj l@shdj<sfhys mjd b;d jsYd, fjkialuz we;s jQ njhs yeisrSuz" mqre|=" wdl,am yd jsjsO wdfjzokhkag olajk m@;spdrhkays mjd wdfjzok iuznJOfhka jQ n,mEu wOsl nj fidhd .kakd ,oS ta iZoyd wekv@,Ska kuz fydafudakh Ndjs;d lrk ,oS tysoS l,n,ldrS iajNdjh ;Sjzr lsrSfuys jsfYaI n,mEula we;s wekv@,Ska fydafudakh tkak;a l< i;`kaf.a yeisrSu wfkla i;`kag idfmaCIlj l,n,ldrS jsKs fldamh jeks oafjzI uQ,sl udkisl ;;ajhka hgf;ys wekv@,Ska fydafudakh b;d wOsl jYfhka i@djh fjz fu;a;d ixl,amh wdfjzokhjSu ksid wekv@,Skaj, l@shdldrSFjh hgm;a jS hkq ,nhs fu;a;d ixl,amh ksid isf;ys Ydka; iajNdjh" iudOsh" jyd tlZ.jSu yd wjsfCIamh jeks .`Kdx. jrAOkh fjz fuz fya;`j ksid ukfiys iaurK Yla;sh o jrAOkh fjz ,, ,, ,, Do ,, ,,14 remam;S;s fLd NslaLfj ;iaud rEmka;s jqpzp;s fjzoh;S;s fLd NslaLfj ;iaud fjokd;s jqpzp;s ixcdkd;S;s fLda NslaLfj ;iaud iZ[aZ[d;s jqpzp;s ixL;uNsixLfrdka;S;s fLd NslaLfj ;iaud ixLdfrd;s jqpzp;s jscdkd;S;s fLda nslaLfj ;iaud jsZ[aZ[ka;s jqpzp;s ixhq;a; ksldh 111" LcAckSh iq;a;" nqcuq" msgq 146 – 14815 ixhq;a; ksldh v" us;a; iq;a;" nqcuq" msgq 290 - 29116. ucACOsu ksldh 1" fldiuznsh iq;a;" nq c uqq" msgq 754 - 75617. Social Learning theory,A.Bandura,Prentice Hall Englewood Cliffs,1977,p.61.18 i. ixhq;a; ksldh v" us;a; iq;a;" nqcuq" msgq 290 - 291 ii. fu;a;d fpzf;djsuq;a;S;s tF: fu;a;d;s jq;af; wmamkdms Wmjdfrdms jgzg;s" fpf;djsuq;a;S;s wmamkdfhjfhdksfidukisldfrd jq;a; ,laLfKdj wmsj P Ouzud nHdmdoiai mydkdh ixj;a;ka;s - fu;a;d ksus;a;iai W.a.fyd" fu;a;dNdjkdkqfhdf.d" luzuiail;dmpzpfjlaLK;d" mgsiZXLdk nyq,;d" l,HdKus;;a;d" imamdhl:d;s Tosiail wfkdosiail osidMrKdkCoys wZ[aZ[;rjfik fu;a;x W.a.Kaykaf;iaidms nHdmdfod mySh;s" ;:d TOsfidwfkdOsfidosidMrKdjfik fu;a;x Ndfjka;iaidms ;jx M;iai l`oafOd lsx lrsiaiis$ 134
  • 43. lsuiai is,doSks kdfi;`x ilLsiiis $ kkq Fjx w;a;fkd luzfuk wd.kaFjd w;a;fkd luzfufkj .usiaiis$ mriai l`cACOkx kdu jS;jjslZX.dr;;a;whi,dl.~:dosks .fyFjd mrx myrs;`ldu;diosix fyd;s tfidms ;j l`oafOd lsx lrsiai;s$ lsx f; iS,dosks jskdfi;`x ilaLsiai;s$ ti w;a;fkd luzfuk wd.kaFjd w;a;fkd luzfufkj .usiai;s$ wmamgsjcs;mfyKlx jsh mgsjd;x Ls;a;rfcduqgzGs jsh j t;iafifji fldfOd uF:fl m;siai;S;s tjx w;a;fkd p mriai p luzuiail;x mpzpfjlaLf;dms" WNh luzuiail;x mpzpfjlaLsFjd mgsiXLdfk Gs;iaidms" wiai.`;a;f:riosfi fu;a;dNdjkdrf; l,HdKus;af; fijka;iaidms nHdmdfod mySh;s" GdkksicAcdoSiq fu;a;dksiais; imamdhl:dhms mySh;s f;k jq;a;x P Ouzud nHdmdoiai mydkdh ixj;a;ka;S;s bfuys mk Pys Ouzfuys myskiai nHdmdoiai wkd.dusu.af.k wdh;sx wkqmamdfod fyd;s ixhq;a; ksldhgzGl:d v" us;a; iq;a;" nqcuq" msgq 360 -37519. ixhq;a; ksldh v" fu;a; iq;a;" nqcuq" msgqj 24520 i.a. fuz jsia;rh fu;a;d ixl,amfhys wdfjzok ;;ajhkays is|=jSuz is;d u;d is|=jk iajNdjfha wdfjzokhka g jvd jevsh fu;a;d ixl,amh ksid us;@YS,S iajNdjfhys ufkda ixlSrAKhla yg.kakd w;r fuz ksid ksrka;rfhkau wuq;` mrsl,amkhla rys;ju f;fuz ieuf.au l,HdK us;`frla njg ksrdhdifhkau m;a fjz b fu;a;d ixl,am wdfjzok ixisoaOsuh ;;ajhka we.hSuz jsIh ;`< widudkH ufkdajsoHd;aul fjkialuz j,g fya;`jkafka tajd we.hSuz olajd iuznJO lsrSuhs fu;a;d ixl,am wdfjzok lsisjsgl iuzu; jsOs l@uhka uZ.ska we.hSfuz l@shdj<shg ,la l< fkdyels jkafka tys wka;rA.; thgu wdfjzksl .`Khka yd iajNdjhka ksidh fu;a;d ixl,am wdfjzok ;`< wka;rA.; jkafka ffcj yeZ.Suz oekSuz l@shdldrSFjh nejska yd tu l@shdlrSFjh ms<snZoj ;ju usksia yeoErSuz ;`<ska ksis yZ|=kd .ekSula lr fkdue;s nejska wju ugzgul mj;skakd jQ udkj yeoErSuz uZ.ska tjka mqZM,a l@shdldrSFjhla ms<snZoj irAj iuzmQrAK ks.uhka lrd t<fUkakg ;e;a lsrSu fodaI iy.; fjz fu;a;d ixl,amh wdfjzokh jSfuz l@shdldrSFjh tys .enzjk ffcj jsoHd;aul miqnsu ms,snZoj ksis Ydia;@Sh we.hSulg fuz olajd usksia .fjzIK fkdt<UjSfuz ;;ajh u; tjka Ydia;@Sh miqnsula u; msysgd l< hq;` huz huz ks.uk tfia fkdue;s miqnsula u; msysgd isg m<lsrSfuz fodaI iy.; ;;ajh tu ;;ajh ksishdldrfhka wjfndaO lr.ekSu uZ.ska j<lajd .;yelshc. thska we.hSfuz oDIaGsh f,i wmg jsjsOdldrfhka ,efnkakd jQ fu;a;d ixl,am wdfjzokhka woyia lrkq ,nhs huz fyhlska fu;a;d ixl,am wdfjzok me;slv we.hSug ,la lrkafka kuz tu we.hSug ,la lsrSu uZ.ska t<fUkakd jQ w;aoelSuz mrdihka o fuys oS uq,a fu;a;d ixl,am wdfjzokh jvd fjkia jQ ;j;a fu;a;d ixl,amh ms<snZoju jQ wdfjzokhla f,i yZ.skq ,nk nj mejfia fuf,i tlu fu;a;d ixl,am wdfjzokh ms<snZoj huz weZ.hSfuz l@shdj<shla ;`<ska meusfKkakd jQ uq,a fu;a;d ixl,am wdfjzokg jvd fjkia jQ fu;a;d ixl,am wdfjzokhka o ;j;a tla fu;a;d ixl,am wdfjzok jrA.hla f,iu yZ|=kd.kq ,nkjd jskd uq,a fu;a;d ixl,am wdfjzokfhysu fldgila f,iska fyda thska Nskak jQ wfklla f,i yZ|=kd fkd.kq we; fu;a;d ixl,amfhys tla;rd wdfjzok iajrEmhla tu ixl,amh ksid thg wk;`rej jdrj, yg.kS kuz tu fu;a;d ixl,am wdfjzokh uq,a fu;a;d ixl,am wdfjzokfhys fldgila fyda thska Nskak jQ wfklla f,i fkdj uq,a fu;a;d ixl,am wdfjzokfhka wkkH jQ wfkllau f,i jgyd .kshs fuf,i ffu;@sh" iuZ.sh" ifydaorFjh" wdorh" fm@auh" lreKdj" uqos;dj" ohdj" fifkyi" mfrdamldrh" wfkHdakH f.#rjh yd iudkd;au;djh jeks ixl,amka o fu;a;d ixl,amfhka W;amdolFjh ,enQj;a fu;a;d ixl,amhg wkHkH;djhla we;s ixl,amhka f,iska jgyd.ekSug W;aiy orkafkahd. th iqjsfYaIs fu;a;d ixl,am wdfjzokuh ;;ajhka ms<snZo ixl,am we.hSuz ;ruzu fydZoska iy ufkda jsoHd;aul fjkialuz j,g wkql~,jk wkaouska wka;rA.; wNsudrA:hka jsh yelshs fu;a;d ixl,amh ms<snZoj we.hSu tys fu;a;d ixl,am wdfjzok me;slvg idfmaCIlj ufkda jsoHd;aul fjkialuzj,g wkql~, jk wkaouska iajlSh wNsu:drA:hka o imqrd .ekSug m@udKj;a ;ruska msgsjy,la bka ,ensh yels jkq we; iEu cSjsfhl`f.au uqLH wNsu:drA:h jkqfha fuf,dj yels;dla ld,hla fiiq cSjska o iuZ. iyfhda.fhka hym;aj cSjs;h .;lsrSu uz tu wNsu:drA:h imqrd .ekSu Tiafia fy;u l@shd lrhs kuz ;ukaf.a wNsu:drA:h fiiq whf.au wNsu:drA:hkag ndOd fkdlrk yd tajdg wkql~, jk mrsos f.dv kZ.d .ekSug ;ruz mqoa.,hska ixfjzoSjSu YsIagnj hkqfjka wF:!l:kh lrkq ,nhs cSjshd nqoaOs ugzgfuka oshqKq jkakg jkakg fulS yelshdj Tyq jrAOkh lr.kshs fuz wdldrfhka fu,dj we;s m@d:usl cSjshdf.a isg Wiia cSjk ugzgula ysus usksid olajd fuu wNsu:drA: idOk l@shdj<sfhys oS fy;u wkq.ukh lrkakd jQ l@shdudrA.fhys we;s jsOsu;a Ndjh Tiafiau ish cSjk ;,h we.hSug ,la lrkq ,nk ksrAKdhlh mj;ajd .kshse. th uOH.; we.hSfuz oDIagSka fu;a;d ixl,am wdfjzokd;aul prAhdjg nqoaOsuh" iy ixidOkSh" wNs,dIhka iuZ. iuznJO;djhla wkql@ufhka Wiia njla ,nd fohs wksjdrAhfhkau fu;a;d ixl,am wdfjzok me;slv iuia; ffcj l@shdldrS iajNdjfhys nqoaOs mrsmdlh ms<snZo meyeos,s ksrAKdhlhla o fjz tfukau fu;a;d ixl,am wdfjzokfhys ishquz nj jrAOkh jkakg jkakg tys oshqKq iajNdjh o jevs fjz fu;a;d ixl,am wdfjzok me;slv huzlsis oshqKq nqoaOs mrsmdlhu wjia:djl Wiia ugzgu ksfhdackh lrkakla f,i o fuys oS fmkS isgshs ta ksid fu;a;d ixl,am wdfjzokh jv jvd;a ishquz jkakd jQ fu;a;d ixl,amfhys wdNdih ,n;au ksrdhdifhkau tys ugzgu Wiia jsh hq;`h ish,q foa iuZ. .egSuz jsrys; iuZ.sh ksYap,Fjh tuZ.ska uQrA;su;a lrk fyhsks 135
  • 44. f. th ilialrK we.hSuzlrKh huzlsis fu;a;d ixl,am wdfjzokhl isg tys uOHh olajd b;du;a ishquz iy jsIhdkqnoaO fkdjkakd jQ fu;a;d ixl,am wdfjzokhka woyia lrkq fkd,nhs uska woyia lrkqfha fu;a;d ixl,am wdfjzokfhys jqjo nqoaOsuh ,CIK wka;rA.; jsh hq;` nj yd tu nqoaOsuh ,CIK wka;rA.; fkdjkakd jQ fu;a;d ixl,am wdfjzokhka we.hSuzlrK l@shdj<shg nZ|=ka fkdl< hq;` njhs tfukau fu;a;d ixl,am wdfjzokhka wksjdrAfhhkau jsIhdkqnoaO iajNdjhla oersh hq;`uh hehs l;sldj;la o fuys jsoHudkh bka i;H jYfhkau woyia lrkqfha fu;a;d ixl,am wdfjzokh lsishuz wruqKla f.k yg.eksh hq;` njhs tfiau tys jsjsOFjh o tu wruqK Tiafiau ksrSCIK l< hq;` njhs iudOsh kdufhka wm jsiska idudkHfhka yZ|=kajkakd jQ udkisl ;;ajh o lsishuz fu;a;d ixl,am wdfjzokuh ;;ajhla nqoaOsuh jYfhka m@ldYhg m;a jSula jk w;r tys wka;rA.; wruqKq jYfhka ksYap,Fjh yd tlu wruqK jYfhka f.; os.ska os.gu fu;a;d ixl,am wdfjzokhka yg.ekajSu nj meyeos,sju fmfkkag ;sfnz fu;a;d ixl,amh wruqK jYfhka .kakd miqnsula ;`< fuz ;;ajh fu;a;d Wmpdr fyda wrAmKd iudOs wjia:dj fukau f,#lsl yd f,daflda;a;r OHdkuh ;;ajhka f,iska jrA.SlrKhg ,la jS we;s whqre idudkHfhka wmg yZ|=kd .ekSug ,efnz fu;a;d ixl,amfhys wdfjzok me;slv f,daflda;a;r wxYfhka mrsiudma;shg m;ajSu oelafjkafka fu;a;d fpzf;da jsuqla;s kdufhks fuhska fmfkkafka fu;a;d ixl,amh tys jsIh tkuz ffu;@Sh w;afkdyer wdfjzokka fkdlvjd ,nd fohs kuz jsgloS tlS wruqfKys t<fUuska isf;ys we;sjk ixfjzo;dfjys ;Sj@ Yla;sh jsiskau flf,iqka m@ySk lsrSfuz Yla;sh is;g ,ndfok njhs Hall Prentice, Educational Psychology, New Delhi, 1980, pp. 45 - 67 ii. ,hkaia Lyons " 1980" ms 921 ucACOsu ksldh 1" uyd yF:smfodmu iq;a;" nqcuq" msgqj 46022. ud NslaLfj mqZ[aZ[dKx NdhsF:" iqLiafi;x NslaLfj wOsjpkx hosox mqZ[aZ[ka;s wx.`;a;r ksldh iv" ud mqZ[aZ[Ndhs iq;a;" nqcuq" msgqj 41223 fpz;kdyx NslaLfj luzux jodus" fpz;hsFjd luzux lfrd;s ldfhk jdpdh ukid wx.`;a;r ksldh v" ksnzfnzOsl iq;a;" nqcuq" msgqj 20824 ixhq;a; ksldh 111" |=;sh .oa|=,noaO iq;a;" nq cuq" msgqj 25825 ixhq;a; ksldh v" us;a; iq;a;" nqcuq" msgq 290 - 29126.ucACOsu ksldh 1"fldiuznsh iq;a;"nqcuq" msgq 753-75627.bfuz fLd NslaLfj P idrdKShd Ouzud mshlrKd .relrKd" ix.;dh wjsjdodh idu.a.shd talSNdjdh ixj;a;ka;s ucACOsu ksldh 1"fldiuznsh iq;a;"nqcuq" msgq 75628 wx.`;a;r ksldh 111" |=;sh iuzu;a;kshdu iq;a;" nqcuq" msgqj 28429 bfu fLd NslaLfj P idrdKshd Ouzud mshlrKd .relrKd" ix.ydh wjsjdodh idu.a.shd talShNdjdh ixj;a;ka;s ucACOsu ksldh 1" fldiuznsh iq;a;a" nqcuq" msgqj 75630 wx.`;a;r ksldh v" jH.a>mcAc iq;a;" nq c uq" msgqj 23631 wpzpdroaOx jsrshx WoaOpzpdh ixj;a;ka;sw;s,Skx jsrshx fldicAcdh ixj;a;ka;s ;iaud;sy Fjx fidK jsrsh iu;x wOsgzGy wx.`;a;r ksldh iv" fidK iq;a;" nqcuq" msgqj 15232 fid uspzPdosgzGshd mydkdh jdhu;s iuzud osgzGshd Wmiuzmodh iajdiai fyd;s iuzud jdhdfud ucACOsu ksldh 111" uydp;a;drSxil iq;a;a" nqcuq" msgqj 21433 mqnzfnj fu NslaLfj iuxfndafOd wkNsiuznqoaOiai fndOsi;afiij if;d t;ofydis ixhq;a; ksldh 11" f.d;u iq;a;" nqcuq" msgqj 1634 miai: bux ;dmix - cgs, W.a.;dmkx wmrsfuhH bf;d lmafm - nqoafOd f,dfl Njsiai;s nqoaO jxi" iqfuzO l:d" nqcuq" msgqj 30 .d:dj 6035 ukqiai;a;x ,sXZ. iuzm;a;s - fy;` iF:dr oiaikx mnzncAcd .`K iuzm;a;s - wOsldfrd p PJo;d wgzGOuzu ifudOdkd - wNsksNdfrd iuscACO;s nqoaO jxi" iqfuzO l:d" nqcuq" msgqj 30 .d:dj 5836 f>dfidms fLd tfid |=,a,fNd f,dliausx hosox nqoafOd;s wd.;dks fLd mk wiaudlx ukaf;iq oaj;a;sxiuydmqrsi,laLKdks" fhys iukakd.;iai uyd mqrsiiai oafj .;sfhd Njka;s wk[a[d ifn w.drx wcACOdji;s rdcd fyd;s plalj;a;s ifp fLd mkdhiaud wk.drshx mnznc;s wryx fyd;s iuzud iuznqoafOd f,dfl wjs;a;pzPfod iq;a; ksmd;" fi, iq;a;" nqcuq" msgqj 17237 oimdruS ;hd OSr - lsosid f,dlkdhl l:x WmmdruS mqKakd - mruF:mdruS l:x nqoaO jxi" r;kpxluk lKafvd" nqcuq" msgqj 18 .d:dj 7738 i. nqoaOjxigzGl:d" fyajdjs;drK uq|@K" msgqj 50 ii. OrAuisrs".`Kmd," fn#oaO iodpdrfha uQ,OrAu" fn#oaO ixialD;sl uOHia:dkh" keosud, - foysj," fojk uq|@Kh" 1996"msgqj 11239 tldhfkd whx NslaLfj u.af.d i;a;dkx jsiqoaOshd fidlmrsoaojdkx iu;slaludh" |=laL fodukiaix wF:.udh Z[Kiai wOs.udh ksnzndKiaiipzPslsrshdh hosox p;a;dfrd i;smgzGdkd 136
  • 45. oS> ksldh 11" i;smgzGdk iq;a;" nqcuq" msgqj 43640 wjscAcd NslaLfj mqnznx.ud wl`i,dkx Ouzudkx iudm;a;shd wkajfoj wysrslx wfkd;mamx wjscAcd.;iai NslaLfj wjzoaoiqfkd uspzPd osgzGs mfyd;s ixhq;a; ksldh 1" wjscAcd iq;a;" nqcuq" msgqj 241 mqkp mrx NslaLfj uydkdu wrshidjfld w;a;fkd iS,dks wkqiair;s wLKavdks" wpzCsoaodks" win,dks" wluzudidks" N`csiaidks jsZ[aZC|QmamiF:dks" wmrdugzGdks iudOs ixj;a;ksldks" hiausx uydkdu iufh wrshidjfld iS,x wkqiair;s wx.`;a;r ksldh iv" uydkdu iq;a;a" nq cuq" msgqj 1442 Jones Ken, Buddhism and Social Action, Kandy, 1981, 21 - 4943 ixhq;a; ksldh v" us;a; iq;a;" nqcuq" msgq 290 - 29144 w;a;kd p mdKd;smd;d mgsjsrf;d fyd;s mrZ[ap mdKd;smd;d fjruKshd iudofm;s mdKd;smd;d fjruKShd p jKaKx Ndi;s tjuiaidhx ldhiudpdfrd ;sfldgslmdrsiqoafOd fyd;s ixhq;a; ksldh 5(ii)" fjzZMoajdr iq;a;"nq c uq msgQj 15645 De Silva Padmasiri, Value Orientations and Nation Building, Colombo, 1976, pp. 32 - 5446 ixhq;a; ksldh v" us;a; iq;a;" nqcuq" msgq 290 - 29147 fu;a;d Ndfj;nznd jHdmdoiai mydkdh ixhq;a; ksldh iv" osgzGnzn iq;a;" nqcuq" msgqj 35048 ;iai tjx cdkf;d tjx miaif;d ldudijdms ps;a;x jsuqpzp;s Njdijdms wjscAcdijdms jsuq;a;iausx jsuq;a; us;s Z[dKx fyd;s LSKd cd;s jqis;x n@yauprshx l;x lrKSh kdmrx b;a;;dhd;s mcdkd;s oS> ksldh 1" iduZ[aZ[M, iq;a;" nqcuq" msgqj 14449 lfrdkaf;ms f; rdyq, ldfhk luzux ;foj f; ldhluzux mpzpfjlaLs;nznx hkakq fLd wyx box ldfhk luzux lfrdus box fu ldhluzux w;a;jHndOdms ixj;a;;s mrjHdndOdhms ixj;a;;s" WNhHdndOhms ixj;a;;s" wl`i,x box ldhuzux |=laLq|@hx |=laLjsmdlx ucACOsu ksldh 11" wuzn,gzgsl rdyqf,djdo iq;a;" nq cuq" msgqj 13250 iuzud osgzGsiai NslaLfj iuzud ixlmafmd mfyd;s iuzud ixlmamiai iuzud jdpd mfyd;s iuzud jdpiai iuzud luzukaf;d mfyd;s iuzud luzuka;iai iuzud wdcSfjd mfyd;s iuzud Z[dKiai iuzud jsuq;a;s mfyd;s ucACOsu ksldh 111" uydp;a;rSil iq;a;" nqcuq" msgqj 21851 fu;a;d iy.f;ak fpz;id talx osix MrsFjd jsyr;s ;:d |=;shx ;:d ;;shx ;:d p;`;a:sx b;s WoaOufOda ;srshx inznOs inzn;a;;dh inzndjka;x f,dalx WfmalaLdiy.f;ak fpz;id jsmqf,ak uy.a.f;ak wmamudfkak wfjzfrAk wnHdmcAfCOk MrsFjd jsyr;s w ks 1" ;sl ksmd;h uydj.a. ld,duiq;a; nq c uq 337--343 msgq52 mdfKd k yka;nznd" woskakx kdod;nznx" ldfuiquzpzPd k prs;nznd" uqid k Ndis;nznd" ucAcx k mdm;nznx h:d N~;a;Z[ap N~Z[ac:d;s oS> ksldh 111" plalj;a;s iSykdo iq;a;" nqcuq" msgqj 10453 i. hf;d fLd .ym;s mq;a; wrshidjliai p;a;dfrd luzulsf,id mySKd fydka;s p;~ysGdfkks mdmluzux k lfrd;s P p fNd.dkx wmdhuqLdks k fij;s fid tjx pqoaoimdmldm.f;d PoaosidmgspzPdos WNhf,dljschdh mgsmkafkd fyd;s ;iai whxfjj f,dfld wdroafOd fyd;s mfrd p f,dfld fid ldhiaifNod mruzurKd iq.;sx i.a.x f,dlx WmamcAc;s oS> ksldh 111" isZ.d,l iq;a;" nqcuq" msgqj 290 ii. hx .ym;s mdKd;sm;S" mdKd;smd; mpzphd osgzGOuzusluzms Nhx fjrx mij;s iuzmrdhsluzms Nhx fjrx mij;s fpz;isluzms |=laLx fodukiaix mgsixfjzosh;s mdKd;sm;d mgsjsr;iai tjx ;x Nhx fjrx jQmika;x fyd;s ixhqla; ksldh 11" mxp Nh fjr iq;a;"nqcuq"msgqj 10654 hf;d fLd .ym;s mq;a; wrshidjliai p;a;dfrd luzu lsf,id mySKd fydka;s p;~ys Gdfkys mdmx luzux k lfrd;s P p fNd.dkx wmdh uqLdks k fij;s fid tjx pqoaoiaimdmldm.f;d PoaosidmgspzPdos WNhf,dljschdh mgsmkafkd fyd;s oS> ksldh 111" isZ.dd,l iq;a;" nqcuq" msgqj 29055 ;iaisfu mZ[ap kSjrfK mySfK w;a;ks iukqmiaif;d mdfudcAcx cdh;s muqosf;d mS;s cdh;smS;s ukiai ldfhd miaiuzN;s miaioaOldfhd iqLx fjfo;s iqLsfkd ps;a;x iudOsh;s oS> ksldh 1" iduZ[aZ[M, iq;a;a" nqcuq" msgqj 12856 l;fudp NslaLfj wrsfhd iuzud iudOs iWmksfid imrslaLdfrd fihH:sox iuzud osgzGs iuzud i;s hd fLd NslaLfj bfuys i;;yfXzf.ys ps;a;iai tl.;d mrslaL;d whx jqpzp;s NslaLfj wrsfhd iuzud iudOs iWmksfid n;sms imrslaLdfrd b;sms ucACOsu ksldh 111" uydp;a;rSil iq;a;" nqcuq" msgqj 21257 jSrisxy" fykars" wOHdmk orAYk m@fjzYh" ksmqK tkagm@hsiia"kqf.af.dv"1993" msgq117-13258 Stone E, Introduction to Educational Psychology, London, 1982, pp. 81 - 9459 Social Learning and personaity development,A.Bandura and R.H.Walters,Holt,Rinchart & Winston, New York,1963,p.13-22.60 i fLd fid ld,dud wrshidjfld tajx js.;dNscAfCOda js.;nHdmdfoda wiuzuQ<afyda iuzmcdfkd m;siaif;da fu;a;d iy.f;ak fpz;id w ks 1" ;sl ksmd;h"uydj.a."ld,duiq;a;"nq c uq msgq 337-343 137
  • 46. 61 ixhq;a; ksldh v" us;a; iq;a;" nqcuq" msgq 290 - 29162 ;iaisfu mZ[ap kSjrfK mySfK w;a;ks iukqmiaif;d mdfudcAcx cdh;s muqos;iai mS;s cdh;s mS;s udkiai ldfhd miaiuzN;s miaioaOldfhd iqLx fjfo;s mqLsfkd ps;a;x iudOsh;s oS. ksldh 1" iduZ[aZ[M, iq;a;" nqcuq" msgqj 12863 The Development of moral values and behaviour in childhood,E.Maccoby,Boston,1968.p.7164 fh ys flps NslaLfj" wkqluzfmHd: fh p fhd;nznx uZ[afZ[iq us;a;d jd wupzpd jd Z[d;S jd if,dys;d jd" f; fLd NslaLfj" p;`kakx wrshpzpdkx h:dN~;x wNsiuhdh iudofj;nznd m;sgzGdfm;nznd l;fuix p;`kakx |=laLiai wrsipzpiai |=laL iuqofhd wrshipzpiai |=laL ksfrdfOd wrsipzpiai |=laL ksfrdO.dusKS mgsmod wrshiai fh ys flps NslaLfj" wkqluzfmHd:" fh p fhd ;nznx ux[Z[hHqx us;a;d jd wupzpd jd Z[d;S jd idf,dys;d jd f; fjd NslaLfj bfuix p;`kakx wrshipzpld h:dN~;x wNsiuhdh iudofm;nznd ksfjfi;nznd m;sgzGdfm;nznd ;iaud;sy NslaLfj box |=laLka;s fhdf.d lrKSfhd whx |=laL iuqofhd;s lrKSfhd" whx |=lafL ksfrdafOd;s fhdf.d lrKSfhd whx |=laL ksfrdafOd;s fhdf.d lrKSfhd |=laL ksfrdO.dusKS mgsmod;s fhdf.d lrKSfhd;s ixhq;a; ksldh v" us;a; iq;a;" nqcuq" msgq 290 -29165 wx.`;a;r ksldh v" ksnzfnzOsl iq;a;" nqcuq" msgqj 20866 ixhq;a; ksldh v" us;a; iq;a;" nqcuq" msgq 290 - 29167 hdjfoj Z[dKu;a;dh" m;siai;s u;a;dh: wksiaisf;d p jsyr;s" k p lsZ[aps f,dfl Wmdosh;s oS> ksldh 11" i;smgzGdk iq;a;" nqcuq" msgqj 44068 ixhq;a; ksldh v" us;a; iq;a;" nqcuq" msgq 290 - 29169 bOdkkao NslaLq WmOs jsfjld wl`i,dkx Ouzudkx mydkd inznfid ldh |=gzGq,a,dkx mgsmamiaioaOshd jsjspzfpj ldfuys jsjspzfpj wl`if,ys Ouzfuys ijs;lalx ijspdrx jsfjzlcx mS;s iqLx mGucCOdkx WmiuzmcAc jsyr;s fid hfoj ;F: fyd;s rEm.;x fjokd.;x" iz[aZ[d.;x idLdr.;x jsZ[aZ[dK.;x f; Ouzfu wkspzpf;d |=laLf;d frd.f;d .Kavf;d i,a,f;d w>f;d wdndOf;d" mrf;d mf,dlf;d iqZ[aZ[f;d w;a;kd iukqmiaika;s fid f;ys Ouzfuys ps;a;x mgsjdfm;ajd wu;dh fid; Od;`hd ps;a;x Wmixyr;s t;x ika;x t;x mKS;x hosox inzn ixLdr iuf:d inznQmgsksiai.af.d ;KaylaLfhd jsrdf.d ksfrdfOd ksnzndKx ucACOsu ksldh 11" uyd ud,qxlH mq;a;" nqcuq" msgq 168 - 17070 bOdjqfid NslaLq iu: mqnznx.ux jsmiaikx Ndfj;s ;iai iu: mqnznx.ux jsmiaikx Ndjhf;d u.af.d iZ[acdh;s fid ;x u.a.x wdfij;s" Ndfj;s" nyq,Slfrd;s ;iai ;x u.a.x wdfijf;d Ndjhf;d nyq,Slfrdf;d iZ[afZ[dckd myShka;s wkqihd jHka;S fydka;s wx.`;a;r ksldh 11" wry;a;mam;s iq;a;a" nqcuq" msgqj 30471 wrshidjliai k iqlrx mqZ[aZ[iai mudkx .fK;` tF:ld mqZ[aZ[dNsikafod l`i,dNsikafod mqniaidydfrd;s w: fNd wixfLHd wmamfuhHd uyd mqZ[afZ[laLkafOd;afjj lXZLx .pzpka;s ixhq;a; ksldh v" wixfLhH iq;a;" nqcuq" msgqj 23272 fhd NslaLfj tjx jfohH h:d h:dhx mqrsfid luzux lfrd;s ;:d ;:d kx jsmdlx mgsixfjzoh;s:s;s tjx ika;x NslaLfj n@yauprshjdfid k fyd;s" tjx jfohH h:d h:d fjzokShx whx mqrsfid luzux lfrd;s ;:d ;:d.;iai jsmdlx mgsixfjzoh;S;s tjx ika;x NslaLfj jsmdlx n@yauprshjdfid fyd;s Tldfid mZ[aZ[dh;s iuzud |=laLiai wka;lsrshdh wx.`;a;r ksldh 1" f,dKM, iq;a;" fn#iuzixia" msgqj 80673 inznmdmiai wlrKx ;`i,iai Wmiuzmod ips;a;mrsfhdomkx t;x nqoaOdk idikx Lka;s mrux ;fmd ;s;slaLd" ksnzndKx mrux joka;s nqoaOd k ys mnzncsf;d mrEm>d;s" k iufKd fyd;s mrx jsfyGhkaf;d wkQmjdfod wkQm>df;d md;sfudlafL j ixjfrd u;a;Z[aZC|=;d j N;a;iausx" mka;Z[ap ihkdikx wOsps;af; j wfhdf.d" t;x nqoaOdk idikx Lqoaol ksldh" Ouzu mo" 14 nqoaO j.a.h" nqcuq" .d:d 183" 184 yd 18574 mqnzfnj fu NslaLfj iuzfndfOd wkNsiuznqoaOiai fndOsi;a;iafij if;d t;ofydis ixhq;a; ksldh 11" f.d;u iq;a;" nqcuq" msgqj 1675 hod ;`uzfy ld,dud w;a;kdj cdfkhHd: bfu Ouzud l`i,d bfu Ouzud wl`i,d bfu Ouzud idjcAcd bfu Ouzud jsZ[aZC|Q.rys;d bfu Ouzud iu;a;d iudoskakd wys;dh |=laLdh ixj;a;ka;S;s" w: ;`uzfy ld,dud mcfyhHd: wx.`;a;r ksldh 1" ld,du iq;a;"nqcuq" msgqj 33876 mqk p mrx nslaLfj fh f; ,dNd Ouzusld Ouzu ,oaOd wka;ufid m;a;mrshdmkaku;a;uzms ;:drEfmys mdfNys wmamgsjsNka; fNd.s fyd;s ucACOsu ksldh 1" fldiuznsh iq;a;" nqcuq" msgqj 51477 msKavshdf,dm fNdckx ksiaidh mnzncAcd mxiql~, pSjrx ksiaidh mnzncAcd relaLuQ,fikdikx ksiaidh mnzncAcd mq;suq;a; fNaicACOx ksiaidh mnzncAcd uyd j.a. md,s 1" nq c uq" msgqj 23878 wdrOhsxiq j; fu NslaLfj NslaLq tlx iuhx ps;a;x k fu NslaLfj f;iq NslaLqiq wkqidikS lrKshd wfydis i;`mamdo lrKSfuj fu NslaLfj f;iq NslaLqiq wfydis ucACOsu ksldh 1" lljQmu iq;a;" nqcuq" msgqj 312 138
  • 47. 79 hf;d p fLd idrsmq;a; bfOlpzfpz wdijgzGdkShd Ouzud ixf> md;`Njka;s" w: iF:d idjldkx islaLd mox mZ[aZ[dfm;s" Woaosi;s md;sfudlaLx f;iZ[afZ[j wdijgzGdkShdkx Ouzudkx mgs>d;dh mdrdcsld md,s" nqcuq" msgqj 2280 f;k ys Fjx .ym;s f; igzGs jsydfr wd.;dkd.;iai pd;`oaosiiai iXZ>iai m;sgzGdfmyS;s pq,a,j.a. md,s 11" nqcuq" msgqj 13081 ixf> f.d;uS foys ixf> f; oskafk wyZ[afpj mQcsf;d Njsiaidus ixf>djd;s ucACOsu ksldh 111" olaLsK jsNx. iQ;a;" nq c uq" msgqj 52082 f;k ys Fjx mym;s f; igzGs jsydfr wd.;dkd.;iai pd;`oaosiiai iXz>iai m;sgzGdfmyS;s pq,a,j.a. md,s 11" nq c uq" msgqj 13083 pq,a,j.a. md,s 11" nq c uq" msgqj 13184 Jayathilake K.N, Aspects of Buddhist Social Philosophy, Kandy, 1969, pp. 24 - 3785 ucACOsu ksldh 1" pQ,f.disx. iq;a;" nq c uq" msgqj 49886 pq,a,j.a. 11" fikdik j;a;x" nq c uq" msgq 362 - 36887 pq,a,j.a. 11" jpzpl`gs j;a;x" nq c uq" msgqj 37488 mqk p mrx NalaLfj fh f; ,dNd Ouzusld Ouzu,oaOd wka;ufid m;a;mrshdmkaku;a;uzms ;:drEfmys ,dfNys wmamgsjsN;a; fNd.S fyd;s iS,jkaf;ys in@yaupdrSys idOdrKfNd.S ucACOsu ksldh 1" fldaiuznsh iq;a;" nq c uq" msgqj 75489 nO uydkdu wrshidjfld iS,jd fyd;s" md;sfudlaL ixjr ixjqf;d jsyr;s wdpdrf.dpr iuzmkafkd wkqu;af;iq jcAfciq Nh oiaidjs iudodh islaL;s islaLdmfoiq ucACOsu ksldh 11" fiL iq;a;" nqcuq" msgqj 3090 OrAuisrs".`Kmd," fn#oaO iodpdrfha uQ,OrAu" fn#oaO ixialD;sl uOHia:dkh" keosud, - foysj," fojk uq|@Kh" 1996"msgq 86 - 12391 f;k fLd mk iufh NslaLq wkqmcACOdhld wfkdjoshudkd wkkqidishudkd |=kaksj;a;d |=mamre;d wkdlmamiuzmkakd msKsvdh prka;s uyd j.a. md,s 1" nq c uq" msgqj 9292 wkqcdkdus NslaLfjz WmcACOdhx ,, ,, ,, ,, tu ,, ,, ,, 9493 wkqcdkdus NslaLfjz wdprshx ,, ,, ,, ,, tu ,, ,, ,, 9494 wkqmcCOdhlf;d jcAcdjcAcx WmkscACOdhflk .rEkd jsrys;d iuka;mdidosld 111" fya uq" msgqj 72995 wkqcdkdus NslaLfj wdpdrshka;s wdpdriuzudr islaLdmklx wdprshx wkqcdkdus iuka;mdidosld 111" fya uq" 73596 WmcACOdfhd fu Nkaf; fNd.s uyd j.a. md,s 1" nq c uq" msgqj 9497 wdprsfhd fu Nkaf; fNd.s ,, ,, ,, ,, tu ,, ,, 9298 WmdcACOfhd NslaL fj ioaOs jsydrsluzys mq;a; ps;a;x WmgzGdfmiai;s ioaOs jsydrsfld WmcACOdhuzys ms;` ps;a;x WmgzGdfmiai;s ,, ,, ,, ,, tu ,, ,, 9499 wZ[aZ[uZ[aZ[ i.drjd ,, ,, ,, ,, tu ,, ,, 94100 imam;siaid ,, ,, ,, ,, tu ,, ,, 94101 iNd. jq;a;sfkd ,, ,, ,, ,, tu ,, ,, 94102 Tjdfod;s wfkd;sKafK jJ:qiausx box lfrdys box ud lrsF:d;s jpkx" wkqidikS;s T;sKafK jF:qiausx" wms p T;sKafK jd wfkdKafKjd mGux jpkx Tjdfod mqkmamqkx jpkx wjqidikS;s iuka;mdidosld 111" fya uq" 733103 ioafOda fyd;s ,, ,, ,, ,, tu ,, ,, 94104 ysrsud fyd;s ,, ,, ,, ,, tu ,, ,, 94105 T;a;mamS fyd;s ,, ,, ,, ,, tu ,, ,, 94106 wdroaO jsrsfhd fyd;s ,, ,, ,, ,, tu ,, ,, 94107 WmamgzGs; i;s fyd;s ,, ,, ,, ,, tu ,, ,, 94108 mgsnf,d fyd;s wkaf;jdisllx jd" ioaOsjsydrslx jd" .s,dkx WmgzGd;`xjd" WmgzGdfmfm;`x jd 139
  • 48. ,, ,, ,, ,, tu ,, ,, 94109 wkNsr;sx jQmldfi;`x jd jQmldidfm;`xjd ,, ,, ,, ,, tu ,, ,, 94110 Wmamkx l`lal`pzpx Ouzuf;d jsfkdfo;`x jd jsfkdodfm;`x jd ,, ,, ,, ,, tu ,, ,, 94111 wdm;a;sx cdkd;s ,, ,, ,, ,, tu ,, ,, 94112 wdm;a;s jqgzGdkx cdkd;s ,, ,, ,, ,, tu ,, ,, 94113 wdNsiudjdrsldh islaLdh islaLdfm;`x ,, ,, ,, ,, tu ,, ,, 132 -142114 wdos n@yauprshldh islaLdh jsfk;`x ,, ,, ,, ,, tu ,, ,, ,, ,,115 i. wNsOuzfuz jsfk;`x wNsjskfh jsfk;`x ,, ,, ,, ,, tu ,, ,, ,, ,, ii . Deerasekara, Jothiya, Monastic Dicipline, p. 132116 Wmamkakx osgzGs.;x Ouzuf;d jsfjfp;`x ,, ,, ,, ,, tu ,, ,, ,, ,,117 iuzudj;a;s;nznx ,, ,, ,, ,, tu ,, ,, ,, ,,118 kSpx lFjd idOqlx wmrsixikaf;k fOdjsFjd mgsidfu;nznx ,, ,, ,, ,, tu ,, ,, ,, ,,119 ud ucAfCO NZXzf.d wfydis;s ,, ,, ,, ,, tu ,, ,, ,, ,,120 ud jsydfrd rfck W#yZ[aZ[S;s ,, ,, ,, ,, tu ,, ,, ,, ,,121 i. uyd j.a. md,s 1" WmcACOdh j;a;x" nq c uq" msgq 94 -104 ii. uyd j.a. md,s 1" wdprsh j;a;x" nq c uq" msgq 132 - 142122 i. uyd j.a. md,s 1" ioaOsjsydrsl j;a;x" nq c uq" msgq 106 - 114 ii. uyd j.a. md,s 1" wkaf;jdisl j;a;x" nq c uq" msgq 142 - 150123 k NslaLfjz ioaOsjsydrflk WmcACOdhuzys k iuzud j;a;nznx fid k iuzud j;af;hH wdm;a;s |=lalgiaid;s uyd j.a. md,s 1" wkaf;jdisl j;a;x" nq c uq" msgq 142 - 150124 wkqcdkdus NslaLfjz wiuzud j;a;ka;x mkdusf;k k Ludfm;nznd" fhd k L udfmhH wdm;a;s |=lalgiai uyd j.a. md,s 1" ioaOsjsydrsl j;a;x" nq c uq" msgq 106 - 114125 k NslaLfjz Ludmshudfkk k Lus;nznx" fhd k LfuhH wdm;a;s |=lalgiai ,, ,, ,, ,, tu ,, ,, ,, ,,126 mlaluka;sms ,, ,, ,, ,, tu ,, ,, ,, ,,127 jsnzNuka;sms ,, ,, ,, ,, tu ,, ,, ,, ,,128 wZ[aZ[;s;a:sfhiqms ixluka;s ,, ,, ,, ,, tu ,, ,, ,, ,,129 k NslaLfjz iuzud j;a;kaf;d k mkdfu;nzfnd fhd mkdfuhH wdm;a;s |=lalgiai ,, ,, ,, ,, tu ,, ,, ,, ,,130 kdOsu;a;x midfod fyd;s ,, ,, ,, ,, tu ,, ,, ,, ,,131 kdOsu;a;x ysrs fyd;s ,, ,, ,, ,, tu ,, ,, ,, ,,132 kdOsu;af;d .drfjd fyd;s ,, ,, ,, ,, tu ,, ,, ,, ,,133 kdOsu;a;d Ndjkd fyd;s ,, ,, ,, ,, tu ,, ,, ,, ,,134 mxpys NslaLfjz wxf.ys iukakd.;x ioaOs jsydrslx wmkdfukaf;d WmcACOfhd id;sidfrd fyd;s ,, ,, ,, ,, tu ,, ,, ,, ,,135 mkdfukaf;d wk;sidfrd fyd;ss ,, ,, ,, ,, tu ,, ,, ,, ,,136 i. uyd j.a. md,s 1" ioaOsjsydrsl j;a;x" nq c uq" msgq 114 - 118 ii. uyd j.a. md,s 1" wkaf;jdisl j;a;x" nq c uq" msgq 152 - 154 140
  • 49. 137 wkqcdkdus NslaLfj nH;af;k NslaLqkd mgsnf,k mxp jiaidks ksiaidh jF:qx wnH;f;k hdjcSjx uydj.a. md,s 1" nq c uq" msgqj 196138 k wfifLk iS,laLfJOk ,, ,, ,, ,, tu ,, ,, ,, ,,139 k wfiafLk iudOslaLfJOk ,, ,, ,, ,, tu ,, ,, ,, ,,140 k wfiafLk mZ[aZ[laLfJOk ,, ,, ,, ,, tu ,, ,, ,, ,,141 k wfifLk jsuq;a;slaLfJOk ,, ,, ,, ,, tu ,, ,, ,, ,,142 wiaioafOd ,, ,, ,, ,, tu ,, ,, ,, ,,143 wysrsfld ,, ,, ,, ,, tu ,, ,, ,, ,,144 wfkd;a;mamS ,, ,, ,, ,, tu ,, ,, ,, ,,145. l`iSf;d ,, ,, ,, ,, tu ,, ,, ,, ,,146 uqgzGiails ,, ,, ,, ,, tu ,, ,, ,, ,,147 iS, jsmkafkd ,, ,, ,, ,, tu ,, ,, ,, ,,148. wdpdr jsmkafkd ,, ,, ,, ,, tu ,, ,, ,, ,,149. osgzGs jsmkafkd ,, ,, ,, ,, tu ,, ,, ,, ,,150 wmamiaiqf;d ,, ,, ,, ,, tu ,, ,, ,, ,,151 |=mamZ[afZ[d ,, ,, ,, ,, tu ,, ,, ,, ,,152. wdm;a;sx k cdkd;s ,, ,, ,, ,, tu ,, ,, ,, ,,153 wdm;a;sx k cdkd;s ,, ,, ,, ,, tu ,, ,, ,, ,,154. ,yqldm;a;sx k cdkd;s ,, ,, ,, ,, tu ,, ,, ,, ,,155 .reldm;a;sx k cdkd;s ,, ,, ,, ,, tu ,, ,, ,, ,,156. WNhdks fLd mkiai md;sfudlaLdks ,, ,, ,, ,, tu ,, ,, ,, ,,157 W#K mxp jiafid ,, ,, ,, ,, tu ,, ,, ,, ,, 141

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