ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 6.chapter

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ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 6.chapter

  1. 1. 628 ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත ෙහේවෙග් 06 mrspzfPAoh( 06 Chapter) ld,du iQ;@fhka fy<s jk fn#oaO idr OrAu & m@;sudk (The Norms : Buddhist Values and It’s Nature disclosed by Kalama Sutta ) emhfdF p&tfmAn yn vcneyn` adhs`vn`en` k=mk`d[yf vfmsFm v[dgt`y.emhfpAlf VbZdy‘pxfmAnft/ ptfmAnft’yn`nyf.in` adhs`vn`en` b<h<mn`(egUrv) krnld yn a#T%yyf.1i^g&FsfNASAevZ‘p&tfmAn’ h[Hdfn`evn<ey`‘Norms’ynvdennf.2Ehf a#T%yvn<ey` mfmZm,aAdr~Vy,nfymy,nYAy,Dm%y ynet`r[mZ im>hyyf. sf^hl BASAevhf‘p&tf’yn<evn` n[vt n[vt yn ar~Ty egned`‘mAn’ynvdnfn` mfmZm hA m[nb[lFm adhs`evZ.EmnfsA p&tf+mAn=p&tfmAn yn vcneyn`n[vt n[vt m[nblA lbAgn`nAld vfDfk&myn` h[Hdfn`evnbv s[lkfy h[kfy. ‘p&tfmAn’yn vcny pAlf i^g&Fsf sh sf^hl yn BASA t&ft`vey` vYvhAr vF a[tf ar~Tysms`tyk` vVeyn` pfHw<krgt`vfx vcney` nfyma#T%y l[bfy h[kfy E`an<v pAlfBASAevn`‘egUrveyn`’yn adhsd i^g&Fsf BASAevn` mfN<m yn adhsd gt`vfx EkepAz ar~Tyk`lbAgth[kfy.3 emm vdn p<d`gl sm>hyk` an`tr~gt smAj s^s`TAvt=L BAvftAvn vcnykf.emhf sHdhn`n[vt n[vt m[nb[lFm ynpdy smAjey` evesn`nAv> aenk=t` sAmAjfkyfn` ekerhfvfy y<t=y.emZnfsA smAjyk`t=L aenYA`nY egUrvy pfNfs mn<St`vy aArOSAvFm pfNfs ov<enAv<eg`adhs` m[nblA s^s$dnAt`mkv vfV`el`SNykr sks`kr gn`nA epAz smAjsmZm<tfy n[tehAt` smAj cyY%A p&Qp`tfyk`‘p&tfmAn’yn`enn` adhs`vnbv p[h[dflfy. emZ an<v p&tfmAnyn`enn` adhs`krn<ey` vfeV`Seyn` p<d`glcyY%Avn` pflfbHdv krn<lbnEk`trA mfN<mk` ehvt` m[nb[lFmkf.emym‘Dr~mtA’yn vcneyn`d adhs`eker~. EmnfsAp&tfmAn hA Dr~mtA yn vcnedkm smAnAr~TvAcF bvepen`.eb`Dfs#vyn`vhn`es` smZb$DebAehA`ed`vl`d emkF‘Dr~mtA’yn vcneyn` pAlf sAhftYyt=L h[Hdfn`evZ.4Et[n`hfdFt` DmZmtA ynvcny BAvftAekAx a[t`et` kfsfymZ smZmtyk` d[k`vFm pfNfsbv epen`.nfds<nk`els b<d`D#vyx epr kfsfymZ kAlsFmAvk` zS`krk&fyAkfrFm s{m b<zvreyk=xm aAevZNfkDm%tA vk` els1 md,s isxy, wldrdosh, fmd,aj;af;a nqoaOo;a; ysu, fn#oaO ixialD;sl uOHia:dkh, foysj,, 1998, 296 smsgqj.2 bx.@Sis isxy, YnzofldaIh, cS mS u,,fialr, tuz. vS. .`Kfiak iy iud.u, fl<U. 1992, 593, msgqj.3 Do This Noun’s adverb is Normally.It’s adjective is Normative.4 uyd j.a. md,s 1, nq. c. uq. 16 msgqj.
  2. 2. 629d[k`evZ.a[t[mZvfx ehAHdedyk` lbAg[nFmxnmZ E` pfNfs vfVAl k[pkfrFmk` evehsk` d[rfyy<t=yyn smAj smZm<tfyx EkHgv k&fyAkfrFm emhfdF ‘DmZmtA’ yn`enn` adhs`v>vA vfyh[kfyf.1 iajNdj kshduh fukau huz huz foaj, yd mqoa.,hkaf.a wfjzKsl iajNdjhka woyia lrf.k ‘Ouzu;d’ hk jHjydrh is|= flrsks. nq|=jreka jsIfhys muKla fkdj fndaOsi;ajhka jykafia jsIfh yso ‘Ouzu;d’ jHjydr jS ;sfnz. fndaOs i;ajhka jykafiag muKla idOdrK jk ‘Ouzu;d’ rdYshla uyd modk iQ;@fhys olajd ;sfnz. ksoiqkla jYfhka bka tla lreKla /f.k n,uq ‘Ouzu;d tid NslaLfjz hodfndaOsi;af;da ud;`l`pzPsx Tlalkaf;da fyd;s k fndaOsi;a; ud;d fldpsfoj wdndfOd WmamcAc;s’ huz ;sjsfgl fndaOsi;aj f;fuz ujzl`i ms<sisZo ,kshso t;eka mgkafldg fndai;a ujg lsis|= wdndOhlafkdWmoshs.2 sAmAnYeyn` Dr~mtA(pAlf:DmZmtA)yn`enn` adhs` krn`en` h[sfrfyy<t= aAkAry enAh[sfrfyy<t= aAkAry k=mk`d[yf kfyAedn m>LDr~mvlxy.smAjyk sAmAjfkyn` vfsfn` emykLy<t= aAkAryyf,emy enAkLy<t= aAkAryyf,yn<evn` ymZymZ cr~yAevn` vfs`trekAx avebA`DekAxegn a[t.nfds<nk`vVeyn` jnAkFr~N s`TAnyk nfr[vt`v obenAbyAm enAkLy<t=edykf.yemk` Ees`kLehAt` E` t[n[t`tA Dr~mtA ehvt` p&tfmAn kwkL p<<d`gleyk=els gNn`g[en`.Em Dr~mtAehvt` p&tfmAnvlx y<k`tf shgtbv(Iegtimization) els l[ebn`en` ekes`d[yf b[lfyy<t=y.apDr~mtAvk h[sfrfy y<t`et` a[yf? aep` jFvftyx kfsfymZ p<d`gleyk= hAnfyk`kfrFmx p[mfNfyehAt` E` avs`TAevZdF k&fyAkLy<t=aAkAry pfLfbHd(p&tfmAny pfLfbHdv)g[xHPvk` a[tfenAevZ.ap kfsfymZ ekenk=x atx atdF ehA`at`edk Ekt=ekAx ehA` aAy<ebA`vn` kfyn`en`` a[yf?emyx edn pfLft=rvn`en` E` k&fyAv smAjyvfsfn` vfVfS`Xy[yf VfS`X smZpn`ny[yf pflfegn a[tf p&tfmAnyk` ehvt` Dr~mtAvk` bvyf.emZp&tfmAn ehvt` Dm%tAvlxan<v h[sfernayx E` smZb$Deyn` kfsfymZ pArfetA`Snyk` l[ebZ.E`1 i ks 11, mpzph iq;a;, nq. c. uq. 40 msgqj.Wmamdodjd ;:d.;dkx wkqmamdojd ;:d.;dkx Gs;dj idOd;`Ouzu:s;s;d Ouzuks;du;d bomampzp;d.2 oS ks 11, uydmodk iq;a;, nq. c. uq. 19 msgqj.
  3. 3. 630pArfetA`SNy eBUtfk vVeyn`m l[ebn`nk`m enAv smhrvfx mAnsfk v>vk`` vfyh[kfyf.EnmZsfethf a[tfevn`nAv> st=x ehvt` p&Ftfyyf. ymZymZ p&tfmAn ehvt` Dr~mtAvn` sftAmtAm kwkfrFemn` apx dHw<vmk` vfHdfn`nx sfzvfyh[kfy.pAw<vk` vfHdfn`nx sfzvfyh[kfy.1emZ dHw<vmx ehA` pAw<vx m<h<NdFmx a[tf akm[t`t nfsAapf Dr~mtA ehvt` p&mAn enAkwm<.smhrvfx p&m<KgNey` p&tfmAn k[w>vfx rexZ epAznFtfyan<v dHw<vmZ vfHdFmx sfzevZ.emhf dF BfOS>n`vhn`es`lA h[xfyx vfny pfxkey` smhr nFtfrFtful`l^GnykLvfx vfHdfn`nx sfzvn dHw<vmZ pfLfbHdv sftAb[lFm v[dgt`y.2 lsishuz iudchla jsOsu;a whqrska kS;s.; lr fkdue;s tfia jqj;a fmd|= ck jHjydrfhys iudciuzu;hka f,i Ndjs;hg .efkkakdjQ fndfyda iuzuq;Ska m@;sudk f,i ie<flhs.tfia jkafka fmd|=jHjydrh ;`< Ndjs;h iZoyd talus;sFjfhka iuzu; lrjdf.k ;sfnk fohla jSu ksidhs.wd.uslixia:djka ;`< olakg ,efnk jskh m@Z{ma;Skao fuz whqrska iuzu; lrjd.kakd,o fmd|= iuzuq;Skanejska iuh iudc m@;sudk(Social Norms of Religion) f,i tajd yeZoskafjz.fuu iudc m@;sudkhkaf.ka we;euz tajd iudc fjkiluzj,g .;slj fjkiajkakdjQ yd fjkial< yelsldjQ foafjhs.we;euztajd tfia fkdl< yels tajd fjhs.fufia fjkial< yels iudc m@;sudk jkqfha we|=uz me<|=uz jdiia:dk wdydr fnfy;a jeks uq<sl wjYH;d jsIfhys meKjS we;a;djQ we;euz iqZM iuh iudc m@;sudkmuKs.NsCIQka jykafia,d jsIfhys meKjS we;s fiaLshd YsCIdmo fujeks iuh iudc m@;sudkhkagksoiqka fjhs.wd.uska ksrAosIaG prAhdjg iDcqju n,mdkq ,nkakdjQ nrm;< iuh iudc m@;sudkhkafjkia l< fkdyels tajd f,i ie<fla.ldka;d mCIh NsCIq ixia:djg wka;rA.@yKh lr.ekSufyj;a NsCIqKS mejsoao ,ndoSu fjkial< fkdyels iuh iudc m@;sudkhkag ksoiqkls.l`uk ;;ajhla ;`,oS jqj;a NsCIQka jykafia,dg ia;@Ska mejsosl< fkdyelaflauh.tfial< yelafla nq|=jrhkajykafia kulgu muKs. pV`cAt` nvYvAdF mtdrn`nn` els s[lekn s`t&FvAdFh<(Femenism)3 ebUd`D BfOS< s^s`TAvxEl`l krn ecA`dnAvk` vn<ey` kAn`tAvn`x b<zss<en` p[vfd`d hA upsmZpdAv BfOS>n`vhn`es`xlbAdfy enAh[k`ek` mk`nfsAd ynkArNyyf.4emhfdF ar~ht`vhx avVY g=NDm% v[wFm ynkArNeyn` s`t&F p<r[S eB`dy m>Lfk#veyhf lA enAs[lk=nt` s`vBAveyn`m vfr[d`D lf^gfk aAkr~Snyk` shftv> s`t&F p<r[S edpOSy vfSeyhf emZ kxy<t`t adALvFmt` sms`t smAjyevtfn`BfOS>s^s`TAv evt pvrAa[tf smAjmy p&tfmAn aArOSAkfrFmx BfOS<vfny p&Qp`tfeyn`m(BfOS<vfny yn< BfOS< s^s`TAvt=L k&fyAt`mk vn p&tfmAn pd`Dtf yyf.)p&tfmAn pd`Dtfyk` pNvA1 oskusK oshKsh fmr mdie,g wer,jd uj ;ykuz .fya f.vs ld,d, fikr;a nKavdr l`,fialr, tlai;am@jD;a;sm;@ iud.u,fld<U, 25. 03. 2005, 3 msgqj.2 iuka; mdidosld 111, fyajdjs;drK uq|@Kh, 756 msgqj.3 lsisu ia;@Sjdosfhl`g mjq,la kE, wkq, o is,ajd, uxi,, oskusK, wZ.yrejdo tlai;a m@jD;a;sm;@ iud.u,fld<U, 22. 03. 2005, 25 msgqj,4 vhkd fnda,agz ue;sKsh, nq|=r|=ka ia;@Skag oafjzYlrkafkla f,i olajd we;af;a nq|=iuh ms<snZoj l@udkQl~,yeoErSula is|=lr fkdfjz .
  4. 4. 631a[tfb[vfn` Em p&tfmAn enAkwekAx aArOSA kfrFm BfOS>n`vhn`es`lAeg` vgkFm vnb[vfn<t`BfOS>n`vhn`es`lA tmn`vhn`es`lAx uk`tkr[N adAL enAvn bv pvstf.1 kAn`tApOSy vfSeyhf p[nvF a[t`tAv> smAj p&tfmAn aArOSAkfrFemZ hA pvt`vAegny{emZ vgkFm p[vrF a[t`et` kAn`tAvn`xm2(BfOS<NFn`xm)nfsA kAn` tAvn` p[vfdfkfrFemZ avsrya[t`et` BfOS<NFpOSy vfSeyhfbv avDArNykrtf.emy p<r[SADfptYy ehA` lf^geB`dy m<lfkkregn s`t&Fn` ekAn`krd[mFemZ pht` mAnsfk#vy v[nf px< arm<Nfn` sfzvn`nk` enAevZ.aS`Xgr[Dr~m p[nvFm yn kr[N arByAd emZ s`t&FvAdFh(Femanism)3 b<zrzn`xd < emZ ecA`dnAv El`lkrtf. EhfdFt` b<zh< aS`Xgr[Dm% p[nv>ey` kAn`tApOSy aS`Xgr[Dr~m upeyA`gF kregn BfOS>n` vhn`es`lA yxet` BfOS<NFn` vhl` mAnsfk#veyn` ekAx<kr t[bFmx enAevZ.b<zrzn` m<lfn`m aArmZBkeL` BfOS<s^s`TAvyf.kAn`tA pOSyevtfn` p[vfdfvFmx avsrp[tFm sfzv<en` emm BfOS< s^s`TAv pfhfx<vFemn` ps<vb[vfn` al<etn` a[tfkfrFmx yn BfOS<NF s^s`TAv sAr~Tkels BfOS< s^s`TAvx bd`DkfrFmx avVYvfy.E` bd`DkfrFm n[tehAt` BfOS<NFn`d p[vfdf pOSyx an`tr~g&hN y krg[nFemZ k&fyAvlfy sAr~Tkels ix<kfrFm arByA aS`Xgr[Dm% pNvn ldF.aS`Xgr[Dm% vnAhF BfOS<NFn` s^Gs^s`TAvx an`tr~gt kfrFm arByA EkL BArtey` p[vtf smAjp&Qp`tfy t` BfOS<vfny p&Qp`tfyt` s[lkfl`lxegn pn vn ld`dAv> p&tfmAn pd`Dtfykf.4 ia;@SjdoSyq (Femanism) ldka;djkag NsCIqKS mejsoao ,ndoSu ms<snZoj nq|=r|=ka ;`, ;snQ wdl,amhms<snZoj m@YaklsrSug mjd fm<fU;s.Tjqyq nq|=iuh;`< ldka;djg ysusj;snQ ia:dkh ms,snZo my;oelafjk wdldrfhka lreKq lsysmhla biau;` fldg olajd ;sfnz.tkuz1 wIaG .re OrAuj,g ldka;d iyNd.SFjhla ke;.2 NsCIqj iuznJOfhka wkq.ukl< ms<sfj<g jvd fjkia l@uhla wkq.ukh lsrSu.3 iqjsfYaIS kS;s moaO;shla wkqj msysgqjd ;snSu.4 m<uqj jhi ms<snZoj ie,ls,su;a fkdjSu yqfola ia;@SFjh u;u mokuzj ;snSu(jDoaO mgsmdgshke;).5 pq,a,j.a.md,sfha NsCIqKS LJOlfha wjqre|= 5 lg yd wjqre|= 320 lg miqj fuh iZoykajSu .egZMiy.;h.1 ldka;dj yd nq|= iuh, bJ|@dKs fmfrArd, tia f.dvf.a iy ifydaorfhda, fld<U, 2000 107-123 msgq.2 tu 123-125 msgq3 lsisu ia;@Sjdosfhl`g mjq,la kE, wkq, o is,ajd, uxi,, oskusK wZ.yrejdod, tlai;a m@jD;a;sm;@ iud.u,fld<U. 22. 03. 2005, 25 msgqj.4 ldka;dj yd nq|=iuh, bJ|@dKs fmfrArd, tia f.dvf.a iy ifydaorfhda, fld<U, 2000 119-134 msgq.
  5. 5. 6326 NsCIqKS LJOlh ;snqKq ia:dkh ms<snZoj ix.dhkdj,g fmrjqk;a ix.dhkdj iuSmfhau fuz ms<snZoj iZoykajSu ksid fuh igykajS we;s ia:dkh ms<snZoj we;sjk ielh mokuzlrf.k fuh wi;Hhlah hk woyi u;`lrhs.fuu woyia iDcqju NsCIq m@;sudkh iuznJOfhka jQjls. wIaG .reOrAuj,g ldka;d iyNd.SFjhla fkdue;sh hk woyi t;ruz ;rAldkQl~, fkdfjz.uskawoyia lrkafka ienjskau l`ulao$wIaG.re OrAu meKjSfuysoS fmr we;sl<djQ NsCIqKS ixia:djlafkdue;s fyhska tnZ|= fohla ms<snZoj NsCIqKshlf.a woyia oek.ekSug l@uhla fkdjSh.wIaG.reOrAums<snZoj woyia uq,skau m@ldY lf<a m@cdm;S f.d;ushgh.weh jsjdohlska f;drj tu .reOrAu ysiauq|=kska ms<s.;awdldrh pq,a,j.a. md,sfha NslaLqKS LJOlh;`< oelafjz.1 nq|=r|=ka uq,skau .reOrAums<snZoj mekjSu is|=lr ta ms<s.kakjdo keoao hk lreK m@cdm;S f.da;ush wNsuqLfhysu u;`l<w;r thg wehf.a wOsl;r ukdmh ,ensKs.wjYHkuz ia;@SjdoSkag fuysoS nq|=r|=ka NsCIqKS mejsoaowemhg ;ndf.k f.da;ushf.ka fuz leue;a; jsuiQ ksid flfia fyda mejsoao ,nd .ekSfuz fpz;kdfjkaleue;a; |=kakd lshdo lreKla u;`lr .;yelsh.fuysoS tla;rd |=rlg nq|=r|=ka ;rAclfhl`f.aiajrEmfhka msgg ps;@Kh l<yelsjSu ksid ksrka;rfhkau mqreI mCIfhys jeros wvqmdvq fidhuskal,af.jSug repslrk ia;@SjdoSyq fuz ms<snZoj b;d leue;a;lska kq|=frAoSu idlpzPd lrkq we;. TzkEulreKla foi jeros weilska n,kjsg fmfkkafkao jeros ps;@hlauh.tnejska fuz lreK foi Ndjd;sYh weiska n,d ;SrKj,g t<USu fkdl<hq;`h. ia;@sjdoSka olajk fojk lreK .;fyd;a Tjqka olajkafka nq|=r|=ka NsCIqKSka iuznJOfhkawkq.ukh l< l@ufjzoh NsCIqka iuznJOfhka wkq.ukh l< l@ufjzohg jvd fjkiajQjla njhs. NersjSulska fyda fuz lreK fufia fkdjS wfkla w;g is|=jQjdkuz tkuz lsisjl`f.a b,a,Sulska f;drjnq|=r|=ka b;d leue;af;kau NsCIqKS mejsoao ,ndoSug W;aiql jQjdkuz nq|=r|=ka NsCIqKSkag jsfYaIie,ls,a,la oelajQjd hehs fudjqka lshkakg bv ;snsk.NsCIqKSka hkq;a ldka;djkauh tnejska shf:dala; ;Fjh ovuSud fldgf.k nq|=iiqk flfrys BrAIHdfjka miqjQ fndfyda fofkl`g nq|=r|=kagwmydi jk mrsos lgl:djla ksrAudK lsrSug th losu wjia:djla i,idfokq fkdwkqudkh.tfiafkdl<;a flf;la mrSCIdldrSj lghq;`l<;a nq|=r|=kag t,a,jqkq jsjsO wi;H m@pdr wdosh jsuidn,kjsg2 fuh fufia is|=jSfuz iuzNdjs;dj by< w.hla .kakd nj fmfka.NsCIqKS mejsoao ,ndoSfuysW;aiql jSu iuznJOfhka mrsksrAjdKfhka miqj m@:u ix.dhkd ld,iSfusoS wdkkao ysushka ry;aNdjhg meusKSfuka miqj;a fiiq NsCIqkaf.a fpdokdjg3 ,lajSug is|=jSu;a ta f;rjre flfrysia:jsr f.#rjfhka fm#oa.,slju ;uka jrolalr ke;;a ;ud f;rjrekf.a fpdaokdj ms<s.kakdnj4 wdkkao ysushka mejiSu uZ.ska meyeos,s jkafka fiiq uyck;dj ;nd nqoaO ld,Sk uyf;rjrekaf.a mjd m@idohla NsCIqKS ixia:dj we;s lsrSu wrUhd fkdmej;s njhs.1 pq md NslaLqkS LJOlh" nq c uq2 ud.kaoshd nsij iqkaorS mrsn@dcsldj jeks isoaOSka ysoS nq|=r|=kafj; t,a,jQ jsreoaOjdoSkaf.a wi;H m@pdrhkaie<lsh yelsh3 ,laosj uydhdk woyia" fudrgqfjz idikr;k ysus" weuz vS .`Kfiak iy iud.u" fld<U"1962"7-8 msgq4 tu
  6. 6. 633 iuyrjsg nq|=r|=kag we;s f.#rjh fya;`fjka uqjska fkdneK ksYaYnzo jqj;a iuia; NsCIq ix>hdw;ru fuz ms<snZoj t;ruz m@idockl wdl,amhla ;snS fkdue;snj fuz is|=jSfuka fmfka.we;euzjsgfmd|= uyckhdf.a jsreoaO;djhkag wkql~,j l@shdlrkakg Wkajykafia,dg is|=jqkd jsh yelsh.flfia sfj;;a ia;@SjdoSka olajk wdldrfhka NsCIqkag jvd fjkia wdldrfhka NsCIqKSka flfrys lghq;` lr;sfnzkuz tfia lrkakg fya;`j fomCIh ldhslj yd cSj jsoHd;aulj fohdldr ,CIK fmkajkfldgzGdY folla nejsk.1hfula fuu ldhsl yd cSj jsoHd;aul ;;ajh ie,ls,a,g fkdf.k yqfola s;drAlslj ch.ekSfuz wruqKu fmroers lr f.k muKla fuz ms<snZoj os.ska os.gu jdohkays megf,akuz tnkaokaf.a jsfjzpkj,g ms<s;`reoSu ksrrA:l jQjls.2 ia;@SjdoSka olajk ;`kajk lreK jQ iqjsfYaIS kS;s moaO;shla u; msysgs nj ke;fyd;a NsCIqkag fkdue;s w;sfrAl jskhlska iukajs; jSu ms,s.; fkdyelsh hk foho ;rAldkQl~,j .;al< wj,x.`jS hk lreKls.NsCIqka jykafia,d w;`frka mjd ieufokd jykafiagu tlanZ|= wdldrhlska nq|=r|=ka lghq;`lr fkdue;.3 flduzhqgrA hka;@hla fuka huzlsis kHdhlg fyda isoaOdka;hlg wkql~, jk mrsoafoka iEu fokd jsIfhysu tlu wdldrhlska lghq;` lsrSfuys wdlD;sl rgdjla nq|=jre;`, fkdue;. ;uka wNsuqLhg meusfKk ta ta pska;k l`Y,;d iys; yd jsjsO udkisl rgdjkaf.ka iukajs; jQ mqoa.,hkaf.a ;rd;sru wkqj ta ta mqoa.,hdg .e,fmk wdldrfhka jsjsO m@Z{ma;s mKjd tlS mqoa.,hd i;`jQ ksirA. udkisl Yla;sh msnsZojSfuz lghq;a; nq|=jre bgq lr;s.tahgf;a idrOrAu jO!k l@shdj,sfhys ,d ldka;djkao mqreIhka yd muKgu iu;aluz oelajqj;a iudcm@;sudk iqrCIs; lsrSfuz l@shdj,sfhys ,d ldka;djka mqreIhka muKgu ksoyia yd iajdOSk f,i tlSlghq;a; bgqlsrSfuys,d wfmdfydi;ah hkak fyda iuia; iudch th tfiau wkqu; fkdlrkafkahhkak fyda fuz lreKq folu ksidu fyda NsCIqKSka jsIfhys wIaG .reOrAu kuzjk m@;sudk moaO;shmeKjSu is|=jS ;sfnz.41 w ks 1" rEm j.a.h" ps;a; mrshdh" j.a.h nq c uq2 u ks 11" ikaol iq;a;" n c uq 322 msgqj3 w ks 1" ta;o.a. md,s" fn# iuz ixia 56-64 msgq4 uyry;a ix>us;a;d prs;h iy ;okqnoaO NsCIqKS Ydikh" je,s.u Z[dKr;k ysus"u,a,sldrdu jsydria:Ou!m@pdrl lusgqj" r;au,dk" 1998 1-78 msgq
  7. 7. 634 ia;@SjdoSka wIaG .reOrAuj,g jsreoaOj olajk i;rjk lreK kuz fuu wIaG.re OrAu uZ.skajDoaO mgsmdgsh W,a,x>kh jS ;sfnzh hk lreKhs.wNsjdokh jeZoSu .reire oelajSu jeks idrOrAuhkaf.a W#K;djh msKsi idudkHfhka flfkl`f.a udkisl|=rAj,luz f,i ie<flkakdjQ BrAIHdjuoh udkh ud;aihH!hh foay w,xlrKh jeks lreKq fya;`fjhs1 udkisl |=rAj,luz ms<snZo lreKqidudkHfhka mqoa., fjzu;a;;djh u; mokuzjk nj ms<s.ekS ;snqk;a ia;@shlf.a cSj jsoHd;auludkisl ieleiau;`, wehgu wkHkHjqkq fmd|= ,CIK .enzjS mj;sh.2BrAIHdj uoh udkh ud;aihH! shh foay w,xlrKh jeks lreKq idudkHfhka mqreIhkag jvd jevsfhka ldka;djka;`, ksi.!jYfhkau msysgd mj;sh.3isZ.df,dajdo iQ;@fhysoS ieusfhl` jsiska nsrsZog bgql<hq;` hq;`luz w;rg snsrsZog weZ|=uz me<Z|=uz muKla fkdj wehg wdNrK /f.k oshhq;` nj kduslj ioykalr ;snSuuZ.skao Tmamq jkafka by; olajk ,o udkisl iajNdjh fmd|=fjz ishZM ia;@Ska;`, tla;rd muKlgolakg we;snjhs.4oek W.;alu ksid fyda fjkhuz lreKla ksid fyda fulS udkisl iajNdjhhgm;a lrf.k isgSfuys fyda tfia hgm;alrf.k lghq;` lsrSfuys m@jK;djhla ldka;djkajsIfhys kuz lsisfia;a olakg fkd,efnk nj W.;a kQ.;a fNaohlska f;drj TzkEu iudc ;,hlldka;djl wyUqf,i .;al< olakg ,efnz.5NsCIqKS ixia:dj jeks w;sYh ne?reuz ldrAhhloS tlS|=rAj,;d jhka j,ska w;ausoS lghq;` lsrSfuys yelshdj ,enSu weh mjq,a ixia:djloS lghq;` lrkdldrhg jvd ;oska wjYHfjz.tjeks yelshdjla wehg ,ndoSu msKsi wIaG.re OrAu meKjS ;sfnz. ‘fn#oaO ldka;djf.a iudc ldrAhNdrh’ kue;s .@J:fhys j;ai,d tuz fldvsldr(Ydia;@fjzoSf.#rj) jks;djf.a ijrEmh wehf.a jpkj,skau fuf,i olajd we;.‘ngysr os. we|=uz me<|=uz me;slv fndfyduhlau wmf.a wd.fuz jsYajdihkag fukau ixialD;shgo mgyeksh.jrA;udkfha olakg,efnk weZ|=uz w;r flgs,weZ.gu we,qKq iy jsksjso fmfkk idh yegzg ,sx.fNaohlska f;drj weZoshyels weZ|=uz fuz w;r fjz fuz;`,ska ldka;d YsIagnj .s,syS hkq we;.’6 ffcjjsoHd;aulj jqjo ldka;dj i;` woyia Woyia yd wdl,am lsishuz fkd.eUqre iajNdjhlaolakg ,efnz.ia;@sh ksrka;rfhka ;ekS we;af;a ffc jsoHd;aulj ujlf.a ldrAhNdrh yd j.lSubis,Sug yelshdj we;sjk mrsoafoks.fuz ;;ajh fmd|=fjz udkjhdgu iqjsfYaiS ;;ajhla fkdjk w;rfmd|=fjz iuia; cSjSj.!hdf.au .eyeKq iFjhdgu muKla ffcj mrsKduKfhaoS Wreujk ,oiycdYhls.fuz hgf;a wehf.a udkisl rgdj yd wdfjzok ;;ajhka iliajS we;af;a m@ckk iS>@;djhby<ugzgul mj;ajd .ekSu;a tauZ.ska ishjrA.hdf.a wLKav jrAOkh yd ffcj meje;au iqrCIs;lr.ekSu wrUhdh.1 pq md NslaLqKS jsNx.h" mdps;a;sh" ,iqK j.a.h" 6-10 YsCIdmo2 tu wkaOldr j.a.h"3 pq md NslaLqKS jsNx.h" k.ak j.a.h" 7-8 YsCIdmo4 oS ks 111" isZ.d,l iq;a;" nq c uq 290-310 msgq5 merKs ,laosj ldka;dj" bka|@dKs uqKisxy" Y@S foajs m@skagrAia" foysj," 2001" fmrjok i-vii msgq6 fn#oaO ldka;djf.a iudc ldrAhNdrh" j;ai,d tuz fldvsldr" tia f.dvf.a iy ifydaorfhda" fld<U2000" 145 msgqj
  8. 8. 635 ‘fn#oaO ldka;djf.a iudc ldrAhNdrh’ kue;s lD;sfhys j;ai,d tuz fldvsldr ta nejz wehf.ajpkj,skau fuf,i olajkakSh.‘wyfia wdf,dalh we;sjSug iQrAhhd wjYHfj;au .Dyhla ,iaikjSug<orejka wjYHjkafkah.tfukau wefZoaoS fjiZ.klf.a ;;ajfhka isgskakg mqZMjka ldka;djlar;akhla jknjo olajd we;.fuz wkqj jsjycSjs;fhaoS jsfYaIfhka wUq ieus inZo;d j,oS ldka;djyeisrsh hq;af;a flfiao hkak ms<snZo wjOdrKh lsrSug .;a W;aiyhls.1’ ldka;dj i;` fkd.eUqre udkisl iajNdjh wehf.a wdfjzok repslFjhka uZ.ska m@lg lrjk wdldrh uekjska tu .@F:fhys l;Djrsf.a jpj,skau fuf,i jsia;r flfrA.‘uEkshka ;ukaf.a |=j oSug Okfhka jevs wh fidhk w;r mshd fidhkafka mKavs;fhls.kEoEhka fjfyfikafka jxYfhka Wiia wh fijSugh.tkuq;a ;reKsh fjfyfikafka rEmY!Sfhka w.;ekam;a flfkl` iuZ. hdugh.2’ ia;@SjdoSka wIaG .reOrAuj,g jsreoaOj olajk miajk lreK .;fyd;a tuZ.ska lshefjkqfha pq,a, j.a. md,sfhys fuz mqj; iZoyka jk ia:dkh ieliys; nj ksidu fuz lreK wi;Hjk njhs.huz lsis lreKl Ydia;@Sh i;Hdi;H;djh ms<snZoj huzlsis ks.ukhlg meusKSfuys,d fuh Wps; yd Ydia;@Sh jsOsl@uhla fkdfjz.jskh msglhu muKla fkdj fiiq msgl .@J:hkays mjd ta ta iQ;@ ix.@ylr ;sfnkqfha nq|=r|=ka tlS iQ;@ foaYkdl< wkqms<sfj<g fkdfjz.nq|=r|=ka wNsuqLfhysu ta ta jsIh fCIa;@hkays ta;.@;djh bis,Q uyf;rjre jsiska ix.S;sldrl uyf;rjreka yuqfjysoS ;uka weiQ iQ;@OrAu tajq wdldrfhkau foaYkd lsrSfuka miqj lgmdvuz lsrSfuys ydOdrK Yla;sh uZ.ska uqL mruzmrd.;j tajd f.khEfuys myiqj i<ld wka;rA;h w;ska ydwdlD;sh w;ska iudkFjh .kakd iQ;@ kej; lsishuz ksYaps; jsOs l@uhlg tlu ud;Dldjka hg;gkej; ix.@y lrk ,oS.3 nq|=r|=ka jsiska m@lSraKl f,i foaYs; iQ;@OrAuhkag tys wka;rA.; lreKqj,g wkql~,jkmrsoafoka jsjsO kuz ,ndoS lsishuz ksYaps; Ydia;@S jsOs l@uhlg fm< fmd;a ilialrk ,oafoa tajdmrsyrKh lrkakkaf.a myiqj i,ldf.kh.iQ;@ msglfhys ta ta ksldh.@J: mjd kuzlrk ,oafoawka;rA.; iQ;@j, oSrA>Fjh u;h.4 fuz ksid wkqms<sfj< jeks wYdia;@Sh l@uhla fuys i;Hdi;H;djhi;Hdi;H;djh ;SrKh lsrSfuys,d fhdod .ekSu jeks wYdia;@Sh wjsoHd;aul l@u Ydia;@Sh1 fn#oaO ldka;djf.a iudc ldrAhNdrh" j;ai,d tuz. fldvsldr"tia f.dvf.a iy ifydaorfhda" fld<U"2000" 27-28 msgq2 tu 29 msgqj3 uyry;a ix>us;a;d prs;h iy ;okqnoaO NsCIqKS Ydikh" je,s.u Z[dKr;k ysus"u,a,sldrdu jsydria:Ou!m@pdrl lusgqj" r;au,dk" 1998" 72 msgqj4 fn#oaO Ou! ix.@yh" udm,.u isrs fidusiair ysus" iuhjrAOk fmd;ay," fld<U" 1990" 376 msgqj
  9. 9. 636.fjzIKfhys,d wkq.uk hlsrSu ia;@SjdoSka jekakkag kuz wNsu; jkakg mqZMjk.ta Tjqka ;ukaf.au;h taldOsldrSuh ;;ajfh ka wkqkau; megjSfuys,d oCI;djhla yd repsl;ajhla olajk nejskswOsldruh pska;k rgdjlg wdlD;s.; jS isgskakka nejsk.1 s wdkkao ysus jsiska ;rAldkQl~,j keZ.~ m@Yakh jk ldka;djkag W;a;rS;r ukqIH OrAuhkagm;ajSfuz yelshdjla ;sfnzo hk mekh f,dalfhysu ldka;djka flrys ohdfjka is;d kZ.k,o m@n,um@Yakhhs.fuz ms<snZoj ‘rSgd tuz ;DIagz’mjikqfha nq|=r|=ka ldka;djg mejsoao ,ndoSug is;d isgsh;a fuzm@Yakh weiQ wjia:dfjz thg ms<s;`re oS mejsoao ,ndoSug tlZ.jQ njhs.nq|=r|=ka ia;@Sf|@daysljQ w;rmqreIdOsm;SFjh m@shlrkafkl` jQ nj weh mjihs.fuz lshk woyia ngysrg wd.ka;`l fkdfjz Tjqkajqjukdfjkau huz huz whf.a woyia hgm;a lrkakg l@shdfldg ;sfnzh hk ldrKh b;sydihuZ.skau wmg TmamqlroS we;s ksidh.kuq;a nq|=r|=ka ;nd wkdrAh iuzm@odh ;`<g wh;a lsis|= wd.uslfldgzGdYhla jsiskaj;a ia;@S pska;kh md.d oeuqKqnj jsOsu;aj Tmamq l,fkdyel.tfia Tmamql<fkdyelafla tfia fkdl< ksidh fuz .@J:h ;`<g wkdrAh iuzm@odfhys l@usl jsldYh oelafjkmrspzfPaohlao tlalf<a.fuu lreKq meyeos,sjSu msKsih b;d meyeos,s f,iu wkdrAh ixialD;shgwh;a Y@uK iuzm@odhg wh;a ;jia fldgzGdYhka;`< ia;@Syq jsiQ nj;a fndai;`ka wd<drld<duiDIsjrhdfj; t<USug u;af;ka YdlHn@yauKS yd moaud kuzjQ ;dmishka fofofkl` fj;ska Wjegka,enQ mqj; fuhg tla idOlhls.fuz ksidu nq|=r|=ka ia;@S jsfrdaOs wdl,am oerE njg flfrkfpdaokdfjz lsis|= yrhla fkdue;. nq|=r|=ka mqreIdOsm;Hhg wkql~,j nq|=iiqk f.dvfkdkeZ.~ kuq;a fn#oaONsCIq iuzm@odh f.dvkeZ.`fjz.mqreI flaJ|@Sh jHdmdrhla f,i nj ;j;a woyilska oelafjz.fuu wdl,am ngysr.@J:l;`jrshka orkafka nq|=iuh ms<snZoj l@udkQl~, wOHhkhlska wk;`rej fkdfjz.2jsfYaIfhkau jsjsOwd.usl iuzm@odhka ms<snZoj yodrd tu wd.usl iuzm@odhhkays jsfYaIfhkau ksrAudKjdoS wd.uzj,wka;rA.; ia;@S jsfrdaOS we;euz wdl,am Tjqka jspdr mQrAjlFjfhka f;drj nq|=iuh wrnhdo j.lSuzjsrys; f,i yd mokula fkdue;s f,i Ndjs;d lrkq olakg ,efnz.3fuzjd fmd;am;a yd wka;rAcd,udrA.fhka ikaksfjzokh lr .kakd furg isgskakdjQ wkqldrljdoS we;euz ia;@SjdoSyq wka;rA.;hfyda moku ms<snZoj lsis|= oekqj;a Ndjhlska f;drj ;ukaf.a jsh;anj m@lg lsrSug fuka tajd ;`uQomqkrepzpdrKh lr;s.4tfia lruskau tu woyiaj,ska ys;`ukdmfha wkawhg oud.ikjd jskd tajdjsOsu;aj Ydia;@Sh wdldrfhka yd jspdrmQrAjl wdldrfhka wOHhkh lsrSug W;aiql fkdfjz.wju;ruska NsCIqKS ixia:dj ms<snZoj huz woyila m@isoaOsfhys m@ldYlsrSug u;af;ka nq|=iuh ms,snZojjsOsu;a wdldrfhka Ydia;@Sh yeoErSula l<hq;`j ;snsK.f,dalfhys TzkEu jsIhla .;a;;a fuz yeoErSu sl< hq;`uh ffjoH jsoHdj l@udkQl~,j fkdyodrd ffjoHjD;a;sfha ksr; fkdyelsjd fuks.1 tu2 ft;sydisl us:Hjka iuZ. .eyekshlf.a ixjdohla" ;s,skd jSrisxy" l;sld ixjdo irKsh" oskusK tlai;am@jD;a;sm;@ iud.u" fld<U "09 04 2005" 17 msgqj3 tu4 ft;sydisl us:Hdjka iuZ. .eyeKshlf.a ixjdohla..,iQ;@.; l< mqreI n,h" ;s,skd jSrisxy" l;sldixjdo irKsh" oskusK tlai;a m@jD;a;s m;@ iud.u" fld<U" 11 06 2005" 17 msgqj
  10. 10. 637 bkaoshdfjz ldka;d fojZ.kka mjd isgs wd.usl jHdmdr mej;`ks kuq;a ldka;d flaJ|@Sh wd.usl wdh;k msysgqjd .ekSug fkdyelsjsh.fuz fpdaokdj ia;@sjdoSka jsiak t,a,l< hq;`j ;snqfKa n@dyauK iuh jeks ksrAudKjdoS pska;k flaJ|@lr.;a wd.uzj,gh.ia;@SjdoSka olajk ishZMu |=rAj,;d olakg ;snqfKa ksrAudKjdoS wd.uz;`< nejsks.wdkkao ysusf.a m@Yakfhka miq mejsoao ,ndoshhq;` jkafka l`ukd ldrhlgoehs jsuiqug ,lajsh wIag.re OrAu wkqj ,ndosh hq;`hehs ksrAfoaYjsh.fuz wg w;r fndfyda widOdrK fldkafoais we;ehs ia;@SjdoSyq (Femanism) mji;s.tfy;a tajd fudkjdoehs Tjqka m@isoaOsfh ys fkdmji;s.wIaG.re OrAuj, widOdrKnj mejsosj fkdfnda osklska m@cdm;S f.da;uSyg f;areK nj;a iegjhia msreKq NsCIqKshla tosku Wmimka NsCIqjlg jekaohq;`h hkak jDoaO mgsmdgshg wkqj lemlrk f,i m@cdm;S f.da;uS f;rKshnq|=r|=kaf.ka b,a,d isgsh;a th ksIaM, jQnj iaa;@SjdoSyq olaj;s.Tjqka wIag.reOu!j, olajk jsYd,widOdrK Ndjh we;euzjsg fuh jsh yelsh. ia;@SjdoSkag wkqj jkaokh hk lreK flfkl`f.a Wiia my;a nj ;SrKh lrkakdjQ usuzuls.kuq;affcjjsoHd;aul yd iudc jsoHd;aul hk ldrKd folla wrNhd nq|=r|=ka jsiska ldkaldjka jsIfhysfuu meKjSu is|=lr ;sfnz.ldka;djl ;`, ffcj jsoHd;aulj we;s udkh uoh BrAIHdj .`Kul`njjeks |=rA.`K urAOkh lsrSu msKsi Bg m@;slu!hla f,i jJokh kshuj we;.fuys iudc jsoHd;aulh:drA:h jkqfha NsCIq iudch;`< ia;@shlf.a meje;au iqrCIs; lsrSu;a tuZ.ska wehg wjYHlrkakdjQrCIdjrKh ie,eiajSu;a ta rCIdjrKh ,nuska ia;@sh ;ukag wjYHlrkakdjQ wd.usl jsuqla;shi<id .ekSu;a fuhska wfmaCIs; m@fhda.sl lreKq fjz.tu wruqK wu;l lroud fuh ia;@S mqreIoajJOj hqoaOhla fldg i<ld l@shdlsrSu yd;amiskau uQ<sl wruqfkka neyerjSuls.tjka idlpzPdjlwe;s m@fhda.sl jgskdlulao ke;.m@dfhda.sl fkdjkakdjQ oDIaGs WmojkakdjQ fujeks foa nq|=iuhi<lkafka iS,nzn; mrudi f,ihs. us:HdoDIagsl wd.uzj,j;a ia;@Skag jeZoSula ke;ehs mejiQ nq|=r|=ka ta b,a,Su m@;sfCIam lrhs.ish iqZMujjQ yd miqj ;ukaj ljdfmdjd fmdaIKh l<djQ m@cdm;S f.da;ushf.a b,a,Su iuznJOfhka funZ|=m@ldYhla lrhso hk ieluqiq woyila ia;@SjdoSkaf.ka t,a,jS ;sfnz.we;a;jYfhkau nq|=r|=ka NsCIqKSixi:djg wkd.;fhys t,a,jk oyila Wj|=re iajlSh nq|=Kekska oel oel;a NsCIqKS ixia:dj msysgqjSug l@shdlf<a ;ukaf.a uEKshka jykafia ms<snZo lD;Z{;dmQrAjl fpz;kdj ksiduh f,djz;`rd nq|=jre usil ud;D fifkyil uysu okafka fjk ljqo$fndaOsiuzNdr mqrkdjia:dfjys ishuEKshka
  11. 11. 638jykafia Wru; ysZ|=jdf.k ish cSjs;h .ekj;a fkd;ld i;aoskla uyuqyqfoa msyskd ish uEKhkaf.acSjs;h fnzrd .ekSug l@shdfldg weh w;ska mqf;a kqU nq|=fjzjd hehs m<uq ksh; jsjrK ,enqfjzo nq|=jSug m@:u;a fndai;`ka;`< mej;s lreKdj ksid fkdfjzo$ta ksid ia;@SjdoSka olajk fuz fpdaokdmokuz jsrys; wi;H wN~; fpdaokd fjz.Tjqka olajk wkaoug fuysoS meKjS mej;s wIaG .re OrAums<snZoj .egZM jsgska jsg mekkeZ.S we;.ta msKsi Tjqyq idOlhla f.k yer olaj;s.pq,a,j.a.fhaNsCIqKS LJOlh ;sfnkafka mxpi;sld LJOlhg;a i;a;i;sl LJOlhg;a uq,sks.fuz wkqj pq,a,j.a.md,sh nq|=ka msrsksjs jir 100 la hkf;la jsjD;j ;snqk;a fojk ix.dhkd fjz jdrA;dfjys iZoykafkdjSfuka fuzjk jsg fuz fmd; ksujd ;snQnj meyeos,s fjz.md;sfudlaLfha ijk LJOlh yd NslaLqKSLJOl hk fol miqld,Skj lrk ,oaolanj ia;@SjdoSkag mCIj fcda;sh OSrfialr uy;d(Rev.Prof.Dhammavihari Thero) fn#oaO wdrdusl md,kh kuz .@J:fhaoS myod fohs.kuq;a Ydia;@Shj js.@ylrn,oaoS tau;h t;`udf.a nq|=oyu ms<snZoj jsYdro yd jsoaj;a njg fkd ieifZok nj fu;a is;skai<lkq uekjs. fuz ms<snZoj .re;r uykdhl w;smQcHje,s.u Z[dKr;k uykdysushka Wkajykafiaf.a uyry;aix>us;a;d prs;h yd ;okqnoaO NsCIqKS Ydikh hk .@J:fhys mjikafka fujeks woyils.1thWkajykafia f.au joka j,ska fufiah."NsCIqKska jsiska ms<smeosh hq;` wIag.reOu!h pq,a,j.a. md,sfhys we;`<;aj ;sfnk ksid ms<s.; fkdyelshhs.NsCIqKS Ydikh msysgqjSu ld,fdaps; l@shdjlehsmjikakdjQ we;efula mji;s. Tjqkag u;lal< hq;af;a wIag.reOu!h pq,a,j.a. md,sfha muKlafkdj wx.`;a;r ksldfha wgzGl ksmd;fha f.da;uS j.!fhyso ijsia;rj w;`<;aj ;sfnk njh.tmuKlaj;a fkdoek fuz m@Yakh .ek l:dlrkakdjQ uydpdrAhjreo isgs;s.yd fydZohs wIag .reOu!h we;`<;aj ;snkafka pq,a,j.a.md,sfhau muKlehs lSj;a pq,a,j.a. md,sh bj;,sh hq;`o$Tjqkaf.a tl woyila kuz nqoaO mrsksrAjdKfhka miqj is|= lrk,o m<uq jeks fojeks Ou! ix.dhkdjsia;ro tys we;`<;afldg ;sfnk ksid fuho tnkaola f,i ie,lsh yelsh hkakhs.2 nqoaO mrsksrAjdKfhka f;uilska kslsKs mif<diajlod m<uq Ou! ix.dhkdj lrk,oS.nq|=rcdKkajykafiaf.kau oyuz jskh W.;a uyry;a mkaishhla fofkl`ka jykafiaf.a iuznJOfhka l<djQ tuOu! ix.dhkdjg iuznJO jQ NsCIqka jykafia,d yer fiiq NsCIqka rc.ykqjr jia fkjeish hq;`hsjHia:djla mjd iuzu; fldg yd;ami /lj,a ;nd rdcH wkq.@yh we;sj is|=l< nj jdrAldjS we;.taishZM /lj,a fhdok ,oafoa wOu!h yd wjskh we;`<;ajSu je<elSu msKsih.3 thska jir iShla .;jqkdg miq fojeks Ou! ix.dhkdj is|=lrk ,oafoa isjqms<sisUshdm;a uyry;`ka jykafia i;aish kulaf.a iuznJOfhks Wkajykafia,d w;r nq|=rcdKkajykafia oel mqre|=ry;`ka jykafia,d mjd isgshy.wdkkao uyry;`ka jykafiaf.a ioaOs jsydrslhka jykafia,d jkinznlduS-id<ay frAj;-nqcAcfidaNs;-hi-idKiuzN~; hk uyry;a uyf;rekao wkqeoaO1 uyry;a ix>us;a;d prs;h iy ;okqnoaO NsCIqKS Ydikh" je,s.u Z[dKr;k ysus" u,a,sldrdu jsydria:Ou!m@pdrl lusgqj" r;au,dk" 1998" 71 msgqj2 uyry;a ix>us;a;d prs;h iy ;okqnoaO NsCIqKS Ydikh" je,s.u Z[dKr;k ysus"u,a,sldrdu jsydria:Ou! m@pdrl lusgqj" r;au,dk" 1998 "71-72 msgqj3 tu 72 msgqj
  12. 12. 639uyry;`ka jykafiaf.a YsIHhska jykafia,d jk iquk-jdiN.duS uyf;reka hk fulS ry;`kajykafia,d (osgzGmqnznd ;:d;x) ;:d.;hka jykafia oel mqre|= ry;`ka jykafia,dh.m<uqix.dhkdfjz fukau fuz fojeks ix.dhkdjo rdcH wkq.@yh we;sj uy;a /ljrK uOHfha is|=l<nj jdrA;djS we;.fufia ix.dhkd f;dr;`re wdosh we;`<;aj ;sfnk ksid pq,a,j.a. md,sh ms<s.ekSug wlue;s wh is;kjd we;af;a ta ix.dhkd lrk ,oafoa ;uka jekakjqkah lshd is;df.k jsh hq;`h. nq|=rcdKka jykafia mjd oel mqre|= ry;ka jykafia,d iuznJO jS lrk ,o ta ix.dhkdjk ksid f:rjdohg wh;a oyuz jskh iqrCIs; jsh hfula th fkdms<s.kafka kuz ta wh usysZ|= uyry;ka jykafia jsiska msysgqjk ,o mhH!dma;s m@;sm;a;s Ydikh flfryso jsYajdih ;nkafka ke; usysZ|= uyry;`ka jykafia jkdys nq|=rcdKka jykafia oji jevjsiQ jskOr jQ Wmd,s uyry;`ka jykafi f.a YsIHdkq YsIH mruzmrdjg wh;a jkfial Wmd,s-odil-fidkl- is.a.-fu#.a.,S mq;a; ;siai-uyskao hkq ta mruzzmrdjhs.usysZ|= uyry;`ka jykafia m@uqL Ou!|+; msrsi jsiska f.fkk ,o mhH!dma;s ;@smsglh uqL mruzmrdfjka (lgmdvuska) ud;f,a wZMjsydrfhaoS .@J:drEv lrk;`re mj;ajdf.k wdjyqh. pq,a,j.a. md,sh bj; ,kakjqkag oeka ;sfnk ;@smsglh ms<s.; yelso$"1 je,s.u Z{dKr;k ysushka fulS lreK wrUhd m<lrk ,oaodjQ woyi fuz lreKg fydZou ms<s;`rfjhs. tnejska fuz lrefKys,d f:arjjdo woyi fuhska fydZoskau uQrA;su;a fjz. ia;@SjdoSka olajkakdjQ ;j;a lreKlg wkqjmd;sfudlaLfhys ijk LJOlfhys nq|=rcdKkajykafia md;sfudlaLh foiSug meusK ksyZvjk fial.uq.,ka ysus ta.ek m@Yak lr;s.nq|=rvdKkajykafia msrsiays bkakd jsIujQ ;eke;af;l` wruqKq fldg ;ukajykafia mdfudla fkdWfoik njm@ldYlrk fial.fuys m@d;sfudCI foaYkdj hkqfjka oelajqko f:arjdofha yegshg nq|=r|=ka foikafkaTzjdo m@d;sfudlaLh muKs. wdKd m@d;sfudlaLh fkdjkakls Tzjdo m@d;sfudlaLh hkq jskh kS;srS;ske;s ld,fhaoS nq|=r|=ka NsCIQka leZojd .d:d ;`klska hq;`jQ wjjdouh jQ wkqYdikh foaYkdlsrSuhs.2jskh YsCIdmo nsysjSugfya;`jQfha iqoskak kuz jQ NsCIqjf.a nSclfrda;am;a;s kuzjQ mdrdcsldwej;hs.1 tu 72 msgqj2 uyry;a ix>us;a;d prs;h iy ;okqnoaO NsCIqKS Ydikh" je,s.u Z[dKr;k ysus"u,a,sldrdu jsydria:Ou! m@pdrl lusgqj" r;au,dk" 1998 "71-72 msgqj
  13. 13. 640 iS,h ms<snZoj jQ md,kh wkqj w;s yslauqKq msrsila uq,ska iiqfkys jsiQ kuq;a nScl frda;am;a;swej; ms<snZojjQ isoaOsh jskh ms<snZoj u;fNaoldrS wjia:djla u;`lrknj ia;@SjdoSyq fmkajd fo;s.tkuz Tzjdo m@d;sfudlaLh ;sfnk ld,fha jskh kS;s ;snS fkdue;.kS;s ke;s ld,fhoS;a ix> iNdfjkamsgux lsrSug jerosldrfhla jsh fkdyel.kS;shla fkdue;s l,l bka msg;oS oZvqjuz osh fkdyel.fuzksid fuh is|=jsh fkdyel.m<uq jrolre iqoskak ysus kuz w;S;hg n,mdk jeros nq|= oyfuz fkdue;sksid ta ysushka fkrmsh fkdyelsnj ia;@SjdoSyq fmkajd fo;s.wfkla w;g jskh kS;s hgf;a m@:u jeroslre lrwe;af;a iqoskak ysushka ffu:qk mdrdcsldfjks.tfy;a irAjdia;sjdo jskfhys woskakdodkdmdrdcsldjla .ek iZoyka fjz.irAjdia;sjdoS jskh YsCIdmo f:arjdo jskfhys wvqmdvqluz u;` lsrSuiZoyd Ndjs;d lsrSu t;ruz fhda.H lreKla fkdfjz. nq|=oyu fjkila fldkr tys ksrAu, uq,aiajrEmfhkau wdrCId lr.;af;a f:rjdoS iuzm@odh jk nejska wksjdrAhfhkau lskuz ;rd;srfuzfjkila oyfuz fyda YsCIdmoj, jsoHudkfj;akuz thska f:rjdo l@uhu ksjeroshehs ms<s.ekqujvd;a Wps; l@ufjzohhs. tfiakuz nq|=r|=ka yd iuznJO lrjuska m@d;sfudlaL ijk LkaOlfhys fuu mdrdcsldj ilialf<a|=iaiS, NsCIQkag md;sfudlaLh foiSug we;`ZMjsh fkdyelsh hk ixl,amh ,ndoSug nejz ia;@SjdoShqmji;s.l,a we;sj meusK mdfudla Wfoid.ekSu hqla;siy.; lr.ekSug;a tnZ|= miqld,Sk mrspzfPao;`kla ,Z. ;sfnkakdjQ NsCIqKs LJOlfha tk l;sldjka miqld,Sk jSug bv;sfnk njg Tjqyq ielmy< lr;s.fuz wkqj fuh mqreIdOsm;Hh ;yjqre lr.ekSug1 f.d;k ,oaolanj meyeos,s fjzh hklreK ia;@sjdoSyq u;`lr;s.tfukau Tjqka olajkdldrhg nq|=r|=ka m@cdm;shf.a jeZoSu ms<snZo lreKwrNhd idjOdkj ijka|=ka njla olakg fkd,efnk njo fmkajd fo;s.kuq;a idjOdrK b,a,Suzj,gljr wjia:djl jqjo ijkaoSfuz m@;sm;a;sh nq|=r|=ka i;`jQ fohla ksid funkaola jsh fkdyelsnjia;@SjdoSyq olaj;s.fuz fya;`j ksid wIaG .reOrAuo NsCIQkaf.a mYapd;a ld,Sk ksrAudKhla njg fuulreKq idOlhla fldg olaj;s.fuz ms<snZoj je,s.u Z[dKr;k ysushka m<l< uyry;a ix>us;a;dprs;h iy ;okqqnoaO NsCIqKS Ydikh keue;s lD;sfhys wka;rA.; f;dr;`re wdY@fhka by;mrspzfPAofhysoS lreKq iys;j fuz u;h idjoHnejz ;yjqrefldg ;sfnz. by; iqoskak NsCIqj iuznJOfhka nq|=iuh wkq.ukhl< l@shdudrA.h b;d meyeos,sj jskfhysolajd ;sfnz.m@:u mdrdcsld YsCIdmoh meKjSug iqoskak NsCIqjf.a prAhdj bjy,a jqj;a tlS wej;gm;a fkdfjz.ta tajk jsg tnZ|= wej;la ms<snZoj jskfhys iZoyka fkdjk nejsk.nq|=jrekaf.a m@d;sfud sCIh foaYkdlsrSu ms<snZoj jQ m@;sudkuh lreKla fuysoS ;uka lshk lreKg idOlhla f,iia;@SjdoSka jsiska Wmfhda.S lrf.k ;sfnz.idudkHfhka TzkEu nq|=jrfhl` iuznJOfhka fulS m@;sudkwod<fjz.nq|=jre wmrsis|= is,a we;s msrsiays mdfudla fkdWfoi;s.fuys mdfudla hkq jskh YsCIdmofkdfjz isysm;alsrSuz yd wjjdohs.;uka ;ukaf.a Y@djlhka yd tlaj tlu wruqKl .uka lrkakdjQ;dlal,a nq|=jre fuu Tzjdo md;sfudlaL foaYkdj mj;aj;s.nqoaO Y@djl hka iuznJOfhka funZ|=wdldrfhka mdfudla WfoiSugu;af;ka wmsrsis|= ;eke;a;ka msrsfika bj;a lsrSula is|= fkdfjz.NsCIqm@;sudkhka ;`, tnkaola fkdjk nejsk.ienjskau NsCIQka jykafia,d is|= lrkqfha jrog m;a jQjkao s1 tu 73 msgqj
  14. 14. 641tu iNdjg we;`ZM lrf.k Tjqkaf.a tlS jro uyd ix>hd uOHfha fy<sfldg tu jro iZoyd iq|=iqjskh lrAuhka uyd ix>hd fj;skau mKjd .ekSuhs. idudkHfhka fiiq NsCIQka jykafia,d iuZ. ix> iudch ksfhdackh lsrSfuz whs;sh wysusjkafkai;r mdrdcsld nZ|= b;du;a m@n,u .Kfha jrola l< NsCIQka jykafia kulg muKh.tfy;a tajro ix> iNdjla uOHfha jsOsu;a wOslrK l@shdj,shlska ;yjqrefldg .kakdf;la ta NsCIqjj fiiqNsCIka jsiska jrolre hhs kuzfldg fldkalrkafka ke;.huz fyhlska tnZ|= fohlg jrolre f,ijsOsu;a wdldrhlska wOslrK l@shdj,shlska ;yjqrelr .;a;;a thg oZvqju f,i kej; WmiuzmodNsCIQka jykafia flfkl` f,i lghq;` lsrSfuz bv m@ia;dj wysusjkjd usila wOslrK l@shdj,shlgmrsndysrj yd w;a;fkdau;sl f,i by; olajk whqrska oafjzI iy.; whqrska fkrmd ouk isrs;lafn#oaO ix> iudch;`< olakg ke;. tnejska ia;@SjdoSka olajk mrsoafoka fuu mdrdcsldj ilialf<a |=YaYS, NsCIQkag mdfudla WfoiSugmeusKSu msKsi bv,nd fkdoSugh hk ldrKh us:Hdjla nj ;yjqre fjhs.uydj.a. md,sfha uydLJOj,g wh;a jQ Wfmdai:LJOfhys oelafjk lreKq uZ.ska mqk mqkd wjOdrKh lrkq ,nkafkaWfmdai:h iZoyd ishZMu ix>hdf.a iyNd.SFjh w;HjYH lreKla jk njhs.1wfkla w;g Wfmdi:lu!hla is|= lsrSfuz ienE wjYH;d jh jkqfhao NsCIQka jykafia,df.a w;ska is|=jk wvqmdvq ksjeroslrf.k kej; wdh;s ixjrhg meusKSu msKsi wjYHjkakdjQ bvlv ,ndoSuh.ldw;skaj;a jeros is|=1 u md" uyLkaOl" Wfmdai:laLkaOlh
  15. 15. 642fkdfjkjdkuz Wfmdai:h meje;ajSfuz wrA:hlao ke;.lsis|= osfkl jrola is|= fkdfjkqfha iqmsrsis|=udkisl ;;ajhlg meusK isgskakdjQ ry;ka jykafi,d w;ska muKs.kuq;a ry;kajykafia,d jqjoWfmdai:lu!hkag meusKSu wksjdrAhfjz.nq|=rcdKka jykafia jsiska tfia kshulr ;sfnz. idudkHfhka wm is;kafka ry;ka jykafia,d hkq jeros wvqmdvqluz lsis;a rys; w;sYhskauirAjiuzmQrAK irAjf;daN|@ mqoa.,hka fldgzGdYhla njhs.tfy;a Wkajykafia,d w;ska jqjo we;euzwjia:dj,oS m@n, fkdjk iqZM iqZM wvqmdvq is|=jsh yelsnj jskh msglh wkqj fmfka.msKafvda,Ndroajdc f;reka iDoaOs m@d;sydrAh oelajSu ry;ka jykafia,d w;ska jqjo idudkH NsCIq m@;sudkhkag fkd.e,fmk iqZM iqZM w;miq jSuz is|=jsh yelsnjg ksorAYkhls.kuq;a tjka wjia:djloS mjdnq|=r|=ka Bg fodiakZ.d ;sfnkafka tjka is|=jSuz iuia; NsCIQ m@;sudkhkag wys;lrf,i n,mEyelsnejsks.tjka jd;djrKhl NsCIQka fldgila l,a;nd meusK mdfudlaWfoid .ekSu hqla;s iy.;lsrSug hehs iZoyka m@ldYkh wrA: jsrys; m@ldYkhla fjz. vhkd fnda,agz ue;sKsh iDcqju nq|=r|=ka ia;@Skag oafjzI lrkafkla f,i olajd we;.tfia m@ldYlrkafka tl, iudc mrsirh ms<snZoj nq|=r|=ka i,ldne,Sfuka miq .kq ,enQ ;SrK ms<snZo wkjfndaOfhks.nq|=r|=ka tl, mej;s iudc wdrA:sl yd foaYmd,k mrsirh ms<snZoj oevs jsuiSulska hq;`j l@shdlr we;.nq|=r|=kaf.a l@shdldrluz ms<snZoj w;a;fkdau;sl ks.ukhkag t<USug u;af;ka tjeks l@uj;a yeoErSula l,hq;`j ;snsKs. fndfydajsg bx.@Sis W.;`ka fkduZ. hdug fya;`j md,s NdIdj jsOsu;af,i fkdokakdnj fya;`fldgf.k md,s NdIdfjka ,shejS we;s uq,a md,s ;@smsgl .@F: lshjd f;dreuz.ekSug fkdyelslu ksid tjdfha ifodia bx.@sis mrsjrA;k lshjd ta wkqj is;kakg hduhs.odrAYkslwrA:fhys Ndjs;djk md,s jpkj,g fkd.eUqre bx.@sis wrA: iemhSu ksid nq|=oyu ms<snZo bx.@Sisfhkarpkdjk .@J:hkays jsYd, wvqmdvqluz olakg ,efnz.rSia fvzjsvzia uy;d iy tu uy;aushf.a uQ<slFjfhka hq;`j werUs ,kavka md,s fmd;a iud.fuys m@ldYkj, fuu wvqmdvqlu oelsh fkdyelaflaTjqka md,s NdIdj ms<snZo jsYdrohka nejsk.Tjqka w;rskq;a rSia fvzjsvzia uy;aushg jvd ksjerosj sfn#oaO wdl,am .@yKh lsrSfuz yelshdj rSia fvzjsvzia uy;dg ;snsfka Bg wod< W.;aNdjh jevsmqr;snqfka ta uy;dg nejsk.ffjosl pska;kh uq,aneif.k ;snQ iudcfha wd.usl idudcsl jYfhka sysusjS ;snQ wka;.duS iudch;`< hd.fydau lsrSfuz fyda bf.kSfuz fyda b.ekajSfuz fyda mqreIhkaf.awNsjdokh ,enSfuz fyda lsis|= bvlaa ldka;djlg tjlg iudc miqnsu;`, fkdjSh.jks;dj ms<snZof:rS.d:d j, oelafjkafka wehj udrhdf.a uqjg wdfrdamKh lsrSu wNsfhda.hg ,laflrekq miqnsulahgf;ah. wd.usl idOqFjh ,enSu ia;@shg wmyiq lreKla fkdjknj fuu f:rS.d:d md,sfhys f;rKsjrekaf.a wmodkhka ;`,ska meyeos,s fjz.kuq;a nq|=iuh bosrsm;a lrkafka uSg m@;sjsreoaO woyilanjia;@SjdoSyq mji;s.uska fmfkkafka merKs Ndr;Sh jks;dj yd nq|=iufha ldka;dj ms<snZo wdl,amuh.egSuls.1ia;@SFjhg idOqFjh,ndoSu ne?reuz wNsfhda.hla jYfhka olajhs.ia;@S mCIhg wd.usl1 ldka;dj yd nq|=iuh bka|@dKs fmfrArd" tia f.dvf.a iy ifydaorfhda" fld<U" 2000" 119-134 msgq
  16. 16. 643mejsoao ,ndoSu ksid mYapd;a ld,Skj th iudc mrsjrA;khla yg.ekSugo fya;`N~; jsh.fuznejzNsCIqKS ixia:dj we;slr fkdfnda l,lskau .egZMj,g uqyqK oSfukau meyeos,sfjz.1 wm@udK yd wOslf,i l< wdhdpkhlska miq mejsoao ,nd |=kako iudcfhka NsCIqKSkayg Wreu jQfha fydZo ms<s.ekSula fkdfjz.fndfydajsg NsCIqKSkag NsCIqkaf.a fydr wUqjka f,i wmuK .rANd lsrSuzj,go md;@jsh.2NsCIqkag ,wenk ksoyi ,nd fkdoS wehg wIaG .reOrAu kdufhka wrA: oelafjk idudkH NsCIqjskhg jH;sfrAljqkq oevs kS;srS;s jHjia:d ud,djla hg;g fhduqlrjd mejsoao ,ndoS ;snshoS;a fumrsos iudcfhka wehg wmuK kskaod .eryquz ,nkakg is|=jQjdkuz NsCIqKSkayg wIaG .re OrAu fkdmekjQ miqnsul meKjq YsCIdmo lvjSu fjkqfjka wehg .rANd lrkjdg ovqjuz lrkjdg jvd jeros is|=jk wjia:dj,oS tu jro ldreKslj fmkajdoSu uZ.ska wehj hyuZ.g .ekSfuz jvd jevs bvlvla ta uZ.ska ksrAudKh jkjdfkao hk lreK ia;@SjdoSyq wjOdrKh lrk lreKls.ta ksidu wIaG .reOrAu meKjSu ksIaM, njo Tjqyq olaj;s. ia;@SjdoSka ldka;d msrsus jYfhka iudch fnod Nskak lruska .egZMj,g jsiZ|=uz fidhkafka oekqu fldgia j,g lvd ta;`,ska flaj, ixl,amSh idrA:lFjhla oelSugwOsldruh pska;kh Tiafia ish udkislFjh ta;`< yeisrjSug ukdj mqre|=mqyqKq l<djQ tfiaungysr hqfojz fmdf;ia;ka;@ b.ekajSuz u; mokuzjQ ia;@SjdoS pska;khg wkq.;j ta;`, isgf.kfn#oaO b.ekajSuz jsYaf,aIkh lrkakg W;aiyfldg tfial< fkdyelsjQ wjudkh uld.ekSughs.jsfYaIfhkau ngysr ishZMu oekqu ksrAudKh jS ;sfnkqfha ksrAudKjdoS pska;khflJ|@fldg f.khs.fuz hgf;a Tjqkaf.a oekquz moaO;sh f.dvkeZ.S we;af;a tu oekqu Wlyd.kakdgis;Sug lsis|= bvlvla ,nd fkdfokakdjQ udkisl ixorANhla ksrAudKh lr.ksusks. ta;`, nqoaOs jsIhsl lreKq NdjjsIhsl lreKq .`Kd;aul lreKq hkqfjka oekqu fldgiaj,glvuska yodrkjd jskd th moaO;shla f,i f.k yeoErSula is|= lsrSug ;ruzz Tjqkaf.a ksrAudKjdoSwOHdmk ixl,am m@n, fkdjk nejsk.th Wmudjlska olajf;d;a usksfil` .ek wOHhkh lsrSug ta susksidf.a YrSrdjhj fjkafldg ta tla tlla mdid wOHhkh lsrSu ngysr ksrAudKjdoS wOHdmkiudkfldg olaj;yelsh.kuq;a fn#oaO pska;kh;`, iuia;h tajQ wdldrfhkau wOHhkh lsrSug;ruz oshqKq wOHdmk ixl,am mej;`kqnj ld,duiQ;@h uZ.ska bosrsm;a flfrkakdjQ idrOrAu ixl,amuZ.ska m@lgfjz.1 tu 1-12 msgq2 tu 102-115 msgq
  17. 17. 644 nq|=r|=ka m@dfhda.slj NsCIqKSkag iudcfhka we;sjkakdjQ n,mEu l,a;shd oek oel we;.iudcfhkafndre fpdaokd t,a,jSu NsCIq NsCIqKSka w;r fkdukd inZo;d we;sjSu NsCIQka fmd<Ujd .ekSugW;aiy oerSu jeks lreKq ksid kS;srS;s oud fomsrsiu wdrCId jk mrsos l@shdlsrSu idOdrKh.bkaoshdfjz b;d blaukska NsCIqKS ixia:dj msrsyqk.,xldfjz tfldf<diajk ishji f;la fuh mej;`k.1 s snqreufha b;d iqZM ld,hls.;dhs,ka;fha f;dr;`re we;af;au ke; m@n, uydhdk NsCIqKS ixia:djla.ek pSkfha cmdkfha fldrshdfjz jeks rgj,ska jdrA;dfjz.uydhdk rgj, mejf;k NsCIqKSixia:djka wmg ms<s.; fkdyelafla tajdfha ryfia wUqieushka f,i yeisrSu muKla fkdj bkq;aTnzng .shdjQ |+ orejka ,en l@uj;a wdldrhg m@isoaOsfha jsjdy cSjs; .;lsrSfuz ksoyi mjd mejsosmCIh i;` uQ<sl udkj whs;sjdislula f,i;a thg jskfhka lsis|= ndOdjla fkdue;s f,i;a jskfhkaBg wjYH jsOsjsOdk i<iajd we;s f,i;a trfgys idudkH uyck;dj i<lk nejsk.fujeks rgj, sta ta ksldhslhka mejsoao ,nd fokafkao ;ukaf.au orejkag muKs.ta ;ukaf.a ksldh fkdkeiS /l.ekSu iZoydh.tjeks wmlSrA;su;a miqnsula we;s jsfoaYSh uydhdk nq|=iufhys wdNdIh we;sj,furfgys uykdhl f;reka jykafia,d ishZM fokdf.au oevs jsfrdaO;djh uOHfha uOHia: woyiaork jevsfokdf.a fkdleue;af;ka lSm fofkl`f.a TZzkE tmdlu u; ta iZoyd ,laosj f:arjdo nq|=iuh jskdY uqLh lrdhjkakg ryfia msUqrem;a wZosk lf;da,sl m,a,sfha wkq.@yh u; l@shd;aul jkrdcH fkdjk iud.uz yryd ,efnk jsfoaYSh uqo,a fvd,rA usgsj,g jiZ.j furgg wdkhkhlrkakg udkn,k uydhdk NsCIqKS ixia:dj ,xldjjeks iqmsrsis|= f:arjdoS nq|= oyu l@shd;aul jkrglg lsisfia;a fkd.e<fmhs. vfny nFtfey` h[xfyx k=wA sAmen`rvr[n`x nFtfk[w>vfx,v[lf dHw<vmZ dfy dHw<vmZ aAdfypNvyf.2smhr avs`TAvldF v[wfhfxf BfOS<n`vhn`es`lA smAjvferA`Df a[t[mZ k&fyAvn` kLvfxb&h`mdN`wyv[nf dHw<vmZ pNvn<l[ebZ.3emy kyxvwA mnsx d[enn dHw<vmkf.mfnfs<n` p&tfmAnhA Dr~mtA gr[krn eh`t=vk` a[t.mfnfs<n` hftn`en` emZ Dr~mtA an<v h[sfrFm mfnfsAeg`s`vABAvfk h[sfrFmbvyf.kAlyk`t=L Dr~mtAv n`x an<v h[sfermfn`sfxf mfnfs<n`x ov<n`eg`jFvftey` evn` kLenAh[kf a^gbvx Dr~mtA prfvr~tny vn`en`y.4ymZkfsfedyk` tmn`xs`vBAvfk edyk`bvx pt`vF s`vkFy jFvftey` a^gyk`v> vfx,Ey sfzkfrFm sHdhA pArfetA`SN ehAdHw<vmZ avVYvn`en` n[t.5 Dm%tA s{msmAjykm epAzevZ dk`nxl[ebZ.E`vA Ek`Ek` smAjyk pvt`nA an`dmx vwAevns` vfdfhkx tvt` smAjykdF dkfn`nx p<HPvn.EmnfsA Dr~mtA ehvt` p&tfmAn klfn`klx1 ldka;dj iy nq|=iuh bJ|@sKs fmfrArd" tia f.dvf.a iy ifydaorfhda" fld<U" 2000" tu 55-98 msgq2 u md 1" nq c uq 208 msgqj wkqcdkdus NslaLfjz idufKardkx budks oi islaLdmodks bfuiqj idufKafrAys idufKaislaLs;`x3 iuka; mdidosld 1" fyajdjs;drK uq|@K" 168-179 msgqj4 wOHdmk ufkdjsoHdj" ixia csf;aJ|@ ufaydka" mrs iajrAKd jsfcA;`x." wOHdmk m@ldYk fomdrA;fuzka;`j"n;a;ruq,a," 1996" 262 msgqj5 ,ud wdl,am ixjrAOkh" foudmsh .`re ldrAhNdrh" fm@aud l`v,s.u" iSudiys; oSmdks uq|@K m@ldYkh"kqf.af.dv" 2000
  18. 18. 645evns`vFmx BAjnyevZ.(tr[N tr[Nfyn`eg` ymZ ymZ kAlvl a[tfvn h[sfrFm udAhrNvVeyn` gth[kfy.)1 smAjyk` eds blnvfxdF smAjjFvfty gtkfrFm sHdhA Dr~mtA ektrmZ v[dgt` vnvAd[yfp[h[dflfevZ.Dr~mtA ehvt` Dr~mtA enAtfebn`nx smAjyk` pvt`vAgnyAm aphs<evyf.nm<t`apx emZ kArNy EtrmZ enAv[xeh`.Dm%tA ehvt` p&tfmAn kfyA ekAxsk` pvtfnvAd[yf kfyAvt` enAsfet`.Ix eh`t=v emZ Dm%tA ehvt` p&tfmAnvlx ap h<r[p<r[zvF E`vA apeg` jFvftvlxjFr~NvF kA v[dF a[tf nfsAy.2 smhrvfxk emZ Dm%tA atr prmAdr~VF Dm%tA hA yTAr~T Dm%tA dk`nx p<HPvn.eevreyn`eevry enAsn`sfeHd`,yn<prmAdr~VF yTAr~TDm%tAvykf.p&tfmAnykf.nm<t` apf aep` sAmAnYjFvftey`dF apx ymZkfsf akxy<t`tk` kLekenk=x Ekx Ek krn`nx ut`shkrn`enm<.Ees`ut`shkLt` prmAdr~VFp&tfmAn yk` h[xfyx emy kv<r[t` pfLfgn`nA edykf.smAjyeds blnvfx Dm%tA ehvt` p&tmAnvl tvt` p[t`tk` dk`nxl[ebZ.EnmZ smhr Dm%tA agykrn< lbmfn`E` atrm E` Dm%tAvlx p&tfmAnvlx Eerhfv kxy<t=kfrFemZ rxAvk`d dk`nx tfbFmyf. udAhrNyk` vVeyn` mt`p[n`bFemn` v[LkFm ebUd`D Dm%tAvyk`vVeyn` pfLfgn`nA Ekkf.nm<t` b<zdhmaArOSAkfrFmx vYvs`TAevn` b[HdFa[tff rxk s{m rjyk` mHgfn`m mt`p[n` nfS`pAdnyx an<bldFmk`d eker~.1 kqU kdvka foajodis" uq;`uqo,df.a kYaYxl" isZMusK brsod"tlai;a m@jD;a;sm;@ iud.u"fld<U" 06 032005"24 msgqj2 iudc jsoHdj yd udkj jsoHd m@fjzYh"tka jS cS ta fyauka; l`udr"weia f.dvf.a iy ifydaorfhda"fld<U"1997" 132-140 msgq
  19. 19. 646 rjey` an<m[tfy enAm[tfv nfS`pAdnykrn< lbn nFtfvferA`Dfy[yf hHzn`vn< lbn mt`p[n`uvzrk` h[xfyx slkA m[wp[v[t`vFmxd kxy<t=kryf.p&tfmAn pfLfbHdv emt[ndF g[xHPvk` pvtF.smAjyk p<d`glyn`vfsfn` pfLfp[dfyy<t= ehA` enApfLfp[dfyy<t= ehA` nFtfrFtf vYvs`TA sfrft` vfrft`th^cf dHw<vmZ an<sAsnA aAdfy smAjk&fyAdAmyt=L nfsfprfdf k&fyAvx enAn[eHg`nmZ E`vAmt pfhfxAenAsfxFnmZ Evn` smAjy bfHdv[exZ.smAj vY<heyhf smZmtyx blp[v[t`evn hrpd`Dtfyt=L m<l`b[sgt` cr~yAmy lOSN pfLfgt` p&tfmAn ehvt` Dm%tAels s[lek`.1 emhfdF ap sAkcZCAkrn< lbn`en` kAlAms>t&eyn` ehlfvn ebUd`D sArDm% hA iht dk`vnld ‘p&tfmAn(Norms)’atr pvtfn sbHdtAvey` s`vr{py pfLfbHdvyf2.kAlAm s>t&eyhf vfvrNyvn smAj p&tfmAny vnAhF Ehf d[k`evn smAj sdAcAr p&Qp`tfyyf.emZ v>klF p^cVFlp&tfpdAvmb[vZ 3vn prfcZeC~dey` sAkcZCAvx lk`vfnf.(3 prfcZeC~dy bln`n) Em prfcZeC~dey`sAkcZCAvx bHzn`v> prfdf p^cVFl p&tfpdAv s<rOSftvFm pfNfs aADYAt`mfk sArDm%s^kl`pv>aelA`B,aedA`s hA aemA`h yn sArDm% s^kl`pt&ft`vy udvZv>bv d[k`vfnf.3 emm sArDm% s^kl`pt&ft`vy hxgn<lbn`en` itAm s>Osm sArDm% s^kl`pyn` strk`v>emt`tA, kr[NA,m<dftA hA uep`k`KA yn sArDr~mFy s^kl`pyn` str pdnmZekAx bv vfs`trekrfnf.4emes` aDYAt`mfk sArDm% s^vD%nykrn` nAv> p<d`glyA aADYAt`mfk hA bAhfr vVeyn`s[nsFmZvg% strk` lbnbv kAlAm s>t&eyhf vfs`tr ekrfnf.EnmZ,51.prelAvk` tfebZnmZ,prelAvdF yhpt` uptk` lbenmf yn<evn` emelAvdFm lbn s[nsFm.62.prelAvk` n[tfnmZ,emZ aAt`myhf s<ves` vfsfmf yn<evn` emelAvdFm lbn s[nsFm.73.pvZkLAh<x vfpAked`nmZ,mAvfsfn` EbHz pvZ enAkrnldF yn<evn` emelAvdFm lbn s[nsFm.84.pvZkLAh<x vfpAk enAed`nmZ,mAvfsfn` EbHz pvZ enAkrnldF yn<evn` emelAvdFmlbns[nsFm.9 cft`tVAn`tfy ehvt` s[nsFmyn< p<d`gleyk= tm jFvnp[v[t`m nfrr~b<dv1 iudc jsoHdj yd udkj jsoHd m@fjzYh"tka jS cS ta fyauka; l`udr"weia f.dvf.a iy ifydaorfhda"fld<U" 1997"135 msgqj2 w ks 1" ;sl ksmd;h" uydj.a.h"ld,duiq;a;"nq c uq 377-343 msgq w,qoafOda mkdhx ld,dud mqrsimq.a.f,da f,dafNak wkNsN~f;d ….w|=gzfGda mkdhx ld,dud mqrsi mq.a.f,da fodafiak wkNsN~f;da wmrshdoskakps;af;da…..wuQ<afyda mkdhx ld,dud mqrsi mq.a.f,da fudafyak wkNsN~f;da wmrshdoskak ps;af;da fkj mdKxyka;s k woskakx wdosh;s k mrodrx .pzP;s k uqid NK;s mruzms ;:;a;dh iudofma;s hx i fyda;s oS> r;a;x kxys;dh iqLdh;s3 tu ;x lsx uZ[aZ[: ld,dud wf,dafNda …wfodafida….wfudafyda….mqrsiiai wcACO;a;x WmamcACudfkda WmamcAC;s ys;dh jd wys;dh jd;s$ys;dh Nkaf;4 tu i fLda fid ld,dud wrshidjfld tajx js.;dNscAfCOda js.;NHdmdfoda wiuzuQMafyda iuzmcdfkda m;siai ld,dudf;da fu;a;d iy.f;ak fpz;id fm-lreKd iy.f;ak fpz;id-uqos;d iy.f;ak fpz;id-WfmalaLd fm- id- id-iy.f;ak fpz;id talx osix Mrs;ajd jsyr;s ;:d |=;shx ;:d ;;shx ;:d p;`;a:sx b;s WoaOufOda ;srshxinznzOs inzn;a;;dh inzndjka;x f,dalx WfmalaLd iy.f;ak fpz;id jsmqf,ak uy.a.f;ak wmamudfKakwfjzfrAk wnHdmcAfCOk MrsFjd jsyr;s5 tu i fLda fida ld,dud wrshidjflda tajx wfjzzr ps;af;daa tajx wnHdmcACOps;af;da tajx wixls,sgzG ps;af;datjx jsiqoaO ps;af;da ;iai osgzfGj Ouzfuz p;a;dfrda wiaidid wOs.;d fydka;s ;ia6 tu ifpz fLda mk wF:s mfrda f,daflda wF:s iqlg |=lalgdkx luzudkx M,x jsmdflda Gdkuyx ldhiai fNaodmruzurKd iq.;sx i.a.x f,dalx WmamcAcsiaiduS;s whuiai mGfuda wiaidfida wOs.f;da fyda;s7 tu ifpz fLda mk kF:s mfrda f,daflda kF:s iqlg |=lalgdkx luzudkx M,x jsmdflda bodyx osgzfGk Ouzfuzwfjzrx wnHdmcACOx wkS>x iqqLx w;a;dkx mrsydrduS;s whuiai |=;sfhda wiaidfida wOs.f;da fyda;s8 tu ifpz fLda mk lfrdaf;da lrshH;s mdmx k fLda mkdyx liaips mdmx fpzf;aus wlfrdka;x fLda mk ux ;xmdmx luzux l`f;da |=laLx Mqiai;S;s whuziai ;;sfhda wiaidfida wOs.f;da fyda;s9 tu ifpz fLda mk lfrdaf;da k lrshH;s mdmx bodyx WNfhfkaj jsiqoaOx w;a;dkx iukqmiaiduS;s whuiaip;`;af:da wiaidfida wOs;f;da fyda;s
  20. 20. 647gtkfrFm eh`t=evn` bAhfr smAjy hA p<d`glyA atr pvtfn smAjmy smZm<tfy enAbfHdaArOSAkfrFm atYvVY kArNykf.smAj smZm<tfy ehvt` smAj sdAcAr p&Qp`tfy kwkrn`nAv>p<d`glyAevt smAjeyn` enAeyk` bADAvn` El`lvfyh[kf b[vfn` EvfxEm p<d`glyAeg` jFvftydEyfn` enAeyk` ar~b<dshft evZ. smAjyk` yn< p<d`glyfn` 1 sm>hykf. ov<n` EkfenkA tm tmn` p<d`glfkjFvft gt krn atrm smAjey` k=wAm smAj E`kky vn pv<l ek`$z& ekAx egAw nHgA gt` smAj h[sfrFmk`d Ek` Ek` p<d`glyA vfSeyhf dk`nx l[ebZ.2 smAjey` k=wAm smAj smAj E`kky vn pv<l` s^s`TAv nfrr~b<dv p[vt`m sHdhA eh`t=evyf.pv<l` s^s`TAvt=L nfr~bADFyjFvfkAv pfNfs ivhl`vn p^cvfD v>p&tfpt`tFn`egn` p^cVFl p&tfpdAv s[zmZld`ed` evyf.p^cVFl p&tfpdAvt=L an`tr~gtv> p&ANGAteyn` v[LkFmt=lfn` ar~Tvt` vn`en` smAjyt=L evesn aenk=t` sAmAjfkyn`eg` jFvt`vFemZa[tf ayftfy ov<n`x lbAdFmyf. emm anYyn`eg` hfrfh[r vDb$Dnvlx lk`enAvF tm jFvnp[v[t`m s<vdAyfk kAyfk hAmAnsfk prfsryk`t=L gtkfrfemZ ayfftfy ov<n`hx lbAdFm pLm< VfOSAdpdeyn` aT%vt`eker~.3ekenk= emes` tmk&fyA pxfpAxfy sks`krg[nFmxnmZ EbHz p<d`gleyk=eg` aADYAt`mfk s^vryitAm vfVfS`X tt`vykx s^vD%ny krg[nFm avVYy.eevrsftfvflft=lfn` GAtnykfrfmZ hA vDb$Dnvlx p[mfNvFmZ sfzeker~.avYApAd sftfvflft=lfn` eemt&fy ehvt` mft=r[bv vD%ny eker~.mft=r[bv mft&t`vy thv<r[v<n smAj smZb$DtA pd`DtfykdF E`t=L vAsy krn mAnv p&jAveg`m>Lfk mfnfs` ayftfvAskmZ phmt p^cVFl p&tfpdAevn` nfr~ed`Vft sdAcAr Dm%tA ph aArOSAevZ.kAlAm s>t&eyhfdF elA`By n[m[tf ak=slm>ly eh`t=ekAxegn sdAcAr KN`wnyt` EmHgfn`smAj p&tfmAn rAm<vvn p^cVFl p&tfpdAv bfHdv[exn ay<r[ epn`vA a[t`et` emZ ay<rfnf. ‘kAlAmeynf,elA`Beyn` y<k`tv> emZ p<r[S p<d`gletm vnAhF elA`Byvfsfn` mwnAld`ed`,hAt`psfn` vfnAVkrn sft` a[t`et`,st=rn` mryf.esArkmZd kryf.prdArAvn` krAd yyf.ebAr[dkfyyf.yemk=x dFr~GkAlyk` ahft pfNfs zk` pfNfs evZd,anYyAd E`b[vZ pfNfs smAdn` eker~d?’1 w ks 1" ;sl ksmd;h" uydj.a.h"ld,duiq;a;"nq c uq 377-343 msgq k mrodrx .pzP;s2 A. iudc jsoHdfjz uQ<Ou!"kkaofiak r;akmd,"iSudiys; f,alayjqia bkafjiagzukagz iud.u"fld<U"1986 B.oshKsh fmr mdie,g wer,jd uj ;ykuz .fya f.vs ld,d"fikr;a nKavdr l`,fialr"oskusK tlai;am@jD;a;sm;@ iud.u"fld<U"2503 2005" 3 msgqj3 wuzud wmamd ke;s uqje;a;s"iqOrAud chiQrsh"oskusK fikiqrdod"l;sld ixjdo irKsh"tlai;a m@jD;a;sm;@iud.u"fld<U"19 032005" 19 msgqj
  21. 21. 648 elA`By vnAhF ak=slm>L t=enn` Ek` ak=sl m>Lykf.ak=sly yn< sfet` s[nsFmkrA sftemehyvFemZ k=sltAvy rhftyn<yf.h[kfyAv rhftbv yn<yf.p&ANGAtyx,adt`tAdAnyx,kAmmfTYAcAryx ihtd[k`v> v[rdf sterhf eyAm< krvFm yn kr[N< ps vnAhF ekenk=eg` sfet`s[nsFm n[tfkrlFmx eh`t=vn kr[Nk` b[vfn` ak=slm>Lykfn` p&Bvv>vkf.1emyfn` p[h[dflfvn`en`ekenk= sdAcAr p&Qp`tfy vVeyn` s[lekn smAjp&tfmAny vVeyn` s[lekn smAj p&tfmAny ehvt` p^cVFlp&tfpdAv kwkfrFmx ivhl`vn>ey` vfSm cft`t s^kl`pyn`eg` blp{m bvyf.emhfdf vfSm s^kl`py els blpA a[t`et` elA`By ehvt` asFmft aAVAvyf. an<n`eg` jFvftvlx vwA d[wfels tmAeg` jFvftyx aAVAkfrFmt` tmAeg` jFvfty pvt`vAegnyAm pfNfs an<n`eg` jFvt`vFemZ a[tfayftfy E` sHdhA uzrA g[nFmx eh`t=evyf.emZ p&NGAtyxeh`t=vyf.2m@dK >d;h ia:r follska hqla;h m<uqj wkHhkaf.a cSjs; whs;sh fkd;ld yerSuhs.fyj;a wkHhkaf.a cSjs;j,g oevs wka;drhlr jkakdjQ l@shdj, ksr;jSuhs.fuz uZ.ska m@dK >d;his|= jSug wjYH lrkakdjQ jgdmsgdj iuzmdokh flfrA.fojk ia:rh jkdyS iDcqju wkHhkaf.acSj;ajSfuz ksoyi W|=rd oeuSuhs fulS fowxYh uZ.skau m@dK >d;h YsCIdmoh is|=fjz. an<n` st=vs`t=v eker~ d[wfelA`B sft`ipfdvFm an<n`st=vs`t=v tmn`st=krg[nFmx eh`t=vyf.3emy adt`tA dAnyyf.ehvt` esArkmyf.4;ukaf.a csjs;h mj;ajd .ekSug iq|=iq fohla Wmhd.ekSug ;uka jer jEhfuka l@shdfldg hula idOdrK f,i yuznl< hq;`h.;ukaf.a csjs;h mj;ajd.ekSu msKsi wkqka jerjEhfuka yuznl<djQ fohla whqla;s iy.;f,i jxpdiy.;f,i widOdrKf,i W|=rd .ekSu w;sYhskau fkdukd fohls.iudc jsfrdaOs idyisl l@shdjls kS;sh uZ.ska fuhgoZvqjuz ,efnkjdg wu;rj ;ukaf.a yDo YdCIsfhkao oZvqjuz jsZoskakg is|=fjz.fujka jerosj,fhfokakkag csjs;fha lsis osfkl udkisl i;`glska l,af.jsh fkdyel.ksrka;rfhka ;ud lrk,ojro fya;`fjka ksrka;r mSvdjlska hq;`j iudcfhys osjs f.jSug funZ|= mqoa.,hkag is|=fjz. ;uka lrk ,o jrog iq|=iq oZvqju ksrka;rfhka ;udj ,qyqnZos;shs ielfhka l,af.jkakg is|=jSuksid fuznZ|= mqoa.,fhda iudcfhys miqjkafka ksrka;rfhkau nsfhks ;udj lskuz fudfyd;l fydayiqfj;shs oevs f,i nsfhka miqjSu ksid cSjs;fha lsis osfkl ysf;a i;`fgka miqjsh yels fkdfjz.wkqka lrkq ,nkakdjQ fkdfhla jeros iZoydo ;udj iel lrkafkl` njg m;ajSfuka ;j w;lskafmf<kafkl` njg m;afjz.funZ|= flfkl` mjik jpkh iudcfhys fndfyda fofkla fkdms<s.kakd;ekg m;ajSu ksid iudcfhka fldkajSu ksrdhdifhka we;sfjz.jeo.;a Wiia W.;a iudchg fkdjeoaod.; hq;` mqoal,fhl` fldg ;elSu ksid cSjs;fha lsis osfkl fydZo wjjdo fydZo Wmfoia fkd,nkafkl` jS wjik b;du;a |=laLs;fhl` jS w;sYh fLzockl urKhlg Wreuluz lshkafkl` njgm;afjhs.1 kqU kdvka foajodis"uq;`uqo,sf.a ksYaYxl" isZMusK brsod"tlai;a m@jD;a;sm;@ iud.u"fld<U"06 032005"24msgqj2 w ks 1" ;sl ksmd;h" uydj.a.h"ld,duiq;a;"nq c uq 377-343 msgq 377-343 msgq mdKuzms yka;s3 tu ;x lsx uZ[aZ[: ld,dud$f,dafNda mqrsiiai wcACO;a;x WmamcACudfkda WmamcAc;s….4 tu woskakuzms wdosh;s
  22. 22. 649 s`pr~VkAmy eker~ pmNik`mvA d[wfels gfj<vFm an<n` st= s`pr~V kAmmy vs`t+n` ekern` tmn` kAms^tRp`tfy l[bFm sHdhA ekenk= eyAm<vFmx eh`t=kArNAvn s^sfd`Dfykf.emZ krN ekAx egn d[wf elA`BF ecZtnA evn` p<d`gleyA` prdAres`vny sfz krtf.1 mrodr fiajkh hk lreK ia:r follska hq;`j l@shd;aul flfrA m<uq foh jkqfha fuz uZ.ska mjq,a ixia:dj i;` jsOsu;a Ndjhg ydks is|= lsrSuhs fojk ia:rrh jkqfha wkshuska fyj;a jl@dldrfhka ta iZoyd Wojzfokafkl` f,i l@shd lsrSuhs. fyj;a ta iZoyd wkshuzf,i bv m@ia:dj ,efnk mrsos ls@shdlsrSuhs. ke;fyd;a fjk;a whg ta iZoyd bv m@ia;djkdj ,efnk mrsos ;uka l@shdlsrSuhs.jvd;a mqZM,a mrsos mrodr fiajkh hk YsCIdmoh ms<snZoj idlpzPd l<fyd;a fulS ia:r fol ms<snZoju wjOdkh fhduql< hq;`fjz . d[wf elA`Beyn` y<t=v tmn`krn`nAv> mfcZCAp[v[t`mn` an<n`egn` sHgvA t[bFemZ uvmnAevn` E`vA tmn` enAkLbv kFm eh`t=evn` m<sAvAdy n[m[tf smAj p&tfmAny kwkfrFm 2 sfzker~. tmA krn vredhf brptlkm aw<vFmx, Ey sAmAnYkrNy kfrFmx anYyn`d tmAemn`m emZ v[rdf sfzkrnehyfn` emZvA v[rdf enAv uss` nvFn smAjyp^tFn`x a[t=HPvFmx p&evZVyn`vn sAmAnY k&fyAb[vZ epn`vFmx ebAehA`ednA d[wfelA`B shgt cft`teyn` y<t=vk&fyA krtf.ov<n` E` sHdhAupk&myk`els BAvftAkrn< lbn`en` an<n`d tmn`elsm v[rdfkfrFm sHdhA epLMvFmyf.3 emyv[rdfkrn ebAehA` p<d`glyn`eg` s<vfeV`SF crft lOSNykf.emelsvFmx eh`t=v,tmn`vrdk`ekAx as<v>vt` ar asvl` ayt` emZ vrdmtmA krn`en` y[yf pvsA a[HgebZrA g[nFemZmt=blAepAerAt`t= shftv emAv<n` emZ ay<rfn` an<n`d tmAemn`m v[rdf kfrFmx epALMvtf.emZnfsA b<zrzn` kAlAm v[sfyn`x epn`vAedn< l[b<evZ p^cVFlp&tfpdAevn` d[k` evn smAjp&tfmAnps kwkfrFmx sRj<vm vfSm menA`m>Lfk s^kl`pyk`v> elA`By eh`t=vn bvyf.4 in` ant=r[v d`evZSy n[m[tf ak=slm>Ly eh`t=ekAxegn smAjp&tfmAn rAm<v elss[lekn p^cVFl p&tfpdAv kwvn ay<r[ kAlAm s>t&ey`dF kAlAm v[sfyn`x epn`vAedn< l[b<evZpht d[k`evn prfd`ednf.51 kqU kdvka foajodis"uq;`uqo,sf.a ksYaYxl" isZMusK brsod"tlai;a m@jD;a;sm;@ iud.u"fld<U"06 032005"24msgqj2 w ks 1" ;sl ksmd;h" uydj.a.h"ld,duiq;a;"nq c uq 377-343 msgq uqidms NK;s3 tu mruzms ;:;a;dh iudofma;s4 tu ;x lsx uZ[aZ[: ld,dud$f,dafNda mqrsi mq.a.f,da wcACO;a;x WmamcACudfkda WmamcAc;s ys;dh jd wys;dhjd;s$ wys;dh Nkaf;5 tu ;x lsx uZ[aZ[: ld,dud fodafida mqrsiiai wcACO;a;x WmamcAcudfkda wmamcAc;s ys;dh jd wys;dh jd;s$wys;dh Nkaf;
  23. 23. 650 ‘kAlAmeynf d`evZSeyn` y<k`tv> emZ p<r[Sp<d`gletm vnAhF d`evZSyvfsfn` mwnAld`ed`hAt`psfn` vfnAVkrn sft`a[t`et` st=n`mryf esArkmZd kryf prdArAvn`krAd yyf ebAr[dkfyyfyemk=x dFG%kAlyk` ahftpfNfs zk`pfNfsevZd anYyAd E`b[vZ pfNfs smAdn`eker~d?’1 d`evZSy yn< ak=slm>L t&ft`veyn` edvn ak=slm>Lyyf2.elA`By emn`m d`evZSeyn`d sfzevn<ey` yTAr~Ty d[kgtenAh[kfvn prfd`edn` sftk[LMFmx pt` krlFmyf.d`evZSy g[xFmx h[pFmxt=w<ed`.ap&fy amnAp ynlOSNeyn` hxgnF.ehAHd sArvt`edyk`v<vt` ap&fy amnAp elsfn` BArg[nFm d`evZSey` lOSNyyf.Ees`m ek&A`Dy,trhv,kfpFm v[nfaAGAtynx t=w<edn k&fyAvn`ebAehAmykeg` menA`m>L vfSm s^kl`py vn>ey` d`evZSyyf.emhfdF m>Lfk smAj sdAcArp&Qp`tfyelsfn` s[lekn p^cVFly smAj p&tfmAnyk` elsfn` kwkfrFmx lk`vn>ey` emkF d`evZSy n[m[tfvfSmmenA`m>L s^kl`py eh`t=ekAx egnb[vZ kAlAms>t& ey`dF b<zrzn` kAlAmv[sfyn`x phdAedtf.3 an<n`eg` jFvt`vFemZ a[tf ayftfy,tmAeg` jFvt`vFemZa[tf ayftfy evn<evn` uzrAgn`en` d`evZSym>Lfk vFemnf.emhfdF an<n`eg` jFvt`vFemZ a[tf ayftfyx d`evZSkfrFmt` tmAeg` jFvt`vFemZ a[tfayftfyx bADAvk` els Ey d`evZSeyn`y<t=v upkl`pnykfrFmt` p&ANGAty n[m[tf pLm< smAjmyp&tfmAny bfHdd[mFmx ivhl`evZ.4 an<n`eg` a[tf vs`t=v tmn`eg`a[tf nfr~Dn BAvyx sAep`OSkekAx kl`pnAkfrFm nfsAd`evZSy phL evZ.an<n`st= vs`t=v tmn`st=krg[nFemZ d`evZSshgt sft=vfl`lk` updfyf.esArkmn[m[tf edvn smAj p&tfmAny emZ ay<rfn` d`evZSy pAdkekAx egn p<d`glyA atfn`bfHdd[emnbv kAlAm v[sfyn`x b<zh< epn`vAedtf.5 an<n` tmAst=va[tf kAmsmZpt` mHgfn` DAr~mfkels kAms^tRp`tfy l[bFmt` anYyn` tmn`eg`k=x<mZB jFvfty nfrr~b<dv gtkfrFmt` tmAeg` jFvfty hA jFvnp[v[t`m hA ssHdAbln`nAv>p<d`glyA an<n` eker~ d`evZSeyn` m<LAvxpt`evyf.6Ees` d`evZSeyn` m<LAvx pt`v> p<d`glyAan<n`st= kAmsmZpt` ekern` tmA kAms^tRp`tfy l[bFmx eyAm<evyf.7an<n`eg` k=x<mZBs^s`TAvxd`evZSshgt sftfn` y<t=v eddrAy[vFmx sftAmtAm kxy<t= kryf.emZay<rfn` d`evZSy pAdkekAxegn a[t[mZ p<d`gleyA` kAm 8mfTYAcAry n[m[tf edvn smAj p&tfmAny kwkfrFmx epLeMnbv b<zh< vdArtf.91 tu |=gzfGda mkdhx ld,dud fodafida mqrsimq.a.f,da fodafiak wNsN~f;da mrshdoskak ps;af;da mdKuzms nka;swoskakuzms wdosh;s mrodruzms .pzP;s uqidms NK;s mruzms ;:;a;dh iudofma;s hx I fyd;s oS> r;a;xwys;dh |=laLhd;s2 tu3 tu4 w ks 1" ;sl ksmd;h" uydj.a.h"ld,duiq;a;"nq c uq 377-343 msgq mdKuzms yka;s5 tu woskakuzms yka;s6 ksisu ia;@Sjdosfhl`g mjq,la kE"wkq, o is,ajd" uxi,"oskusK wZ.yrejdod"tlai;a m@jD;a;sm;@ iud.u"fld<U"22 03 2005 25 msgqj7 oshKsh fmr mdie,g wer,jd uj ;ykuz .fya f.vs ld,d"fikr;a nKavdr l`,fialr"oskusK tlai;am@jD;a;sm;@ iud.u"fld<U"25 03 2005 3 msgqj8 kqU kdvka foajodis"uq;`uqo,sf.a ksYaYxl" isZMusK brsod"tlai;a m@jD;a;sm;@ iud.u"fld<U"06032005"24 msgqj9 w ks 1" ;sl ksmd;h" uydj.a.h"ld,duiq;a;"nq c uq 377-343 msgq
  24. 24. 651 an<n`vfSeyhf ihtkF v[rdfkrn`nAv> p<d`glyA atfn` smAj p&tfmAn t=nk` bfHdd[emyf.smAj p&tfmAn bfHddmn`nAv> p<d`glyA ekerhf smAjy andr els k&fyA kryf.oh<eg` sAmAjfk ayftfvA sfkmZ oh<x ahfmfkrn< lbyf. emZeh`t=evn` bfyx hA k[LMFmx pt`vn vrdkArF t[n[t`etA` d`evZSeyn`y<t=v tmn` Ebn`dk`keL` n[t[yf astYy pvstf.Em p<d`gleyA` astYy vcny mHgfn` an<n` rvxn`en` d`evZS shgt ecZtnAv eprd[rf kregny. emZmHgfn` strvn smAj p&tfmAn kwkfrFmv> m<sAvAdy ehvt` ebAr[kFm nm[tf sdAcArvferA`Df k&fyAv sfz eker~. emZay<rfn` p&ANGAty,adt`tAdAny,kAmmfTYAcAry1 hA m<sAvAdy ynstrv[d{r[mZ smAj p&tfmAnyn` bfHdfn`nAv> kwkrn`nAv> p<d`gleyA` an<n` smAj p&tfmAn aArOSAkr s[ptx hA kFr~tfyx pt`vFmt` tmn` smAjp&tfmAn kwekAx zkx nfn`dAvx pt`vFmt` d`evZSeyn` y<t=v emenhfekAx an<n`eg` sft`d z|SY ekAx ov<n` lbn`nAv> s[ptfn` hA kFr~tfeyn` ov<n` pfrfhFmx pt`krvFmx d`evZS shgtv sftA s[ls<mZ shgtv upk&mVFlFv an<n`d tmAkrn`nAv> smAj p&tfmAn bfHdd[mFemZ k&fyAvlfyx Ek`kr g[nFmx hA E`vAeyhfm nfrtkrvFmxut`sAh drtf.evr drtf.2epALMvn`nA p&tfvfr[d`D lf^gfkeyk=nmZ epALMvn< lbn p<d`glyAeg`VR^gArAt`mk h[HgFmZ k=HPgn`vA3ehA` emkF epLMvFemZ k&fyAvlfy sAr~Tk krg[nFmx ov<h<ut`sh drtf.fuz iZoyd jpkh m@fhdackh .kakd ;eke;a;ka fyda ;eke;a;shka b;du;a ishquzf,i taiZoyd wkqm@di rih l`ZM.kajk oajsFj(Double Meanind Words);@s;aj(Trible Meaning Words)ydnyqjsO wF:! we;s(Multiply Meaning Words)ryia ,sx.sl wdrdOkdjka iys; bZ.sj,ska msreKqf;areuz iys; jpkhka idudkH jpk iuZ.u wkawhg fkdf;afrk f,i ;ukag wjYH whygmuKla wre;a .ekafjk f,i jrskajr f;m,uska ;ukaf.a wNsudrA: idOkfhys,d;;amrfj;s.sfy<mZels d`evZS shgt els kLs[ls<mZ t=lfn` an<n`d tmAeg` smAj p&tfmAnbfHdd[mFemZ s[ls<mZshgt k&fyAv lfyx ekAx<kr g[nFm ehA` Ees`kfrFmx ut`shg[nFm sfzkrtf.4emZmHgfn` d`evZSy pAdkekAx egn ps`vn smAjp&tfmny bfHdd[mFmx smhrp<d`gleyA` ihtsdhn` aAkAreyn` k&fyA krn bv kAlAm v[sfyn`x emZay<rfn` b<zh< p[h[dflfkredtf.51 A. ia;@S mqreI iudcNdjh yd mjq,"tuzcS ukqrka;"wdrsh m@ldYlfhda"jrlfmd,"2004"88-90msgq B.fn#oaO ldka;djf.a iudc ldrAhNdrh"j;ai,d tuzfldvsldr"tia f.dvf.a iyifydaorfhda"fld<U"2000"97-129msgq2 oshKsh fmr mdie,g wer,jd uj ;ykuz .fya f.vs ld,d"fikr;a nKavdr l`,fialr"oskusK tlai;am@jD;a;sm;@ iud.u"fld<U"25 03 2005 3 msgqj3 kqU kdvka foajodis"uq;`uqo,sf.a ksYaYxl" isZMusK brsod"tlai;a m@jD;a;sm;@ iud.u"fld<U"06032005"24 msgqj4 tu5 w ks 1" ;sl ksmd;h" uydj.a.h"ld,duiq;a;"nq c uq 377-343 msgq |=gzfGda mkdhx ld,dud mqrsimq.a.f,da fodafiak wNsN~f;daa mrshdoskak ps;af;da mdKuzms yk;s woskakuzms wdosh;s mrodruzms .pzP;s uqidms ;dNK;s mruzms ;:;a;dh iudofma;s hx I fyda;s oS> r;a;x wys;dh |=laLdhd;s
  25. 25. 652 ant=r[v b<zh< emA`hyn[m[tf t=n`vn ak=slm>Ly eh`t=ekAxegn p&tfmAn rAm<v elss[lekn p^cVFlp&tfpdAv kwvn ay<r[ kAlAms>t&eyhfdF kAlA mv[sfyn`x epn`vAedn< l[b<evZphtd[k`evn prfd`ednf.1 ‘kAlAmeynf,emAheyn`y<k`tv> emZ p<r[Sp<d`gletm vnAhF emAhyvfsfn` mwnAld`ed` hAt`psfn`vfnAVkrn sft`a[t`et` st=n`d mryf.esArkmZd kryf.prdArAvn` krAd yyf.ebAr[d kfyyf. yemk=x dFG% kAlyk` ahftpfNfs zk`pfNfs evZd anYyAd E`b[vZ pfNfs smAdn` eker~d?’ emA`hy yn< ak=slm>Lt=enn` etvn hA avsAn ak=slm>Lyyf.2emA`hymHgfn` stYy v[sFyAmsfzevZ.ess<ak=slm>L edkvn elA`Byx hA d`evZSyx eh`t=kArNAvn`en`d emA`hy eh`t=evn`n<vN m<vhvFmyf.emy itAmsfy<mZ ak=slm<Lykf.Eb[vfn` emm k=slm>Ly k&fyAt`mkvFemn` sfzkrn`nAv> smAjp&tfmAn kwkfrFmZ nfv[rdfv hHznAg[nFmx aphs<y.sft ymZkfsf dRS`XfshgtedykEL`Mg[nFm sfzvn>ey`d emA`hyn[m[tf mAnsfkaAvRtbv a[tfkrn menA`m>Lfk Dm%tAvy nffsAy. jrA;udk ld,fhys cSj;ajk udkjhd osfkka osk wd;audrA:lduS nfjka wka;hgu hkq olakg,efnz;ukaf.a cSj;ajSfuz we;s whs;sh ,nd.ekSu msKsi wkqkaf.a cSj;ajSfuz we;s whs;sh W,a,x>khkrn`nAv>p<d`gleyA` E`k&fyAv sADArNFykrNykfrFm pfnfs vfvfD mtvAdyn`eg` s^kl`pyn`eg`aAgmfk hA dr~VnvAdyn`eg` pfhfxpttf.3rs tRS`NAv s^sfHdvFmpfNfst` tmAeg` jFvt`vFmxavVYaAhAry lbA g[nFm pfNfst` m<s`lfmZ Bk`tfkeyA`‘hlAl`’n[m[tfk&myx krn s#vGAtnyan<mtkrtf.s#v GAtny hf^sAkArFk&fyAvk`bv m<s`lfmZdhemZ epn`vAdFtfb<Nt` pV`cAt`kAlFnvov<n` vfsfn`m aAgmfk s^kl`pvlx rf^gvAgn`nAld ov<n`eg`k&fyAvn` an<mt krvAgn`nA ld`dAv>ymZymZ s^kl`p hA a#T%kTn aADAr kregn ov<h< s#v GAtny Ek`trA vt`pfLfevt` pfrFmkfn` ant=r[vsfzkfrFm pfLfgnftf.hf$zDm%ey`d b&h`myA evn<evn` krn`nAv> yAgsHdhA dsdhs`gNnk` st=n`mrAkrn bflfp>jA aAgmfk kxy<t`tk`es` EdA BArtFy smAjyvfsfn` s[lkfnf.GAtnypfNfs eyAdAgn`nA s#vvg%y mt emkF yAg egA`emZD ehA` aV`vemZD nmfn` aAgmfk g&$Tvlh[Hdfn`vfnf.EpmNk` enAv p<r[SemZD nmfn` h[Hdfn`evn mfnfs<n` itAvf VAl s^KYAvk` mrAkrn`nAv> dr[N<gNey` bflfp<jAvn` pvA ov<n`eg` aAgmfk g&$Tvl s`vr~ggAmFvFm pfNfskLy<t=v>pfn`kmZelsx hHzn`vAdFtfbfNf.4 emZvAx vfr[d`Dv EdA jFvmAnv v[wsfxf b<zrzn` kLAv> mtvAdFmy argly pfLfbHd p<vt` epLdhmt=L itAvfVAlels an`tr~gtevZ.un`vhn`es` b<zvFmx epr sfd`DAT%tv<s`v sfxfnAvs`TAevhfpvA iht dk`vnld mZel`cZC GAtnvlx vfr[d`Dv k&fyAkLes`k.evZdnfymy an<v vfsAlA mh1 tu ;x lsxuZ[aZ[: ld,dud fudafyda mqrsiiai wcACO;a;x WmamcAcudfkda WmamcAc;s ys;dh jd wys;dh jd;s$wys;dh Nkaf; uq<afyda mkdhx ld,dud mqrsi mq.a.f,da fudafyak wNsN~f;da mrshdoskak ps;af;da mdKuzms yka;s Nkawoskakuzms wdosh;s mrodruzms .pzP;s uqidms NK;s mruzms ;:;a;dh iudofma;s hx i fyda;s oS>r;a;x wys;dh|=laLdhd;s2 tu3 oS ks 1 iduZ[aZ[M, iq;a;" nq c uq 96 msgqj kF:s uydrdc oskakx kF:s hzgzGx kF:s yq;x kF:s iqlg|=lalgdkx luzudkx M,x jsmdflda kF:s whx f,daflda kF:s mfrda f,daflda kF:s ud;d kF:s ms;d kF:s iF:dTzmmd;sld kF:s f,dfl iuK n@yauKd iuzu.a.;d iuzud mgsmkakd fh bux p f,dalx mrxp f,dalx ihxwNsZ[aZ[d ipzPslFjd mfjoka;s [d4 ;@smsglfhys ixialD;sl ,CIK" ;,,af,a Ouzudkkao ysus"iuhjO!k uq|@Kd,h"fld<U"1980"105-116 msgq
  26. 26. 653n<vr aslv>ed`vAleyhf bfmZbfsAr rj<x aAVfr~vAdptA sfzkrn`nx nfymv p[vtf embHz mZel`cZCyAgyk` ebA`Dfs#vyn`vhn`es`` eg` m[dfht`vFm eh`t=ekAxegn nvtAd[mFmx sfzvFm emyx Ek`nfds<nkf.1BArd`vAj bm<NA smHg kL mtvAdFmy arglyd Eyfn` s<p&kx tvt` nfds<nkf.emZay<rfn` mtvAdFmy kr[Nk` ehA` dRS`Xfmy kr[Nk` ek`$z& ekAxegn smAjp&tfmAnyn` atrpLm<evnf p&tfmAnyvn p&ANGAty sfzkfrFm emA`hyn[m[tf ak=slm>Ly eh`t=ekAxegn sfzvn`nAv> edyk`els pfLfg[en`.2emA`hyyn< vfSm menA`m>L s^kl`pykf. Ey ek`$z&kregn EypdnmZkregn pLm<v[nf smAjp&tfmAny bfHdd[mFmx p<d`gleyk= eyAm<vFemZ s^sfd`Dfy kAlAms>t&eyhf mnAv idfrfpt`ekAx tfebZ. an<n`st= ed`pLhfmfkmZ pfLfbHd mtvAdy dRS`Xfshgtv sftAbln a[t[mZednA ov<n` EkFed`pLhrfhmZbkrtfebn<ey` ay<t=shgtels ay<k`tfshgtels asADArNels zp`pt`(nfr~Dn)jntAvs>rAkA ov<n`eg` lABy atfrfk`tyk`ekAx V&ms>rAk{m mHgfn` at`pt`krgn`nAld ecUrv> Dnyk`bvt` E`nfsA E`Dny kfsfymZ k&mykfn`lbAg[nFm sADArNFkrNyekAx E`vA tmn`eg` ehA` an<n`eg` p&eyA`jnypfNfs esArkmZkLAx vrdk`n[t[yf upkl`pnyekAx esArkemZnfrtvFm emA`hyn[m[tf vfSmcft`t s^kl`py eh`t=ekAxegn aAvrNyv> mnsfn` edvn smAjp&tfmAny kwkfrFmv> adt`tAdAneyhf eydFmnmZevZ.3 ebAehA`vfx ov<n` esArkmZkrgn`nAld Dny zp`pt`jnyAxebdAdfyh[kfy.gfln<n`sHdhA aAerA`gYVAlA anATnfvAs v[wfhfxfnfvAs p<nr[t`TApn mDYs`TAnBAvnAmDYs`TAn aAgmfks`TAn egAwn[^vFmsHdhA v[ykrn<dkfn ebAehAjnyAd ov<n`eg` Emk&fyA an<mtkrnvA vfyh[kfyf.emyfn` Em esArkm krn<lbnp<d`glyn`x tvtvt` an<bll[bFmxov<n`eg` k&fyAvn` sAmAnY mhjntAv an<mtkr n<l[bFm eh`t=vk`evZ.smhrvfx ov<n` smAjypFwnyx Eerhf vferA`DAkl`pFymt drn`nn`atr vFrt`vykfn` slkn<l[bFmxd sAmAnY mhjntAvevtfn` lbn`nA v> emkF vfeV`S s[lkfl`l aADArevZ.a[t[mZvfx ov<n` smAjp&tfmAnyk` bfHddmn<l[b<vt` ov<n`krn<lbn`en` y<gey` avVYtAvyn` elsfn`sLkA ov<n` smAjy vfsfn`m ehAHdp<d`glyn` els pfLfgn< l[bFmdd[kfyh[kfy.lk`dfv nfdhslbn`nx epry<gey` aDfrAjYvAdF pAlny<gp[vtfvkvAn<vldF zr~dAn`taAN`w<kArvr[ s[h[sfels emrxpAlnykL y<gvldF ihtkF aAkAreyn` kxy<t=kLAv> p<d`glyn` pflfbHdvd emrx sAmAnYjntAv dk`vAa[t`et`d yxd[k`v> aAkArey` s<bvAdF h[HgFmkf.ov<h< jntAvAdF p<d`glyn` els sAmAnYjntAv sftn`nx epLMF a[t. kAlAm s>t&ey`dF b<zrzn` epn`vAedn<ey` emZaAkAreyn` p<d`gleyk` esArkmZ kfrFmyn edvnsmAj p&tfmAny bfHdd[mFmx epLeMn`en` emA`hyn[m[tf vfSm menA`m>L s^kl`py eh`t=kregnbvyf.iht dk`vnld ay<rfn` tmn`sfzkrn`en` v[rdk&fyAvk`bv E`p<d`glyApvA smAjypvA enAh[HdfnFmx eh`t=v emA`hy itA sfy<mZ menA`m<L Dm%tAvyk`b[vfnf.4Eb[vfn` emA`hy ek`$z&ekAxkrnsmAj p&tfmAn bfHdd[mFmZ v[rdfels s[lkFmxpvA Eykrn p<d`glyApmNk` enAvoh< vxAsfxfn anYeyA`d aepAehAst`evtf.nm<t` smAjp&tfmAn bfHdd[mFmx eh`t=vn b[vfn` emA`hyvfSmm>L s^kl`pyk` b[vZ thv<r[evZ.1 YdlHuqkSka|@djodkh fyj;a isoaOdrA: f.#;u nqoaO prs;h"n<kaf.dv wdkkao ffu;@sh ysus"iuhjO!kuq|@Kd,h" fld<U"1986"37-38 msgq2 w ks 1" ;sl ksmd;h" uydj.a.h"ld,duiq;a;"nq c uq 377-343 msgq uq<afyda mkdhx ld,dud mqrsimq.a.f,da fudafyak wNsN~f;da mrshdoskak ps;af;da mdKuzms yka;…. s3 tu woskakuzms yka;s4 w ks 1" ;sl ksmd;h" uydj.a.h"ld,duiq;a;"nq c uq 377-343 msgq ;x lsx uZ[aZ[: ld,dud fudafydamqrsiiai wcACO;;x WmamcAcudfkda WmamcAc;s ys;dh jd wys;dh jd;s$
  27. 27. 654 anYyn` tmAeg` k=x<mZBs^rOSNykrmfn` nfr~bADfk pv<l`jFvftyk` gtkfrFm ekerhf dRS`Xfshgtv ‘emA`hy’yn vfSmmenA`m>L s^kl`peyn` mAnsfkaAvRt bvkfn` y<t=v s[lkFmnfsAtmn`x hfmfenAvn kAmvs`t+n`ekerhf s`pr~VkAm s^tRp`tfyl[bFmx t[t`kfrFm sfzevZ.1emZmHgfn`t=n`vn smAjp&tfmAny kw kfrFm kAmmfTYAcAry ehvt` prdAres`vny sfzevZ.2smAjey` k=wAmE`kky pv<lvn nfsAt` Ey ek`$z& ekAxegn sms`t smAjym p&tfnfr~mANyvF a[tfnfsAt` ymZkfsf smAj pd`Dtfyk itA evZgeyn` pv<ln[m[tf smAjE`kky bfHdv[xFmkxt=w< edn`en`nmZ EmsmAjpd`Dtfyd itAsFG&eyn` bfHdv[xFmx t=w< edyf.3rxk sArDm%pfrfhFyAmx fukau rexhf smHgfy,sdAcAry pfrfhFyAmx p&DAntm eh`t=v emm pv<ln[m[tf smAjE`kky eddrAyAmyf.4 rgl idrOrAu iq/lSug tu rfgys fjfik l`, ia;@Ska jsIfhys trg idudkH ck iudch olajkf.#rjKSh wdl,amh fya;`jk nejs mejish yel.ldu us:Hdpdrh we;sjkafka fuu f.#rjKShwdl,amh nsZo negSu ksid nj iudc jsoHdZ{fhda lreKq olaj;sjcAjFn`eg` sp`taprfhAnF Dm%setn`Ekk`els d d[k`evn`en` kAmmfTYAcAreyn` v[LkFmyn kArNyxm ayt`vn‘k=ls`t&Fn`ekerhfmnAv pfLf p[dFm’yn kArNyyf.5emy vr~tmAney` pvA eprdfgemn`m bxhfrs^s`kRtfey`dEhfs^s`kRtfk hryn` m[nb[lFm sHdhA ymZkfsf nfr~NAykyk` elsd BAvftAkrn<l[ebZ.aAvRts^s`kRtfyk` pArmZprfk sArDm%pd`Dtffyk` a[t[yf s[lekn cFney` gt v>vsrkFpyt=L Ekz s`t&Fz|SNyk`v t` vAr~tAvF n[tfbv p[ves`.ebAehA`vfx kAm mfTYAcAryxeh`t=vn emA`hyn[m[tf6 vfSm menA` m<L s^kl`py jntAveg` mnsx a[t=HPvn p&DAntmk&myvn<ey` n>tney` vANfjY aADfptYy mHgfn` pAlnyvn nfdhs` vfdY<t`mADY s^s`kRtfyb[vZiDcqju p[vsfyh[kfy.71 ia;@S whs;sh mqreI ,sx.sl m@fndaOfhka Tnzng";s,skd jSrisxy"l;sld ixjdo irKsh"oskusK fikiqrdod"tlai;a m@jD;a;sm;@ iud.u"fld<U"19 03 2005 17 msgqj2 A.fn#oaO ldka;djf.a iudc ldrAhNdrhj;ai,d tuz fldvsldr" tia f.dvf.a iy ifydaorfhda" fld<U"2000" 145-153 msgq B. ia;@S mqreI iudcNdjh yd mjq,"tuzcS ukqrka;"wdrsh m@ldYlfhda"jrlfmd,"2004"88-90msgq3 lsisu ia;@Sjdosfhl`g mjq,la kE"wkq, o is,ajd"tlai;a m@jD;a;sm;@ iud.u"uxi,"oskusK wZ.yrejdod"tlai;a m@jD;a;sm;@ iud.u fld<U" 22 03 2005" 25 msgqj4 tu5 oS ks uydmrsksnzndK iq;a;" nq c uq" 112-116 msgq i wNsKakx ikaksmd;d ikaksmd; nyq,d ii iu.a.d ikaksm;ka;s iu.a.d jqgzGyka;s iu.a.d jcAcs lrKShdks lfrdka;ss ; iii wmZ[aZ[;a;x k mZ[aZ[fmka;s mZ[aZ[;a;x k iuqpzPsJoa;s iv fh f; jcAcSkx uy,a,ld f; ilalfrdka;s udfkka;s mQfcka;s v hd ;d l`,sF:sfhda l`, l`ursfhda ;d k Tlaliai mihay jdfika;s vi hdks ;dks jcAcSkx fp;shdks wnzNka;rdks fpj ndysrdks p ;dks ilalfrdka;s .relfrdka;s udfkka;smQfcka;svii wrykaf;iq rlaLdjrK .`;a;sx iqixjsys;d6 w ks 1" ;sl ksmd;h" uydj.a.h"ld,duiq;a;"nq c uq 377-343 msgq ;x lsx uZ[afZ[: ld,dud fudfydamqrsiiai wcACO;a;x WmamcAcudfkda WmmcAc;s ys;dh jd wys;dh jd;s$ wys;dh Nkaf;7 kqU kdvka fojodis"uq;`uqo,sf.a ksYaYxl"isZMusK brsod"tlai;a m@jD;a;sm;@ iud.u"fld<U"06032005"24msgqj
  28. 28. 655 kAmmfTYAcAryx eh`t=vn`en` emA`hy enAv elA`By b[vZ ekenk=x sftfy h[kfyf.nm<t` sfy<mZvprFOSAkrb[l>kL EyEes`enAvnbv epen`.1esA`tApn`n mAg% PllABF p<d`glyA vfeV`Seyn`mps`pv< kfrFemhflA aBvYeyk`bv Dm%eyhfdk`vA tfebZ.2emZps`v<vlx kAmmfTYAcAry ayt`y.esA`tApt`tf mAg%Pl lABfyA atfn` iht dk`vnld ak=sly sfzenAvFmx oh< p&hANykrn`nAv>ak=sl`sft` kver~d[yf esAyA b[lfy y<t=y.DmZms^gNFp&krNey` d[k`evn`en` esA`vAn`mAg%eyn`elA`Bm>lfk sft`aexn` sft`strk` hA emA`hm>lsft`edekn` Ekk`yn sft`psp&hFn krnbvyf.emkFelA`B m>Lsft` htrxm vfeV`Svn epAz lOSNynmZ E`sft` strm dfxZXfgt smZp&y<k`t vFmyf.3emA`hsft vfcfkfcZCA smZp&y<k`t vFmyf.dfxZXfy hA vfcfkfcZCAv hxg[enn<ey` emA`hy ek`$z&kregnyf.esA`tApt`tfmAg%eyn` emA`hy s`vl`pvVeyn` zr[vn b[vfn` E`eh`t=ekAxegn apAygAmFvFmxeh`t=vn kAmmfTYcAryt`,E`kAmmfTYAcArey` eydFmpfNfs p<d`gl cft`tsn`tAney` hxgn`nAv>aDfkkAmAVAvt` itA s`vl`pvVeyn` ehA` zr[vFm sfzvfyy<t=my.4 s<rApAnyv[nf mfnfs`mns emA`heyn` hA asfhfeyn` aAvRttt`vyx pt`krn`nAv> mt`vns<HPed` smAjey` sFG&vYAp`tfyd kAmmfTYAcAry vD%nyx sRj<vm dAykt`vyk` spyyf.5kAlAms>t&yt=lfn` ehLfvn prdAres`vnyx eh`t=vnz|Sft menA`m>L s^kl`pyvn emA`hynfsA sms`tsmAjp&tfmAny bfHdv[xFmxt=w<ednb[vZ p[h[dflfy.pv<l` s^s`TAv bfHdv[xFmxt` vfvfDp<d`glyn` atfn`k=wAdr[vn` lf^gfk6 apeyA`jnyx hA sAvdY aphrNyx lk`vFmxt` mvZvr[ hA pfyvr[n` eg`vfed`VgtvFmd p&DAn sADkyk`vFa[t.7sfyl`l Dnymt pAlnykLh[kfy yn z|Sft emA`hm>LfkmenA`s^kl`py emyx eh`t=evZ.8bxhfrsfx emrxx p[mfeNn vfkRtfv> a[t[mZ cft`ts^kl`p hAdr~VnvAdyn` avfcArAt`mkv v[LHdg[nFm eh`t=evn` Eyfn` emA`hnyx pt`v EvAyfn` smAjgtkrn<lbnd{ hA fj<Zo iudcfha wkq.@ylFjfhka ia;@S mqreIhka w;r md,khlska yd j.lSulskaf;drj is|=jk nfdhs` eemT<nvfDFn`9 an`DAn<krNeyn` emrx s^s`kRtfyt=Ld k&fyAt`mkkfrFmxyAm eh`t=evn` s`vABAvfk mn<SY Dm%yk`v p[vt=n< p&tfvfr[d`Dlf^gfk s^tRp`tfy mt pdnmZv1 w ks 1" ;sl ksmd;h" uydj.a.h"ld,duiq;a;"nq c uq 377-343 msgq uQ<afyda mdkdhx ld,dud mqrsimq.a.f,da fudafyak wNsN~f;da mrshdoskak ps;af;daa ….mrodruzms .pzP;s….hx ix fyda;s oS> r;a;x wys;dh ;d|=laLdhd;s2 A i ks 11" mxpNhfjr iq;a;"nq c uq 108 msgqj bO .ym;s wrsidjfld nqoafO wfjpzpmamidfokiukakd.f;d fyd;s … Ouzfu wfjpzpmamidfok …. ixf> wfjpzpmamidfok …. wrshldka; iSf,ysiukakd.f;d fyd;s … bfuys p;~ys fida;dm;a;s wxf.ys iukakd.f;d fyd;s B w ks 11" m;a;luzu iq;a;" nq c uq 124 msgqj l;udp .ym;d iS, iuzmod$bO .ym;s wrshidjfldmdkd;smd;d mgsjsrf;d fyd;s woskakdodkd mgsjsrf;d fyd;s ldfuiq uspzPdpdrd mgsjsrf;d fyd;s uqidjdodmgsjsrf;d fyd;s iqrdfuzrh ucAcmudogzGdkd mgsjsrf;d fyd;s whx jqpzp;s .ym;s iS,iuzmod fyd;s3 wNsOu!pJ|@sldj"ud;r Y@S Ou!jxY ysus" Y@S Ou!jxY .`kdkqiaurK ix.uh" ud;r"1956"9 msgqj wgzGOd f,dNuQ,dks-fodi uQ,dks p oajsOd fuday uQ,dlsp oafj;s-owjdoid l`i,d ishqx4 tu13 msgqj 1 WfmlaLd iy.; jspslspzPd iuzmhq;a; ps;a;h 2 WfmlaLd iy.; WoaOpzp iuzmhq;a; ps;a;h5 nqoaO Ou!h"udm,.u isrs fidusiair ysus"weuz vS .`kfiak iy iud.u" fld<U"1962"56-58 msgq6 wuzud wmamd ke;s uqje;a;s"iqOrAud chiQrsh"l;sld ixjdo irKsh"oskusK fikiqrdod"tlai;a m@jD;a;sm;@iud.u"fld<U"19032005"19 msgqj7 A.fn#oaO ldka;djf.a iudc ldrAhNdrh"j;ai,d tuz fldvsldr"tia f.dvf.a iy ifydaorfhda"fld<U"2000" 149 msgqj B. ia;@S mqreI iudcNdjh yd mjq,"tuzcS ukqrka;"wdrsh m@ldYlfhda"jrlfmd,"2004"88-90msgq8 kqU kdvka foajodis"uq;`uqo,sf.a ksYaYxl"isZMusK brsod"tlai;am@jD;a;sm;@ iud.u"fld<U"0603200524msgqj9 ia;@S whs;sh mqreI ,sx.sl m@fndaOfhka Tnzng";s,skd jSrisxy"l;sld ixjdo irKsh"oskusK f.kiqrdod"tlai;a m@jD;a;sm;@ iud.u"fld<U"19 03 2005" 17 msgqj
  29. 29. 656dr[vn` lbmfn` k&mAn>k+laAkAreyn` emetk` p[vetmfn`aA y<gjFvfty pvA itAmvfkRtf hAmAnsfkerA`gFn`eg` vfkArr{pF h[sfrFmZdk`vA pfrfhF a[tfs[xf dk`nxl[ebZ.1 b<zn`vhn`es` vfsfn` vfnynFtfrFtf p[NvFmx eh`t=vk`ekAx dk`vAa[tf prfdf smAjey` g=NDm%pfrfhFmx dk`vnld kr[N<atr‘bh<sRttAvy’ehvt` d[nugt`kmZ v[wfvFyAmd2 Ekeh`t=vk`vVeyn` dk`vA a[t`et` iht dk`vnld aAkAreyn` vfvfDvfkArr{pF s^kl`pmt pdnmZv> vfkRtfmAnsfk h[sfrFmZ rxA ebehvfn` dk`nx l[ebn<ey` sAmAnY ugt`kmk`shft ihLpAn`tfkan<kArkvAdF jntAv atr b[vfnf.tfy;a Tjqka fuzjd kjSk iudc iuzu; iqisrs;a f,i;a fuzjdgjsreoaOjk idrOu! ms<snZoj is;k wmjeks wh kQ.;a fudav .eushka f,i;a |+m;a udkislFjfhkahqla; f.da,ShlrK ixl,amhka fkdokakd ,sx ueZvshka f,i;a i<ld l@shdr;s.W.;alu prs; ixjrAOkh;a iuZ.u tlg tlaj iudka;rj .ukal<hq;` fohls.jsoHdprK iuzmkakNdjh jYfhka yeZoskafjkafka jsoHdj prKmdCIsl jshhq;`njhs.emZsfyHPm v[rdfvlx pAdkvn<ey` emA`hyn[m[tf dRS`Xfeyn` mns v[sFyAmyf.E` aAvRt mAnsfk mxZxmt=lfn` prdAr es`vnyx eyAm<vFmyf.3fujekakkagyqfola wkqluzmdlrkjd yer fjk lrkafka l`ulao$fujekakka wju ;ruska fojshkaj;a jsYajdilrkjd kuz fojshkaf.a msysgj;a m;kakg yelshdj ;snsK. s emA`hy n[m[tf vfSm menA`m>Ls^kl`pey` blp{m eh`t=ekAxegn p&ANGAtey` adt`tAdAney` hA kAmmfTYAcArey` eyeedn`nAv>p<d`gleyA` tmn`krn`nA v> vrd anYyn`x ehArrhes`sfzkrnbv kl`pnAekAx tmn` kfsfdfenk EbHz k&fyAvl nfrtenAvnbv d[k`vFm sHdhA ebAr[kFm n[m[tf strvn smAjp&tfmAny kwkryf.4emA`heyn` m<lAvx pt`vn t[n[t`et` tmn`klAv> vrd an<n`hx rhsk` enAv>vt` tmn` sfhfm<lAvF a[tfb[vfn` E`bv tmn`x enAet`er~.EyEes`ehyfn` vrdkrt` krt` Eysfz enAkLAy[yf astYp[vsFmnfsA mn<SYyn` atr‘vcny’pfLfbHd a[tfkregntfb<nAv> ymZymZ smZm<tFn` hA EkHgt`vyn` emZ nfsA bfHdv[xFmkx lk`evyf.ebAr[kfyn`nAx kLenAh[kf ak=slyk` enAm[tfbv b<zrcd Kn`vhn`es` vdArAa[t`et`demZnfsAy.b<zvr[smZb$Deyn` a[tf Dm%tAvyk` ehvt` ebA`Dfs#v p&tfmAN yk` vn<ey`ssrebA`DfsmZBArp<rmfn` s[rfsrn`nAv> kl`p as^KY lOSgNnk` kAlyp<rA kfsfz aAt`mBAvyk kfsfm aAkArykfn` ebA`Dfs#vvr[ ebAr[vk`kfyA enAm[tfvFmyf.sfyHP ebA`Dfs#vvr[ mhAstYvAdF nAmeyn` h[Hdfn`evtf. ymZkfsf p<d`gleyk= p&ANGAtykryfd,adt`tAdAnykryfd,kAmmfTYAcAreyhf eyedyfd,Ees`E`vA enAkrtfyf m<sAvAd ebenyfd,oh< smAjp&tfmAn strk`kw krnatr iht smAjp&tfmAnkwkfrFm pfNfs oh< mt`p[n` shykrgnfyfd oh< tmAvm Em ak=slDm%yn`hf n[vt n[vtsmAdn`krgt`etk` bvx pt`evyf.5emhf smAdn`vnvA yn`enhf et`r[m epALMvnvA yn`nyf.tmAm tmAvm epALMvAgn`en` mt`p[n` epvFemn` sfhfy av<l`krg[nFmt=lfnf.ekenk` tmn`1 kqU kdvka foajodis"uq;`uqo,sf.a ksYaYxl"isZMusK brsod"tlai;a m@jD;a;sm;@ iud.u"fld<U" 06 032005"24msgqj2 lsisu ia;@Sjdosfhl`g mjq,la Ke"wkq, o is,ajd"uxi," oskusK wZ.yrejdod"tlai;a m@jD;a;sm;@ iud.u"fld<U" 22 03 2005" 25 msgqj3 ia;@S whs;sh mqreI ,sx.sl m@fndaOfhka Tnzng" ;s,skd jSrisxy" l;sld ixjdo irKsh" oskusK fikiqrdod"tlai;a m@jD;a;sm;@ iud.u" fld<T" 19 03 2005" 17 msgqj4 w ks 1" ;sl ksmd;h" uydj.a.h"ld,duiq;a;"nq c uq 377-343 msgq uqidms NK;s5 nqoaO Ou!h"udm,.u isrs fidusiair ysus"weuz vS .`kfiak iy iud.u" fld<U"1962"56-58 msgq
  30. 30. 657emA`heyn` m<LAvx p[mfN Ek`ekA` elAkeyhf pfn`pv< lshd hula enAm[tfy.ekAehAmhfxfyt`avsAney` mrNy ur[mb[vfn` in`nAkAlyt=L a[tftAk` sftx kyx enAmnAk&m vlfn`ehA`s^tRp`tfy lbAzn`nd vrdk` n[tyyn aDr~mfS`X s^kl`pnA eh`t= ekAxegn emA`heyn` mnsaAvrNykregn E`eh`t=evn` anYyn`d tmAvd ihtkF v[rdfvlx eyAm< krvAg[nFmdepALMvAg[nFmd ps`vn smAjp&tfmny bfHdd[mFm h[xfyx b<zn`vhn`es` kAlAm s>t&eyhfdF kAlAmv[sfyn`x dk`vtf. emZ ay<rfn` elA`B d`evZS hA emA`h yn vfSm menA`m>L s^kl`pt&ft`vy(ak=sl Dm%)eh`t=evn`p<d`glyA atfn` m>LfksmAj p&tfmAnps bfHdd[emnaAkAry p[h[dflfkredn b<zn`vhn`es` ILHgxkAlAm v[sfyn`x phdAedn`en` aelA`B aedA`s hA aemA`h yn sArDm%t&ft`vy(ak=slm>Lt=n)eh`t=ekAxegn p<d`glyA atfn` m>LfksmAjp&tfmAn ph aArOSAvn ay<r[yf.1kAlAm s>t&ey`dFb<zn` kAlAm v[sfyn`x aelA`Bn[m[tf sArDm%s^kl`py eh`t=ekAxegn m>lfksmAjp&tfmAnDm%ph aArOSAvnaAkAry phdAedn<l[b>evZ emZ aAkAreynf. ‘kAlAmeynf,elA`Beyn` enAa[l<nAv> elA`Beyn` enAmwnA ld`dAv> vfnAVenAv>sft`a[t`tAv>p<r[S p<d`gletm st=n` enAmryf.esArkmZ enAkryf.prdArAvn` krAenAyyf.ebAr[ enAkfyyf.ymk` oh<x ebAehA`kAlyk` m<HPl`elhf hfts[p pfNfs evyfnmZ Ehf anYyAd smAdn` krvyfd?’2 emZ aAkAreyn` aelA`By n[m[tf menA`m>lfk sArDm%s^kl`py ehvt` k=slm>Ly aADYAt`mfkvvD%ny krn`nAv> p<d`gleyA` E`mHgfn` pLm<v[nf smAjp&tfmAny vn prpN n[sFemn` v[LkFemZVfOSA pdy aArOSAkrtf.3emy k=slm>Lyk` vn`en` sft nfvFemZ h[kfyAevn` ehvt` k=VltAveyn` y<k`t b[vfnf.EmnfsA aelABy mHgfn` sftnfvFemZ h[kfyAv a[tfb[vfn` E` upeyA`gF kregnprpN n[sFemZdF E` pfNfs a[tfvn d[wf cft`tevZgfk h[HgFmZ emZt=lfn` avmkrn< l[ebZ.EmnfsAGAtnsft nfvFyyf. ekenk` tmAeg` jFvt`vfemZ a[tf ayftfy aArOSAkfrFmxt` tmAeg`jFvfty epA`SNy krg[nFmZvfSeyhft` elABeyn`y<t=v krn`nAv> prpNn[sFemZ aAdFnv d[k ymZkfsf p&QAsmZpn`n p<d`gleyk` emes`kl`pnAkryf.emelAv vsn`nAv> aenk` sfyHPm st`vyn`eg` jFvftt` meg`jFvfty hAsmAnyf.mm meg`jFvftyx aAdrykrnvAes`m ov<h<d ov<n`eg`jFvftvlx aAdrykrtf.E`nfsA mmmeg`jFvf ty pvt`vAegn yAmpfNfs evnekenk=eg` jFvt`vFemZ a[tfayftfy uzrAgn` en` a[yf?Emels aelA`B evZtnAv epd[rfkregn emelAvjFvt`vn sfyHPm s#vvg%yAekerhf emt` hAk=HPN<sft phdAegn ov<n`eg` jFvt`vFemZ ayftfy ov<n`xp&dAny kfrFm Ek`trAay<rkfn` dAnyk`dFmkf.Ey aBydAnyels a#T% d[k` evZ.dAnecZtnAv elA`BfecZtnAv a[t`etk=x klenAh[kf1 w ks 1" ;sl ksmd;h" uydj.a." ld,du iq;a;" nq c uq 337-343 msgq w,qoafOda mkdhx ld,dudmqrsimq.a.f,da f,dafNak wkNsN~f;d … w|=gzfGda mkdhdx ld,dud mqrsiamq.a.f,da fodafiak wkNsN~f;d …wuQ<afyda mkdhx ld,dud mqrsimq.a.f,da fudafyk wkNsN~f;d wmrshdoskak ps;af;da fkj mdKx yk;s kwoskakx wdosh;s k mrodrx .pzP;s k uqid NK;s mruzms ;:;a;dh iudofma;s hx I fyd;s oS> r;a;x ys;dhiqLdhd;s2 tu w,qoafOda mkdhx ld,dud mqrsimq.a.f,da f,dafNak wNsN~f;da wmrshdoskak ps;af;da fkaj mdKx yka;s kwoskakx wdosh;s k mrodrx .pzP;s k uqid NK;s mruzms ;:;a;dh iudofma;s hx I fyd;s oS> r;a;x ys;dhiqLdhd;s3 w ks 1" ;sl ksmd;h" uydj.a." ld,du iq;a;" nq c uq 337-343 msgq fkj mdKx yka;s
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