3.foundation of effective

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3.foundation of effective

  1. 1. 03 mrspzfPAoh (03 Chapter) fu;a;d ixl,amh & wdfjzok moku (Metta Concept : Foundation of Affective ) wdfjzok hk jpkh iZoyd bx.@Sis NdIdfjka Affective hk jok jHjydrflfrA1 fuz Affective hk jok iZoyd wF:! jYfhka ps;a;fjz.sl" wdfjzoksl" l@shdldrS"n,mdk" Woafjz.hla" wdfjzok hk f;areuz iuQyh Ndjs;d lr we;2 idudkHfhka idrOrAuyd ixl,am ms<snZoj bx.@Sis NdIdfjka rps; fndfyda ufkdajsoHd jsIhh fCIa;@hg wh;a.@F:hkays fuu wrA:h iZoyd Ndjs;d jS we;af;a Emotion hk bx.@Sis jokhs3 wF:! jYfhkafuu Emotion yd Affective hk jpk folu iudkdrA:j;a f,i jHjydr flfrAEmotion hk jofkys wF:! jkqfha ps;a;fjz.h" Woafjz.h" rih yd Ndjh hkakhstfukau Ndjh hkak weZ.jSu iZoyd bx.@Sis NdIdfjz Wesen, affection, being, emotion,entity, gist, meaning, nature, order, sentiment, status hk joka Ndjs;d jS ;sfnz4 affection hk jpkfhys wrA: f,i olajd ;sfnkqfha iafkayh" ohdj"frda.h" wdorh" wdndOh" wkqrd.h" Ndjh" jskaokh" wdfjzokh yd jd;ai,H hkdoshhs5tfiau emotion hk jpkfhys wrA: f,i ps;a;fjz.h" Woafjz.h" rih yd Ndjh hk wrA:iuQyh o being hk jpkfhys wrA: f,i i;a;dj" i;ajhd" i;d" cSjh" Ndjh" N~;hd"m@dKh" meje;au oelajsh yel fuys oS ilaldh osgzGs hk wrA:h m@Nj jSug n,mdk ,oilaldh hk jok ;ekS we;s wkaou ms<snZoj wjOdkh fhduq jSu jeo.;ah ulaksido h;alsis|= cSj i;a modrA:hla rys; m@ia;`;hla jQ ialkaO mxplfhys tla tla ialkaO fldglamdidu uu uf.a hehs ie,lSu ilaldh osgzGsh m@NjjSug fya;`jk nejsks tfiau entity hkjpkfhys wrA: f,i wdia:s;Hh" ia:s;sh" ia:s;s" jia;`j" wia;s;ajh" Ndjh yd N~;hd hkwrA: iuQyhka o meaning hk jpkfhys wrA: f,i f;areu" woyi" wre;" wNsm@dh" Pdhd"Pdhdj" Ndj yd N~;drA:h hk wrA: iuQyhka o nature hk jpkfhys iegsh" ienEj"iajrEmh" iajNdjh" jrA.h" fidndoyu" .;sh" .`Kh" ckau .;sh" OrAu;dj" Ndjh",CIKh" ksiZ." ksirA. nj" OrAuh" m@lD;sh yd irEm" hk wrA: iuQyhka o sentimenthk jpkfhys f,i ufkda .;sh" ye.Su" u;h" wNsm@dh" rih" Ndjh" rxckh ydufkdaNdjh hk wrA: iuQyhka o status hk jpkfhys f,i ia:s;Hh" ia:s;sh" whs;sh";rd;sru" ;ru;sru" Ndj" Ndjh yd ;;ajh hk wrA: iuQyhka o order hk jpkfhysf,i wkqms<sfj<" hqla;s OrAu;dj" ksldh" ms<sfj<" iduh" ie,iqu" iudch" ix>hd"ixjsOdkh" Tzvrh" jev ms,sfj<" jekak" jok" jrA.h" fufyjr" Ydikh" wdZ{dj" wdZ{dm;@h" wiqk" wiak" weKjqu" Tf<dx.`j" l@uh" wK" wkq l@uh" .Kh" jsOsh" jsOdkh";SrK wdZ{dj" Ndjh" mgsmdgsh" ksis md,kh" ms<sfj<" kshuh" ksfhda.h" m@ldrh" 93
  2. 2. m@luh" msrsi" wkq ms,sfj<" jskh" f.da;@h" iegs" iuzj;d" iQ;@" irKs" ika lrkjd" wKlrkjd" ms<sfh< lrkjd" kshu lrkjd yd Tiq b,a,d hjkjd hk wrA: iuQyhka ofmkajd osh yelsh fulS jpk ish,a, i,ld n,k l< lsishuz ixl,amhl Ndjuh ;;ajhweZ.jSu msKsi jvd;a fhda.Hu yd Wps;u jpkh l`ulaoehs ;SrKhlg t<Ush yelshtnejska Ndjuh ixfjzokhka ksrEmKh lsrSu msKsi Wps;u moh tys mqZM,au wrA:ksrEmKh f,i fuys l,ska fmkajd fok ,o Affective hkak meyeos,sh fuu Affectivehk jpkfhka lsishuz ixl,amhl tla;rd me;slvla jQ Ndjuh ;;ajh losug ksrEmKhlr oelajsh yelsh tfukau Ydia;@Sh jYfhka jvd;a ishquzu ufkda.;sl ia:rhla lrdwmf.a jsurAYkh fufyhjSug jvd jevs bv m@ia;djla o fuz uZ.ska Wodfjz Affective hk jpkh m@Nj jSug uq,a jQ Affection hk Ynzoh odrAYkslwrA:fhka Ndjs;d jSu wdruzN jQfha crAuka NdIdfjz we;s jpkhka jk tflafgkaf,yafrA (Affektenlehre ) hk jok uq,a jSfuks6 th ix.S; fi#kaorAh Ydia;@fhys isoaOdka;hkams<snZoj fh|=kls mqZM,a f,i oelajqjfyd;a wikakka ;`< jsjsO jQ b;d jsfYaIs;uh Ndjhkacks; lsrSug iu;a jkakd jQ iajr rgdjka yeZoskajSu msKsi fuh Ndjs;d lr ;sfnz fulSodrAYksl woyfiys idrh kuz ckm@sh ix.S;Z{hskayg jsjsO WmlrK ;`<ska kefZ.kix.S; kdorgd ksrAudKYS,Snjg m;a lrjSug bjy<ajk mokuhsjsjsO ix.S; WmlrKrd. kuz jQ jsOsu;a kdoud,dj,g wkqj jdokhlr tuZ.ska tajd wikakka;`< Ndjd;sYh l`ZM.ekajSula we;s lrjQ muKg jvd;a is;a .kakd iqZM ix.S;hla ksrAudKh lrkakg yelshdjwe;snj fmr wmros. fi#kaorAh Ydia;@ ms<snZo mrAfhaIKj, ksr;jk jsoaj;`kaf.ajsYajdihhs WoEik"oyj,a"iji yd rd;@S jeks ojfia jsjsO hduhka j,oS cSj jsoHd;aulmiq;,hlg jvd;a Tnsk f,i jskaok yelshdfjz we;s fjkialuz i,ld fuu rd. ms<sfh, jSmej;snj fmros. ix.S; Ydia;@fha oelafjzNr;uqks jeks mqrdK Ndr;Sh mZvsjref.a kHdhhYdia;@ .@ka:j, mjd udkj wdfjzok yd ri ksIam;a;sh ms<snZo funZ|= jsjsO lreKq iZoykahix.S;fhys we;s by; iZoyka l< .`Khka wdfjzok mCIfhys o olakg ,efnk nejskaix.S; ( fi#kaorAh ) Ydia;@fhys isoaOdka;hka ms<snZoj Ndjs;d lrkakg fh|=Kq wdfjzokhhk jHjydrh ffcj ixfjzokhla kuz lsrSu jsIfhys o Ndjs;d lrkakg jsh jsfYaIjYfhka ix.S;fhys yd fi#kaorAhh Ydia;@fhys jsia;r jk ixOzjksh ;`< .enzjkf,,fok iajNdjh yd pu;aldr ckl iajNdjh wdfjzok .`Kfhys o ta wdldrfhka .enzjSu ksid wdfjzokh yeZoskajSu iZoyd o ix.S;fhys Ozjks .`Kfhys tla;rd iajNdjhlayeZoskajSu msKsi Ndjs;d l< Affective hk mohu jHjydr lrkakg jsh fu;a;dixl,amfhys .enz jkakd jQ fi#uH yd pu;aldr ckl iajNdjh tu ;;ajh wdfjzokhAffective f,i jHjydr lrkakg fya;`jla jS ;snQ nj fuz wkqj meyeos,s fjz usksiaixfjzokhkays b;du;au ishquz Ndjuh wjia:djla wdfjzokh hkqfjka kuz jS ;sfnz tfukaufulS ishquz nj jvd;a lemS fmfkkafka fu;a;d ixl,amh ms<snZoj idlpzPd lrkwjia:djhka ysoSh7 94
  3. 3. fu;a;d ixl,amfhys wdfjzok moku hkqfjka yeZoskafjkafka fu;a;didrOrAuh ms<snZoj we;slr.kakd jQ Ndjuh m@ia;`;hhs8 Ndjuh ;;ajh f.dvkefZ.kafkahuzlsis idrOrAuhla yd iuznJO yeZ.Suz ps;a;fjz. ufkdaNdj wdosh tla;eka jSu uZ.sks9 nq|=iufhys ffp;isl mCIfhka ksrEmKh jkafka fuu Ndjuh ;;ajhhs10 fu;a;dfpf;dajsuqla;s wdosfhka m@ldYjkQfha fulS l~gm@dma;jQ mru ksIagdj lrd <Z.djQ NdjuhmrsmQrAKFjhhs. wdfjzokhka idudkHfhka udkisl mCIfhka l@shdldrS udkisl jQ o ufkda.;sl iajNdjhka o fj;a tfukau tys lsishuz fjz.j;a iajNdjhlao w;aoelsh yelsh fuu,CIKhka tkuz wdfjzok iajNdjh w;aolsk js,dYh usksidg fukau iFj f,dalfhysfjk;a cSjSkago msysgd ;sfnz nsh" i;`g" fldamh, iduQyslFjh" us;@YS,SFjh jeks udkislwdfjzok iajNdjhka usksidg fukau ish,q iFj m@cdjgu fmd|= wdfjzok fjz tla;rd w;lgfuu wdfjzohka iFj meje;afuys wLKav;djh ;SrKh lrkakd jQ idOlhla f,io fmkajdosh yelsh ula ksido h;a fuu wdfjzok uZ.ska iFj jrA.hdg Tjqkaf.a ffokslwjYH;djhka iuzmQrAK lr.ekSug lsishuz bZ.shla fukau bv m@ia;djla ie,fik nejsks11usksid we;`ZM ffcj m@cdju iuia;hla f,i .;a l< iduQysl cSjs;h ms@h lrkafkda fj;affcj jrA.hd fuu iduQysl cSjs;hg m@sh lsrSug mgka .kq ,enQfjz fuhg fndfyda wE;ld, jljdkqjlg fmr mgkah ta Tjqkaf.a wdrCIdjg yd meje;aug jsjsOdldrfhka;rAckhka mrsirfhka" fidndoyfuka yd fjk;a iFj jsfYaIhka uZ.ska t,a,jkakg jQld,jljdkqj;`<oSh jsfYaIfhkau ;ks ;ksj yqol,d jqjfyd;a ;u jrA.hd usys u;ska jZojS h;ehs hk wjodkug yd ;rAckhg ,la jQ fndfyda ffcj jsfYaIhka ish meje;au;yjqre lr.ekSu msKsi iduQysl cSjk fmfj;lg yqre mqre|= jQy12 fuu ;rAckhkacdkuh yd fjk;a ffcjSh lreKq iuznJOfhka mjd t,a, jkakg jsh iduQysl osjsfmfj;la;`< oS ;uka ;ksjS ke;ehs hk wdl,amh fukau nsfhka wdrCIdjSu" l`i.sskakm,jd yerSu msKsi ork ,o iduQysl m@h;akhka" fjk;a cSjS jsfYaIhkaf.ka ish cSjs;hgt,a, jk wys;lr n,mEu wju lr.ekSu jeks lreKq ms<snZoj jsfYaI ie,ls,a,la oelajSu;;a ld,jljdkqj wkqj b;d wjYH fohla jS ;snsKs fujeks wjOdkd;aul ld,mrspzfPaohla.; lruska isgS ffcj jrA.hd yg us;@Fjh ms<snZo uQ,sl wvs;d,u jegqfka fulS iduQysl osjsfmfjf;ys wjYH;djh u;` jSu;a iuZ.uh13 idudkH jYfhka us;@YS,S wdl,am j,ska iukajs; jqj;a tlS us;@YS,S njjvd;a jrAOkhg ,lajkqfha mYapd;a ld,Sk jYfhks mYapd;a ld,Skj fiiq iFj jsfYaIhkawNsNjkh lruska usksid fmrg meusfK;au usksid ;`< ixjrAOkh jS mej;s udkislmrsK;sfhys iajNdjhg iu.duSj Tyq;`< us;@YS,S wdl,amhka ixl,am ugzgfukq;a TnzngjrAOkh jkakg jsh tkuz ffcj f,dj ;`< fjfikakd jQ wfkl`;a iFj jrA.hkayg fukayqfola lsishuz idudkH udkisl ixfjzos iajNdjhla muKla fkdjS th jrAOs; wdfjzokiajNdjhla njg mrsjrA;kh jsh fjk;a ffcj jsfYaIhkays fkdue;s tfy;a usksidguwdfjzKsl jQ wdfjzok l`i,;djhka usksid w;am;a lr .kq ,enQfjz Tyq ;`< ixjrAOkh jS 95
  4. 4. meje;s udkisl mrsK;sh ksiduh14 fuu udkisl mrsK;sh fya;`fldgf.k usksid ;`<we;s fu;a;d ixl,amfhys wdfjzok me;slv Tyq;`< we;a;d jQ ishZM udkisl |=rAj,;dwNsNjkh l< yels wdldrfhka ixjrAOkhg md;@ l< yelshdj ysus lrf.k isgshs fuzksid jsYajfhys fjkia lsis|= iFj jsfYaIhlg ish meje;au wrUhd iajdOSkj lghq;` l<fkdyels wdldrhlska hqla;j lghq;` lr tuZ.ska iajlSh iod;ksl jsula;sh idlaId;alr.kakg mjd usksidg yels jS ;snSu usksi;a nfjys we;s fY@aIaGFjh lshdmdkakd jQ losuwjia:djls15 fu;a;d idrOrAufhys wdfjzok moku hg;g .efkkafka ps;a;fjz.ShjYfhka fl;ruz ixfjzoSNdjhla tys .enzjkafka o hk lreK yd wNHka;r.; ps;a;ifudaOdkh ta ;`<ska we;s lr,kafka flfiao hk lreKqh16 wNsOrAu yd iQ;@ msglhkays.enzjk iQ;@foaYkd yd jskh msglfhys pq,a,j.a.md,s yd uyd j.a.md,s hk fm<.@J:j,ska m@lg flfrkakd jQ fu;a;d ixl,amfhys wdfjzok moku .eUqrska wOHhkh lsrSuuZ.ska prAhd ixialrK l@ufjzohla jYfhka th nq|=iufhys Ndjs;hg .kq ,enQ wdldrhms<snZoj meyeos,s wjfndaOhla ,ensh yelsh fuz uZ.ska ;;ahq.fhys wOHdmk jsOs l@uhlajYfhka fu;a;d ixl,amfhys wdfjzok moku w;s idrA:l f,i Ndjs;hg .kq ,enQwdldrh ms<snZoj meyeos,s jegySula o ,ensh yelsjkq we;17 fu;a;d idrOrAufhys wdfjzzok mokug wh;ajkafka ps;a; ffp;isljYfhka nq|=iufhys oelafjk ukfiys Ndjuh ia:rfhys we;s ishquz iajrEmhhs fuz hgf;amqoa., ukfia we;sjk Ndjuh ;;ajhkag wkql~, jk mrsoafoka fu;a;d idrOrAuh uZ.skawe;slrk fm#reI ixjrAOkh mqoa., fjzu;a;;dj u; lsishuz ksYaps; ia:dkhla lrd wod<mqoa.,hdj b,lal.; lrjk nejz meyeos,sj fmkajd oS ;sfnz uq,a nq|=iufha js.@yjkfpzf;dajsuqla;shg mdoljk Ndjuh l~gm@dma;sh weiqrska fu;a;d idrOrAufhys wdfjzokmoku wrA: olajd we; jspdr mQrAjl jsYaf,aIKhka is|=l< hq;` wjia:djkays oS wdNsOuzusljsjrKhkays yd wgzGl:djkays18 .enzjkakdjQ ufkdajsoHd;aul js.@yhka uZ.ska fulSfu;a;d idrOrAufhys wdfjzok moku .eUqrska wOHkhg ,lajsKs fu;a;d ixl,amh fnfyjska Ndjuh .`Kfhka fmdaIs; idrOrAuhlsys;j;anj us;`renj ;`< is;g oefkkafka lsishuz uq|= fudf<dla wdl,amhls us;`renjfyj;a ys;j;anj uq|= fudf<dlah19 tfukau tys lsishuz taldnoaO;djla usY@jQ yeZ.Sulaof.kfohs fuu ys;j;a iajNdjh we;sjkafka iuia; cSj m@cdju ;ukaf.a cSjs;h yd iiZodne,Su ;`<ska we;slr.kakd ,o iuia;;djh uZ.sks20 lsishuz flfkl` ;ud;`< olskakdjQys;j;anj yd cSj;ajSfuz we;s leue;a; wkH cSjSka jsIfhyso Tjqfkdjqkag idOdrKnj oelwjfndaO lr.kshs tfiau tf,i wjfndaO lr.ekSuka wk;`rej ;ud iajlSh ldh ps;a;wNHka;rh fyj;a ialkaO mxplh ;`< olskakdjQ ;udf.a iajNdjh wkH cSj m@cdj ;`<o ta 96
  5. 5. wdldrfhkau oelSu ksid ;uka wkH cSjSkaf.ka fjkajQ wkH jQ iajrEmhla fkdfmkajk yq|=iuia; ffcj f,dalhgu wh;a ;j;a tla udkj iajrEmS yev;,hla muKla f,i yZ.shsilaldh osgzGsh |=re jkqfha fufia jegySu ksidh;ud iuia; ffcj m@cdjf.ka fjkalrie,lSu ilaldh osgzGsh nsysjSug fya;`jhs;ud iuia; ffcj m@cdj;`< oelSu fukau iuia;ffcj m@cdj ;ud;`< oelSu o fu;a;d ixl,am ixjrAOkfha iSud blaujSu uZ.ska is|= flfrAfuz wdldrfhka iuia;h iuia;h ;`< isgskakd jQ tla tla cSjshd ;`<ska oel yZ|=kd .ekSuiuia;h flfrys tla tla cSjshd olajkakd jQ odhlFjh meyeos,s lrjhs iuia;h ;`<talSh iajNdjh fukau talSh iajNdjh ;`< iuia;h ms<snZo wdl,amh we;s jkafka ;ud wkHcSjSkaf.ka fjka fldg l,amkd lrkakdjQ iajNdjh jshqla; lsrSu uZ.sks21 ;uka wkH cSjSkaf.ka fjkalr olajkafka wd;audrA:h uZ.sks wd;audrA:h yg.kqfha iuia;h yd ;ud hkq tlu i;a iajNdjfha jsNskak iajrEmhka nj jgyd fkd.ekSuksidh fuz whqrska tlu i;a iajNdjfha jsNskak iajrEmhka fmkajkafka ukao hk ldrKhfuysoS u;`jk jeo.;a lreKls thg fya;`j kuz tu jsNskak iajrEmhka ienE f,ium@mxp f,dj ;`< jsoHudk fohdldr iajNdjhla fkdj ta foi n,kakdjQ oDIagsfhys fjkiaiajrEmh u; flfkl` ukiska ixcdkkh lr.kq ,nkakd jQ wdldrh fjz wdruzNfhaoS nqoaOsjsIhhl iajrEmhla m@orAYkh l<o wjidkfhaoS fuu ;;ajh Ndjuh .`Khla njgmrsjrA;kh fjz fuys Ndjuh ;;ajh kuz ;ud ;uka flfrysu fukau iuia;h flfrysous;@Fjh f.dv kZ.d .ekSuhs fuu l@shdj,sh ;`<oS is|=jkqfha ;ud iuia;h flfrystald;ausl jSuhs fuu tald;ausl jSu jkdyS wdOHd;ausl neZoSuls th Ndjuh mCIhksfhdackh lrhs fu;a;d ixl,amfhys fulS nkaOkSh iajNdjh uekjska wka;rA.; fjzfuu wdOHd;aul ;;ajh fyj;a Ndjuh iajNdjh uD|= ugis,sgs iajNdjhla m@;sksrAudKhlrkakls idrOrAu mCIfhys,d th wod< jkafka l`i,h fnfyjska uD|= yd ugis,sgsiajNdjhla .kakd ksidh l`i,h ieye,a,qh is;g yd lhg wdiajdo ckl wdl,am j,skamsrS we; uki uD|= lrjk ieye,a,q lrjk fuu wdfjzok ;;ajh fu;a;d ixl,amfhysfnfyjska nyq, f,i wka;rA.;h ys;j;a nj we;s jkafka uD|= f,i l,amkd lsrSu ksidhwkH cSj m@cdj flfrys uD|= yd WKqiquz f,i Ndjuh m@;spdrhla oelajSug wjldYie,fikafka ukfiys mj;skakd jQ ieye,a,qnj ksid we;s jk ps;a; m@fndaOhhs22 udkisl wd;;s rys; nj uZ.ska jvd;a ksjeros jsksYaphka .ekSug is;gwjldY ,efnk mrsoafoka is; ieye,a,qNdjhg m;a fjz ksrjoH;djh fyj;a ;uka ksjerosflfkl`h hk udkisl yeZ.Su TzkEu flfkl`f.a is; iqjm;a lrjkakd jQ ldrKhls fuzfya;`j ksid ksrjoH;djh ms<snZo flfkl` ;`< we;sjkakd jQ hym;a wdl,amh TzkEuflfkl`f.a udkisl ksfrda.S;djh msKsi ukd msgsjy,la imhkakla njg m;a fjz fuzfya;`j ksid TzkEu flfkla ;uka ks;ru ksjeros l@shd lrkakd jQ ksjeros flfkl`h hkyeZ.Su we;s lr .ekSug fukau iudcfhys wka fndfyda fokd ;uka ksjeros flfkl`h hk 97
  6. 6. udkislFjfhka hq;`j ;uka foi n,kq oelSug b;d reps lr;s fuu cSj jsoHd;aulwjYH;djhla muKgu udkjhdf.a ukfiys b;du;a ;oska ;ekam;a jQ ldrKhls fu;a;dixl,amfhys ;j;a tla yria lvla jkqfha fuu ksrjoH;djh ms<snZo yeZ.Su ukisgldjeoaoSug th iu;aluz oelajSuhs iEu flfkl`u l@shd lsrSfuzoS yels;dla ;ukaf.a l@shdjkaksrjoH wdl,amhlska hq;`j fufyhjSug Wkka|= jkafka Tjqka ;`< n,mj;ajk fuuksrjoH;djh ms<snZo yeZ.Suhs23 kuq;a wjdikdjlg fuka fndfyda fokd ksjeros hehs is;dlrkakd jQ fndfyda l@shdjka ksid fmd|=fjz udkj j.!hdg f.k fokafka ys;lr jsmdlfkdfjz ta Tjqkaf.a l@shdjka wd;audrA:h uZ.ska oevsj uev mj;ajkq ,nk ksidh wd;audrA:hkuz iuia;fhka mqoa.,hd fjka lr,kq ,nk jeros oDIagshhs fu;a;d ixl,amh fuu jerosoDIaGsh usksia ukfika bj;a lr oukq ,nhs fu;a;d ixl,amh uZ.ska mqoa., ika;dkh ;`<we;sjkafka fmd|=nj yd iduQyslFjh ms<snZo yeZ.Suls fuu fmd|= nj yd iduQyslFjh ms<snZoyeZ.Su jQ l,S iuia;fhka mqoa.,hd fjka lr oukq ,nkakd jQ wd;audrA:hg m@;sjsreoaO jQyeZ.Suhs24 fu;a;d ixl,amfhys mj;a;d jQ fuu iduQyslnj ms<snZo wdl,amh ydfmd|=nj ms<snZo yeZ.Su uZ.ska mqoa., l@shdfjys ksrjoH;djh we;slrkq ,nhs fuhska m@ldYjkafka wd;audrA:fhka f;dr jQ is;ska hq;`j lrkq ,nk lshkq ,nk tfukau is;kq ,nkiEu fohla ;`<u mdfya fuu ksrjoH;djh .enzj mj;sk njhs ksjeros l@shdjka ksjerosl:khka yd ksjeros pska;khka mokuz jS we;af;a fu;a;d ixl,amh nj fuz wkqj ks.ukhl< yel ksjeros nj kuz ;ukag;a wkqkag;a hym;la jQ foa muKlauh hkak f.dvkefZ.kqfha fuu kHdh wkqjh idudkH csjs;fhys oS flfkl` fydZo fyda krl hkqfjkaf.dvkZ.d .kakd idrOrAu rduqjla we; tu rduqj ;`< fydZo foa f,i ks;ru wF:!oelafjkafka ;uka yd wkHhka w;r us;@YS,S nj f.dvkxjk wdl,am yd l`i,;djrAOkhhs25 ysff;ISNdjh fyj;a ys;j;anj hk lreK flfryso fu;a;dixl,amfhys n,mEu w;suy;ah fu;a;d ixl,amfhys uqLH mrudrA:hu jkqfha il,jsOcSj m@cdj fj; ys;j;a nj me;srjSu jk fyhsks uq,skau ;uka ;ukag ys;j;anjwe;slr.; hq;`h ljodlj;au flfkl` ;ukag ;udu ys;j;a ke;akuz Tyq flosklj;awkHhka jsIfhys ys;j;anjla we;s lr.ks;shs is;sh fkdyelsh tnejska ys;j;a nj we;slr.; hq;af;a m<uqfldgu ;uka jsiska ;ud flfrysuh fojkqj ;ud ;uka flfryswe;slr.kakd ,o ys;j;aNdjh wkHhka lrdo l@udkQl~,j me;srjsh yelsjkq we;ienjskau wdfjzokhla jYfhka fuu ys;j;a nfjys we;s Wmfhda.S;djh m@udK l<fkdyelsh cSj f,dalh tfukau wcSj f,dalh wLKavj meje;au iZoyd ishZM fokdf.aul@shdldrluz ys;j;alu u; flaJ|@.; jS ;snsh hq;af;ah fuf,dj jikakd jQ il,jsO cSjm@cdj Tjqfkdjqkag ys;j;a fkdjkafka kuz cSjh meje;aug fuf,dj iq|=iq ia:dkhla fkdjkq 98
  7. 7. we; fuu ys;j;anj jqjo iSud iys; jmirshla u; rZod mj;skafka kuz th kshu ys;j;anj f,i Wml,amkh l< fkdyels jkq muKla fkdj th irAj iuzmQrAK jYfhka fu;a;dixl,amfhys l@shdldrSFjh jYfhka yZ|=jkajd oSug o fkdyelsjkq we;26 tnejska ys;j;anjil, cSj m@cdfjka tla;rd fldgilg muKla iSudjk wdldrfha ys;j;a njla fkdjshhq;`h lsishuz wd.usl fyda odrAYksl pska;khla uZ.ska fu;a;d ixl,amfhys jmirsh by;oelafjk wdldrfhka b;d iSus; rduqjlg fldgqlr ;nkakg jEhuz flfrA kuz tu wd.uslfyda odrAYksl pska;kh uZ.ska ksrEmKh flfrkakd jQ fu;a;d ixl,amh tys kshuiajrEmh f,i ms<s.ekSu fuz wkqj wiSreh fuz wkqj tla;rd lKavdhulg fyda fldgilgmuKla iSud jk jsOsfha fu;a;d ixl,amhlska tys wdfjzok mCIh ksis f,i wF:!ksrEmKh fkdflfrA fu;a;d ixl,amfhys wdfjzok .`Khka jk uD|= ugis,sgs yd ieye,a,qiajNdjh tjka iSud iys; jmirshlska hq;` wF:! l:khka ;`<ska flfkl`f.a is;;`< ygfkd.kS27 wfkla w;g fu;a;d ixl,amh m;`rjkq ,nkakd jQ iSudj mqZM,a jkakg jkakgtys uD|= ugis,sgs yd ieye,a,q iajNdjh flfkl`f.a is;g jv jvd;a ;oska oefkkag mgka.kshs fuz oekSu iuZ.u ta mqoa.,hd ,nkakd jQ udkisl iekiqfuz wdfjzokSh .`Kh ;Sj@ fjzflfkl` huz lsisjla lsrSug fm<fUkakd jQ m@n,u ldrKh jkqfha tu mqoa.,hd tuldrAhh weiqrska ,nk wd;au ;Dma;sh fyj;a jskaokhhs fjk;a f,ilska olajf;d;awdfjzokSh .`Kfha ;Sj@;dj WmrSu whqrska jsZo .ekquhs28 wd;auwNsudkh ms<snZo yeZ.Suo fu;a;d ixl,amfhys l@shdldrSFjh m@lglrkakd jQ wjia:djls TzkEu mqoa.,fhl`g ;ud ms<snZoj huzlsis wd;au jsYajdihlaf.dvkeZ.S ;snsh hq;`h fuu wd;au wNsudkh hkqfjka woyia jkqfha thhs il,jsO ffcjf,dalh fj; us;`renj m;,lr yrskakgo flfkl` ;`< fuu wd;au wNsudkh fyj;a wd;aujsYajdih f.dvkeZ.S ;snSu uy;au rel`,la fjhs iuia; m@dfKaJ|@hka jsIfhysu fu;a is;m;, lrkakd jQ mqoa.,hdf.a isf;ys fulS wd;au jsYajdih uZ.ska we;s lrkqfha tlS wruqKflfrys jQ wLKav fhduq lrjSuhs iuia; ffcj f,dalhu iqrCIs; jsh hq;` njg m@n,jsYajdihla fujsg tu mqoa.,hdf.a isf;ys yg.kshs fu;a;d ixl,amh fmrgq fldgf.kwe;ssjkakd jQ fuu wd;au jsYajdih uZ.ska mqoa.,fhl`f.a is; uD|= lrAukH iajNdjhlg m;alrjkq ,nhs fujsg isf;ys wdfjzokhkays iajNdjh w;sYhskau mjs;@ jk w;r ieye,a,qofjz mjs;@ yd ieye,a,q wdfjzok iajNdjhlska hq;`j lghq;` lrkakg lrkakg wkHhkaiuZ. Tyqf.a neZoSu jevs oshqKq fjz fuu nJOkSh iajNdjh jQ l,S us;@;ajfhys nJOkhhskuq;a fuu nJOkSh iajNdjfhys we;af;a f,daNfhka is|=jkakla fuka isf;ys ;o njlawe;sjSu fkdj is; thska uqojd,Suhs th yqfola m@S;sh yd ps;af;al.@;djh wruqKqfldguwe;sjkakd jQ ieye,a,q ksoyia wdfjzokhls29 fuu ieye,a,qnj isf;ys jrAOkh jkakg jSuis; ;j ;j;a tjeksu jQ ieye,a,q wruqKq yd wdfjzok Tiafia l@shdlsrSug w;sm@n,Wmia:uzNkhla fjhs fu;a;d ixl,amfhys n,mEu ksid is; ;j ;j;a fujeksu uD|= ydieye,a,q nj Tiafia jv jvd;a ishquz njg meusfKa uq,ska ;uka ;ud ms<snZoju wd;au 99
  8. 8. jsYajdifhka l@shdlrk l:dlrk yd is;k ;eke;af;a miqj ishZM ffcj m@cdj ms<snZojuwd;au jsYajdifhka lghq;` lrkakg fm<fUz jrAudkfhys f,dj we;sjk .egquz yeutllgu mdfya uq,a jS we;af;a mqoa., ps;a; ika;dkh ;`<ska fuu mqoa., wd;au jsYajdih ydwkqka flfrys we;sjk jsYajdih ;`rka jS hduhs ;ukag ;uka flfrys jsYajdihla fkdue;sjsgu wkHhka ms<snZojo jsYajdih ySkjS hhs ;uka ;ukaj iel lrk muKgu wkHhka.eko iel lsrSug fy;u fm<fUz fuz wdldrfhka ielfhka hq;`j ySk jQ mqoa.,.; ydwkH jsYajdihlska lghq;` lrkakg fm<USu ksidu fu;a;d ixl,amho mqoa., ukiskajshelS hhs wNHka;r yd ndysr .egqug uq, thhs flfkl` ;`< wjYH muKg fu;a;d ixl,amkh l@shd;aul fjz kuz tu;eke;a;d ;`< mqoa.,.; yd iudc.; jsYajdih jrAOkh fjz mqoa.,.; jsYajdihjrAOkhjSu wNHka;r ifudaOdkh we;sjSu flfrys bjy,a jk w;r iudc.; jsYajdihjrAOkhjSu iudc .egZM wju lsrSfuys,d uy;a fia Wmldr flfrA wfkla w;g iudc.;.egZM wjujSu hkq mqoa.,.; udkisl fi#LHh wdrCIdjSu f,i wF:! l:kh l< yelsh30fuh lsishuz wdldrhl tlsfkl yd noaOjqkq jD;a;hla jeksh tys tlla iuzmQrAK jSu hkqwfkl iuzmQrAK jSu iZoyd wjYH fya;` idOlhla tla jSu jeksh tl w;lg fya;` M,iuznJO;djfhys fn#oaO wF:!l:kh fuz uZ.ska ksrEmKh flfrkafka hehs wjYH kuzflfkl`g fujeks foa idOl fldg bosrsm;a l< yelsh flfia jqj;a ;drAlsl uki mdolfldg.;a jrA;udk oekquz moaO;Skag mjd f;areuz.; fkdyels wdldrhlg huz huz foais|=jkq kuz oelsh yelsh tajd jrA;udkfhys fnfyjska oshqKqj mj;sk jsoHd;aul fuj,uzyd WmlrK Ndjs;hg f.k mjd fu;a;d ixl,amfhys wdfjzok l@shdj<sh uZ.ska we;sjkOkd;aul oshqKqj ksjerosj uek ne,Sug fyda ta ms,snZoj fN#;sl idOl bosrsm;a lsrSugyelshdjla fkdue; tfia lrkakg jEhuz lsrSfuys oS mjd mek kZ.skakd jQ m@Odku .egZMjjkqfha ta iZoyd Wmfhda.S lr.kakd jQ WmlrKj, ksrjoH;djh yd ishquz nj ms<snZoju;`j we;s .egZM iy.; Ndjhhs fuz ksid m@udKhg jvd ngysr jsoHd;aul jsYaf,aIKhkaTiafiau osjejSu ksid usksia pska;kh Tyq jsiskau ksmojk ,o iSud iys; ksrjoH;djhla ydishquz njla iys; fN#;sl WmlrKhkays isr.; lsrSug;a ta Tiafia jsgska jsg jsjsOixialrKhkag ,lajk fodaI iy.; jsjrKhka fm<.eiajSug;a is|=j we; fujeks is|=jSuz woaN~; yd us:Hdjka .Kfhys ,d neyer lsrSug fukauwjsoHd;aul pska;kfhka hqla;j jyd ms<s.ekqug fndfyda fofkla leue;a; olaj;;anq|=iuh wF:! olajkafka tfukau miikafka jspdrmQrAjlj ks.ukhka j,g meusKSuhstfiau jspdr mQrAjl ks.uk j,g meusKSfuzoS jqjo fnfyjska w;sOdjkldrSj l@shd lsrSunq|=iuh ms<sfkd.kshs iEu fohlau is|=jSug tajdgu wkHkH jQ ksYaps; ld,hla ;sfnz tlSkshus; ld,hg fmrd;`j b;du yosisfha m@ia;`;hka ksis f,i msrslaiSulska f;drj jy jydysi .sks.;af;l` f,i Tz,drslj l@shdlsrSu w;sOdjkldrSjSu f,i nq|=iuh olajhs luz 100
  9. 9. ue,sluska yd w,injska hq;`j ld,h ld oeuSuo fuhska woyia fkdfjz31 l`ula l,;a tyslsishuz uOHia: njla ;snsh hq;`h hkakhs uOHia: jSu hkq WodiSk jSu fkdjk nejskstfiau uOHia: jSu hkq wOsl w,i jSu yd w;sOdjkldrS nj hk fo wxYfhkau gsl gslwkq.ukh lsrSu hkako fkdjk nejsks hym;a whqrska W;aiyjka;j l@shdlsrSu uZ.skaiuchg ;ukaf.ka is|=jsh hq;` hq;`luz yd j.lSuz ksis f,i bgql< yel W;aiyhg wruqKqlr.kqfha fu;a;d ixl,amfhka hqla; wdfjzokhhs ffu;@S mQrAjl wdfjzokfhka fufyhjkq,enqjd jQ mqoa.,hd b;d jer jEhfuka l@shdfldg iudchg ys; iqj i,iajkafkl` fjz32 tfukau mqoa.,hd ;uka flaJ|@ lrf.k f.dvkZ.d f.k we;a;d jQ oevswd;audrA:lduS fpz;kdj iuia;h ;`< oshlr yerSu fu;a;d ixl,amh ksid bgq fjz fu;a;dixl,amh ;uka iy wkHhka w;r us;`re nj jrAOkh lrjkakd jQ md<uls th jvd;aoshqKq ;,hlg meusKSfuzoS ;uka flaJ|@ fldgf.k l@shdlsrSu l:dlsrSu iy is;Su iuia;ffcj m@cdj flaJ|@ fldgf.k l@shdlsrSu l:dlsrSu iy is;Su njg mrsjrA;kh fjzidrOrAu mCIfhka .;fyd;a fuh idrOrAuhkaf.a wjidk ksIagdj fjhs fyj;a fuhgjvd idrOrAuhkays W;alDIaguh wjoshla fkdue;s mru ksIagdj njg meusfKa idudkHmqoa.,hd fuu wjia:djg fkdmeusKu ish iir iersiereu wjika lrk w;rfndaOsiFjjre yd nq|=jre hk fo fldgzGdYh ;`< muKla fulS wjidk ksIagduh ;;ajhkaoel.; yelsh33 tu ksidu fujeks wjia:djla mqoa., fm#reIFjh w;ska b;du oshqKqwjia:djla hehs kuz lrkq ,efnz34 nq|=iuh uyd mqrsi f,i olajd ;sfnkqfha fulSfm#reIFjfhys mru ksIagduh ;;ajhhs mYapd;a nq|=iufhys ldhsl yd udkislfm#reIFjfhys mru ksIagdj f,i fuu wjia:dj jrAOkhg m;a lrk ,oS35 uq,anq|=iufhys nq|=r|=kau fuu uyd mqreI wF:!l:kh fldg olajd ;sfnkqfha udkisl mCIfhkapska;k oshqKqfjys WmrSu wjia:dj oelajSu msKsih36 fu;a;d ixl,amfhys n,mEu ksidufnaOsiFjjre yd nq|=jre ishZM ffcj m@cdj jsIfhysu us;`re njg meusfKa37 fuz ksidl,HdK us;@hka w;rska fydZou l,HdK us;@hka jkqfha o Wkajykafia,duh38 ishZM ffcj m@cdj w;rska kdhlFjhg jvd;au iq|=iafil` jkqfha fu;a;dixl,amh m@.`K l< ;eke;a;dh iuia; ffcj m@cdj jsIfhys is;iqj leue;sjSu fuyswe;s iq|=iqluhs msrsia n,h msrsia fufyhjSu jeks ldrAhhkays jvd;a fydZoska l@shdl< yels;eke;a;d fu;a;d ixl,amh m@.`Kl< ;eke;a;dh msrsiays ksrANh yd jsYdro njg t<USuhk ldrKdjka fu;a;d ixl,amfhys n,mEu ksid we;s jkakd jQ ufkdaNdjfhda fj;ajsYdro hkafkys wrA:h jkqfha ksmqK Ndjhhs fuu ksmqKnj ,efnkafka lsishuz jsIhfCIa;@hla ms<snZoj f.dvkZ.d .kakd ,oaod jQ oekqu yd mqyqKqjhs fuu mqyqKqj ,enSfuzoSjkafka TzkEu fCIa;@hla flfrys oekqu l`i,;d yd wdl,am f.dvkZ.d .ekSu iZoyd wjYHjkakd jQ udkisl tald.@;djh fu;a;d ixl,amh uZ.ska mqoa.,hdyg ,enSuhs wkHhka iuZ.iyfhda.h f.dvkZ.d .ekSug yelsjSu o ish oekqu yd l`i,;djh uZ.ska wkHhka fj; 101
  10. 10. jsjsO ixl,amhka ikaksfjzokh lsrSu flfrys Okd;aul f,i n,mdkq ,nhs n,anhla uq,ska;ud oe,ajS miqj tys wdf,dalh msg;g m;`rejkakdla fuka oekqu wdl,am ydl`i,;djhkaf.ka msrsmqka mqoa., f;fuz m,uqfjka ish ps;a; ika;dkh bka oSma;su;alr.kshs mqrjd .kshs miqj iudcfhys fjfik wkHhka yg o oekqu wdl,am ydl`i,;djhka ,nd foa tnejska fu;a;d ixl,amh jrAOkh lr.kakd ,oaod jQ mqoa.,fhl`,ensh fkdyelald jQ ps;a; tald.@;djhla yd ta weiqfrka ,nkakd jQ oekqu l`i,;d ydwdl,am moaO;shla fkdue;s ;ruzh fu;a;d ixl,amfhys wdfjzokSh mCIh t;ruzu iqLiy.; yd ufkda f.dapr jQjls OHdk ;;ajhka fj; is; fhduq l<fyd;a tys oelafjk m@S;siqL hk wdfjzok ;;ajhka Wmojkafka fuu iqL iy.; ufkdaNdjh uZ.sks wdfjzokhkays mj;skakd jQ fuu iqL iy.;Ndjh uZ.ska iFjhdf.a jskaokfCIa;@h mqZM,a lsrSulao is|=lrkq ,nhs th jkafka fuf;la l,la Tz,drsl jskaokhkagwruqKq jS meje;s yqre jS meje;s uki thska uqojd jvd;a by< ;,fha ri jskaokhkag yqrelrjSu uZ.ska ksrdhdifhkau mqoa.,hdf.a udkisl ugzgfuz WiiaNdjhg muqKqjkq ,nhsfuz wdldrhg fkdoekqj;aju udkisl ugzgfuka Wiia ri jskaokhkag yqre jQ yd fhduq jQmqoa.,hkaf.ka idudkH tnZ|= ri jskaokhkag fhduq fkdjq rZM udkisl ugzguzj, wh w;skais|= jkakd jQ m@n, .Kfha jeros is|=jSu wvqh mqoa.,hka jeros fohg fhduq jkqfha Tjqkaf.ari jskaokfhys mj;akd fuu |=n,;djh fya;` fldgf.kh tu ksid ms<shuz fhosh hq;`jkafkao fn#oaO fya;`M, kHdhhg wkqj jrog jvd tu jro is|= jSug ;`vq=|=ka fya;`j |=relsrSu wrnhdh thu jrog lrkq ,nk ksYaps; ms<shulao fjz39 fuu |=n,;djh fya;`fldgf.k ksrka;rfhka usksid hym;a lrjSu iZoyd kS;s rS;s meKjSu wjYHjk w;r rijskaok ;,h Wiia flfkl` ksrdhdifhka jroska j<lskafkl` jk ksid tnZ|= wh md,khlsrSu iZoyd tnZ|= w;sfrAl kS;s rS;s wjYH fkdjkq we; wfkla w;g fldmuK kS;s rS;smeKjqj;a jrog fokakd jQ ovqjuz oevs l<;a Wiia ri jskaokhg fhduq fkdjkd;dlal,amqoa.,hka jrfoys neZoSu w;afkdyrskq we; thg fya;`j Tjqkag cSjs;hg ri jsZosh yelstlu udrA.h rZM Tz,drsl my;a .@duH jskaokhka lrd fhduqjSu jk nejsks ksrka;rfhkaufuu Tz,drsl my;a .@duH jskaokhka ,nkakd jQ udrA.h jegS we;af;a jeros yeisrSu ;`<skajk nejska jv jvd;a mqoa.,hka jrog fhduq jSu olakg ,efnz ksrka;rfhka jrog fhduqjQ jrfoys neZ|=kd jQ mqoa.,hka w;ska iudc iuzu; kS;s rS;s lvjkafka Tjqyq ;uka ,nkakdjQ rZM udkisl wdfjzokhkays jyf,l` jSu ksidh40 fuu ;;ajfhka uqZMukskau usZoS huzlsis mqoa.,fhl` Wiia ri jskaokhlaiys; wfhl` f,i lghq;` lsrSug fm<fUkafka kuz tnZ|= mqoa.,hka w;ska iudc iuzu; kS;srS;s wdrCId jkafka yqfola jro l<fyd;a thg ,ndfokakd jQ oZvqjfuys nrm;,lums<snZoj nshjSfuka fyda tu jro l<fyd;a ;uka urKska u;` wmdhg hkq we;ehs nsh jSfukafyda fkdj tjka jrola is|= jSu iZoyd Wmia:uzN jk rZM Tz,drsl my;a .@duH 102
  11. 11. jskaokhkaf.ka f;dr wdfjzokhka ,enSu msKsi mqoa., uki ilia jSu ksidh41 rZM Tz,drslmy;a .@uH jskaokhkaf.ka f;dr wdfjzokhka ,enSu msKsi mqoa., uki ilia jkafkafu;a;d ixl,amh ukfiys jrAOkh lsrSu ;`<ska we;sjk ps;a; wdfjzokhkays ishquz jSu ydieye,a,q jSu ksidh nsh jeks wys;lr ufkdaNdjhka isf;ys yg.kq ,nkafkao is; rZMwdfjzokhkag yqrejSu ksid we;sjkakd jQ wd;;suh fma@rKhkaf.a l@shdldrSFjhfya;`fldgf.kh tfukau is; lsis|= lreKla Tiafia tl wruqK msysgqjSug wmyiq;;ajhl mej;Su ksid lsishuz fohl ksmqK njla ,nd .ekSug wmyiq fjz tu ksid thskajkafka jsYdronj fyj;a ksmqKNdjh ,nd .ekSug we;s bvlv weysrS hduhs fu;a;dixl,amh jrAOkh lsrSu fulS ;;ajhkaf.ka is; uqojd .ekSu msKsi fya;` fjz fu;a;dixl,amfhys mj;akd jQ uD|= yd lrAuKH iajNdjh is; ieye,a,q lrjk w;r l@shdfjysWps;Ndjhgo muqKqjd,hs ta ksid th ksrANhNdjhg yd jsYdro njg fydZo pska;kmiqnsula isf;ys frdamKh lrjhs tlZ.;ajh isf;ys we;s jkakg is; uD|= yd ieye,a,q wdfjzokhla jQ fu;a;dixl,amfhys wdNdih ,ensh hq;`h ks;ru is; tlZ. jkafka is; jskaokhg m;a lrjkakdjQ udkisl wdfjzokhka ieye,a,q jQ muKghs ieye,a,q is;ska uD|= yd lrAuKH jQ is;skahq;`j lrk lshk is;k oE uZ.ska is;g iqj t<jhs tfukau tnZ|= is;lg jyd tlZ.njfyj;a tl wruqKla Tiafia l@shd;aul jSug yelshdj we; fuu yelshdj f,#lsl ydf,daflda;a;r hk ishZM lghq;` j,oS uy;a fia m@fhdackj;a fjz f,#lsl ia:rhksrka;rfhka mj;afka f,daflda;a;r ia:rhg fmrd;`j nejska uq,ska f,#lsl ia:rh iqjm;anjg meusKSu hkq mYapd;a ld,Skj iqjodhs f,daflda;a;r ia:rhlg uxmdod .ekSulao jkqwe; tuksid nq|=iuh Wmfoia fokqfha ishZM cSjSkaf.a fuz fo wxYhu iqjm;a lrkqiZoydhs42 we;euz wjia:djkays fuz oajsjsO jrA.SlrKh fuf,dj mrf,dj jYfhkao oel.;yelsh fuysoS fuf,dj f,#lsl iqNisoaOsh ixfla;j;a lrK w;r mrf,dj f,daflda;a;riqNisoaOsh ixfla;j;a lrhs l`ZMKq .`Kh we;s jSug fu;a;d ixl,amfhys wdNdih ,ensh hq;`h l`ZMKq.`Kh hk wkHhka jsIfhys ohdnrs; jSuhs ohdj we;s jkafka fu;a;d ixl,amfhysn,emEfuks ;uka ;ukag ohdnr jkjd fiau wkHhkago ohdnr jSu fu;a;d ixl,amhuZ.ska is|=lrkq ,nhs43 ;ukag ;ukaf.a |=la fjzokdjka mSvdjka ksid we;sjkakd jQ luzmkhwkHhkaf.a |=la fjzokdjka ksido we;sjSu l`ZMKq .`Kh isf;ys msysgd we;s njg idOlhlstfukau tjeks |=la mSvdjkaf.ka ;uka ;ukagu msysg jk wdldrhg wkHhkao tjeks |=lamSvdjkaf.ka uqojd .kq ,nkafka l`ZMKq.`Kfha n,mEu ksidh l`ZMKqnr is; fu;a;diy.;h fu;a;d iy.; is; ishquz yd ieye,a,qh tnZ|= ieye,a,q is;g jy jyd wkHhkaf.aps;a; mSvd jgyd.; yelsjkq we; wkHkag msysg jkafka fuz jgyd .ekSu ksid ,nkwjfndaOh flaJ|@fldgf.kh44 is; l`ZMKqnr jSu l`i,hls ieye,a,q is;ska i;`g f.k fok 103
  12. 12. nj nq|=ysushka olajd we;af;a fuz fya;`j ksidh mqoa.,hka i;`g ,nd .ekSu msKsifkdfhl`;a fkdl<hq;` foa mjd lsrSug bosrsm;a fj;s ukqIH is;a i;ka ieyeis foa j,gfm<fUkafka tjka foa ;`<ska i;`g ,efn;shhs Tjqka jrojd Wml,amkh lsrSu ksidh i;`gms<snZoj jrA;udk iudch orkakd jQ wdl,amho idl,Hfhkau ksrjoH fkdjknj mejishyelsh45 i;`g ndysr wruqKq ksid we;sjk nj olakg ,enqk;a ienjska i;`g Wmoskafka ishwNHka;rfhks tfiau i;`g oefkkqfha yoj;gh fuh yoj;o tfia ke;fyd;a fud<fhysridhk l@shdldrSFjhoehs fuysoS wkjYH ;drAlsl m@ia;`;hkg t<eUSu wjYH fkdjkafkafuysoS idlpzPd lrkakg hk ldrKh wdfjzok yd iDcqju iuznJO foa muKla jk nejsksfuysoS lshkakg wjYH jk ldrKh kuz wmg oefkk foa tkuz wdfjzok uD|= yd ieye,a,qjkakg jkakg isf;ys l`ZMKqnr nj jrAOkh jk njhs tfukau fu;a;d ixl,amh isf;ysjrAOkh jkakg jkakg ps;a; wdfjzokhka uD|= yd ieye,a,q njg m;ajk njhs fuhska fmfkkafka fu;a;d ixl,amfhys jrAOkh yd isf;ys l`ZMKqnrNdjh w;r wfkHdakH iDcq iuznJO;djla olakg ,efnk njhs fuu iDcq iuznJO;djhlrKfldg f.k idrOrAu mCIfhka fu;a;d ixl,amfhys wdfjzok me;slv ffcj is;ai;kays idrOrAu jrAOkfhys,d b;du;a iqjsfYaIs ldrAhNdrhla bgqlr,k nj meyeos,sjufmfkkag ;sfnz ienjska ffcj jrAOkfhys,d b;du;a jeo.;a ls@shdoduhla fu;a;didrOrAu ixl,amh uZ.ska bIag fjz ffcj l@shdldrSFjh cSj wdhq ld,h jrAOkh jSu Wm;awkqmd;slh by<hdu yd urK wkqmd;slh my< neiSu jeks lreKq iuznJOfhka fu;a;dixl,amfhys n,mEu b;du jsYd, f,i ms<snsUq fjz ks;ru wkHhka jsIfhys fu;a;dixl,am wdfjzokfhka hqla;j is; i;`gska fjfikakd jQ mqoa.,fhl`f.a wdhqld,h tfiafkdlrk mqoa.,fhl`f.a wdhqld,hg jvd jrAOkh fjz tfiau YrSfhys we;s jk jsjsOms<sld jrA." fkdfhl`;a nelagSrshd jrA. uZ.ska we;s lrkakd jQ wdidok yd fndafjkfrda.j,ska wdrCIdj ie,iSu o fu;a;d ixl,am wdfjzok jrAOkh fya;`fjka we;s jkakd jQys;lr m@;sM, fjz tfiau iajNdjsl YrSr m@;sYla;sh jrAOkh fjz iqjpnj hkafkka woyia flfrkafka ukdj yslauqKqnjhs YsCIKh hkakwOHdmk l@shdj,sfhys m@Odk ia:dkhla .kakd lreKls .`rejrhd hkq YsIHhdjyslaujkakdh hk wF:!fhka YsCIlhd f,i yeZoskafjkafka fuz woyi wkqjh wOHdmkh,ndoSu wOsYsCIKh lsrSu kuska yeZoskafjkafkao fuz woyi wkqj husks YsIHhdg wOHdmkh,ndoSfuz l@shdj,sh uZ.ska yslaujd .ekSug kuz .`rejrhd fyj;a YsCIlhd YsIHhd flfrysfu;a;d ixl,amh fmrgqfldgf.k l@shd l<hq;`nj nq|=iuh fmkajd fokq ,nhs46 wpdrAhWmdOHdh ioaOs jsydrsl kuska yeZoskafjk fn#oaO mejsos wOHdmkh ;`< .`re YsIH iuznJOhflfia meje;ajsh hq;`oehs fmkajdfok nq|=iuh tu iuznJOh msh mq;` fifkyi fukafu;a;d ixl,amh fmrgq fldg f.k meje;ajsh hq;` hehs fmkajd oS ;sfnz fuz wkqj wdpdrAhWmdOHdhka jykafia,d jsiska ;ukaf.a mejsos YsIHhdj yslaujsh hq;af;a o YsIHhd jsiska tu 104
  13. 13. wjjdo yd .`re WmfoaY wkqj l@shdl< hq;` jkafkao fu;a;d ixl,amh fmrgq lr f.k njwdpdrAh WmdOHdh yd ioaOsjsydrsl j;ams<sfj;a jsia;r flfrk j;a;laLJOfhys fmkajd oS;sfnz tu l@shdms<sfj; mejsos mCIhg ksrAfoaY lr ;snqK;a mejsos iudch .sys iudchgwdorAY iudchla jYfhka l@shd;aul jkakla nejska .sys .`re YsIH iuznJOho tawdldrfhka l@shdjg keZ.Su Wps; nj fmfka fuhska woyia flfrkafka iqjpnj .sys mejsosfomCI Wfoidu ish cSjk meje;au Wfoid w;HjYH .`Kdx.hla njhs isf;ys iqjpnjwe;sjSug kuz is; uD|= ishquz yd ieye,a,q njg m;ajsh hq;`h rZM orovq is;ls;a iqjpnjlawfmaCId l< fkdyelafla tjeks is;lg ishquz yeZ.Sula jQ iqjpnj wruqKq fkdjk ksidhiqjp iajNdjh ksid is; wk;sudks fjz wk;sudk iajNdjh l@ul@ufhka jrAOkh jSwjidkfha oS ksy;udkS iajNdjhg m;afjz fuz ksid isf;ys wdfjzok l`i,;djh ishquzjkakg jkakg tlS is;g wruqKq flfrkakd jQ wruqKqo jv jvd;a ishquz njg meusfKaiqjpnj b;d ishquz ixfjzokhla nejska th o< rZM is;lg jvd fydZoska uekjska mqre|=mqyqKq lrk ,oaod jQ ieye,a,q uD|= yd lrAuKH is;g wruqKq fjz fu;a;d ixl,amfhka is; uD|= ieye,a,q yd lrAuKH njg m;a lrjhsfu;a;d ixl,amfhys jskaokuh iajNdjh idudkHfhka fjk;a idrOrAuhkg jvd jevsfhkamsysgd ;snSu wdfjzok mCIfhka fu;a;d ixl,amfhys Wmfhda.S;djh biau;` lr fmkajd,hsfu;a;d ixl,amh uZ.ska isf;ys wdfjzokhkaf.a rZM yd o< iajNdjh l@u l@ufhka wjulrjhs fu;a;d ixl,amh isf;ys jevs jevsfhka jrAOkh jkakg jkakg is; jv jvd;aiqjp njg m;afjz wkql@ufhka isf;ys ish,q laf,aYhka m@ySk jk ;rug mdfya fu;a;dixl,amh wdfjzok mCIfhka m@.`K l< yelsh fu;a;d ixl,amfhys n,mEu ;j;ame;a;lska isf;ys iqjpnj jrAOkh lsrSu iZoyd Wmldrj;a fjz tkuz ishZM ffcj m@cdjjsIfhys us;`renj we;slr.kakd ,o mqoa.,hd miqjkafka iajNdjfhkau wkH cSjSka ms<snZojys; iqj leue;af;ks ta mqoa.,hdf.a is; ;o njg m;alrjk rZM njg muqKqjk fl@daOhffjrh mgs>h jeks wys;lr ufkdaNdjuh jQ wdfjzok ;;ajhkaf.ka is; jshqla; jS we;sksid isf;ys m@Ndiajrh jrAOkh jQ ieye,a,q jQ uD|= jQ lrAuKH jQ is;lska miqjSu lrKfldgf.k b;d myiqfjka thg iudk wdl,amhka isf;ys jrAOkh jSug ksrdhdifhkaulsishuz fm<USula we;sfjz iqjpnj hk wdfjzokho uD|= ieye,a,q wdfjzokhla nejska tjeksuD|= ieye,a,q yd lrAuKH njg mrsjrA;kh jQ is;l jvd myiqfjka yd jvd blaukskatjeks wdfjzokhka me;sr hhs fyj;a uD|= ieye,a,q is;la ysus mqoa.,hd b;d blaukskaiqjpnjg m;a fjz47 wk;sudksnj hkafkka woyia jkafka WvZ.`njg fkdmeusfKkakd jQiajNdjhs isf;ys WvZ.`nj we;s jkafka ;uka wkHhkaf.ka fjkalr iqjsfYaIS mqoa.,fhlajYfhka ie,lSu ksidh ;uka wkHhkaf.ka fjkajq mqoa.,fhla nj ienE uq;a th oevs f,iisf;ys msysgqjd f.k ta Tiafia wkHhkag fjkialuz lsrSu n,j;a jrols fuz ksid ;ukaowkHhka fukau ffcj f,dalhg wh;a ;j;a tla cSjsfhla muKlah hk yeZ.Su fndfyda 105
  14. 14. fofkl`g b;d blaukska wu;lj hhs b;d blaukska uq, wu;l fldg l@shd lrkafkaofndfydajsg fujeks Wojshhs is; udkqIsl nj u; rZojd l@shdlsrSfuz yelshdj is;g ,ndfokafka wk;sudks nj fyj;a udkh hgm;a lsrSu uZ.sks udkfhka is; jsisreKd jQiajNdjhlg m;ajk w;r th hgm;a lr.ekSu Wfoid l< yels fydZou yd jsOsu;aum@;sldrh jkqfha isf;ys fu;a;d ixl,amh jrAOkh lr .ekSuhs fu;a;d ixl,mfhyswdfjzok iajNdjh jkqfha is; tl wruqKl /ZojSu yd is; ieye,a,q uD|=NdjhgmeusKjSuhs fuhska jskaokh jk wdfjzok iajNdjfhys isf;ys fhduq.; jSfuz yelshdjjrAOkh lrhs tfukau fu;a;d ixl,amfhys jmirsh mqZM,a jk ksid b;d mqZM,afkdyelsZMKq is;lska hq;`j wruqKqj, ienE iajrEmh yZ|=kdf.k lghq;` lsrSfuz yelshdjwe;sfjz udkh uqZM ukskau |=rel< yels jkafka wrAy;a udrA. Z{dkfhka jk w;r idudkHjHjydrfha oS ksy;udks kdufhka yeZoskafjk fh|=u Ndjs;d l< yelshdj ienjskau we;af;audkh uqZM ukskau |=rel<djQ ry;ka jykafia,d wrnhd muKs idudkH f,dalhd ksy;udkShk jHjydrfhka yZ|=jkq ,nkakd jQ idudkH mqyq|=ka ckhd yeZoskajSu msKsi Ndjs;dl< hq;`jQ kshu jpkh udkh hgm;a l< hk wrA: we;s wk;sudkS hk jpkhhs fu;a;d ixl,amh isf;ys wdfjzokSh jYfhka jv jvd;a jrAOkh lroaoS is;;`< we;s jkakd jQ ieye,a,qnj yd wkH iFjhka flfrys yg.kakd us;`renj ms<snZo ishquzNdjuh ;;ajh lrK fldgf.k udkh yg.kajk ;o rZM njska f;drj ;uka yd wkHhkaw;r mj;skakd jQ iSudj nsZo oud ;ud yd wkHhka talFjfhka ie,lsh yelsfjz fuutalShNdjh ;`<ska iEu fohlu we;s ksiaidrnj yd jskdYhg meusfKk iajNdjh i<ld;uka wkHhkaf.ka fjkalr oelSug fya;`jk udkh |=re lsrSfuys ,d W;aiyj;a fjz48 fuysuq,au wjia:dj udkh ;djld,slj hgm;a fldg lghq;` lsrSug fm<USuhs tfia;djld,slj udkh hgm;a fldg lghq;` lrkakg yqre mqre|= jQ ;eke;a;dg miqld,Skjudkfhka uqZMukskau |=rej lghq;` lrkakg yelshdj we;s lr.; yels fjz fn#oaOb.ekajSuz wkqj udkh hk ixfhdack OrAufhys n,j;alu flf;la oehs lsjfyd;a wkd.duS;eke;a;dg mjd tla;rd |=rlg udkh n,mj;ajk nj iZoyka jSu uZ.ska fmfka udkh we;sjSug m@Odku fya;`j ;ud yd wkHhka hkqfjka il,jsO ffcj m@cdj fofldgilg fnodie,lSuhs fuu fnoSu iuZ.u ;uka wkHkag jvd Wiiah iudkh fyda my;ah hkdoSfkdfhl`;a wdldrfhka udkh yg.kshs uq,a mshjfrysoS fuz ;;ajh |=re jkafka fu;a;dixl,amh m@.`K lsrSu uZ.ska ;ud;a yd wkHhka hkqfjka il,jsO ffcj m@cdjfofldgilg fnod ie<lSu keje;ajSu ;`<sks fyj;a ;uka yd wkHhka w;r talFjh we;sjkafka us;`renj we;slsrSu uZ.ska nj ta mqoa.,hd wjfndaOh lr .kshs fuz wkqj fu;a;dixl,amh isf;ys jrAOkh jSu wk;sudks nj we;slsrSfuys,d ufydamldrS fjz iqrCIs;;djh hkq wdrCId iys; hkakhs fyj;a /ljrKh ,enSuhs/ljrKh ,enSu is|=jSug wkH cSjSkaf.ka ;u meje;aug ;rAckhla t,a, fkdjsh hq;`h;ukaf.a meje;aug ;rAckhla mj;skakd jQ jljdkqjl iqrCIs;djh ;snsh fkdyelsh ;uka 106
  15. 15. wkHhkaf.a osjs meje;aug ;rAckhla fkdjk wdldrfhka l@shdlrkq ,nkafka ;ud ;udf.aosjs meje;au fukau jgskdlulska hq;`j wkHhkaf.a cSj;ajSfuz ksoyi yd ksoyfial@shdlsrSfuz ksoyi iqrlsk jsgh fuz iZoyd ;udf.a cSjs;h yd iudk jgskdlulska hq;`jwkHhkaf.a cSjs;ho ie,lSug yelshdj ,efnk udkisl jd;djrKhla f.dvkZ.d .;hq;`h49 tjka udkisl jd;djrKhla ksrdhdifhka f.dv fkdkefZ.a tnejska tjka udkisljd;djrKhla ;ud ;`< we;slr .ekSu msKsi fu;a;d ixl,amfhys wdNdih ,ensh hq;`hfu;a;d ixl,amh ;ud ;`< jrAOkh lr.ekSu ksid ;uka ;ukaf.a cSjs;h fukau wdhqld,h jrAOkh lr.ekSu iZoyd wjYH fN#;sl yd wdOHd;ausl mrsirhla we;s lr.kshstfukau wkHhka iuZ. us;`re wdl,amhka jrAOkh lr.ekSu fya;`fjkao ;udf.a is; msrsis|=jSu fya;`fjka ;ukaf.a YrSr fi#LHh jrAOkh lr.ekSug yelshdj ,efnz tfukaufN#;sl jYfhka wkHhkaf.a cSjs;h fukau wdhq ld,h jrAOkh jSu iZoyd iq|=iq fN#;slyd wdOH;ausl mrsirhlao fu;a;d ixl,amh isf;ys jrAOkh lr.ekSu fya;`fjka l@shdfjkal:kfhka yd pska;kfhka ;uka jsiskau iafjpzPdfjka ilialr fokq ,nhs usksidg w;ajsZoSug ,efnkakd jQ fiiq wdfjzokhka w;rska us;@YS,SNdjhfndfyda fldgu usksia is;g i;`g okjkakd jQ wdfjzokhls ffcj jrA.hd w;r wdfjzKsliyc ,CIKhla fia ie,flk iduQysl cSjkh mj;ajd .kq iZoyd ffcj jsoHd;aulj Wreulr.;a Tjqka tlsfkld fj; we,quzlrk iajNdjh usksid fu;a;d ixl,amh fj; fu;ruzwdYla; jSug fya;`j f,i ie,lsh yelsh ta fya;`j ksidu fndfydajsg ksrdhdifhkaumdfya usksid ;`< us;@YS,S wdfjzokhka yg.kshs us;@YS,sFjfhys ,CIKh jkafka usksiqkaw;r iduQyslFjh f.dvkexjSuhs tfukau wdfjzokhla jYfhka tu yeZ.Su is;g f.ktkafka fnfyjska iqjodhs iajNdjhls tmuKla o fkdj usksiqka w;r iqrCIs; iudcmrsirhla ksrAudKh lr oSu flfrys o fuu wdfjzokh odhlFjh imhkq ,nhs nq|=iuh;`< fu;a;d ixl,amh js.@yhg ,la jSug tlu fya;`j fjk;a ndysr iuh jdohka ;`<fu;a;d ixl,amhg iudk fjk;a ixl,am jsoHudk jSu fyda tlS iuh jdohkays fu;a;dixl,amfhka bosrsm;a flfrk wdfjzok iajNdjh Bg jvd wvqfjka jsjsO iSudjka iys;jidlpzPdjg ,lajSu fkdfjz nq|=iuh ish iuh ixl,amhka f.dvkZ.kqfha fjk;a lsis|= iuhixl,amhlg tfrysj fkdjSu;a" fuz fya;`j ksid nq|=iufhys ;rZ.ldrS iajNdjhla olakgfkdjSu;a" wjsysxidj b;du m@n, wdldrfhka ish m@Odk flaJ|@.; b.ekajSula f,inq|=iufhka bosrsm;a lrkq ,enSu;a" nq|=iuh ;`< fu;a;d ixl,amfhys Ndjs;djg m@Odkufya;`ka fjz usksid we;`ZM iuia; cSjS iajNdjfhys wdfjzKsl lreKla jkqfha yqfolacSjSka ;`< mek kZ.skq ,nk udkisl wdfjzok flfrys tu cSjSka b;du oevs ixfjzoSiajNdjhla yd wkqjrA;kSh iajNdjhla oelajSuhs cSjSkaf.a iuia; foayh ksrAudKh jS;sfnkqfhau fujeks udkisl wdfjzokhka j,g m@;spdr oelajSu iZoyduh usksiqkaiajNdjfhka ixl,amj,g jvd jevsfhka ps;a;dfjz.j,g m@;spdr olaj;s tu ps;a;fjz.S 107
  16. 16. yeZ.Suz m@Odk jYfhka ys;lr yd wys;lr hkqfjka fohdldr fjz fulS fohdldr wdfjzokrgdjka w;`frka jvd;a usksia is; weZoS hkafka ys;lr wdfjzok rgdj fj;h wys;lrwdfjzokhka usksid fj; Tyqf.a is; ;`< f.dkq jS mej;s wZ|=re rZM wdl,amuh iajNdjhkauZ.ska we;s lrjkjd usi lsisu mqoa.,fhl` ish leue;af;ka wys;lr wdfjzokhka ish is;ayscks; lr tuZ.ska udkisl fjzokdjka jsZoSug rsisfha jS fkdfjz mqoa.,hka iajNdjfhkau rsisjkqfha ys;lr udkisl wdfjzokhka f.dvkZ.df.k thska udkisl usysrla w;ajsZoSugh50tjka udkisl jd;djrKhla ;`< oS mqoa.,fhl` jvd;a reps lrkqfha ;ukaf.a mqoa.,slw;aoelSula fjk;a fndfyda fokd iuZ. fnodyodf.k N`la;s jSZoSugh fuu fnod yod.ekSukshudldrfhka is|=jSug kuz mqoa.,hka ;`< wka wh iuZ. iuZ.shla yd iduQyslFjhlaf.dvkeZ.S ;snsh hq;`h mqoa.,dka;r jYfhka iuZ.sh yd iduQyslFjh f.dvkefZ.kqfhaus;@YS,S wdl,amhlska iuia; iudchu tlai;aj lghq;` lrkafka kuz iuKs tu mrudorAYS;,hg <Z.djSu msKsi nq|=iufhka bosrsm;a flfrk fu;a;d ixl,amfhka jsYd, msgsjy,laimhhs51 mqoa.,hka cSj;a jkqfha ;j;a mqoa.,hka rdYshla iuZ. jsjsO wka;rAl@shdlruska iudch kuska yeZoskafjk ixjsOdkd;aul jH=yhla ;`<h tjka iudc mrsirhla ;`<flfkl`yg ;j;a mqoa.,fhl` iuZ. iyfhda.fhka yd iduQyslFjfhka lghq;` lrkakgis|=jSu fm#oa.,sl ixisoaOshla fkdj iudc ixisoaOshla njg m;a flfrA iudch ;`< jsjsO.;s.`K" reps wrepsluz we;s mqoa.,hka we;s nj wms jgydf.k isgsuq we;euz mqoa.,hkafm#reIh jYfhkau wka;rAjrA;S mqoa.,hka jk w;r ;j;a iuyre fm#reIh jYfhkaunysrdjrA;S mqoa.,hkah iyfhda.h yd iduQyslFjh fm#oa.,sl ixisoaOshla fkdj iudcixisoaOshla njg mrsjrA;kh jk fmd|= iudc ixia:djl oS wka;rAjrA;S fmdreIhla ysusmqoa.,hkayg fiau ndysrdjrA;S fm#reIhla ysus mqoa.,hkayg o wkHhka iuZ. tluq;`jlghq;` lsrSfuz wjYH;djh we;s fjz fuu tluq;` nj we;s jkqfha fu;a;d ixl,amhm@udKj;a ;ruska jrAOkh jS mej;`kfyd;a muKh52 mqoa.,hka tfiau iajNdjfhkauwdfjzokYS,Sh yeZ.Suzj,g wkql~,j l@shdlrkakd jQ iajNdjh mj;S TzkEu iudc moaO;shla;`< m@;sudk fyda jHjia:dms; kS;s moaO;shla mKjd ;sfnkqfha usksidf.a fuu iajNdjh,CIKh jQ wdfjzokYS,S iajNdjh fya;` fldgf.k iudcfhys jikakd jQ wfkla fndfydaidudcslhkaf.a idudcsl whs;sjdisluz lvlsrSug ,la jsh yels wdldrfha huz huz jroj,aTjqka w;ska is|=jSug jvd;a by< iuzNdjs;djla mj;sk fyhsks us;@YS,S wdl,amhla mj;akdiudc jgmsgdjla ;`< oS usksiqka wfkla mqoa.,hd o ;ud yd iudk fldg i,ld is;kakgyd l@shd lrkakg mqre|= mqyqKq jk nejska ;uka wlue;s hula wkHhka jsIfhys o l@shd;aullsrSu kqiq|=iq nj ;ukaj Wmudjg f.k i,ld .ks;s kS;S rS;s yd oKavk l@u uZ.ska usksiawdfjzokhka md,kh lrkq ,nkafka fu;a;d ixl,amhg iuzmQrAKfhka m@;sjsreoaOwdfjzokhla jQ fodaI uQ,fhka yg.kq ,nk wys;lr wdfjzokhla jQ nsh tlS oKavkhkaksid yg.kq ,nk nejsks ta ksid hf:dala; oKavk l@u l@shd;aul jk yd tu l@shdldrSFjh 108
  17. 17. ;ud wh;a huz huz idudcSh jrm@ido lrk fldg f.k wNsnjd hd fkdyels miq;,hl oSmuKla oKavkh Wmfhda.S fldg f.k huzlsis idudcslfhl` w;ska uqZM uy;a iudcfhafjfik wfkla idudcslhkayg is|= jkakd jQ idudcsl whs;sjdisluz lvlsrSuz je<lajSug bvm@ia;djkdj we;;a" th j,x.` jkqfha b;du;a iSus; jmirshlg muKla nejska tlSl@shdj<sh flgsld,Sk jYfhka huzlsis idrA:hFjhla fmkakquz lr;;a" os.`ld,SkjirAjiuzmQrAK jYfhkau ksrjoH jsiZ|=ula jYfhka ms<s.ekSug wiSreh fuh os.`l,SkjYfhka idrA:l jsiZ|=ula fkdjkafka tys moku fu;a;d ixl,amhg mrsndysr BgiuzmQrAKfhka m@;sjsreoaO wdfjzokhla u; mdolj fuh iliaj we;s ksidh53 fuz fya;`j ksidu os.` ld,Skj idrA:l ms<shula jYfhka iuh ixia:djkaysfuz iZoyd bosrsm;a lrkqfha usksia wdfjzokhka usksia iudcfhys hymeje;aug ys;lr jkwhqrska yd fu;a;d ixl,amh weiqrska ixialrK l@shdj<shlg ,la lsrSu;a" tu l@shdj<shfya;`fldg f.k usksid ;`< yg .kakd jQ ishZMu wys;lr wdfjzokhka j,ska usksia ukiuqla; lrjd tla tla wd.fuys W.ekafjk mru ksIagdj kuska jQ tlS wd.ugu wkHkH jQtla;rd mrudorAYS ;,hla lrd udkisl Yla;sh fufyjSu msKsi idrA:l wd.uslWmfoaYkhka iemhSu;a hk jsiZ|=uzh fu;a;d ixl,amh jsjsO kuzj,ska jsjsO iajrEmfhkajsYaf,aIKhjk fiiq iuhhka w;r ;nd ;`<kd;aulj i,ld ne,Sfuz oS fuz ;;ajhnq|=iufhys mjd jsoHudk jk uq;a" nq|=iufhys js.@yjk wdldrhg wdfjzok ixialrKl@shdj<sfhys .enzjk jsoHd;aul pska;k rgdj yd nqoaOsf.dapr iajNdjh fjk;a iuhkayswjsoHudk jQjls fuz fya;`j ksid nq|=iufhys iZoykajk wdfjzokh ixialrK l@shdj<shuZ.ska jspdr mQrAjl whqrska yd jsoHd;aul whqrska jsjsO ixl,amhkays wdfjzokh me;slvjs.@yhg ,la lrkq ,nk w;r fuz uZ.ska ;ukagu ;ukaf.a wdfjzokhkays h:d iajNdjhms<snZoj ksjeros ;lafiarejlg meusKsug wod< mqoa.,hdygu wjia:djla ,efnk w;rtuZ.ska ;u;a ms<snZoj ,nd.kakd iajhx wjfndaOh lrKfldgf.k ;uka ;`< l@shd;auljkakd jQ tlS wys;lr wdfjzokj,ska uqZMukskau usoS lghq;` lsrSfuz yelshdj tu mqoa.,hdgks;e;skau ,efnz54 fujeks wys;lr udkisl wdfjzokj,ska uqZMukskau jsksrAuqla; jQmqoa.,fhl`f.a is; ksrdhdifhkau mdfya iudcfhys fjfik wfkl`;a cSjSka flfrys ffu;@SmQrAjl wdl,amj,ska msrS mj;S uqZM uy;a f,dj ;`< fjfikakd jQ f,dl` l`vd il,jsO cSjSiuQyhhd o ;uka jeks ;ukaf.a cSjs;h mj;ajd f.k hEfuz wdYdj yd jvd;a fydZoskacSjs;h mj;ajdf.k hEfuz wdYdfjka hqla; nj kqjKska wjfndaO lr.kakd fy;u ishZMcSjSka flfrys ohd mrjY ;eke;af;la fjz iudcfhys fjfikakd jQ ishZM cSjSka N`la;sjsZoskakd jQ idudcsl whs;sjdisluz iqrCIs; lsrSug;a" tajd ksoyfia N`la;s jsZoSug Tjqkag we;swhs;sh ms<s.ekSug;a fy;u W;aiql fjz jrA;udkfhys udkj ysusluz yd udkjwhs;sjdisluz ms<snZoj jsYaj m@ldYkfhys iZoyka jk ishZMu lreKq;a wu;r jYfhka iFj 109
  18. 18. ysxikh msgqoelSu msKsi mKjd we;s kS;s rS;s yd iuzuq;Skaj, js.@yjk ishZM lreKq;a Bgwu;rj f,dj u;`jg we;sjsh yels tnZ|= huzlsis wysxidjdoS ms<sfj;l .enzjsh yelald jQ;a"ishZM lrekq;a iudc moaO;sh ;`< fjfikakd jQ il,jsO cSjS iuQyhhd N`la;s jsZoskakd jQidudcsl whs;sjdisluz wfkl`;a idudcslhkayg ysreyerhla fkdjkdldrfhka Tjqka leue;smrsos ksoyfia N`la;s jsZoSug Tjqkag we;s ysuslu fuz uZ.ska jsYo flfrA by; fmkajd fok ,omrsos ffcj ys;jdoS whqrska mqoa., uki ilia lsrSfuz ixialrK l@shdj<sh nq|=iuh ;`<bosrsm;a flfrk fu;a;d ixl,amfhys wdfjzok me;slv ;`< .enz fjz nq|=iuh ;`< ixl,amhla cSjS ukig .e,fmk wdldrfhka idrA:l f,iwka;rA.@yKh lrjkafka flfiao hk lreK jsfYaIfhkau ixl,am ikaksfjzolfhl` ;`<;snsh hq;` ,CIK olajk wjia:dj, oS b;du;a ijsia;r f,i fmkajd oS ;sfnz tnZ|= ;ekaj,oS ixl,am ikaksfjzokh lrjkakd jQ mqoa.,hd wkHhka jsIfhys ffu;@S .`Kh fmrgqfldgf.ku Wla; l@shdj<sh wdruzN l< hq;` nj yd tlS l@shdj<sfhys fhosh hq;` njwjOdrKh lr ;sfnz fuhska fmkS hkafka wOHhk yd wOHdmk l@shdj<sfhys uQ,sl wjia:djfu;a;d ixl,amh fmrgqj .ukal< hq;` njhs wOHhkh yd wOHdmkh hkafkka woyiajkqfhao ixl,am iajwNs,dIfhka .@yKh lr.ekSu yd tfia .@yKh lrjSu jk nejskaYsIHd .`rejrhd jsIfhys o .`rejrhd YsIHhd jsIfhys o fu;a;d ixl,amh fmrgqjmej;sh hq;` nj iZoykajSu ;`< ixl,am ikaksfjzok l@shdj<shg wjYHjk udkisl miq;,hus;@YS,S iajNdjhlska mej;sh hq;` nj fmkajd oS ;sfnz ixl,am ikaksfjzok l@shdj<shys osjvd;a jeo.;a ;ekla .kq ,nkafka wdfjzok me;slvhs Bg fya;`j ikaksfjzok l@shdj<shm@fndaOu;a whqrska is|=jSu wdod< ixl,amh ksis whqrska .@yKh lr.ekSfuzys,dm@;scdkkd;aul Wmia:uzNkhla jYfhka mqoa., uki ;`< l@shd;aul jk nejsks fuys oSm@;scdkd;aul Wmia:uzNlhla jYfhka l@shd;aul jkafka fu;a;d ixl,amfhys .enzjkwdfjzok me;slv nj meyeos,s fjz fu;a;d ixl,amfhys wdfjzok me;slfvys jsoHudk jkieye,a,q iajNdjh" uD|=nj" msrsis|=lu" fkdyelsZMKq iajNdjh jeks wNHka;r .`Khka;`<ska thg m@fndaOu;a iajNdjhla tla flfrA fu;a;d ixl,amfhys wdfjzok me;slv ;`< .enzjk uD|=nj" ieye,a,qiajNdjh" msrsis|=lu yd fkdyelsZMKq iajNdjh jeks wNHka;r .`Khka ksid tlamqoa.,fhl` flfrys jsoHudks; fuu ,CIK flfrys wkH mqoa.,hkaf.a wdlrAIKh we;sflfrA us;@YS,S Ndjfhys wdruzNh t;ekhs mqoa.,fhl` wkH mqoa.,hka flfryswdlrAIKhjSu;a" wkH mqoa.,hka tlS mqoa.,hd flfrys wdlrAIKhjSu;a fufyhjkq ,nkmd,l WmlrKh jkqfha fuu fu;a;d ixl,amfhys wdfjzok me;slv ;`< jsoHudks;wNHka;r .`Khka fjz wdfjzokh hkq iFjhdf.a uqZM uy;a iakdhq moaO;shu luzmkhlrjSug iu;a jkakd jQ m@n, yeZ.Suzh wdfjzokh huzlsis wd;;shla jkqfha wdfjzokhwys;lr ,CIKhkaf.ka iukajs; jQ jsgh fuhg jsreoaO f,i wdfjzokh ys;lr,CIKhkaf.ka iukajs; jQ l, th iakdhq moaO;sfhys ishZMu wd;;Ska iukh msKsi 110
  19. 19. Wmldrj;a fjk T#IOhla js,iska l@shd;aul fjz tlu foh tla;rd wjia:djl oS jsiiys; jSug;a" wfkla wjia:dfjys .`K iys; jSug;a n,mdk ,oafoa wdfjzok me;slfvysjsoHudks; uD|= yd rZM iajNdjfhys fjkia njhs fuhska meyeos,s jkqfha huzlsis wdfjzokme;slvl jsoHudks; rZM iajNdjh uZ.ska wd;;Ska ckkh lsrSfuz YlH;djh;a" tfukauwdfjzok me;slvl jsoHudks; jk uD|= iajNdjh uZ.ska wd;;Ska iukh lsrSfuz YlH;djh;awka;rA.; nj meyeos,sj fmfka55 udkisl wdfjzokhka uD|= yd rZM jSug n,mdk m@Odku fya;`j jkafkawkHhka jsIfhys yd wkHhka wruqKq fldg we;s lr.kakd udkisl wdl,amj, uD|= yd rZMiajNdjhhs ;uka fjku mqoa.,fhla fldg wkH cSjSkaf.ka fjka lr.kakd iajNdjh ksid;uka wkH cSjSkaf.ka iqjsfYaIS jQ mqoa.,fhla f,iska wkH cSjSka ;`< fkdue;s ;ukagumuKla iSud jQ wkH;djhla f.dvkZ.d .ekSug huzlsis mqoa.,fhla fm<fTz fuuwkHkH;djh yqfola wkHkH;djhlau muKla fkdj wkHkHNdjfhys iSudj blaujd .shdjQ wd;audrA:lduS yeZ.Sula njg mrsjrA;kh jSu ksid tu wd;audrA:lduS yeZ.Su ;j |=rg;afmdaIKh jk mrsos ;uka iy wkH mqoa.,hka w;r mr;rh ;j ;j;a jsYd, lr.kq ,nhstuZ.ska ;uka ms,snZo wd;audrA:lduSFjh fyj;a uu;ajh ;yjqre lr.kq ,nhs mD:laiajNdjh jkqfhao fuu wd;audrA:lduS njhs tjsg mD:.ack hkq fuu wd;audrA:lduSfpz;kdj To jevqKq mqoa., fldgzGdYh f,i wrA: oelajsh yelsh huzlsis cSjs fldgzGdYhla ;`< iuZ.sh iyfhda.h fkdue;s jSug fya;`j tlSmqoa.,hka tlsfkld w;r mj;sk To jevqKq wd;audrA:lduS fpz;kdfjys m@n,Fjhhshuzlsis fyhlska fulS wd;audrA:lduS fpz;kdj wvq jkafka kuz tjsg iuia; cSj iajNdjhms<snZoj jvd mqZM,a oelaulska hq;`j n,kakg yd tfia ;uka jsiska f.dvkZ.d .kakd ,oorAYkh Tiafia lghq;` lr bka udyeZ.s m@;sM, ,nd .ekSug yelshdj ,efnz fn#oaOhskajsiska tla;rd |=rlg fpz;kdj jYfhka i,lkqfha o wdfjzok me;slv ;`<ska ixfjzokhka/ialr .ekSu nj fmkajd osh yelsh wNsOrAufhys jsia;r lrfok wdldrhg huzlsisps;a;jS:shl wjidkfhys olakg ,efnk ;odruzuK fol jYfhka fndfyda |=rgyeZoskafjkafka tu ps;a; jS:sfhys uq,ska olajk ,o cjka ps;a;CIK fm<g wruqKq jYfhka,nd .kakd ,o wruqK f.k we;s jkakd jH;sfrAl ps;a; fjz.hla jYfhks cjkaps;a;CIK jYfhka ,nd .kakd ,o wruqfKys m@n,Fjh fl;ruzo h;a tu cjkaps;a;CIK fm< wjidkfhys mjd tu wruqfKys ;Sj@;dj ;odruzuK jYfhka we;sjk njfuys oS fmkajd oS ;sfnz by; oS wdfjzok me;slv hkafkka lsishuz wdfjz.YS,S iajNdjhlafyda yeZ.Sula fyda fpz;kdjla bka weZ.fjk nj fmkajd fokq ,enQfha o fuz ksiduh fuys oS jrojd fkdjgyd.; hq;a;la we; tkuz iEu ;odruzuKhlaulsishuz is;a l,Tjk iqZM" wys;lr mCIfhys wdfjzok muKlau fkdfjz hkakhs wdfjzokiajNdjfhkau fjz.j;a is;sjs,s ldKavhla jQfha jS kuq;a tu fjz.j;a is;sjs,s iEu tllau 111
  20. 20. wys;lr wruqKq flaJ|@fldg nsys jQ krl tajd fkdfjz iuZ.sh" iduQyslFjh" us;@YS,SiajNdjh yd iyfhda.h hk wdfjzok .;fyd;a tajd wdfjzok jqj;a lsisfia;au is; fkduZ.hjk iqZM tajd fkdfjz is;g ieye,a,q nj i;`g yd us;@Fjh ,Z.d lrjk wdldrfha msrsis|=is;sjs,sh l@udkQl~,j is; mjs;@ lrk yd is; ksjd,k iajNdjhla thg we; fuhska meyeos,s jkqfha wOHdmkh ,ndoSfuz l@shdj<sfhys oS tu wOHdmk ydwOHhk l@shdj<sh jvd;a idrA:l njg m;a lr .ekSu msKsi lsishuz ixl,amhl wdfjzokme;slv M,odhl f,i Ndjs;hg .; yels njhs56 fuz wkqj fu;a;d ixl,amhikaksfjzokh lsrSfuzoS th jvd;a mqoa., uki ;`<g ldjosk whqrska bosrsm;a l< yelaflawdfjzok me;slv Tiafia lreKq bosrsm;a lsrSu uZ.ska nj fuz wkqj meyeos,s fjz wdfjzokme;slv fu;ruz wOHdmk yd wOHhk l@shdj<sfhys ,d jeo.;a ia:dkhla ysus lrf.kisgskqfha ukaoehs f;areuz .ekSug myiqu l@uh jkafka tu l@shdj<sfhka wfmaCIs; ksIa:djidOkh lsrSfuys,d jvd;a m@;sM,odhl wdldrfhka Ndjs;d lrkqfha l`uk l@ufjzohoehsYsCIlhska jsiska ie,ls,a,g .kq ,nk nj jgyd.ekSuhs YsCIlhska jsiska jvd;a ie,ls,a,olajkqfha jsjsO ugzguzj, miqjk YsIH msrsilf.ka tla jrl oS is|= lrkq ,nk wOHhk ydwOHdmk l@shdj<shl oS Tjqka w;rska jvd;a jevs msrsilg idrA:l f,i ixl,am b.ekajSuis|= lrkafka l`uk l@uhlskao hk ldrKhhs Tzkeu YsIH msrsila w;rska by< fmf<anqoaOsuh l`Y,;d j,ska iukajs; jkqfha b;du;a iSus; YsIH msrsila jk w;r nyq;rhlafokd idudkH nqoaOs ugzgulskao ;j msrsila nqoaOs ugzgu w;ska fiiq YsIHhkag jvd wvql`Y,;d fmkakquz lrk w;r Tjqka ish,q fokd jsIfhys tlu ixl,amhla yeufokdguwjfndaOjk f,i bosrsm;a lsrSfuz wjYH;djh we;s jQ l, jvd;a nqoaOs f.dapr l@uh jkqfhafiiq YsIHhkag jvd wvq l`Y,;d iys; YsIHhkag o myiqfjka f;areuz.; yels jk mrsosTjqkaf.a ugzgfuka b.ekajSfuz l@shdj<sh is|= lsrSuh fuz iZoyd b.ekajSugn,dfmdfrd;a;`jk jk ixl,amh ikaksfjzokh lrkafka |=rAj, YsIHdg;a th jvd;amyiqfjka .@yKh lr.ekSug yelshdj we;sjk wdldrhgh fuz wkqj lsishuz ixl,amhlaixcdkk me;slv Tiafia ikaksfjzoh l< fyd;a th fydZoska jgyd.kq ,nkafka b;du;aiSus; YsIH msrsila jk w;r wdfjzok me;slv Tiafia tu ikaksfjzok l@shdj<shuf.k.shfyd;a jvd;a jevs YsIH msrsila th fydZoska .@yKh lr.ekSug iu;a fjz fuzwdldrhg bf.kquz b.ekajSuz l@shdj<sfhys oS Ndjs;d lrkqfha tu ia:dkhg yd tu YsIHmsrsig jvd;a Wps; b.ekajSfuz l@fudamdhh fjz tfukau wdfjzok me;slv Tiafia lsishuz ixl,amhla ms<snZoj ,ndfokq,nk jegySu l`vd <uqka w;r muKla fkdj jevsysgs mqoa.,hska w;r mjd nqoaOs ugzgfukajsjsO;d olakg we;s jsjsO mqoa.,hkayg ukdj .e,fmk jsOsl@uhls57 fu;a;d ixl,amhms<snZo ie,ls,a, fhduq lrkq ,enqjfyd;a tys .enzjk wdfjzok me;slfvys fCIa;@M,h fiiqixcdkk yd prAhd me;slvj, fCIa;@M,hg jvd by< w.hl mj;shs tfukau fuz fya;`j 112
  21. 21. ksid fu;a;d ixl,amfhys oekSfuz yd ixfjzoS iajNdjh wOslh fuu oekSfuz yd ixfjzoSiajNdjh uZ.ska oekquz ugzgu t;ruz fkdue;s mqoa.,fhl`yg mjd thska b;d jsYd,Okd;aul n,meula t,a, lrkq ,nhs fuu n,mEu Tyqf.a hym;a yeisrSu fyj;aOkd;aul ufkdapd<l yelshdjka muKla fkdj wNHka;r ps;a; ifudaOdkh" ;Sj@mrsl,amk Yla;sh" ksrAudKYS,SFjh" oelSu fyj;a oY!k lD;Hh yd jspdr mQj!l wdl,amhk udkj l`Y,;djhka jrAOkh lrkq ,nhs wOHdmk yd wOHhk l@shdj<sfhkan,dfmdfrd;a;` jkakd jQ wjidk we.hSu jkafka o mqoa.,fhl` ;`< fujka foa jO!kh lrjSujk w;r wOHdmk yd wOHhk l@shdj<sh fu;a;d ixl,amh mdol fldgf.k l@shd;aullrkafka kuz tys wjidk ksIagdj f,i YsIHhka ;`< fuu .`Kdx. myiqfjka frdamKh l<yels jkafkah58 wOHdmk uQ,OrAu w;r o wdfjzok me;slv uZ.ska huz huz prAhduh,CIKhka ixialrKh lsrSfuz yelshdj we;s nj fmkajd oS ;sfnz jsfYaIfhkau ixcdkkme;slvg jvd is;g oefkk iajNdjh wdfjzok me;slfvys wka;rA.; jk nejska lsishuzixl,amhla jvd fydZoska b.ekajSfuz oS wdfjzok me;slv Tiafia tu wOHdmk l@shdj<shfufyhjSu jvd;a idrA:l m@;sM, Wod lrkakd jQ l@uhla f,i wOHdmk jsoHdZ{hska w;rms<s.ekSug md;@j we; l`vd orejka ms<snZoj .;fyd;a idudkHfhka m@d:usl jirj, l`vdorejkayg lsishuz ixl,amhla ms<snZoj wjfndaOhla ,nd oSug ixcdkk me;slv TiafiamrsY@uhla oerSug jvd wdfjzok me;slv Tiafia ta wjfndaOh ,nd oSug mrsY@uhla oerSuM,odhl nejz mejish yelsh jevsysgshkag idfmaCIlj l`vd orejkaf.a fud<fhys jrAOkhwju ugzgul mej;Su ixcdkk me;slvg jvd wdfjzok me;slv jvd;a m@;sM,odhl jSuflfrys n,mdkq ,nk idOlh fjz tfukau l`vd orejkag ixl,am wjfndaO lrjSfuz oSTjqkaf.a ufkdaNdjhg .e,fmk ixl,am f;dard .ekSug is|= fjz us;@YS,S nj jeksixl,amhla jvd;a myiqfjka l`vd orefjl`f.a wjOdkhg md;@ fjz us;@YS,S nj is; msrsis|=lrk is; ieye,a,qjg m;a lrjk ishquz udkqIsl wdfjzokhla nejska l`vd orejka jvd;afydZoska th .@yKh lr.kshs us;@YS,S nj hk ixl,amfhys fiiq me;slv w;rska wdfjzokme;slv jvd;a fydZoska l`vd orejka jsiska wjfndaO lr.ekSu fiiq ixl,amj,g jvd tuixl,amh l`vd orejka w;r m@p,s; jSug fya;`jhs l`vd orejka hkq jevsysgshka olajdfud<fhys jrAOkh is|= jkakd jQ mqoa.,hka ksid l`vd orejkag mjd jvd;a fydZoska fu;a;dixl,amfhys wdfjzok me;slv .@yKh lr .ekSug yels kuz fu;a;d ixl,amfhys wdfjzokme;slv TzkEu ;rd;srul mqoa.,fhl` jsiska myiqfjka bf.ksh yels yd myiqfjkawjfndaO lr osh yels nj ukdj meyeos,s fjz59 ;j;a f,ilska .;fyd;a fu;a;d ixl,amfhys wdfjzok me;slv jvd;am@n, jkqfha fu;a;d ixl,amfhysu .enz jkakd jQ ixl,amShuh w.h jvd;a NdjuhwxYhg jevs keUqrejla oelajSu ksid nj fmfkkakg ;sfnz fu;a;d ixl,amfhys ixcdkk"prAhd hk me;slv folg jvd wdfjzok me;slv m@n, jkqfha tys fuu ixl,amfhysidrOrAu w.h jvd;a Ndjuh wxYhg jevs keUqrejla we;s f,ilska jsoHudk jSu ksidhs 113
  22. 22. ksoiqkla f,i .;fyd;a we;euz ixl,am tys idrOrAu w.h w;ska jevs keUqrejla olajkqfhaixcdkk me;slv fj;gh jspdr mQrAjl nj jeks ixl,amhla fuz .Khg jefgz ;j;aiuyr ixl,am tajdfhys idrOrAu w.h w;ska jevs keUqrejla m@orAYkh lrkqfha prAhdme;slv fj;hs mfrdamldrh jeks ixl,am fuz fldgig wh;a fjz by; ksoiqka folskaujs.@yl< wdldrhg fu;a;d ixl,amfhys idrOrAu w.h w;ska jevs keUqrejla m@lglrkqfha wdfjzok me;slv fj; nj fuz wkqj meyeos,s jsh hq;`h60 fu;a;d ixl,amfhysjHdma;sh flfrys fulS lreK Okd;aul f,i Ndjs;d lr.kq ,nkafka kuz wdfjzokme;slv flaJ|@ fldgf.k fu;a;d ixl,amh mqoa.,hka fj; bosrsm;a l< hq;` nj fuhskafmkajd fokq ,nhs fu;a;d ixl,amfhys wdfjzok me;slv fiiq me;slvj,g jvd meyeos,sjumqoa.,dka;r ikaksfjzokh flfrys m@;scdkkd;aul ia:uzNkhla we;s lrjk nj fuhska;yjqre flfrA61 tu;` o fkdfjz fu;a;d ixl,amfhys wdfjzok me;slv ffcj jsoHd;auljYfhka usksia yeisrSuz yd usksia l@shdldrluz jsIfhys jvd;a ixfjzokd;aul jYfhkan,mdkq ,nk nj o fuhska meyeos,s fjz iakdhq yd tys ieleiau tuZ.ska huz huzixfjzokhka ,nd .ekSu hkdosh wdfjzok me;slfvys ldrAhNdrh f,i ie,lsh yelshnq|=iufhys fu;a;d ixl,amfhys wdfjzok moku iuznJOfhka bosrsm;a lrkakd jQ oyuzlreKq ffjoH jsoHd;aul meyeos,s lsrSuz yd mrAfhaIKd;aul m@;sM, ksid jrA;udkfha jevsfofkl`g fN#;slj mjd myiqfjka oel n,d.; yelsh ffjoH jsoHd;aul moku wkqji,lf;d;a" reOsrfhys wekv@,Ska m@udKh wju jSu uZ.ska wys;lr ps;a;fjz.Sh wdfjzokj,ixisZoSu fmkakquz lrhs fu;a;d ixl,amfhys wdfjzok me;slv uZ.ska ixfjzokh lrkakd jQiakdhquh ixfjzokh ksid isrer ;`< uqZM uy;a ffcj l@shdjkays ys;lr mrsjrA;khla we;sfjz isrefrys iajNdjsl m@;sYla;sh fuz ksid by< w.hla lrd kxjkq ,nhs isrere.;m@;sYla;slrK moaO;sh Yla;su;ajSu jsjsO f,v frda. yd wdidokj,ska wdrCIdjSu flfrysWmia:uzNl fjz cSjSyq idudkHfhka wdfjz.YS,S iajNdjhlska hqla;j lghq;` lsrSug oevsrepshla olaj;s fufia jkafka wdfjz.YS,S yeisrSug Tjqka olajk kuHYS,S Ndjhhswe;euzjsgl oS fufia jkafka usksid o tla;rd iFj jsfYaIhla ksid usksid ;`< o fiiqiFjhkayg Wreu jk fmd|= iFj .`K wka;rA.; cdkuh iajNdjh .enzjk nejska hehswkqudk l< yel wdfjz.YS,Sj lghq;` lsrSug fiiq iFj j.!hd fiau usksiqka olajk jevskeUqrej yd leue;a; fya;`fldg f.k iudchla jeks usksia iuQyhla jdih lrk ia:dkhlwkjYH .egquz yd l,flda,dy, we;s lrjSug uZ. mdokq ,nhs tnZ|= wkjYH .egquz ydl,flda,dy, we;s jsgl oS usksid l@shdlrkqfha o idudkH iFj f,dalfhys fiiq iFjjsfYaIhka l@shdlrkakd jQ wdldrhguh iuyr jsfgl oS usksid thskq;a my< ia:dkhlgm;ajk nj ;rula Wmydifhka hq;`j mejiSug mjd wm mqre|=j isgsuq fuh fufia jkafka 114
  23. 23. ixcdkk me;slv uQ,sl fldgf.k huz huz foa ms<snoj jspdr mQrAjl ks.ukj,gmeusKSug jvd wdfjzok me;slv flaJ|@ fldgf.k huz huz foa ms<snZoj wdfjz.YS,SufkdaNdjhkag m;ajSug usksid iajNdjslju olajk repslFjhhs funZ|= repslFjhlausksiqka jsiska m@orAYkh lrkqfha ula ksido hk m@Yakhg ms<s;`r f,i ngysr ufkdajsoHdjyd udkj jsoHdj jsiska fmkajd fokq ,nk iFj yd udkj mrsKduh iuznJO we;euzisoaOdka; nq|=iuh jsiska ta jQ wdldrfhkau wkqu; fkdlrk nejska Bg jvd jspdr mQrAjlf,i ta ms<snZoj is;d ne,Sug wm;`< fm<Ujsula we;s jsh hq;`h usksiqka iajNdjfhkau jsjsO repslFj" jsjsO .;s isrs;a yd jsjsO udkisl ;,Wreu lrf.ku nsysjk nj nq|=iuh ms<s.kshs kdkd;a; ldfh kdk;a; iZ[aZ[dZ hkqfjka kdkd;aoelafjkqfha o usksiqkaf.a fuu jsjsO jQ iajNdjhhs usksiqka jsjsO jk ksid iudch o jsjsOfjhs fuz jsjsOFjh wd;audrA:fhka hqla; jQ l, jsIu nj ckkh fjz jsjsOFjh jsIu njyg.ekajSug taldhk fya;`j fkdfj;;a" jsjsOFjh ksid jsIu nj we;s jSug wjldYie,fia tla w;lska w;audrA:lduS nj ksid usksiqka jsIu jk w;r wd;audrA:h iuZ.sh"iyfhda.h yd iduQysl osjs meje;au jskdY lr ouhs usksiqka Tjqfkdjqka tlsfkldg oafjzIlr.kakd jQ uy;a wd;audrA:lduS mqoa.,hka jSug tjka ;;ajhla ukd msgsjy,la imhhsfu;a;d ixl,amfhys Wmfhda.S;djh u;` jkafka fujka jd;djrKhla ;`< oS jk w;rwdfjzok iajNdjfhys mj;skakd jQ ;Sj@ .`Kh fya;` fldgf.k fu;a;d ixl,amh flfrysTzkEu usksia is;la wdlrAIKh fjz usksia isf;ys wdlrAYkh rZod mj;afka lsishuzixl,amhla flfrys is; wdYla; jkafka kuz muKs ta w;ska fu;a;d ixl,amfhys wdfjzokme;slfvys mj;akd wdfjzok wdYla;;djh ksid th jvd;a usksia yeZ.Suz .@yKh lrhsusksid muKla fkdj ljr huz cSjsfhl` fyda fuu wdYla; njg weZoS hkafkauh wdYla;iajNdjh wdYdj fkdfjz ;Kaydj wdYla; jSfuka wdYdj ckkh jk w;r fu;a;dixl,amh wdYla; jSfuka us;@Fjfhka imsrsKq iduQyslFjh nsys fjz fydZo fyda krl TzkEuixl,amhl wdYla; jSfuz iuzNdjs;dj u; tu ixl,amh fl;ruz m@dfhda.sl wxYfhkaidrA:l jkafkao hk lreK rZod mj;shs lsishuz ixl,amhla usksia is;g we;`<a jkafkawdYla; jSfuz l@shdj idrA:lj bgqjkl,h wdfjzokhka kuz wdYla; nj lrd t<USfuys uq,amshjrhkah wdfjzok me;slv jYfhka kuz jkafka o wdYla; jSfuz l@shdj<shuh ish,q cSjSka wdYla; nj m@sh lrkafkda jk w;r wdfjzokhkays .enzjkwdYla; nfjys we,qfkda fj;s wdYla; njg wruqKq lr.kakd jsjsO wruqKq w;r fu;a;dixl,amh jvd;a fydZo wruqKls fu;a;d ixl,amh wruqKq lrf.k wdfjzok me;slv ;`<we;sjk wdYla; nfjys .enzjkafka uD|= yd ieye,a,q ffp;isl jskaokhkah fuu udkisljskaokhka fnfyjskau iqL iy.; jk w;r m@S;sh o ckkh lrhs fuu iqLh fukau m@S;sho yg.kajkafka wdfjzok me;slfvys wdYla; iajNdjh uZ.sks tfukau fu;a;d ixl,amhjspdr mQrAjl wdl,amhlska hq;`j msrslaid ne,Su uZ.ska wdfjzok me;slvg oefkk iqLiajNdjh yd m@S;su;a ijNdjh jvd;a jrAOkh l< yel fu;a;d ixl,amfhys iqL 115
  24. 24. iajNdjh yd m@S;su;a iajNdjh ;`< jspdr mQrAjl pska;kh o wka;rA.;h us;@Fjhyg.kafka ish,q iFjhd jsIfhysu we;s lr.kakd ,o ys;j;a iajNdjh lrKfldgh tuksid wd;audrA:fhka cks;jk uuFjfhka f;drju iudch foi wjOdkh fhduq l< yelsyd iuQyfhka ;ud fjkalr fkd.kakd jQ iuQy.; pska;khg fuhska wjldY jsjr fjzfuu iuQy.; pska;kh fu;a;d ixl,amhg iudk yd ta yd neZ|=kq kj ixl,am cks;lrjSu iZoyd Wmia:uzNk fjz fujsg ixl,am cks; jkafka ixl,am modi yd fmdl`ref,ih tla ixl,amhlska wfkla ixl,amh l`ulaoehs ksjerosj f;drd fnzrd .; fkdyelsjk muKgu os.ska os.g ixl,am je,la fyda ixl,am fmdl`rla nsys lrjSu fuysmrudrA:hhs js;rAlkh f,i idudkH jHjydrfhys olakg ,efnk ixl,am f.dkq nsysjSutla ixl,amhla flaJ|@,; fldgf.k we;s fjz fu;a;d ixl,amh flaJ|@.; fldgf.knsysjk ixl,am f.dkqjl ta yd iuznJO jsysxidj" wjHdmdoh yd wfodaih nZ|= ;j;a fu;a;dixl,amhu wruqKq lrf.k yg.kakd jQ ixl,am rdYshla f.dkq.; jS ;sfnkq oelsh yelsfjz fu;a;d ixl,amfhys wdfjzok me;slv ;`< olakg ,efnk funZ|= ixl,amf.dkqjla fu;a;d ixl,amh wruqKq fldg yg.efkk nejska js;rAlkh kuska tu ixl,amf.dkqj yg.ekSfuz l@shdj yeZoskafjz fuu ixl,am f.dkq yg.ekSfuz l@shdj,sh jspdr mQrAjliajNdjh yd o iuznJO;djhla fmkajkq ,nhs fu;a;d ixl,amh wruqKq fldgf.k is;ayscks; jk jspdr mQrAjl udkisl iajNdjh ksid jspdrj;a f,i ;j ;j;a Bg iudkixl,am yg.kajhs tf,iskau m@S;sh yd iqLh jeks wdfjzok iajNdjhka ksid Bg iudki;`g" ieye,a,qj" wdya,doh yd fiduzki jeks wdfjzok iajNdjhka is;ays cks; fjz fu;a;dixl,amfhys wdfjzok me;slvg wruqKqjk fuu m@S;sh yd iqLh jeks ixfjzokhka fukaufu;a;d ixl,amhg iudk fjk;a ixl,amhkays wdfjzok me;slvg wruqKqjk fndfydaixfjzokhka we; ksoiqkla f,i fu;a;d ixl,amhg iudk fjk;a ixl,amhka jsysxidj"wjHdmdoh yd wfodaih jk jsg" tajeks ixl,amkays wdfjzok me;slvg ixfjzokh jkafkaisis,i" uD|=nj" ldreKslnj" iduQyslFjh yd iuZ.sh jeks wdYla;l .`Khka fjz fuzwdYla; .`Khka uZ.ska usksid we;`ZM fiiq iFjhska cSj ys;jdoS ia:djrhl msysgqjd,kq,nhs fuf,dj wLKav meje;aug fulS cSj ys;jdoS wdl,amhka w;HjYH idOlhls yqfolawdl,amhka muKla ;snqfha jS uq;a th fkdiefya tu wdl,am wdOHd;au.; jS iuia; ffcjl@shdjka ta uZ.ska md,kh jk ;rug ;oska th uq,a neif.k mej;Su wjYHh ffcjwdfjzok me;slv ;`<ska bgq lrkq ,nkafka hf:dala; ldrAhh Ndrhhs ffcjSka nqoaOs ugzguw;ska jsjsOh ixl,am ixcdkkh flfrys ffcj nqoaOs ugzgu n,mdkq ,nhs we;euz ixl,amnqoaOs ugzgfuka wfmaCIs; ia:dkfhys fkdisgsk cSjSfhl`yg ksis whqrska ixcdkkh fkdfjzkuq;a ta |=n,;djh wdfjzok me;slfvys jsoHudk fkdfjz wdfjzok me;slv flfrys nqoaOsugzgu n,dmq ,nkafka b;du wju wdldrfhks nqoaOs ugzgu w;ska b;du m@d:ussl cSjshdg;ab;d by< nqoaOs ugzgulska hqla; cSjshdg;a hk mqoa., fldgzgdY fol w;r;`r isgsk TzkEucSjS fldgilg wdfjzok me;slv uZ.ska b;d myiqfjka ixl,am ixfjzokh lsrSug mqZMjk 116
  25. 25. we;euz wjia:dj, oS ixl,am wdfjzokh lsrSfuz l@shdj<sh fjzokd hk kuska ofn#oaO idys;Hh ;`< olajd ;sfnz wdfjzokfhys iajNdjh u; tuZ.ska nsysjk fjzokdjiem" |=la fyda uOHia:;djh t<jk iqZM tlla jSug bv ;sfnz fjzokd uZ.ska iFjhka ;`<nsys lrkafka jsZoSuhs ke;fyd;a jskaokhhs th fN#;sl mCIfhka .;fyd;a iakdhquhixfjzokhla fjz tfukau fud<fhys wod< m@foaYhkays ridhksl m@;sl@shdjl iajrEmhlafjz foay wNHka;r ffcj iudfhdack l@shdjl m@;sM,hla fjz kuq;a fuys oS tys iajrEmhjvd;a jeo.;a jkqfha wdfjzok mCIfhys ,d th wod< jk muKgh fu;a;d ixl,amhwdfjzok me;slv ;`< oS fjzokd iajrEmfhka ksrEmKh jk wdldrh ms<snZoj fidhd ne,SuuZ.ska fjzokdfjys h:d iajNdjh ms<snZoj wmg jvd;a meyeos,s ks.ukhlg meusKSugmqZMjkalu ,efnz huzlsis jsIh.; wruqKla bJ|@sh oajdrhl oS wod< wruqK yd bJ|@shiamrAY jSu;a" tlS iamrAYh fya;`fjka yg.kakd jQ ishquz ixfjzokh fjzokd kdufhkafn#oaO ixorANh;`< oS ud;DldjSu;a fu;a;d ixl,am ksid yg.efkk fjzokdfjys h:diajNdjh ms<snZoj .fjzIKh lrkakd jQ mqoa.,fhl`yg b;d jsYd, lreKq iuzNdrhlaWlyd.; yels ia:dk fjz wjYHfhkau fu;a;d ixl,amfhys wdfjzok me;slv ms<snZoj idlpzPdlsrSfuz oS us;@YS,SNdjh mqoa.,fhl`yg oefkkafka flfiao yd Tyq jsiska th jsZo ord .kqfhaflfiao hk lreK jeo.;a fjz fu;a;d ixl,amh wdfjzok mCIfhka is;g iqj t<jk iqZMwdfjzokhls tuksid fjzokd wxYfhka o tys .enzjkqfha iqL fjzokdj hehs Wml,amkhlgmeusKsh yelsh62 ngysr ufkda jsoHdj ;`< fuz iqL fjzokdj fndfyda fldgu iodpdr ydidrOrAu jrAOkh lsrSfuys ,d m@;scdkkd;aul ia:uzNkhla jYfhka Ndjs;d jS ;sfnz fuhiqL mrujdoh hk kuska ngysr ufkdajsoHdj yZ|=kajkq ,nhs ffcj jsoHd;aulj iFjhka;`< iajNdjslju msysgd we;s iqjhg we;s leue;a; fuys oS iqL mru jdoh hk kuskayZ|=kajkq ,nk w;r th iajNdjsl fm@arKhla f,iska l@shd;aul jk nj fndfyda ufkdajsoHdZ{hska jsiska m@ldY lr ;snsKs usksid jsiska is|= lrkq ,nk fndfyda l@shdjka md,khlrkq ,nkafka ta l@shdjka ksid Tyqg w;ajsZoSug is|= jkakd jQ iqL iy.; jQ fulS udkislfm@arKh nj jsjsO usksiqka weiqfrka is|= lrkq ,enQ jsjsO mrAfhaIK lghq;` j,oS ;yjqrelrf.k ;sfnz tfukau fuu iqL iy.; udkisl fm@arKh wOHdmk ufkda jsoHdj ;`< oSoprAhd ixialrK l@uYs,amhla f,i Ndjs;hg f.k ;sfnz jsjsO wOHdmk ufkda jsoHdZ{hskajsiska fuz iuznJOfhka b;du;a jeo.;a jQ u; m< lr ;sfnz63 prAhdjka ixialrKh hkqprAhdjka md,kh lsrSu fyda fjkia lsrSu hkqhs ta khska .;al< fu;a;d ixl,amfhyswdfjzok me;slv ;`< .enzjk ufkda jsYaf,aIKd;aul wka;rA.;fhys b;du;a jsYd,jsoHdkQl~, mokula we;s nj meyeos,s fjz 117
  26. 26. fuys iZoyka prAhd ixialrK ,CIK Wmfhda.S lr.ekSu uZ.ska TzkEumqoa.,fhl`yg fuf;la f.k .sh ish wys;lr prAhdjka ;j |=rg;a os.ska os.gu thmj;ajdf.k fkdf.dia" iudcfhys iqN isoaOshg .e,fmk wkaouska fjkia lr th kej;;udg yd wka whg .e,fmk f,i ilia lr .ekSug yd udkj wNsjDoaOsh flfrys Wps;jk wdldrhg ish wdl,am yev .iajd .ekSug yels nj hk ,CIK fu;a;d ixl,amfhyswdfjzok me;slv ;`< olakg we;s iqjsfYaI;d fjz lsishuz mqoa.,fhl` lsishuz jsIhhlaflfrys wjOdkhla cks; jkafka ta mqoa.,fhyg wod< jsIfhys jgskdlu yd thyeoErSfuka ;ukag w;ajk M,m@fhdack ms<snZoj i,ld ,nkq ,enSfuka wk;`rejh tfukaulsishuz mqoa.,fhl` fu;a;d ixl,amh jevSug fm<fUkafka tys wka;rA.; jeo.;alu ydth jevSfuka ;ukag w;ajk M, m@fhdack i,ld ne,Sfuka wk;`rejh fu;a;d ixl,amhflf;ruz wka whg iudchg m@fhdackj;a jqj;a th jevSfuka ;ukag M, m@fhdackhla w;afkdfjz kuz lsishuz flfkl` fuu ixl,amh jevSug uq,a jrg fhduq fkdjkq we; lsishuzflfkl` uq,a jrg fu;a;d ixl,amh jevSug fhduq jSfuz wdlrAYKh rZod we;af;a fu;a;dixl,amfhys wdfjzok me;slv ;`< .enzjk iqjodhs yd isis,i okjk is;sjs,s j,skaiukajs; jQ iqL iy.; yd m@S;sh cks; lrjk fjzokdj ksidh fu;a;d ixl,amfhyswdfjzok me;slv ;`< wka;rA.; Wmfhda.S;duh ,CIK jkafka ienjskau fuz lreKqhfu;a;d ixl,amh uq,a jrg jvkakd ta flfrys wdYla; lr .ekSu;a" tu ixl,amh os.skaos.gu jevSu flfrys weZo neZo ;nd .ekSu;a fu;a;d ixl,amfhys wdfjzok me;slv ;`<skabgqjk ldrAhNdrhhs wdfjzok me;slv ksfhdackh lrkakd jQ tla;rd wjia:djla f,i fjzokdjuq,ska oelajsKs tfukau tlS fjzokdfjys iajrEmh iqL iy.; yd m@S;sh wka;rA.;iajNdjhla nj meyeos,s lr.kq ,ensKs m@S;sh yd iqLh jspdr mQrAjl iajNdjh fya;`fldgf.k yg.efkk nj;a" fulS iuia; l@shdj<shu fya;`fjka js;rAlkh fyj;a ;j;afu;a;d ixl,amh nZ|= ixl,amhka we;slr .ekSu;a" fuys oS jsia;r lrk ,oS fuz ish,qlreKq ldrKd fya;` fldgf.k fu;a;d ixl,amfhys wdfjzok me;slv prAhd ixialrKjsOsl@uhla jYfhka jvd;a m@;sM,odhl jkafka ukaoehs yd th prAhd ixialrK jsOsl@uhlajYfhka nq|=iufhys Ndjs;d jkafka ukaoehs hk m@Yakj,g usska meyeos,s ms<s;`rla ,efnz uqZMuy;a nq|=iuh mqrdu jsia;r flfrkqfha prAhd ixialrK jsOsl@uhka Ndjs;hg .ekSu uZ.skamqoa., fm#reIFjh f.dvkZ.d .ekSu ms<snZojhs fulS mqoa., fm#reIFj f.dvkeZ.`uyqfola mqoa.,hd foajFjhg muKla Tijd fkd;nkakla fkdjk w;r foajFjh yd bkaTnzfnys jQ b;du by< ;, olajd mqoa., fm#reIFjh oshqKq l< yels wdldrh fuysfudkjg meyeos,s flfrA64 ukqIHFjh" foajFjh" n@yauFjh" wrAy;ajh muKla fkdj mfianq|= yd iuzud iuznqoaO ;;ajh olajdu mqoa., fm#reIh f.dvkeZ.sh yels nj uska ukdjfmkajd fokq ,nhs 118
  27. 27. nq|= iufhys wdfjzok me;slfvys iajrEmh b;d ishquzj mqZM,aj wrA:ksrEmKh fldg olajd ;sfnz we;euz jsfgl oS oafjzIh" fl@daOh" ffu;@sh jYfhka hym;afpz;kd jYfhka o whym;a fpz;kd jYfhka o wdfjzok me;slfvys l@shdldrSFjh jsia;rlr olajd ;sfnz ixLdr jYfhka fjzokd iajrEmhg miqj tysu jsldYkhla jYfhka fuuwdfjzok me;slv olajd ;sfnz wdfjzok me;slv nq|=iufhka js.@y flfrk ixLdr fldgiuZ.ska ksis whqrska jsia;r l< fkdyels jqj o fjzokd fldgi iy ixLdr hk fldgia foflatl;`j ;`< wdfjzok me;slv ksrEmKh jkafka hehs i,ld .; yelsh tfia kuz lsishuzixl,amhl ixLdr ixfjzokh uZ.ska tlS ixl,amh flfrys tlS cSjshd olajk Tyqgu wkkHjq m@;spdrh ms<snzoj huzlsis ks.ukhlg t<USfuz yelshdj we; wdfjzokh hkq mqoa.,jsIhg wkkH jQ ;;ajhla nejska wdfjzokfhys oS mqoa., jsfYaI;d o tlS wdfjzok l@shdj<shflfrys n,mdkq ,nhs we;euzjsg mqoa., wdl,amhka huzlsis f,ilska wdfjzok l@shdj<shflfrys iDKd;aul f,i n,mE yels w;r ;j;a f,ilska Okd;aul f,i n,mE yelsh fuzksid wdfjzok l@shdj<sfhys ;Sj@;djh iZoyd n,mdkq ,nk tlu fya;`j tlS wdfjzokl@shj<sh iZoyd wruqKq lr.kakd ixl,amfhys m@n,Fjhu fkdjsh yelsh ;j;a wjia:djloS wdfjzok l@shdj<sh iZoyd wruqKq lr.kakd jQ ixl,amfhys m@n,Fjh ksid o m@n,fkdjk wdfjzokhka jvd;a ;Sj@ f,iska oefkkakg mqZMjk fu;a;d ixl,amh wruqKqlrf.k yg .kq ,nk wdfjzokhl fu;a;d ixl,amfhys we;s m@n,Fjh mqoa., prs;iajNdjh wkqj fuz ksid |=n, jsh yelsh mqoa.,hd oafjzI prs;hla kuz fl;ruz fu;a;dixl,aamh jvkq ,enQj;a fuz wkqj tlajru Tyq wffjrS mqoa.,fhl` njg mrsjrA;kh fjzhehs wmg ms<s.ekSug wmyiqh wfkla w;g huzlsis mqoa.,fhl` iajNdjfhkau ffu;@SiajNdjfhka hqla; wfhl` jS kuz l,d;`rlska fyda Tyqf.a is;g oafjzIh msjsisfha jS kuq|=jyd tlS oafjzIh is;ska bj;a jS hk nj;a" Ouzumofhys fmkajd oS ;sfnz iajNdjfhkauffu;@S pska;kfhka hqla; wfhl` ;j |=rg;a fu;a;d ixl,amh m@.`K lrkafka jS kuziajNdjfhkau oafjzIfhka hqla; mqoa.,hdg jvd myiqfjka yd ;sr f,iu fy;uffu;@sfhys msysgkafkl` fjz nq|=iufhys fpz;kdj olajd we;af;a o wdfjzok me;slvg iudkqmd;sljl@shd;aul jk whqrlsks fpz;kdyx NslaLfjz luzux jodus hk mdGfhka .uH jk mrsoshuzlsis wdfjzokhl .enzjk mqoa.,uh wkkH;djh os.ska os.gu tlS wkkH;djh ;yjqrelrf.k hEfuz l@shdj<sh flfrysu lsishuz fm<USula we;s lrk nj fmfkkag ;sfnz65iFjhka iir iersierSfuys fya;`j jYfhka olajk wjsoHdj mjd yg.ekSug ;`vq foklreK jkafka fufia mqoa., wkkH;djhla flfrys os.ska os.gu oevs f,i f,dn neZoSuhswdfjzokfhys mj;akd jQ usksia is; jiZ. lrk iqZM nj fulS wkkH;djh os.ska os.gumj;ajd .ekSug m@Odku fya;`j fjz wdfjzok me;slv usksia is; jiZ. lrkqfha os.ska os.guiqLh yd m@S;sh ms<snZoj fkdikaisZ|=kq n,dfmdfrd;a;`jla is;g ,nd oSu ;`<sks iajNdjsljuiEu wdfjzokhlau fjkiajk njska hqla;h tnejska ta weiqfrka yg .kqfha |=lla ydw;Dma;slr nj ms<snZoj yeZ.Sula usila iqLh yd m@S;sh fkdfjz is; lrkafka jrA;udkfhys 119
  28. 28. mqoa.,hdyg flosklj;a fkd,efnk tfy;a wkd.;fhys ,efn;ehs lsis|= ;rAldkQl~,mokula u; fkdfmkajsh yels jQ uk%l,ams; iqLhla yd m@S;shla ms<snZoj jHdcn,dfmdfrd;a;` yd fpz;kd os.ska os.g is;ays my< lr.ksuska mqoa., is; thska weZo neZo;nd .ekSuhs ienjskau we;af;a wiykh yd w;Dma;sh kuz ta ;;ajh ms<s.ekSu fjkqjgjHdc ;;ajhla ,qyqneZo hdu ;j ;j;a is; fjfyig yd l,lsrSug m;alrjk iqZM fjz uskais;g oafjzIh ms<sl`<l iajrEmfhka we;s fjz fu;a;d ixl,amh jevSu uZ.ska is|= lrkafkawdfjzok me;slv ksid iFjhdyg ksrdhdifhkau Wreu jk fuz by; olajk ,o udkislwiykfhka yd l,lsrSfuka Tyqj uqojd .ekSuhs fu;a;d ixl,amh jevSu uZ.ska mqoa.,hdyg jrA;udkfhys Tyqg jsZoskakg ,efnk wdfjzokj, wiykldrS yd w;Dma;slr iajNdjhkqjKska oek yZ|=kd .ksuska tajdfhys wks;H iajNdjh wjfndaO lruska is; mSvdjgm;afkdfjuska wluzms;j jsZo ord .ekSug yqrejla ukfiys we;s lrjkq ,nhs fuu ;;ajhwdfjzokhkays yq|= fjzokd mCIh blau kqjKska msrsisZo olskakg yqre jSuls nq|=iuh fuz;;ajh hful`yg tlajru mila lr.; yels hehs mjkafka ke; kuq;a ta ;;ajh lrdb;du l@udkQl~,j hd yels .uka uZ.la meyeos,sju nq|=iufhys jsia;r lroS ;sfnznq|=iufhys p;`rdrAh i;Hh ;`< olajd we;af;a by; lS .uka uZ. ms<snZo b;du m@Yia;js.@yhhs tysoS wiykh yd w;Dma;sh;a" tlS wiykh yd w;Dma;sh we;sjSug fya;`j;a" tlSwiykh yd w;Dma;sh |=re lr.kakd jsOsl@uh;a yd tu jsOsl@uh Ndjs;fhka wiykh ydw;Dma;sh |=re lr.ekSu;a hk i;rjsO i;Hhka bka jsYo flfrA ffcj f,dj;`< bkakd tlu iFjhd ;ud fkdjk nj;a" ;uka ish,q ffcjf,dj ;`< wxY`jla muKla nj;a mila lr.ekSu uZ.ska mqoa.,fhl` i;rjsO i;Hh ms<snZom@;HCI wjfndaOh ,nhs66 tuZ.ska fy;u ;uka hkqfjka ;u mqoa., wkkH;djh wfklaiFjhka w;frka fjka lr f.dvkZ.d .kakd udkisl m@fCIamkh mokuz lr.;a uuFjjdoSjQ jHdc oDIaGsh nsZo oud ienE orAYkhg m@jsIaG fjhs m<uq orAYkh m@jsIaGfhys oSu fy;u;j |=rg;a ndysr u;jdoj,ska ps;a; m@fCIamk ;j |=rg;a f.dvfkdZ.kakd jQ meyeos,sm@;HCI wjfndaOhla ,nd wdrAhh kdufhka yeZoskafjk Wiia udkisl oshqKqjla w;am;alr.kakd ,o mqoa.,fhla njg meusfKhs ;j |=rg;a ;ud ,nk ,o m@;HCI wjfndaOhTiafia is; fufyhjk fy;u ;ksju ;uka ,nd.kakd ,o orAYk udrA.fhys l~gm@dma;swjia:dj jQ ish,q ffcj f,dj;`< ;ud hkqfjka f.dvkZ.d .kakd ,o mqoa.,sl udkislm@fCIamK ish,a, w;yer oud ish is; ta yeu fohskau ixisZojuska ksjd .kakd wjia:djlgmeusfKa67 ish,q ffcj f,dj flfrys mrsmQrAK ffu;@sfhka hqla;j l,amkd l< yels tluudkisl wjia:dj fuh fjz fuz olajd ish,q iFjhka flfrys ffu;@sh m@.`K lrkq ,nqj;ath lsishuz wd.usl Ydia;Djrfhl` jsiska wkqoek jod< ksid Ydia;D f.#rjh fmroerslrf.k jvk fu;a;d ixl,amhla usil fujeks mrsmQrAK wjfndaOfhka ksrdhdifhkauisf;ys meKkZ.sk ;;ajhla fkdfjz ish,q udk ixLHd; oDIaGSka ish,a, wZMhu ,Q l`Kqfl<msvla fia w;yer ouk ,o fulS W;`uz wrAy;ajhg m;a ry;kajykafia ksrdhdifhkau ish,q 120
  29. 29. f,daljdiS ffcj m@cdj flfrys ksre;aidylju fu;a;d ixl,amfhka hqla;j lghq;`lsrSug iu;a jk fial68 fu;a;d ixl,amfhys wdfjzok me;slfvys mrsmQrAK ksIagdjfujsg Wkajykafia jsiska w;am;a lrf.k isgsk nejska Wkajykafiaf.a is; yeu jsgluikaiqkah ksYap,h meyeos,s ksi, js,l osh fuks69 nq|=iuh ;`< wdfjzok me;slfvys l~gm@dma;sh olajd we;af;a fpzf;da jsuqla;shk kdufhks tfukau ixcdkk me;slfvys l~gm@dma;s wjia:dj m@Z{d jsuqla;s kdufhkaolajd we; wdfjzok yd ixcdkk me;slv foflysu tlajka l~gm@dma;s wjia:dj wksus;a;jsuqla;s kdufhka olajd we; fuys oS m@Z{d jsuqla;sh msKsi Y`kH;d jsfudlaIh;a" fpzf;dajsuqla;sh msKsi wm@Ksys; jsfudlaIh;a" WNf;da jsuqla;sh msKsi wksus;a; jsfudlaIh;aolajd ;sfnz fuys oS jeo.;a jkqfha wdfjzok me;slfvys l@shdldrSFjh ksrEmKh jkfjzf;da jsuqla;s yd WNf;da jsuqla;s hk fol muKs fpzf;da jsuqla;sh flfrys n,mdkq ,nkixl,am w;rska fu;a;d ixl,amh m@uqL ia:dkhla .kq ,nk nj iZoyka jS ;sfnz fu;a;dixl,amfhys .enzjk iqL y.; iajNdjh yd m@S;su;a iajNdjh uZ.ska isf;ys .egquzldrS ydl,lsreKq .;sh uZ.yrjkq ,nhs jvd;a myiqfjka is; tlZ. lrjk w;r ps;a; iudOsh,nd .ekqug ufydamldrS fjz ps;a; iudOsfhys by<u wjia:d f,#lsl OHdk uZ.skaksrEmKh jk w;r ps;a; mdrsY`oaOsfhys f,daflda;a;r wjia:djka ud.!M, kdufhkaoelafjz fuys f,#lsl OHdk iudOsfhys by<u ysKsfm;a; ksrEmKh lrk w;rf,daflda;a;r OHdk m@Z{dfjys yd ps;af;al.@;djfhys by<u ysKsfm;a; ksrEmKh lrhsisysh yd wLKav ksrSCIKh ud.!M,hkag meusKSug jsOsl@uh fjz tys wdfjzok l~gm@dma;shiuZ.u m@Z{d l~gm@dma;sh o wka;rA.;h wdfjzok me;slv flaJ|@lrf.k wdfjzokl~gm@dma;sh uZ.ska m@Z{d l~gm@dma;sh we;s lr.kakd l@ufjzohg fpzf;da jsuqla;sh hehsjHjydr lrk w;r" wdfjzok me;slv yd ixcdkk me;slv hk me;slv folu bjy,alrf.k ta fol uZ.skau wdfjzok yd mZ@{d l~gm@dma;sh we;s lr.kakd jsOsl@uhg WNf;dajsuqla;sh hehs jHjydr lrkq ,nhs fpzf;da jsuqla;sh yd WNf;da jsuqla;sh hk jsOsl@uhkafol msKsiu wdfjzok me;slv i;` jQ wdfjzok .`Kh Wmldrj;a fjz fu;a;d ixl,amhmdol lrf.k hfula is; ixisZ|=jhs kuz fyda m@Z{dj wjos lrhs kuz fyda is; ixisZojSu ydm@Z{dj wjos lrjSu hk folu is|=lrhs kuz fyda wdfjzok me;slv i;` jQ m@;sNdjh thskajgyd .; yelsh70 fu;a;d ixl,amh i;` jQ ishquz nj yd uD|= iajNdjh ksid th Wmldrlrf.k wdfjzok me;slv Tiafia ;ukag wjYH mrsos ;ukaf.a is; yiqrejd .ekSugmqoa.,hka yg uska uy;a rel`,la ie,fia ffcj wdfjzok me;slv ilia jS ;sfnkqfha b;dishquz ixfjzokhkag mjd jyd m@;spdr oelajSfuz myiqj we;s jk mrsosh th tla;rd |=rlgiFj .`Khla jYfhkao iZoyka lsrSug yelsh iFj .`Khla jQ wdfjzokh ffcj prAhdjkaixialrKh lsrSu msKsi o nq|=r|=ka jsiska b;du;a m@Yia; wdldrfhka Ndjs;hg .kq ,en 121
  30. 30. ;snqKq nj fu;a;d ixl,amh ta iZoyd wkqoek jodrd we;s wdldrh wkqj meyeos,s fjzfu;a;d ixl,amh jO!kh lsrSug mjd iSudjla oelajsh fkdyels mrsoafoka ;srsika"usksia"foaj yd n@yau hk ljr ffcj fldgilg jqjo wdfjzok wjYH;djhka ;Dma;su;a jk mrsosNdjs;d l< yels f,i fu;a;d ixl,amfhys wdfjzok mCIh ishquz lulska hqla;j olajdwe; wdfjzok me;slv ishquz jkakg jkakg ;srsika.; iFjhdf.a isg n@yau ldhsl cSjShdolajd ffcj ;,h Wiia jk w;r" ffcj ;,h tnZ|= f,ilska Wiia jkakg jkakg wdfjzokme;slfvys ishquz iajNdjh o Wiia fjz ta wdldrfhkau wdfjzok me;slv rZM jkakg jkakgn@yau ldhsl cSjshdf.a isg ;srsika.; iFjhd olajd ffcj ;,h my< niskakg mgka.kshs tfiau ffcj ;,h my< niskakg niskakg ta ;,j, isgsk cSjSkaf.a wdfjzokme;slv rZM jkakg fjz fuhska fmfkkafka wdfjzok me;slv iy ffcj ;,h w;r wkqf,dauiudkqmd;hla olakg ,efnk njhs fuzz ksid ksrAjdKh nZ|= Wiia wruqKla lrd iuzm@dma;sjSug wosgka lrf.k isgsk iEu flfkl` jsiskau ish wdfjzok ;,h yels;dla |=rg rZMwdfjzokhkaf.ka jsksrAuqla;j yd yels;dla |=rg ishquz wdfjzokhkaf.ka hqla;j mj;ajd.ekSug W;aiyj;a jsh hq;`h71 fu;a;d ixl,amfhys olakg we;s jsfYaIFjh jkqfha tuZ.skaiFj wdfjzok me;slv yels;dla |=rlg ishquz lsrSuhs fu;a;d ixl,amh b;du;au ishquzwdfjzokhla nejska fuz wdldrfhka tlS wdfjzokfhka os.ska os.gu ish is;a i;ka mqrjd.kakd jQ mqoa.,hkaf.a is;a uD|= yd ieye,a,q njg m;afjz fulS ieye,a,q iajNdjhWmfhda.S lr.ksuska iFj ps;a;h ;srYapdk iajNdjfhyss isg n@yau iajNdjh olajd Wiia;,hlg m@jsYaG lr,Sfuz yelshdj we;s lr .kshs tmuKla o fkdj wjidk mrudorAYhjYfhka fmkjd fokq ,nk laf,aY ksrAfjzoh jk ksrAjdKh keue;s w;sm@KS;;r udkislwdfjzokh <Z.d lr.ekSug mjd fulS fu;a;d ixl,amh uyZ.` msgsjy<la fjz fu;a;d ixl,amfhys wdfjzok me;slv usksia is;a i;ka fi#uH yeZ.`uskamqrjd,hs usksiqka tlsfkld w;r mj;sk ;rZ.h tlS ;rZ.h fya;`fjka Wkqka yd w;rwe;sjk oafjzIh m<jd yer ukqIHFjfhys WKqiquska is;a f;;a lrkq ,nhs fu;a;dixl,amfhys wdfjzok me;slv uZ.ska usksi;alu fl;ruz W;`uz fohlao yd usksi;aluwrAy;ajh mfia nqoaOjh yd iuzud iuznqoaOFjh olajd jevs oshqKq l< yels nj usksiqkaygmyod fokq ,nhs fu;a;d ixl,amh usksia iudch iduQyslFjfhka weZo neZo ;nd .kakdnJOkhla yd iudkh jsjsO ixl,amhka usksia is;a i;ka ;`<g m@fjzY jSfuzoS tu m@fjzYhis|=jkq ,nkakd jQ wdfjzok me;slv fyj;a jskaokd;aul mCIh jvd;a m@Yia;j ;nd.ekSuuZ.ska m@fjzYjkq ,nk wd.ka;`l ixl,amhka jvd;a fydZoska wjfndaO lr.ekSug wjldYie,fihs fuu ixl,am wjfndaOh fydZoska m@Yia; ugzguska is|=jSu mYapd;a ld,Skj nqoaOsuhjYfhkao ufydamldrS fjhs iFjhdf.a nqoaOsuh wxYh m@ldY jkafka ixcdkk me;slvuZ.ska jk nejska wdfjzok me;slfvys l@shdldrSFjh uekjska mj;ajd .ekSu ixcdkkme;slfvys oshqKq ikaksfjzok yelshdj flfrys Wmia:uzNl jk nj fuysoS meyeos,s fjzfuhska m@lg jkqfha wdfjzok me;slfvys l@shdldrSFjh fjk;a fiiq wxY iuZ.iyiuznJOfhka ;`<kd;aul f,i jrAOkh jSu flfrys o Wmia:uzNl jk njhs fuu 122
  31. 31. lreK fu;a;d ixl,amh iuznJOfhka jvd;a ;yjqre flfrk ldrKhls ulaksido h;afu;a;d ixl,amfhka is;a i;ka uD|= yd ieye,a,q lsrSug wjYH flfrk udkisl jgdmsgdjmyiqfjka f.dvkefZ.k nejsks ieye,a,q yd uD|= udkisl jgdmsgdjla iys; mrsirhla ;`<oS TzkEu mqoa.,fhl`f.a ixcdkk yelshdj yd wdfjzok ;Sj@;djh ;j ;j;a by< hknejsks tfukau ixcdkk wxYfhka oshqKqj;au ta wdY@h lrf.k mj;sk prAZhd me;slvuZ.ska wod< cSjshd ffcj ys;jdoS l@shdldrluzj, ksr;lrkq ,nhs wfkla w;g os.ska os.guffcj ys;jdoS prAhd rgdjlg wenzneys jSu ksid o tuZ.ska ixcdkk yelshdj yd wdfjzok;Sj@;djh jrAOkh jk njo fmkS hhs fuu tlsfkl wxYhkays ukd ifudaOdkh ksid iuQy.; usksia prAhdjgys;lr whqrska ixcdkk" prAhd yd wdfjzok me;slv hk wxY ;`ku jrAOkh fjz tysldrAhCIu;djh by< hhs iduQysl nj jevs iudc jvd;a blaukska ixjrAOkh lrd mshTijkafka o fuz ldrKh ksidh iduQyslFjh yd us;@YS,S wdl,am mqoa., yd iudcixjrAokh fjz.j;a lsrSfuys ,d b;du;a jeo.;a ;ekla .kakd ldrKhls fuz fya;`j ksidfu;a;d ixl,amh jevSfuka TzkEu mqoa.,fhl`f.a ldrAhCIu;djh fyj;a udkislOdrs;djh by< kxjk nj lrKSh fu;a;d iQ;@h wkqj meyeos,s fjz jvd jevsldrAhCIu;djhlska iukajs; ixcdkk" prAhd yd wdfjzok hk me;slv ;`k uZ.skacSjshdf.a ffcj ;,h o ;srsika fhdksfha isg n@yau f,dalh olajd ixjrAOkh fjuska .uka.kshs kuq;a nq|=iuh ish iuh orAYkfhys mru ksIagdj f,i i,lkqfha n@yau ldhsliajNdjfhkao jsksrAuqla; jQ il,jsO jQ laf,aYhkaf.ka ksrAfjsos; wjia:dj jk nejska tawjia:dj olajd ixcdkk" prAhd yd wdfjzok me;slvhkays l@shdldrSFjh oshqKq lsrSu" ;Sj@lsrSu" ishquz lsrSu yd Wiia ;,hlg meusKjSu is|= lrkq ,nhs fulS Wiia lsrSu l`Y,fhysfhoSu fyj;a mskaoyuzj, ksr;jSu kuska o thska mrsndysrj wka w;g" jsreoaO osYdNsuqLjixcdkk" prAhd yd wdfjzok me;slvhkays l@shdldrSFjh msrsyShdu msKsi wkqn, ,nd oSul`Y,fhys fhoSu fyj;a mjzluz lsrSu kuska o wF:! olajd we; fuz khska .;fyd;a mskfyj;a l`Y,h ;@sjsO me;slvhkays ixjrAOkh ms<snsUq lrkakla f,iska o mj fyj;awl`Y,h ;@sjsO me;slvhkays msrsySu iksgqyka lrkakla f,iska o oelajsh yelsh72 l`Y,h yd msk o wl`Y,h yd mj o iudkdrA:j;a f,iska jHjyrfhysfh|=k o fuys b;du;a ishquz fjkialuz fjz fuys msfkys wdfjzokd;aul iajNdjhg jvdishquz njla l`Y, hkafkys o wl`Y,fhys wdfjzokd;aul iajNdjhg jvd rZM njla mjhkafkayso .enzfjz fuys uq,skau ish prAhdjka ixialrKh lr.ksuska wdfjzok me;slvishquz njg muqKqjd .ekSu wdruzN lr isgsk mqoa.,hdg Wmfoia fokq ,nkafka ffcjiudch flfrys olajkakd jQ us;@YS,S wdl,amh ksid mj keue;s b;du;au rZM udkislwdfjzokj,ska je<flk f,ih inznmdmiai wlrKx hkafkka th lshfjz bka wk;`rej mdmia;j |=rg;a us;@YS,S Ndjfhys by< ;,hka lrd .uka .kakd mqoa., uki wl`Y, keue;sfiiq l`vd rZM udkisl wdfjzokj,ska je<lSug;a" mska keue;s ishquz udkisl wdfjzokhkag 123
  32. 32. yqre mqre|= lr.ekSug;a Wmfoia fokq ,nhs bka wk;`rej wod< mqoa.,hdf.a is; ;j |=rg;aishquz wdfjzokhkaf.ka hqla; lrkq ioyd l`Y,h jrAOkh lrk f,i Wmfoia fokq ,nhsl`i,iai Wmiuzmod hkafkys wrA:h fuhhs l@udkQl~, f,i ffcj wdfjzohka ishquz lsrSfuzl@shdj<sh;a tu l@shdj<sh wjidkfhys ish,q laf,aYhkaf.ka jsksrAuqla; jSu olajd is|=jSuzfm< ish,q iFjhka iZoyd ksrAfoaY jS ;sfnkqfha ips;a; mrsfhdaomkx hkafkks f,dalfhysnq|=jre huz;dla my< fj;a o Wkajykafia,d ish,q fokdf.au wruqK jkqfha o f,dljdiSiEu iFjfhl`u fuu jevms<sfj< m@.`K lruska iirska tf;r lrjSu nj ta;xnqoaOidikx hkakka lshfjz73 ish,q nq|=jre fuu jevms<sfj< iuia; f,daljdiS iFjhd fj;yZ|=kajd fokq ,nkafka Wkajykafia,d ;`< iuia; f,daljdiS iFjhka flfrys we;s us;`re njfmrgq fldg.;a wdkqluzmdj ksidh74 fuz f,dlafhys Wiia;u l<HdK us;@hka iuzudiuznq|=jre jkqfha fuz ksidh ish,q iFj j.!hd jsIfhys Wkajykafia,d ;`< jrAOkh jS;snqKq l,HdK us;@Fjh ksidu Wkajykafia, fulS iWmfoaYhka iFjhka fj; m@odkhlr;a wdfjzok me;slv ishquz lsrSfuz jHhdhuh ;`< .enzjkqfha o fu;a;d ixl,amfhysNdjs;djhs ish,q iFjhd fu;a;d ixl,amfhka hqla;j jsiSu ffcj ys;jdoS udkislwdl,amhls tfukau tjsg iFjhd ;uka Wmudjg f.k wkHhka flfrys fu;a;d ixl,amhwe;sj jdih lrhs huz mqoa.,fhl` ;uka ;ukag flf;ruz ys;j;a o tayd iudkjuwkHhka flfrys ys;j;a iajNdjh jrAOkh lr .kshs huzlsis iudc ia:rhl fuzwdldrfhka iFjhka jdih lr;ao ta iudch lsis osfkl msrsySug m;a fkdjk w;r osfkkaosk oshqKqj lrd md Tijhs fndfyda fofkla Bkshd oshqKq j f,i olakd ndysr fN#;sloshqKqj kshu oshqKqjla fkdfjz th iudch yd iudch ;`< bkakd mqoa.,hka tlsfkldrjgd.ekSula muKs tf,i u;`msgska oshqKqjla f,i mej;sho Tzcia .,k ;`jd,hla f,imsg;ska wdjrAKs;j we;`<; l`Kq .Zo .iuska meyejuska os.ska os.gu iudch keue;sfrda.shd ush hkf;la th fkdisZoS mj;S kuq;a wjxlju iajlSh is; we;`<;skau fu;a;dixl,amh m@.`K lrkq ,nk mqoa.,fhl` fyda tnZ|= mqoa.,hka iuQyhlska iEoS we;siudchla tf,i u;`msgska olsk oshqKqj fiau wNHka;r .;j we;s oshqKqj ksid flosklj;amsrSySula we;s fkdfjz tu iudc ixialD;sh iuZ. noaOj hk l,d Ys,am yd mqoa.,ridiajdoh o ishquz njg m;alrk ,o usksia wdfjzok me;slv uZ.ska fydZo foa muKla ta;`<g .@yKh lr.; yels wdldrhg th ilia jS we;s ksid lsis osfkl nd, yriqka foaiudch jsiska fkdb,ajkq ,nhs ksrdhdifhkau ishquz njg muqKqjk ,o wdfjzok ;`<skafydZo foa muKlau ri jsZoSug usksid yqrej we;s fyhsks fuhska meyeos,s jkqfha iudchlamjd ilia jSug fu;a;d ixl,amh uZ.ska ishquz njg muqKqjk ,o wdfjzok me;slvufydamldrS jk njhs l,dYs,am j,ska is|=jkqfhao usksiqkaf.a rZM udkisl wdfjzokTmugzguz lrjd tajd ishquz njg meusKjSu jk ksid ta wdldrfha l,d ksrAudK tjsg taiudcfhys uq,a ;efkl ,d jecfUkq we; jrA;udkfhys fuka yriqka fohska usksiqka 124
  33. 33. uq,djg m;a fkdjkq we; usksiqka jvd;a w.h lrkakg fm<fUkqfha o yels;dla ishquzjskaokd;aul foa muKs fu;ekg mqoa.,dNHka;rh ilia lrkakg kuz fu;a;d ixl,amhjrAOkh lr.ksuska wdfjzok me;slv ishquz njg mrsjrA;kh lr.ekSug usksiqkag wjldYie,ish hq;`h fuysoS iudchg j.lSuz folla mejfrA tlla kuz iudch jsiskau wjYHosYdk;sh ilia lr usksiqkayg tlS wdfjzok ;;ajhkag meusKsug Wmldrj;a jSuhsfojekak jkqfha fm#oa.,slju ;u ;uka ;`< wdfjzok l@shdldrSFjh Wiia njgmuqKqjdf.k wk;`rej ;uka ;`<ska ndysr iudchg fulS ;;ajh jsysfok wdldrhgiudch ;`< lghq;` lsrSuhs fojekak jvd;a m@fhda.sl jYfhka jeo.;a jqj o wiSre;uldrAhh fjz75 idudkH .sys iudchg wdorAYhla f,i .; yels mrsos ix> iudcfhysjH=yh yd mrudorAY ilia jS we; ix> hkafkys wrA:h jkqfha iuQyh hkakhs fjka l<fkdyels tl usgshla iuQyhla hk wrA:h bka lshfjz kuskau ix> iudcfhys mrudrA:ms<snZoj o< wjfndaOhlg meusKsug yelsjk mrsos kuz flrS we; kuskau wrA:j;a flfrkmrsos ix> iudch hkq jrA;udk iudc md,k rgd w;rska jvd oshqKu ,CIK wka;rA.;mrsmd,k jH=yhla nj mejish yelsh ix> iudch mqoa., kdhlFjhla jgd f.dkqfkdjqjla jk w;r mqoa., kdhlFjhl olakg we;s wys;lr ,CIK lsisjla ix> iudchla;`< fuz ksid olakg fkdfjz ix> iudchl jsoHudk jkqfha iduQysl md,k rgdjls tyswrA:h iuia;hd iuia;hd uZ.skau md,kh lrkq ,nkafkah hk kHhdhhs fuz wkqj ix>iudcfhys tla tla idudcslhdyg idudcsl jgskdula fuz uZ.ska mjrd fokq ,en we;af;ahfuz iuQy.; iudcfhys fldgia lrefjl` jSug kuz ;udyg mjrd fokq ,nk hq;`luzj.lSuz fldgi ;ukag mqZMjka Wmrsu whqrska bgq lr oSug fulS idudcslhd wkHhka fj;iduQyslFjfhys j.lSfuka neZoS isgshs fuu iduQyslFjh f.dkq jS mj;skqfha ffu;@sh ydiudk;au;djh jeks iudc mrudorAY jgdh fuz ksid lsishuz ffk;sl isoaOdka;hlskaiudch md,kh lrkjdg jvd jevs ksoyila fuz l@uh hgf;a tu iudcfhys tla tlaidudcslhdg ,efnz76 fu;a;d ixl,amfhys wdfjzok me;slv iuznJOfhka b;du jeo.;aksrAfoaYhka ix> iudch wdY@s;j imhd .; yelsh uq,a hq.fhys ix> iudch ilia jS;snqfKa mejsos cSjs;fhys uQ,sl mrudrA: Wfoid mejsos jQ msrsilf.ka nejska yqfola Tjqkaf.auQ,sl wNsm@dh jQfhao yels blaukska tlS mrudrA:hka idCId;a lr.ekSuhs fuz iZoyd TjqkajsfYaI oekquz oSulska fyda wK oSulska f;drj b;du iyfhda.fhka ffu;@sfhka hqla;j ishuQ,sl wruqK jQ wrAy;ajh ,enSfuys jHdhdufhys wm@udoSj ksr; jQ nj fmfka TjqyqiajNdjfhkau pduz w,afmapzP iy is,aj;a cSjs;hla .; l<y ikaksOsldr mrsfNdackfhkaf;drj" fN#;sl wjYH;d w;sYhskau iSud lr mj;ajk ix> iudchg uQ,sl ksY@h i;rlajsh77 fuu uQ,sl ksY@h i;r wdY@h lr.ksuska yd fu;a;d ixl,amfhys wdfjzok 125
  34. 34. me;slfvys ishquz nj w;aolsuska ieye,a,q cSjs;hla Tjqyq .; l<y ieye,a,q nj ksidu ix>iudch w;sYhskau us;@YS,S wdla,m j,ska iukajs; jsKs uq, oS ieye,a,q nj m@;HCI jYfhkaw;aolsuska f.k.sh w,afmapzP cSjs;h Tjqfkdjqka tlsfkldg olajk ,o us;@YS,s wdl,amhjshelShdu;a iuZ.u l@ufhka ixlSrAK jkakg jsh78 uq, oS ir, nj .enz jQ ix> iudchwd;audrA:lduS fpz;kdj ksid us;@YS,S cSjk rgdfjka neyer jS l@ufhka ixlSrAK njgmrsjrA;kh jS wjidkfhys ixia:d.; jq nj meyeos,sj fmfkkakls mYapd;a ld,SkjYfhka ix> iudch ixlSrAK jQj;a tys uq,a ld,Sk wruqKqj,ska neyer fkdjSu ix>iudch msysgqjSfuz wfmaCIdjh tnejska nq|=rcdKka jykafia uQ,sl NsCIq mrudrA:hkag ydksfkdjk mrsoafoka mYapd;a ld,Skj jsldYh jQ ix> iudch jsiska w;am;a lr.kakd ,o taw;sfrAl ,dN ms<s.ekSu yd mrsfNdackh ms<snZo jsjsO jskh kshuhka m@ldYhg m;a lsrSfuyswjY;djh Woa.; jQ w;r ld,Skj we;s jQ iudc jsmrAhdihkag wkqj jskh kshuhka om@ldYhg m;ajsh79 jskh ffk;sl mokula .enzjk fohla jqj;a" nq|=iufhys iZoyka jk jskhkS;s yqfola ffk;sl mokula msKsiu mKjk ,o fohla fkdfjz tys wruqK fu;a;dixl,amfhys .enzjk ishquz udkisl wdfjzokh ta jQ wdldrfhkau ix> iudch ;`< ia:dms;lsrSu iZoyd wjYH lrk udkisl jd;djrKhl /ljrKh NsCIQkajykafia,dg ,ndoSuhsfuu woyi fmroers fldgf.k fulS woyi l`ZM .ekafjk mrsos m@d;sfudCIfhys ksrEms;jskh m@Z{ma;Ska iliaj we; ta jskh kshuhka w;r uq,a ;ek .;af;a idx>sl l@uhhs fuhskawoyia lrkqfha ix> iudch i;` foa mqoa., ika;l fkdlr iuQyhd ika;l lsrSuhsiuQyhdf.a jeo.;alu olsk iudchla yegshg ix> iudch yeZoskajsh yelshs tys oS ish,qfokdg ix> iudcfhys iudc jgskdluz iu fia wdfrdamKh jS ;sfnz ix> iudcfhaw;sfrAl ,dn jYfhka ,efnk isjzmih iuQyhdg ika;l lsrSu hkq ish,q fokdf.a wjYH;dWfoid lem lsrSu hkakhs80 idx>sl foam< l@uh m@cd;dka;@sl ,CIK m@lg lrkqfha tamrsfNdack l@uh ;`< us;@YS,S iudc mrsirh mdol lrf.k ish cSjk rgdj f.k.sh lsis|=NsCIqjla meje;au ms<snZoj fjfyig m;a fkdfjk nejsks wfkla w;g .Dyia:hska fukauqo,a bmhSfuys kshqla; jSu NsCIQFjh uQ,sl mrudrA:fhka .s,syS fjfyig meusKSulsiuQyhd jsiska mqoa.,hd iqrCIs; lrk nejska ix> iudch ;`< fm#oa.,sl Okj;a njla;snSu wjYH fkdfjz tfukau fm#oa.,slj lrk odkhg jvd iduQysl odkfhys wdksixYfkdtlajsg nq|=r|=ka jsiska jodrd ;sfnz uska fy<sfmfy<s jkqfha us;@YS,S yeisrSuz rgdfjysjeo.;alu iduQyslFjh iqrCIs; lsrSfuys oS jeo.;ajk njhs nq|=rcdKkajykafia mqoa.,slodkhg jvd iuQy.; odkfhys w.h jod<y81 Wkajykafia iuQyhd yd iuQyfhys us;@YS,Swdl,amh mj;ajd .ekSu ms<snZoj olajk ,o ie,ls,su;a nj uska m@lg fjhs wdrdu fikiqkamsrskeuSu;a" iuZ. wdrdusl jQ fkdfhla NdKav w;sfrAl ,dN jYfhka ix> iuQyhd fj;msrskeuSu is|= jsh lsis|= m@;s,dNhla mqoa.,fhl` ika;l fkdlr iuQyhd jsIfhys mejrSuuZ.ska n,dfmdfrd;a;` jQfha" ix> msrsi w;sYhskau ys;j;a iajNdjhla" tfukau Tjqfkdjqka 126
  35. 35. flfrys ie,lsu;a jk iajNdjhla we;slsrSuhs82 us;@YS,S nj uq,afldg.;a" iuQyhdf.ameje;au myiqjkq msKsi fuz iZ.i;` foam< mrsyrKfha oS ta ta mqoa.,hdf.a wjYH;djhms<snZoj jevs ie,ls,a,la oelajSu ix> iudch ;`< idudkHfhka olakg ,efnz thskamqoa.,fhl` ;j;a mqoa.,fhl`f.a wjYH;djh ms<sno ie,ls,su;ajSug;a" ;uka ydwkHhkaf.a wjYH;d i,ld n,d lsishuz us;@YS,S wdl,amhlska hqla;j wkHhka jsIfhyslghq;` lsrSug;a ix> iudcfhys idudcslhska yeu foku mdfya Wkka|= jsKs fuhskawkHhka jsIfhys us;@YS,s wdl,amhlska lghq;` lsrSug ix> iudcfhys idudcsl msrsi yqremqre|= jsKs83 ix> iudcfhys wksjdrAhfhkau mej;sh hq;` jQ fu;a;d ixl,amh neyerjSuksid huz wl@usl;djhla is|= jqjfyd;a thg j.lsj hq;` NsCIqj iuQyhd fj;ska jskhdkQl~,oZvqjulg Ndckh fjhs tu oZvqju mjd tu NsCIqjg ,ndfokq ,nkafka fu;a;d ixl,amhfmroers lrf.k tu NsCIqj tu jroska uqojd .ekSfuz fpz;kdjks mqoa.,hd iuQyhdgj.lsj hq;` nejska ish,q fokd fj;u lghq;` ms<snZo j.lSuz iy.; njla ;snsh hq;` fjziduQysl iudchl ;snsh hq;` us;@YS,s wdl,amh jrAOkh jSug fuh wksjdrAh idOlhlafjz84 idx>sl foam, iuQy mrsfNdackhg ,lajk jsg tajdfha ukd meje;au yd wdrCIdjis|=jsh hq;af;a us;@YS,s njska hq;` jQ iuQyhd w;skauh85 ish,q ix>hd jykafia fmd|=fjz ;uj.lSuz fldgi yZ|=kdf.k mj;ajk fikiqka jsyrKfha ffu;@S mQrAjl wdfjzokfhys uD|=ugis,sgs iajNdjh fuhska meyeos,s fjz wkHhkaf.a ys;iqj msKsi l@shdlrkakd jQ us;@YS,Swdl,amj,ska iukajs; jQ NsCIqjla huz jsydria:dkhl jdih lrkafka kuz tys jik wkHNsCIQkaf.a fi#LH ixrCIKh msKsi ish wjOdkh wksjdrAhfhkau fhduq l< hq;` nejznq|=rcdKka jykafia jsiska fmkajd fokq ,enSh86 idx>sl foam< iqrCIs;j us;@YS,Swdl,amfhka hqla;j mrsfNdackh lsrSfuz j.lSuz iys; nj uska m@ldYs;h iiqka ms<sfj;gms<smka NsCIQkaf.a fmd|= wruqK f,i ie,flk ksrAjdK m@drm@dma;sh ,en .ekafuys uQ,OrAuh jkqfha iduQysl foam< mrsyrKhhs87 iuQyhdf.a meje;au myiqjSu msKsi wkqoekjodrd we;s fuz jskh kshuhka us;@YS,S whqrska iduQysl osjs fmfj;la .;lrkq ,nkmqoa.,hdf.a iudcSh j.lSu m@lg lrkq ,nhs ksrAjdK ,dNh iajlSh tlu mru ksIagdj fldg i,ld l@shdlsrSfuz j.lSuorK ix> iudcfhys udkisl wdfjzok me;slfvys ishquz nj rZod nj;afka ;rZ.ldrS osjsrgdfjka w;ausoS iduQysl cSjs;hla lrkjdkuz muKla nejska hf:dala; ldrAhh idOkfhys,d ix> iudch ksr;lrjSu msKsi foam< flfrys mqoa.,sl ysusluz meje;ajSfuz whs;sh iSudlr ;sfnz tnejska ix> iudcfhys l@shd;aul jkqfha iduQysl foam< l@uhls fuz iduQyslix> foam< fm#oa.,slj mejrsh fkd yelsh fm#oa.,slj fikiqka mejrE tla wjia:djlnq|=rcdKka jykafia thg .ryd iZ. i;` jia;~ka fm#oa.,sl whs;shg fkd osh hq;` njiuzu; l<y wdrdufha wdrdusl jia;` lsisjla fm#oa.,sl whs;shg .ekSu" mejrSu wkqu;fkdjk wdldrh bka fmfka fm#oa.,sl ika;l fkdjQjo tajd jsOsu;aj mrsyrKh lsrSfuzwhs;sh iEu fokd jykafiag ;sfnz fuz mrsyrK l@uh ksid NsCIqj ;DIaKd odi Ndjhg 127
  36. 36. fkd meusfKa jsydrfhys ;uka iuZ. jik wfkla ish,q fokd iuZ.u iyfhda.fhka lghq;`lsrSug fm<fUz ffu;@S mQrAjl fpz;kdj mdol lrf.k fuu lghq;`j, ksr; fjz fu;a;dixl,amh fya;`fjka yg.kakd hym;a iqjodhs udkisl wdfjzokhl miqjkafka fjz wdrdusllghq;` is|= lsrSfuz oS fu;a;d ixl,amh mdol lr.kakd ,o wdfjzok ugzgul isg tlSlghq;` l, yels jk wdldrhg m@Z{ma;s yd wkq m@Z{ma;s iliaj we; w;sfrAl ,dNhjYfhka jsydria:dj,g ,efnkakd jQ jsjsO odkudk yd msrslr nyq, jSug fmr mgkaumsKavmd;h mjd iduQysl mrsyrKhg fhduq l, hq;` wdldrh olakg ,efnz fuuiduQyslFjh ;`<ska iuZ.sh;a" fu;a;d ixl,amh;a jrAOkh jS wjidkfhys nq|=iufhkawfmaCIs; wjidk ksIagdj jQ ksrAjdK iuzm@dma;sh lrd mqoa., uki wkql@ufhka fhduqjkwdldrhg wdfjzok me;slv ilialsrSu fuhska woyia jS we; ix>hdf.a idrdKSh OrAuhlaf,i wvq jYfhka md;@ mrAhdmkak jQ wdusIhla fjz kuz th wiqj,dg fkdj" wiqj,dghhkqfjka fjka lsrSula fkdue;sj in@yaupdrSka yd idOdrK fNda.S jsh hq;` nj fmkajd oS;sfnz88 fuz uZ.ska o wfmaCIdlr ;sfnkqfha ish meje;au ms,snZoj lsis|= wu;r fjfyilafkdf.k ;ukaf.a uQ,sl wruqK jk wrAy;ajh ,nd .ekSu msKsi jSrAhh jevSug wjYHlrk udkisl ksoyila ix> iudcfhys idudcslhkag ,ndoSuhs fuz uZ.ska ish wjidk jsuqla;sh idCId;a lr.ekSu jsIfhys W;aiql jSu jskdfjk;a lsis|= f,#lsl wNsm@dhhla uq,a hq.fhys NsCIQkag fkdjQ nejska ;;a hq.h ;`< ndysrm@Z{ma;s wkqidrfhka Wla; iudc jgdmsgdjla f.dv keZ.Sfuys wjYH;djhla we;s fkdjsKsuq,a hq.fhys NsCIQkaf.a wej;`uz mej;`uz o f.dvkeZ.S ;snqfKa Tjqkaf.a by; lS mrudrA:uhwOs.uh yels blaukska YdlaId;a lr.ekSfuz wNs,dYfhka ksid Tjqka w;ska is|= jkb;du;au iqZM w;miqjSula wrUhd isysm;a lrjSuz iajrEmfhka is|= lrkakd jQ isys leZojSulamuKla wjYH jQjd jskd l< hq;` yd fkdl< hq;` foa fuzjdh fujeks foa l< fyd;a fujeksoZvqjuz jsZoskakg is|= fjzh hkdoS jYfhka oKavkd;aul iajrEmfha wdZ{djla Tjqka jsIfhysmeKjSfuz wjYH;djhla Woa.; fkdjSh fu;a;d ixl,amh wka;rA.; wdfjzok miqnsulamokuz lrf.k ix> iudcfhys tla tla idudcslhdf.a is;`uz me;`uz ta wkqj ilialr.ekSug wkqn, ,ensK mqoa.,d;aul jYfhka o ksoyia yeisrSuz rgdjla ;`< lghq;`lrkakg bv ie,iSu usksia wdfjzok wxYfhka jvd;a m@;sM,odhl lreKls thg fya;`jwdOHd;aul ixjrAOkh we;s lr,Sfuys,d udkisl wxYh jvd;a m@Odk;ajh .kakd nejskaudkisl iqj myiqj yd ksoyi N`la;s jsZoskakd jQ mrsirhla iemhSu iajlSh wruqKq jvd;amyiqfjka uia;m@dma; lr.ekSu jsIfhys b;du;au jeo.;ah udkisl ksoyi N`la;s jsZoSuhkqfjka woyia jkafka is;~ u;fhys w;a;fkdau;sl f,i lghq;` lsrSu fkdj huzlsisiodpdrd;aul jgdmsgdjla ;`< ;ukaf.a wruqKq lrd hk w;ru wkHhkaf.a ksoyio N`la;sjsZoSug iq|=iq fu;a;d ixl,am wdfjzok mokulska hqla; udkisl miqnsula Tjqkag ilialroSfuys Wmldrj;a jk ksoyia iulduS udkisl jd;djrKhls89 128

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