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Leadership & change management, Lecture 2, by rahat kazmi

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Rahat Kazmi is a successful training consultant in the UK who can prepare training materials and deliver training in any topic within Finance, Business, Management or even Systems' Training. …

Rahat Kazmi is a successful training consultant in the UK who can prepare training materials and deliver training in any topic within Finance, Business, Management or even Systems' Training.

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  • 1. LEADERSHIP AND CHANGE MANAGEMENT CONTINGENCY THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP 21ST CENTURY APPROACHES LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT INITIATIVES LECTURE 2 BY RAHAT KAZMI SEPTEMBER 2010 Follow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi or Join Facebook Fan’s page : facebook.com/TrainingConsultant
  • 2. Content: Follow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi or Become a Fan on Facebook: facebook.com/TrainingConsultant Contingency theories of leadership – Favourability of leadership situation – Quality and acceptance of leader‟s decision – Path-goal theory – Maturity of followers 21st century approaches – Transformational leadership – Transactional leadership – Inspirational leadership Leadership development initiatives
  • 3. Objectives:  To define what is meant by leadership  To examine the different styles of leaders in terms of their focus and nature  To discuss the concept and measurement of leader effectiveness  To apply the issues surrounding leader, leadership style and effectiveness of leaders to own experiences Follow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi or Become a Fan on Facebook: facebook.com/TrainingConsultant
  • 4. LEADERSHIP IN THE WORKPLACE Follow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi or Become a Fan on Facebook: facebook.com/TrainingConsultant
  • 5. Definition of leadership: “as the process (act) of influencing the activities of an organized group in its efforts towards goal setting and goal achievement” (Stogdill, 1950: pg 3) “(the) process by which one person directs group members toward the attainment of specific goals” Moghaddan (1998; pg 455) Follow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi or Become a Fan on Facebook: facebook.com/TrainingConsultant
  • 6. Your experience of ‘good leadership’!  Think of someone who has held a position of leadership over you & whom you have been happy to work for  What made them able to lead?  What made them able to organise a group effectively?  What made you happy in the group?  What made you want to co-operate with the leader? Follow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi or Become a Fan on Facebook: facebook.com/TrainingConsultant
  • 7. Key issues of leadership in work:  What sort of leader can keep a group together?  What sort of leader can make the group productive?  What sort of leader can maintain a good deal of job satisfaction among the group members? Follow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi or Become a Fan on Facebook: facebook.com/TrainingConsultant
  • 8. Contingency theories of leadership • Favourability of leadership situation- This was an experiment carried out by Fiedler where the relationship between leadership and organizational performance was considered. • Fiedler suggests that leadership behaviour is dependent upon the favourability of the leadership situation which is ultimately determined by - Leader-member relations-the degree to which the leader is trusted and liked by group members – The task structure-the degree to which the task is clearly defined for the group – Position power-the power of the leader by virtue of position in the organization. Follow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi or Become a Fan on Facebook: facebook.com/TrainingConsultant
  • 9. Quality and Acceptance of Leader’s Decision • This model is provided by Vroom and Yetton. • They base their analysis on two aspects of a leader – Decision quality-the effect decisions have on group performance – Decision acceptance-the motivation and commitment of group members in implementing the decision. – A third consideration is the amount of time required to make the decision Follow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi or Become a Fan on Facebook: facebook.com/TrainingConsultant
  • 10. Path-goal theory • House and Dessler worked on this model. • This model is based upon the belief that the individual‟s motivation is dependent upon expectations that increased effort to achieve an improved level of performance will be successful. •The path-goal theory of leadership suggests that the performance of subordinates is affected by the extent to which the manager satisfies their expectations. •Path-goal theory holds that subordinates will see leadership behaviour as a motivating influence. •Under this model, House identifies four main types of leadership behaviour - Directive leadership-giving specific directions and rules to subordinates - Supportive leadership - Participative leadership - Achievement-oriented leadership-setting challenging goals for subordinates Follow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi or Become a Fan on Facebook: facebook.com/TrainingConsultant
  • 11. Maturity of followers •Hersey and Blanchard present this model of leadership based on the readiness level of the people the leader is attempting to influence •Readiness is the extent to which followers have the ability and willingness to accomplish a specific task. • Readiness is divided into a continuum of four levels – R1-low follower readiness-refers to followers who are both unable and unwilling and who lack commitment and motivation – R2-low to moderate follower readiness-followers who are unable but willing – R3-moderate to high follower readiness-followers who are able but unwilling – R4-high follower readiness-refers to followers who are both able and willing and who have the ability and commitment to perform Follow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi or Become a Fan on Facebook: facebook.com/TrainingConsultant
  • 12. Findings of the Fiedler Model Follow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi or Become a Fan on Facebook: facebook.com/TrainingConsultant
  • 13. Task Behaviour and Relationship Behaviour •For each of the four levels of maturity, the appropriate style of leadership is a combination of task behaviour and relationship behaviour – Task behaviour-is the extent to which leaders provide directions for the actions of followers – Relationship behaviour-is the extent to which the leader engages in two-way communication with followers Follow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi or Become a Fan on Facebook: facebook.com/TrainingConsultant
  • 14.  Reflecting back on your experiences of „good leadership‟.  Was the person you were happy to work for „task- oriented‟ or „people-oriented‟?  Do you think a good leader can be both? Follow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi or Become a Fan on Facebook: facebook.com/TrainingConsultant Task Behaviour and Relationship Behaviour
  • 15. Transformational versus Transactional Leadership •Transactional leadership is based on legitimate authority within the bureaucratic structure of the organization. – Emphasis is on the clarification of goals and objectives, work tasks and outcomes, and organizational rewards and punishments •Transformational leadership, by contrast, is a process of engendering higher levels of motivation and commitment among followers. – Emphasis is on generating a vision for the organization and the leader‟s ability to appeal to higher ideals and values of followers Follow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi or Become a Fan on Facebook: facebook.com/TrainingConsultant
  • 16. Components of Transformational Leadership •Transformational leaders motivate followers to do more than originally expected •Four basic components make up transformational leadership namely: – Idealised influence-the charisma of the leader and the respect and admiration of the followers – Inspirational motivation-the behaviour of the leader – Intellectual stimulation-leaders who solicit new and novel approaches for the performance of work – Individualised consideration-leaders who listen and give specific concern to the growth and developmental needs of the followers Follow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi or Become a Fan on Facebook: facebook.com/TrainingConsultant
  • 17. Guidelines for transformational leadership • Articulate a clear and appealing vision • Explain how the vision can be attained • Act confident and optimistic • Express confidence in followers • Provide opportunities for early success • Celebrate success • Use dramatic, symbolic actions to emphasize key values • Lead by example • Empower people to achieve the vision Follow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi or Become a Fan on Facebook: facebook.com/TrainingConsultant
  • 18. Inspirational Leadership • Successful transformational leaders are usually identified in terms of providing a strong vision and sense of mission in followers • Inspirational leadership today is associated with the concept of creating a vision with which others can identify. • An author, Adair argues that to be a truly inspirational leader one must understand the spirit within. • The inspirational leader connects with the led, appreciates the capabilities of others and through trust will unlock the power in others Follow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi or Become a Fan on Facebook: facebook.com/TrainingConsultant
  • 19. Interaction of Focus & Nature of Leadership Style:  If a leader is autocratic & task-oriented, how would they act towards their subordinates?  If a leader is autocratic & relationship-oriented, how would they act towards their subordinates? Follow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi or Become a Fan on Facebook: facebook.com/TrainingConsultant
  • 20.  If a leader is democratic & task-oriented, how would they act towards their subordinates?  If a leader is democratic & relationship-oriented, how would they act towards their subordinates? Follow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi or Become a Fan on Facebook: facebook.com/TrainingConsultant Interaction of Focus & Nature of Leadership Style:
  • 21. Leadership development initiatives • A survey carried out by the Development Dimensions International (DDI) indicated that majority of staff in more than 52 companies do not have confidence in the abilities of their leaders to guide and direct the organization in the future. • According to Investors in People, leadership development is not just a corporate issue, all organizations small or great should be identifying the managers they will need in a few years time and developing them • All top managers should be planning their succession and supporting the people who will step into their shoes • Gratton suggested four new developmental expectations from managers namely: – Dream collectively – Balance the short term with longer term – Build an organization that values people – Understand the reality of the organization Follow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi or Become a Fan on Facebook: facebook.com/TrainingConsultant
  • 22. Leaders of the Future • Bennis suggests that leaders will have to learn new skills and that four competencies will determine the success of new leadership – The new leader understands and practises the power of appreciation – The new leader keeps reminding people of what is important – The new leader generates and sustains trust – The new leader and the led are intimate allies Follow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi or Become a Fan on Facebook: facebook.com/TrainingConsultant
  • 23. Theories of Leadership:  Dispositional theories – Is a leader born, not made?  „great man theories‟, trait theories, behaviour theories  Situational theories – given the right circumstances anyone is a potential leader?  Central figure in communication networks  Contingency theories – good leader outcome is dependent on a number of factors Follow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi or Become a Fan on Facebook: facebook.com/TrainingConsultant
  • 24. Leader Characteristics: Early work suggested that leaders tended to be higher than non-leaders on:  Intelligence  Dominance/need for power  Self-confidence  Energy/persistence  Knowledge of the task (Stogdill, 1974) Follow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi or Become a Fan on Facebook: facebook.com/TrainingConsultant
  • 25. Leader Characteristics: Current research focuses on characteristics such as:  Sociability  Need for power  Need for achievement  Style (as discussed earlier)  Nature (as discussed earlier)  Charisma (more details to follow next session) Follow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi or Become a Fan on Facebook: facebook.com/TrainingConsultant
  • 26. References • Laurie J Mullins (2007) Management and Organisational behaviour, 7th edition • Richard L Daft (2007) Organization theory and design, 8th edition, page • John Pearson and Robinson (2005) Strategic management; Formulation, implementation and control, 7th edition • IAM Diploma in Administrative Management: Study guide Follow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi or Become a Fan on Facebook: facebook.com/TrainingConsultant