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  1. 1. LeadershipRuth B. Ascuna MAEd – Educational Management
  2. 2. Leadership• Is the process of influencing groupactivities beyond expectations.
  3. 3. • Influencing, guiding indirection, course, action, andopinion.
  4. 4. • effective influence
  5. 5. •Building cohesive andgoal-oriented teams.
  6. 6. •Persuading others tosublimate their own selfinterests and adopt the goalsof a group as their own.
  7. 7. •Is persuading other people to setaside their individual concerns and topursue a common goal that isimportant for the welfare of a group.
  8. 8. Warren Bennis and Burt Nanus“ A manager doesthe thing right; aleader does theright thing.”
  9. 9. Effective leaders, according to PeterDucker, do not make many decisions.
  10. 10. Successful Influential PeopleJohn KennedyMartin Luther King, Jr.Lee IacoccaVince Lombardi
  11. 11. SuperintendentSforced into managerial stances inorder to get the job done and abideby board policies.Are organizational people and arenot high-profile.
  12. 12. Leadership is a relationshipbetween two or more people inwhich influence and power areunevenly distributed.
  13. 13. Two important concepts:
  14. 14. The second concept is…..Leaders do not exist inisolation.Leadership implies thatfollowers must consent tobeing influenced.
  15. 15. Chester Barnard noted…
  16. 16. A school administrator, to be a true leader, must…
  17. 17. Stogdill Five traitS and SkillS oF leaderS Compared with nonleaderS1.Capacity - Intelligence - Alertness - Verbal facility - Originality - judgment
  18. 18. 2. Achievement - scholarship - knowledge - athletic - accomplishment
  19. 19. 3. Responsibilty •Dependability •Initiative •Persistence •Aggressiveness •Self-confidence •Desire to excel
  20. 20. 4. Participation Activity Sociability Cooperation Adaptability Humor
  21. 21. 5. Status - socioeconomic position - popularity
  22. 22. traitS oF eFFeCtive leaderS
  23. 23. traitS and SkillS aSSoCiated with SuCCeSSFul leaderS
  24. 24. traitS and SkillS aSSoCiated with SuCCeSSFul leaderS
  25. 25. leaderShip BehaviorAnother way of understandingleadership is to compare thebehaviors of effective and ineffectiveleaders to see how successfulleaders behave.The focus shift trying to determinewhat effective leaders are trying todetermine what effective leaders do.
  26. 26. 1. Authoritative Leadership Leaders are very directive and allowed no participations in decision.
  27. 27. 2.Democratic Leadership Leaders encouraged groupdiscussion and decisionmaking.
  28. 28. 3. Laissez-faire Leadership Leaders gave completefreedom to the group and let itup to subordinates to makeindividual decisions on theirown.
  29. 29. diFFerenCeS in leaderBehavior Style aS identiFied By the iowa reSearCherS Table 5_3
  30. 30. Contingency Approaches to Leadershipapproaches that seek to delineatethe characteristics of situations andfollowers and examine theleadership styles that can be usedeffectively.
  31. 31. According to Contingency TheoryEffective leadership depends on theinteraction of the leader’s personaltraits, the leader’s behavior, andfactors in the leadership situation.
  32. 32. The contingency approach isbased on the proposition thateffective leadership cannot beexplained by any one factor.It proposes that all factorsmust be considered in thecontext of the situation inwhich the leader must lead.
  33. 33. a model designed todiagnose whether a leader istask-oriented or relationship-oriented and match leaderstyle to the situation.
  34. 34. Fiedler developed a uniquetechnique to measureleadership style. Measurementis obtained from scores on theleast preferred co-worker (LPC)scale.Table 5-5 Sample of Items from the LPC Scale
  35. 35. How can the leader’s LPC score beinterpreted? Fiedler interprets a leader’s LPC score to be a personality trait that reflects the leader’s motivational system or behavioral preferences. High LPC leaders (those who perceive their least preferred co-workers positively) have as their basic goal the desire to maintain close interpersonal relationships with subordinates and behave in a considerate and supportive manner toward them.
  36. 36. If the leader reaches his goal….He will be able to attain suchsecondary goals as status and esteem.In return, these leaders want theirsubordinates to admire and recognizethem.
  37. 37. Low LPC leaders have a differentmotivational structure: Task accomplishment is their primarygoal. Needs such as esteem and status arefulfilled through the accomplishment oftasks, not directly through relationshipswith subordinates.
  38. 38. Situational FavorablenessThe basic premise of Fiedler contingencytheory is that some situations high LPC(relationship-motivated) leaders will bemore effective, whereas othercircumstances make it more likely thatlow LPC (task-motivated) leaders will bethe most effective.
  39. 39. Fiedler concludes therefore…That the relationship betweenleadership style and effectivenessdepends on several factors in thesituation. These are leader-memberrelations, task structure and positionpower.
  40. 40. Path-Goal theory• a contingency approach to leadership in which the leaders responsibility is to increase subordinates motivation by clarifying the behaviors necessary for task accomplishment and rewards
  41. 41. • Is based on the expectancy theory of motivation and emphasizes the leader’s effect on subordinates’ goals and the paths to achieve the goals.• Leaders have influence over subordinates’ ability to reach goals, the rewards associated with reaching goals, and the importance of goals.
  42. 42. Four Distinct Types of Leader Behavior comprise House’s Path- Goal Theory• Directive Leadership - a directive leader lets subordinates know what is expected of them - - provides specific guidance concerning what is to be done and how to do it - sets performance standards - requests that subordinates follow standard rules and regulations - schedules and coordinates work - explains his role as leader of the group.
  43. 43. • Supportive Leadership - a supportive leader is friendly, approachable, and concerned with the needs, status, and well- being of subordinates. - treats subordinates as equals and frequently goes out of her way to make the work environment more pleasant and enjoyable.
  44. 44. • Participative Leadership - A participative leader consults with subordinates concerning work-related matters, solicits their opinions, and frequently attempts to use subordinates’ ideas in making decisions.
  45. 45. • Achievement-oriented Leadership - an achievement-oriented leader sets challenging goals for subordinates, emphasizes excellence in performance, and shows confidence in subordinates’ ability to achieve high standards of performance.